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By

Dr. Tarek Saad Abdel-Salam

1

YOU WILL LEARN

An understanding of the fundamental

theory and principles of the operation

of power transformers

An insight into the identification

and application of transformers‘

types

An understanding of the power

transformers components and

their construction

2

YOU WILL LEARN

Knowledge of power transformer

protection

An understanding of power

transformers oil and oil tests and

interpretation of results

Knowledge of the most effective

power transformer electrical tests

Skills in how to manage power

transformer breakdowns to ensure a

minimum disruption

3

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

Electrical Engineers

Consulting Engineers

Project Engineers

Power System Technicians

Electrical Contractors

4

WHO SHOULD ATTEND

Electrical Technicians

Tradesman Electricians

Electrical Inspectors

Utility Engineers

5

Transformer Theory

AC power transmissions and for various

control and indication circuits. Knowledge

of the basic theory of how these

components operate is necessary to und

erstand the role transformers play in

today’s nuclear facilities

6

Mutual Induction

contracting magnetic field of one coil cut

the windings of another nearby coil, a

voltage will be induced in that coil. The

inducing of an EMF in a coil by

magnetic flux lines generated in anoth

er coil is called mutual induction. The

amount of electromotive force (EMF)

that is induced depends on the relative

positions of the two coils.

7

Turns Ratio

certain number of turns of

wire. The turns ratio is defined as the

ratio of turns of wire in the primary winding

to the number of turns of wire in the

secondary winding

Np

TurnsRatio =

Ns

8

Impedance Ratio

to another through a transformer when the

impedances are equal, or matched. A transformer

winding constructed with a definite turns ratio

can perform an impedance matching function.

The turns ratio will establish the proper

relationship between the primary and secondary

winding impedances.

2

⎛ Np ⎞ Zp

⎜⎜ ⎟⎟ =

⎝ Ns ⎠ Zs 9

Impedance Ratio

10

Efficiency

power output to the power input

Power Output Ps

Efficiency = = x100

Power Input Pp

11

Theory of Operation

can be transferred by magnetic induction from

one set of coils to another set by means of a

varying magnetic flux. The magnetic flux is

produced by an AC source.

The coil of a transformer that is energized from

an AC source is called the primary winding

(coil), and the coil that delivers this AC to the load is

called the secondary winding (coil)

12

Theory of Operation

13

Voltage Ratio

transformer is directly

proportional to the number of

turns on the coils

Vp Np

=

Vs Ns

14

Current Ratio

is inversely proportional to the voltage in the

windings

Vs I p

=

Vp I s

15

Three-Phase Transformer

Connections

Delta Connection

Wye Connection

16

Combinations of Delta and Wye

Transformer Connections

17

Voltage and Current Ratings

of Transformers

TABLE 1: Voltage and Current Ratings of Transformers

Transformer Primary Secondary

Connection Line Phase Line Phase

(Primary to

Volt. Current Volt. Current Volt. * Current Volt. Current

Secondary)

∆-∆ V I V I/ 3 V/a aI V/a aI/ 3

Y-Y V I V/ 3 I V/a aI V / 3a aI

Y-∆ V I V/ 3 I V / 3a 3aI V / 3a aI

∆-Y V I V I/ 3 3V/ a aI/ 3 V/a aI/ 3

18

Transformer Losses and

Efficiency

Losses:

z Copper loss is power lost in the

primary and secondary windings of

a transformer due to the ohmic

resistance of the windings

Copper Loss = I R p + I Rs

2

P

2

S

19

Transformer Losses and

Efficiency

Core losses are caused by two

factors: hysteresis and eddy

current losses

20

Efficiency

Output Power Ps

Efficiency = = x100

Input Power Pp

Vs I s pf

Efficiency = x100

Vs I s pf + Copper Loss + Core Loss

21

Transformer Operation

Under No-Load

If the secondary of a transformer

is left open-circuited, primary

current is very low and is called

the no-load current

22

Coil Polarity

depends on the direction of the

windings around the core

23

Transformer Theory

Summary

¾ The induction of an EMF in a coil by magnetic flux lines generated in

another coil is called mutual induction.

¾ The turns ratio is defined as the ratio of turns of wire in the primary winding

to the number of turns of wire in the secondary winding.

¾ The ratio between the primary and secondary impedances is referred to as

the impedance ratio.

¾ Efficiency of a transformer is the ratio of the power output to the power

input.

¾ In a delta connection, all three phases are connected in series to form a closed

loop.

¾ In a wye connection, three common ends of each phase are connected

together at a common terminal, and the other three ends are connected to a

three-phase line.

¾

In a ∆connected transformer: VL=Vφ IL= 3 Iφ

¾ In a Y connected transformer: VL= 3 Vφ IL=Iφ

24

Transformer Equivalent Circuit

25

Transformer Approximated

Equivalent Circuit

26

Voltage Regulation

ε= x100

Vp

27

Transformer Phasor Diagram

28

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