You are on page 1of 2

History of Automation

History of Automation
1) Manual Control
2) Pneumatic Control
3) Hard wired logic Control
4) Electronic Control using Logic Gates
5) Programmable Logic Controller
I) Manual Control
All the actions related to process control are taken by the operators
Drawbacks
1) Likely human errors and consequently its effect on quality of final product
2) The production, safety, energy consumption and usage of raw material are all subject to
the correctness and accuracy of human action.
II) Pneumatic Control
1) Industrial automation, with its machine and process control, had its origin in the 1920s
with the advent of "Pneumatic Controllers".
2) Actions were controlled by a simple manipulation of pneumatic valves, which in turn were
controlled by relays and switches.
Drawbacks
1.Bulky and Complex System
2.Involves lot of rework to implement control logic
3.Longer project time
III) Hard wired logic control
1.The contactor and Relays together with hardware timers and counters were used in
achieving the desired level of automation
Drawbacks
1.Bulky panels
2.Complex wiring
3.Longer project time
4.Difficult maintenance and troubleshooting
IV) Electronic Control using Logic Gates
1.In 1960s with the advent of electronics, the logic gates started replacing the relays and
auxiliary contactors in the control circuits.
2.The hardware timers & counters were replaced by electronic timers
Advantages
1.Reduced space requirements
2.Energy saving
3.Less maintenance & greater reliability
Drawbacks
1.Changes in control logic not possible
2.More project time
V) Programmable Logic Controllers(PLCs)
1.In 1970s with the coming of microprocessors and associated peripheral chips, the whole
process of control and automation underwent a radical change.
2.Instead of achieving the desired control or automation through physical wiring of control
devices, in PLC it is achieved through a program or say software.
automation The use of automatic machinery and systems, particularly those
manufacturing or data-processing systems which require little or no human intervention in
their normal operation. During the 19th century a number of machines such as looms and
lathes became increasingly self-regulating. At the same time transfer-machines were
developed, whereby a series of machine-tools, each doing one operation automatically,
became linked in a continuous production line by pneumatic or hydraulic devices
transferring components from one operation to the next. In addition to these technological
advances in automation, the theory of scientific management, which was based on the

early time-and-motion studies of Frederick Winslow Taylor in Philadelphia, USA, in the


1880s was designed by Taylor to enhance the efficiency and productivity of workers and
machines. In the early 20th century, with the development of electrical devices and timeswitches, more processes became automatically controlled, and a number of basic
industries such as oil-refining, chemicals, and food-processing were increasingly
automated. The development of computers after World War II enabled more sophisticated
automation to be used in manufacturing industries, for example iron and steel.
The most familiar example of a highly automated system is perhaps an assembly plant for
automobiles or other complex products. Over the last few decades automation has evolved
from the comparatively straightforward mechanization of tasks traditionally carried out by
hand, through the introduction of complex automatic control systems, to the widespread
automation of information collection and processing.