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4th Edition Answers

Suggested Answers

Chapter 1
Things to do (page 5)
2 Examples which must be manual include: holiday brochures; guidebooks to the
country/area; atlases/maps; encyclopaedias; geography textbooks
4 (a) (i) Any three sensible details such as: health problems/medication; name of
parent/guardian; home telephone number; parents/guardians mobile/cell phone
number; parents/guardians email address; parent/guardian work contact
telephone number; options taken; form teacher
(ii) You might have two pupils with the same surname and forename. The pupil
number is a unique identifier in these situations.
(b) The form should be laid out sensibly with important information first.
The form should contain the fields listed in the question and also the three answers
for part 4 (a)(i).
(c) Teachers and administrative staff can immediately identify a pupil if they cannot
remember their name.

Examination Questions (page 303)


1 (a) Any two from:

The interactive nature of multimedia makes lessons fun.

They can have video, sound, graphics and photographs.

A huge amount of information can be stored in a small space. For example,


encyclopaedias consisting of many volumes can be stored on one or two
CD-ROMs.

(b) One from:

One computer is really needed for each pupil.

The use of multimedia may discourage pupils from reading books.

2 (a) Any two from:

They hold a huge amount of data (video clips, sound, graphics, photographs and
text), typically 650 Megabytes.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

A couple of CD-ROMs can replace the contents of many traditional paper


volumes.

Searching CD-ROMs takes much less time.

(b) Any two from: graphics (still or animated), photographs, sound, video clips.

Chapter 2
Test Yourself (page 10)
A

hardware, software (or vice versa)

programs

backing

quick

GIGO

information, searching

peripheral

microprocessor

Things to do (page 11)


1

Hardware
(a) Keyboard

(b) Floppy disk

(c) Visual display unit

(d) Mouse

(e) Central processing unit

Software

(f) Word processor

(g) Operating system

(h) Joystick

(i) Spreadsheet

(j) Database

2 (a) Microprocessor
(b) Both
(c) Faster can process more data in less time; more accurate; can work 24 hours per day
3 (a) Any two from, e.g.: accurate weather forecasting; space travel; processing of credit
cards.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

(b) Weather forecasting The amount of data that needs processing would take a long
time; Space travel for working out accurately orbits, project planning, etc.;
Processing of credit cards Can process data very quickly without human
intervention.
4 The points made in this paragraph could include points similar to the following:

It de-skills certain jobs (e.g. a typist);

It leads to unemployment;

It can lead to bad health (e.g. RSI, bad eyesight, etc.);

It makes people slaves to the machine;

It invades our privacy;

It has led to many new crimes (e.g. hacking, identity theft, etc.).

Examination Questions (page 303)


1 Any two from: controlling the temperature of an oven; controlling the washing programs
in a washing machine/dishwasher; sensing when clothes are dry in a tumble drier; reading
the barcode on ready meals to determine the cooking time; etc.
2 (a) A microprocessor is a single chip that contains a CPU. It is the brain of the device
and is used for control.
(b) Any two from: telephones, cookers, childrens toys, cameras, toasters, etc.
(c) Any three from: push switch/door sensor to make sure the door is shut; pressure
sensor to detect the amount of washing in the drum; water level sensor to detect that
the correct amount of water is added; temperature sensor to make sure that the water
is not too hot or cold.
3 (a) (i) One advantage from the following: no keyboard skills are needed; faster if the
person is an inexperienced typist.
One disadvantage from the following: some peoples handwriting is
indecipherable by humans so computers would not be able to understand it. Some
people's handwriting is indecipherable by humans so computers would not be able
to understand it. The reject rate would be too high. People would need to be
trained to write numbers etc. clearly.
(ii) An alternative input device, such as a keyboard is provided if the pad cannot
understand the persons handwriting.
(b) They can download text they have prepared into their PC for printing.
Data can be downloaded for backup purposes.
Data can be added to a database, e.g. the orders taken by a representative that day.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

They can synchronise the data on both devices so that it is the same (e.g. they can
synchronise their address book).
4 (a) The barcode on the food is scanned by the reader on the microwave oven. The code is
looked up by the oven in a database stored on the chip. The cooking instructions are
found and the details are then input to the microprocessor which then controls the
power and timing of the oven.
(b) The user does not have to enter settings themselves, which are possible sources of
error.
The human may misread the instructions on the packaging and enter the wrong
information. This system has no such error.
5 Any two from:

The processor should have a low power consumption to prolong the battery life while
the computer is being used away from mains electricity.

