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Group IVA-Carbon Family

TETRELS
Tetrels - come from the Greek word tetra which means four because of the
fact that the elements under this family have four valence electrons.
-sometimes referred to as tetragens or crystallogens.
WHY?
Tetragens:
Prefix Tetra- means four based on the valence electrons
Suffix -gens means clan or distinguishable group.
Which means group with four valence electrons
Crystallogens:
Crystals- because of the fact that the majority of the elements in the carbon
family forms crystals when undergone either natural or synthetic
crystallization process.
Which means crystal group
But the name crystallogens is technically not recognized by IUPAC nor is
tetragens

IUPAC International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry


-

Serves to advance the worldwide aspects of the chemical sciences and


to contribute to the application of chemistry in the service of
Humankind. As a scientific, international, non-governmental and
objective body, IUPAC can address many global issues involving the
chemical sciences.

Elements in the Carbon Family:


Carbon (C)
Silicon (Si)
Germanium
Lead (Pb)
Flerovium (Fl)

General Characteristics of the carbon family:

Some are semi-conductors of heat and electricity


Are solid at room temperature
All have 4 valence electron
Block- p
Last filled electron- p2
Tend to be very unreactive
Are found in both compounds and nature.

Nonmetal or non-metal is a chemical element that mostly


lacks metallic attributes.

Physically, nonmetals tend to be highly volatile (easily vaporized),


Have low elasticity, and
Are good insulators of heat and electricity;
Are not able to conduct electricity or heat very well.
Non-metallic elements are very brittle, and
Cannot be rolled into wires or pounded into sheets
Have no metallic luster, and do not reflect light.

Facts about the Elements in the carbon group


1. Carbon
Symbol
Origin of
the name
Classificati
on
State
Color
Notable
Characteris
tics

C
From a Latin word carbo which means charcoal
Non-metal
Solid (very hard; diamond)
(soft; graphite)
Transparent (diamond)
Black (graphite)
Most vital element in all living things; and in the
human body, carbon is the second most abundant
element by mass (about 18.5%) after oxygen.
Considered as backbone of Biology.
All substances that contain Carbon are called organic
compounds.
They are chemically resistant and require high
temperature to react even with oxygen.
It has resistance to dissolution or chemical attack, even

Hazards

in the acidic contents of the digestive tract, for


example.
Pure carbon has extremely low toxicity to humans and
can be handled and even ingested safely in the form of
graphite or charcoal but many of its compounds are,
such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide.
Inhalation of coal dust or soot (carbon black) in large
quantities can be dangerous, irritating lung tissues and
causing the congestive lung disease.
Large accumulations of coal, which have remained inert
for hundreds of millions of years in the absence of
oxygen, may spontaneously combust when exposed to
air, for example in coal mine waste tips.

Difference between the two allotropes of carbon.


Synthetic nanocrystalline diamond is
the hardest material known.

Graphite is one of the


softest materials known.

Diamond is the ultimate abrasive.

Graphite is a very
good lubricant, displaying
superlubricity.

Diamond is an excellent
electrical insulator, and has the
highest breakdown electric field of
any known material.

Graphite is a conductor of
electricity.

Diamond is the best known naturally


occurring thermal conductor

Some forms of graphite


are used for thermal
insulation (i.e. firebreaks
and heat shields), but
some other forms are
good thermal conductors.

Diamond is highly transparent.

Graphite is opaque.

Diamond crystallizes in the cubic


system.

Graphite crystallizes in
the hexagonal system.

Diamonds are formed in the mantle where the intense pressure


changes the molecular structure of carbon, crushing its atoms and
forcing them to form a lattice-like structure and will soon form
diamonds.
Trivia: Do you know that Carbon was one of the first elements known to
humans?
A Greek historian of the fourth century B.C. , for example, tells of a natural
gas well in Turkey that provides a perpetual flame for religious ceremonies.
Many reports also detail the practice of mixing lampblack, a form of carbon,
with olive oil and balsam gum to make a primitive form of ink. And diamonds,
another form of carbon, are described in the Bible and even older Hindu
manuscripts.
Uses:
Pencil leads for mechanical pencils are made of graphite (often mixed
with a clay or synthetic binder).
A cloth of woven carbon filaments.
Charcoal is used as a drawing material in artwork, for grilling, and in
many other uses including iron smelting.
Wood, coal and oil are used as fuel for production of energy and space
heating.
Gem quality diamond is used in jewelry, and industrial diamonds are
used in drilling, cutting and polishing tools for machining metals and
stone.
Source of energy. Eg. Coal, oil, natural gas so called fossil fuels which
consist of pure carbon or carbon compounds.

2. Silicon
Symbol
Origin of
the name
Classificati
on
State
Color
Notable

Si
it was given the name silicium from the Latin word silex
which means hard stone or flint (with an -ium word-ending to
suggest a metal)
Metalloid
Solid (hard)
Gray with metallic luster
Reflects the more physically similar elements carbon

Characteris
tics

Hazards

and boron.
2nd most abundant element on Earths crust.
It has a greater density in a liquid state than a solid
state.
It does not contract when it freezes like most
substances, but expands, similar to how ice is less
dense than water.
Less reactive than carbon, but more reactive than
germanium.
Silicon dioxide dust, such as that emitted by volcanoes
can cause adverse health effect.