It should not generate lots of heat as this can make the laptop uncomfortable to use.

It should not need fans to cool the chip down as the fans can drain the battery.

Chapter 3
Questions (page 18)
1

You no longer remain anonymous as people know what you look like.

People may send pornographic images.

You have to worry about your appearance just to use the computer.

Adults may use the service to lure children into meetings.

2 (a) Scan the text in using a scanner and then use OCR software to recognise each
character so that the image of each page can be turned into a page of text which can
be edited using word-processing software before saving. This would be much faster
and therefore cheaper than having to type in the text or pay someone else to do it.
(b) An optical mark reader would input the results into the computer for subsequent
processing. This would be much faster and more accurate than employing a human to
type the details in. Because the device reads the data automatically, you do not have
to pay any wages for inputting the data.
(c) A barcode reader can be used to record the barcodes on the books and on the
members ticket. This system will reduce errors introduced by typing the data in and
would also be faster, meaning that fewer library staff would need to be employed.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

(d) MICR could be used to read the magnetic ink characters on cheques at high speed.
This reduces the clearing time and also it is hard to forge magnetic ink characters so
this reduces the likelihood of fraud.

Questions (page 20)


(a)

Can scan colour photographs into sales details and then print them out.

(b)

Can print out curtain styles and colours to send or give to customers.

(c)

Can print copies out to give to friends and relatives, thus saving the developing costs.

(d)

The pupil can improve the appearance of diagrams, charts, etc.

Test Yourself (page 23)


A

keyboard

mouse

joysticks

light pens

barcode readers

optical character reader

magnetic ink character recognition

optical mark recognition

retail

laser

inkjet

Things to do (page 23)


1 (a) Mouse. Used to draw lines and select the size of baths, basins, showers, etc.
(b) Graph plotter
(c) Estimates, stock control, invoicing, word processing, etc.
2 A: Joystick. Used instead of the cursor keys to produce movement on the screen. Mainly
for playing games.
B: Scanner (or hand-held scanner). Used to scan pictures (or text) into the computer.
May be used to scan photographs into a DTP document.
C: Keyboard. Used to type in characters. Used for word processing, typing in operating
system/program instructions, etc.
D: Graphics tablet. Used for design work where too many icons would clutter up the
screen. Used by architects, designers, etc.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

E: Touch-screen. Used as a simple input device to make selections. Used by customers


in banks and building societies. Also quiz games in pubs.
F: Laser printer. Used for high-quality text and graphics. Used in word processing, DTP
and any work that needs printing.
G: Dot-matrix printer. Used as a cheap printer. Used where quality of print is not
important or where multiple copies are needed (e.g. production of invoices).
H: Mouse. Used instead of the cursors to draw or make selections. Used in all Windows
applications.
I:

Barcode reader/scanner. Used to input a code contained in the bars. Used in shops
and libraries.

J:

Inkjet printer. Used for high-quality print and for colour printing. Any job which
needs printing such as word processing.

3 See chapter.
4 Possible questions include:

Will it be used to print multi-part stationery?

How much can they spend?

Do they need colour?

Do they need to print graphics?

Will noise be a problem?

Is there enough money for running costs?

What is the volume of pages printed each day/week?

Is the printing done in one go?

Will the printer be shared?

Examination Questions (page 303)


1 (a) Storage; (b) Input; (c) Output; (d) Output; (e) Storage; (f) Input; (g) Input
2 Any four from the following:

Speed: need a fast printer for mail merges or large print runs.

Colour: need an inkjet printer if a cheap colour printer is required.

Multiple copies: need an impact printer such as a dot-matrix printer.

Cost: although most inkjet printers are cheap to buy they can be expensive to run
because the ink cartridges are very expensive.

Ability to work with the chosen software: printer drivers should be available.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

3 (a) The following should be ticked: Dot-matrix printer; Plotter; Speaker; VDU
(b) One from: laser printer, inkjet printer, robot arm, actuator, etc.
(c) Mouse and keyboard
(d) One from: graphics tablet, joystick, sensor, scanner, barcode reader, etc.

Chapter 4
Test Yourself (page 30)
A

one

byte

character

kilobytes, megabytes

memory

ROM, RAM

Optical

CD-ROMs

Things to do (page 30)


1 (a) (i) Read Only Memory.
(ii) Random Access Memory
(b) Main differences are
RAM is volatile and ROM is not.
Contents of RAM are only stored when the power is on. ROM stores data when the
power is removed.
ROM is used to hold the BIOS programs needed to boot/start the computer.
RAM is used to hold program instructions and files currently being worked on.
Contents of RAM can be changed by the user.
2 Hard disk with tape streamer for backup. Flash drive/portable hard disk drive for transfer
of data etc.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

Examination Questions (page 304)


1 (a) (i) Storage device; (ii) Input device; (iii) Input device; (iv) Output device; (v)
Storage device; (vi) Input device; (vii) Output device; (viii) Input device; (ix)
Storage device
(b) RAM is used to hold the users program and also the data currently being used.
ROM is used to hold part of the operating system, such as the system BIOS.
2 (a) Immediate access store is expensive compared with backing store.
Immediate access store only has a small storage capacity compared with backing
store.
(b) ROM retains its data when the power is switched off.
The contents of ROM cannot be altered by the user.
3 CD-ROM, hard disk
4 (a) (i) Random-access memory
(ii) Read-only memory
(b) RAM contents are erased as soon as the power is turned off.
The contents of RAM can be changed by the user whereas ROM cannot.
(c) RAM is used to hold applications programs and user data.
(d) ROM is used to hold the boot/start-up programs. It is also used to store programs in
control devices.
5 (a) USB flash memory is memory that is plugged into the computer via the computers
USB socket. USB flash memory has several names such as pen drive or memory
sticks. They are very popular storage media which offer cheap and large storage
capacities and are an ideal media for photographs, music and other data files. They
consist of printed circuit boards enclosed in a plastic case.
(b) HD cards, often referred to as flash memory cards, are the small, thin, rectangular or
square removable cards that are used for storage of digital images by digital cameras.
They can also be used in any situation where data need to be stored and so are used
with desktop computers, laptops, palmtops, mobile phones and MP3 players.
(c) MP4 players are used to store and play back both video and music stored in MP4 file
format.
(d) A Blu-ray disk is an optical disk that has a much higher storage capacity than a DVD.
These high-capacity Blu-ray disks are used to store high-definition video and for
storing films/movies. It is possible to play back video on a Blu-ray disk while
simultaneously recording HD video.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

Chapter 5
Test Yourself (page 35)
A

software

systems

operating

hardware

compilers

assembler

Things to do (page 35)


1 (a) (i) e.g. Windows XP, Windows 7, MacOS etc.
(ii) Controls and organises the storage of data on the disk drives.
Sends data to the printer.
Contains utility programs for formatting, copying disks, etc.
Maintains security on networks.
(b) Programs provided as part of the operating system to perform such tasks as copying
files, deleting files, formatting disks, etc. These programs may be called upon by
applications programs.
(c) Compilers change the whole of a program written in a high-level language into
machine code before execution.
Interpreters take each instruction, convert it to machine code and then carry it out.
They then take the next instruction and repeat the process.
(d) Assembler
(e) Any two from: BASIC (for teaching); C++ (for development of commercial
software); HTML (for development of websites); etc.
2 Microsoft Word word processing
Microsoft Publisher desktop publishing
Microsoft PowerPoint graphics
Microsoft Access database
Adobe Photoshop graphics
3 FORWARD 50
LEFT 120
FORWARD 50
LEFT 120

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

FORWARD 50
Or you could also have the following:
LEFT 60
FORWARD 50
RIGHT 120
FORWARD 50
RIGHT 120
FORWARD 50

Examination Questions (page 304)


1 (a) A, B, E (in any order)
(b) Allocating processing time between the terminals (i.e. time slicing).
Allowing the terminals to allow access to the same data held on a database.
(c) Multitasking operating systems allow more than one program apparently to run at the
same time.
2 (a) Any two from the following:

The title bar has been kept the same.