Pure silicon is too reactive to be found in nature, but it is found in practically


all rocks as well as in sand, clays, and soils, combined either with oxygen as
silica (SiO2, silicon dioxide) or with oxygen and other elements (e.g.,
aluminum, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium, or iron) as silicates. The
oxidized form, as silicon dioxide and particularly as silicates, is also common
in Earths crust and is an important component of Earths mantle. Its
compounds also occur in all natural waters, in the atmosphere (as siliceous
dust), in many plants, and in the skeletons, tissues, and body fluids of some
animals.

Trivia: Do you know that the first human footprint on the Moon was made
with a silicone-rubber-soled boot?
Uses:

Toothpaste
Portland cement
Glass / glass wares and ceramics
Semiconductor in transistorized electronic devices
Sand
Bath tub sealers
Spaceship parts
Silicone plastic

3. Germanium
Symbol
Origin of
the name
Classificati

Ge
After Germany, homeland of the discoverer
Metalloid

on
State
Color
Notable
Characteris
tics

Hazards

Solid (hard)
grayish-white with metallic luster
It is a lustrous, chemically similar to its group neighbors
tin and silicon.
With an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.
Like silicon, germanium naturally reacts and forms
complexes with oxygen in nature.
Unlike silicon, it is too reactive to be found naturally on
Earth in the free (native) state.
Organic germanium is reported to be potentially
beneficial for health.
Germanium chloride and germane (GeH4) are a liquid
and gas artificially-produced compounds, respectively,
which can be very irritating to the eyes, skin, lungs,
and throat.
Inorganic germanium will accumulate inside the body
and will impose health hazards after consumed.
However, synthetic soluble germanium salts are
nephrotoxic, and synthetic chemically reactive
germanium compounds with halogens and hydrogen
are irritants and toxins.

Trivia: Do you know that Germanium has earned a place in the history of
chemistry as the element predicted to exist by Russian chemist Dmitry
Mendeleev (18341907) in 1871?
Are you aware that the element is not very abundant in Earth's surface?
Occurring to the extent of no more than 1 to 2 ppm (parts per million).
Uses:

Transistors
Radiation detectors
Fiber optics and wide-angle camera lenses
Solar cells

4. Tin
Symbol
Origin of
the name

Sn
from Latin word stannum

Classificati
on
State
Color
Notable
Characteris
tics

Hazards

Metal
Solid (hard)
Silver-white
Malleable and Ductile
Exhibits TIN CRY when bent producing a crackling
sound due to the twinning of the crystals.
Not easily oxidized in air and is used to coat other
metals to prevent corrosion.
Becomes a superconductor below 3.72 K. In fact, tin
was one of the first superconductors to be studied; the
Meissner effect, one of the characteristic features of
superconductors, was first discovered in
superconducting tin crystals.
Tin resists corrosion from water but can be attacked by
acids and alkalis.
It occurs primarily in the form of mineral cassiterite, an
oxide of tin
It is also too soft and fragile to be used by itself.
Nausea, vomiting and diarrhea have been reported
after ingesting canned food containing 200 mg/kg of
tin.

Trivia: Do you know that Tin is one of the first metals to have been used by
humans?
The earliest written records date to about 3500 B.C. , when tools and
weapons made of bronze (an alloy of tin and copper) were in general use. In
fact, the success of bronze for these applications gave the period a name by
which it is now well known, the Bronze Age.
Uses:

Solder
Coins
Tin plating
Tin cans

5. Lead

Symbol
Origin of
the name
Classificati
on
State
Color
Notable
Characteris
tics

Hazards

Pb
From a Latin word plumbum, the origin of plumber
Metal
Solid (soft)
Bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon
tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.
It has a shiny chrome-silver luster when it is melted
into a liquid.
Lead has the highest atomic number of all of the stable
elements.
Lead is very resistant to corrosion.
It occurs most commonly as the black mineral galena
(lead sulfide).
If ingested, lead is poisonous to animals and humans,
damaging the nervous system and causing brain
disorders.
Excessive lead also causes blood disorders
in mammals.
It is a neurotoxin that accumulates both in soft tissues
and the bones just like the element mercury.
Can also cause damage to liver, kidneys, and brain
when extremely exposed to the element.

Trivia: Do you know that Lead is another metal that has been known to
humans for thousands of years?
It was used for making pottery glazes in Egypt as early as the seventh
millennium B.C. , as roofing and flooring in Babylonia, and for water pipes
and other types of plumbing in ancient Rome.
Uses:
Lead-acid battery
Part of solders
Bullets
Inert material for gas and water pipes
Shield for radioactivity
Paint

6. Flerovium
Symbol
Origin of
the name

Fl
Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute
for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia where the laboratory
was named after Georgy Flyorov: a Russian physicist.
The name was adopted by IUPAC on May 30, 2012.

Classificati
on
State
Notable
Characteris
tics
Hazards

Metal
Solid
A highly radioactive metal, of which only a few atoms
have ever been made.
Is currently placed as the heaviest known member of
the carbon group.
Highly radioactive that it is only been created in the
laboratory and has not been observed in nature.

Trivia: Flerovium is unexpectedly volatile for a group IVA element, in


preliminary results it even seemed to exhibit properties similar to those
of the noble gases. More recent results show that flerovium's reaction
with gold is similar to that of copernicium, showing that it is a
very volatile element that may even be gaseous at standard
temperature and pressure, and that while it would
show metallic properties, consistent with it being the
heavier homologue of lead, it would also be the least reactive metal in
group IVA.
Uses:
At present, it is only used for research purposes.

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