The same text style has been used for the instructions.

In each case there are instructions under the menus.

The back button is in the same place in both screens.

The graphic is in the same place in both screens.

The same method is used for moving between the screens.

(b) (i) Any one from:

You can only select one item from the list supplied by the system.

You cannot close the screen.

You have to use buttons to make a choice.

(ii)

Inexperienced users find it easier.

Users are prevented from using dates or places which are not on the lists.

Because the user is only allowed to enter data which the system supplies,
there is no need for any validation.

It saves employee time or attracts customers.

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(c) Any two of the following changes:

The lists could be placed in alphabetical order so that items are easier to find.

The buttons could be made bigger so that users would find it easier to click on
them.

The instructions for using the interface could be made clearer.

The list could be made longer so that more places are visible.

(d) (i) In the middle third of the screen.


(ii) This is where the user looks the most.
(iii) It could be in a bright colour. It could flash. Sound could be used. A larger font
could be used.
3 (a) Any four from the following.
Icons-just have to click on them to issue a command.
Windows-can pull down lists of commands which prevents clutter on the screen.
A mouse is used-easier to make selections than the keyboard.
Touch screens can be used to make selections.
User can have many windows open at the same time making it easier to move
between applications.
Users are able to customize the interface to suit the way they work.
Interface is intuitive which makes it easy for users to learn.
(b) Any two from the following: speech recognition; use of touch-sensitive screens; use
of thought (eventually!)
4 Any three from these three groups: installation guide, information about what the program
does, help line information; step-by-step guide to using the program; data input and output
details.
5 (a) Any two from: interprets commands from the application software; manages the
system resources such as memory; manages input and output of data; manages system
security
(b) Windows XP, Windows 7, Unix, MSDOS, etc.
(c) Multitasking means the ability of the operating system to run more than one program
at the same time.

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6 (a) Any two from: much cheaper than having a program specially written; takes less time
to develop; database package is more likely not to contain bugs.
(b) The program will be designed to do exactly what the user requires. A database
solution might not do exactly what they want it to do.
7 (a) An icon is a small picture used to represent a command or action.
(b) Any two from:

It makes it easy for new users to understand.

You can just move the mouse onto the icon and click on it, so avoiding the need
to issue commands.

It reduces errors that sometimes occur when commands are typed.

(c) One from mouse, touchscreen, touchpad, etc.


8 (a) One where the user uses pull-down menus from which a command can be issued by
clicking on one of the items in a list. Saves having to type in commands.
(b) Any two from:

There is no need to remember or type in commands.

It is easier for novice users to use.

There is no need to worry about the syntax (i.e. the correct construction) of
commands.

9 (a) Any two from:

The package is ready immediately, so no need to wait.

It will be cheaper because the cost can be spread across lots of customers.

It will be tried and tested.

(b) One from:

It might not do exactly what is required.

You might need to change your system to suit the software.

10 (a) Any two from: click on icons, click on buttons, click on items from pull-down menus.
(b) Press a particular key to make a selection; move a highlight bar to make a selection.
(c) Type in the required command using the correct syntax.
11 (a) Programs instructions which instruct the computer hardware what to do. For
example the operating system instructing the computer to print out a word-processed
document.
(b) A way of allowing a user to communicate with a computer that makes use of
Windows, Icons, and pull-down menus. Most operating systems and applications
software make use of a GUI.

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(c) A network system that allows many different users to access a computer at the same
time. Networked computers such as computers being used by an airline use multiaccess systems.
12

High level a programming language where each program instruction corresponds to


several machine code instructions.
Low level very similar to the machine language of the computer. One low level
instruction corresponds to one machine code instruction.

Chapter 6
Questions (page 39)
1 (a) Enables the code to be input into the computer quickly and accurately.
(b) If the barcode reader breaks down, then the code can be typed in.
(c) It would not be possible to produce barcodes for information for a particular student
such as name, address, telephone number, etc.

Test Yourself (page 44)


A

key-to-disk

data capture

MICR

OMR

laser scanner

sensors

turnaround

Things to do (page 45)


1 Details can be found in the chapter.
2 (a) (i) Converting the data into machine readable form ready for processing.
(ii) The document used to collect the data.
(b) The address needs to be broken down into street, town or similar.
The name should be broken down into Surname and Forenames.
Some of the sections are confusing and it is not obvious what is required.
The order of the items is not always logical. The most important information should
come first.
(c) The form should be re-designed taking into account the comments made in (b).

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

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3 (a) The first five letters of the surname are KENNE


Born in 1949
Male born in 09 (i.e. September)
Born 20 September 1949
S and E are the initials of the first names.
(b) Data are the raw facts and figures whereas information is the meaning attached to
them. KENNE409209SE9IB is data and the meaning as outlined in the answer to part
(a) is classed as the meaning to the data which turns the data into information.
4 Compare the answer with forms collected from real organisations. Items should be in a
sensible order with important items near the top of the form.

Examination Questions (page 306)


1 (a) Any two from: keyboard; scanner + OCR; using speech recognition
(b) (i) One from: libraries; supermarkets; parcel carriers.
(ii) Bank cheques
(iii) One from: marking examination questions; lottery; school attendance marks.
2 (a) (i) Any two from: takes up less storage space; less typing is needed to input the data
so this saves time and hence the cost; more data can be held on a single page
when they are printed out and this saves time and paper.
(ii) Any one from: need to know what the codes mean in order to make any sense of
them; it can be easy to forget what the codes mean; requires a system to be put in
place to deal with the codes.
(b) Any three from:

There must be a fixed length.

They must look like what they are supposed to represent.

They should be as short as possible in order to reduce the time to input them.

They should have a consistent format.

Chapter 7
Test Yourself (page 52)
A

verification

proofreading

validation, character type, range

check digit

transposition

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Things to do (page 53)


1 (a) Data are keyed in twice by two different people. The computer checks that the data
are the same and only then are they accepted for processing.
Or, the data are keyed in and then proofread against the original document and any
errors are corrected.
(b) Check that the first two digits are in the range 01 to 31.
Next three characters must be alphabetic.
Four numbers must follow.
The value of the first two digits may be checked against the month (e.g. in
September, it can only go up to 30).
2 (a) check digit = 6 so incorrect.
(b) check digit = 7 so correct.
(c) check digit = 9 so correct.
3 The only ones to be detected are: date of birth with a range check; exam fee paid with a
range check.

Examination Questions (page 306)


1 (a) It is a pre-input check performed by the program to make sure that the data being
entered is reasonable/allowable.
(b) (i) To make sure that data are always entered for a certain field. For example, each
employee must have an employee number so a presence check checks that this is
always filled in.
(ii)

To check that an item of data entered in a field is within an acceptable range. An


example would be examination marks which could check if the mark was 100
and 0. If the mark lay outside this range then the data would not be accepted.

2 (a) (i) Circle should be drawn around 200.


(ii) No one could be employed that long.
(iii) Range check should be ticked.
(iv) Number of years 0 and 70
3 (a) Would only allow numbers to be entered into numeric fields but allow numbers and
characters to be entered into text/character fields.
(b) A range check that a number being entered into a numeric field is not too high or too
low. Could use a range check to make sure that the quantity ordered is not 0 or less
and is not greater than a certain value.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

15

(c) Check digits are numbers added to the end of a large group of numbers to ensure that
the numbers before it are entered correctly. The computer removes this number and
then uses all the other numbers to calculate it. If the numbers have been entered
correctly, then the computer will calculate a number the same as the check digit. In
this example the stock number could have a check digit at the end.
4 (a) Each word is checked against the dictionary for the spelling. Any words spelt
correctly are left and the spell checker only prompts the user if the word is not found
in the dictionary. Alternative spellings are usually given.
(b) Names of streets, people, slang words, etc. Some words have alternative spellings,
e.g. computerize/computerise. These can be added to a custom dictionary for future
reference.
5 (a) By using a paper document such as a questionnaire or survey. Could also use data
capture forms.
By interviewing people.
(b) A pre-input check on data, performed by the software to make sure that the data
entered are allowable/reasonable.
(c) 59 (i.e. the total of the student numbers)
6 By double entry of the data; by proofreading.
7 (a) A data type check will check that only numbers have been entered.
A length check will check that exactly six numbers have been entered.
(b) Real-time access
8 (a) To ensure that the data entered matches exactly the original source of the data.
(b) Double entry of data, where the data are entered twice and only if the data match
exactly will they be accepted for processing.
Proofreading, where the data are compared with the source of the data to make sure
they match.
9 (a) Because the person entering the password might think they have entered a certain
combination of characters but could have entered a different combination. This means
that, without verification, they would not be able to use the password.
(b) Double entry of the password. Only if both versions are identical will the password be
accepted.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

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Chapter 8
Questions (page 57)
(a)

Several pupils could have the same surname and it is necessary to distinguish between
them.

(b)

You need the system to store details about previous pupils as well about pupils in the
future.

(c)

Date of birth could be used. It is less likely that two pupils will have the same name and
date of birth.

Questions (page 60)


(a)

A spare copy taken for security purposes in case the original copy becomes damaged or
stolen.

(b)

The backups are usually on the hard drive. If the computer were stolen then the original
copy and the backup copy could be lost.

(c)

He should not keep the original copies with the backup copies. If the box were to be
stolen then all the data would be lost.

Test Yourself (page 61)


A

database

files

records

fields

structure

duplication

master

transaction

security

grandfather, son

Things to do (page 69)


1 (a) A; (b) D; (c) I; (d) A; (e) A; (f) D; (g) I; (h) D; (i) A; (j) D
2 (a) 5
(b) 5
(c) (i) Admission number

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(ii) In case there are pupils with the same name.


(d) Address so that letters can be sent home; contact numbers so that parents can be
phoned up in case of an emergency.

Examination Questions (page 307)


1 (a) 6
(b) 5
(c) Accession Number
(d) To uniquely define a row in the file/table.
(e)
Title

Date of publication

Computer Studies

2011

Computing

2010

Business GNVQ

2009

Compilers

2007

Computer Graphics

2004

C Programming

1989

(f) (i) If the book was: never returned; destroyed; removed from library because out of
date; etc.
(ii) If a new book was added to the library.
2 (a) (i) Verification a check to make sure that what was typed in is exactly the same as
that on the source document. For example typing in the details from a customer
order form and then at the end comparing the two to check the details are
identical.
(ii) Validation is a check performed by the applications software to make sure that the
data being entered is reasonable/allowable. For example a range check on a date
of birth to check that the date does not make the person ridiculously old or young.
(b) (i) One of:

You can work out how much space is needed.

It is easier to program.

(ii) A smaller amount of memory is used.


(iii) Two of: text, date, memo, autonumber/counter, text, currency, logical, OLE, etc.
(c) It is quicker to type in; fewer errors arise because data are consistent.

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

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3
Method

Magnetic tape

Magnetic disk

Serial

Yes

Yes

Sequential

Yes

Yes

Indexed sequential

No

Yes

Direct (random)

No

Yes

4 (a) 5
(b) It is a unique field for a particular record/row in the table.
(c) It only allows data to be entered into the field that is consistent with the field type.
You cannot enter alphabetic characters into a numeric field.
5 (a) A structured and organised collection of files that can be used to extract the
information in a variety of different ways.
(b) Any two from the following:

There will be no duplication of data.

Data can be held centrally and security can be supervised.

A standard interface can be used for all the users.

(c) Any two from:

It allows the user to specify the structure of the database.

It provides a standard user interface.

It makes reporting easy.

It provides security for the data held.

Chapter 9
Test Yourself (page 66)
A

on

interactive

interactive

real-time

batch

multiprogramming

multi-access

timesharing

Information Systems for you, Fourth Edition answers Nelson Thornes Ltd 2011

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Things to do (page 67)


1 (a) Creating bills and clearing cheques.
(b) The computer can be left to get on with it on its own without a human needing to be
present.
Fast for repetitive processing of high-volume work.
(c) The information stored is always the latest information because any changes to the
information are made immediately.
2 (a) Keyboard
(b) The person using the computer asks questions and replies are given by the computer
immediately.
(c) The customer will probably wait while answers to their questions are found using the
computer.
(d) Any seven from: surname, forename, address (this could be broken down), telephone
number, date travelling out, date travelling in, destination, method of payment,
insurance details, passport number etc.
(e) Because the system is interactive. As soon as you book a seat the number of seats
available is reduced.
(f ) Random access
(g) Hard disk drive
(h) Faster to get replies and the system prevents double booking; Easier to search for
specific customer requirements; Computer is able to work out the total cost of the
holiday for you.
3 (a) Real-time. Needs to show the latest balance so that you do not go overdrawn.
(b) Batch processing. All mark sheets can be batched together and marked automatically.
(c) Real-time. Needs to continually monitor the river levels.
(d) Batch processing. Large volume of statements can be produced automatically.
(e) Real-time. The true stock situation is always shown so that low in stock goods can be
re-ordered.
(f) Real-time. The temperature in the room is continually monitored so that the system
can decide whether to switch on or off.
(g) Real-time. The game needs to be interactive.

Examination Questions (page 308)


1 The following should be ticked: producing electricity bills; clearing cheques.
2 Central heating system; automatic pilot on an aeroplane

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Chapter 10
Questions (page 69)
1 (a) analogue; (b) digital; (c) analogue; (d) digital; (e) digital or analogue
2 Digital readings are more precise. It is easier to make a mistake when taking an analogue
reading.

Things to do (page 70)


1 (a) Analogue data can have lots of in-between values whereas digital data jump from one
value to another without any in-between value.
(b) (i) It will be measured in revolutions per minute which is a whole-number value.
(ii) An analogue to digital converter. This converts the analogue temperature signal to
a digital signal.
2 (a) (i) There is no need to re-type the book so it is cheaper.
No errors are introduced due to re-typing.
Fast to produce the finished book.
(ii) Cheaper to post than a mass of paper.
Much cheaper to keep a copy of the disk than a copy on paper.
(iii) Publisher gets the file as soon as they log on to read their email. Can be almost
instantaneous.
Do not need to parcel up and post.
(b) So that the publisher can make sure that they can convert the file to a format that they
can use on their system.

Examination Questions (page 308)


1 (a) (i) Any two from:

Less storage space on the hard disk is needed.

Files take less time to be transferred over a network/the internet.

It is easier to take backup copies.

(ii) Any one from:

Files need to be decompressed before they can be viewed.

It takes time to decompress the files.

Special software is needed to compress and decompress the files.

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2 (a) Before conversion: an analogue signal should be drawn.


After conversion: a digital signal should be drawn.
(b) Use a sound card; add stereo speakers; use 16/32 bit sampling; add an external
amplifier.
(c) Games, video clips, cartoons, error message sounds, voice mail, etc.
3 (a) An interrupt is a signal to the processor from the peripheral device indicating that an
event has occurred that needs its attention. For example, if the printer stops working
because there is a jam or it has run out of paper the processor can stop working on
that job until it is fixed. You can still do other jobs on the computer, for example
browse the internet.
(b) With a polling system, the processor asks the peripherals if they have anything to
report. If they do, the processor instructs them to send the data. When the computer
sends data to the printer in order to be printed out, the processor will need to make
contact with the printer. If the printer is switched off, then an interrupt is sent back to
the processor and this will cause the processor to display a message to alert the user.
(c) The process by which the first signals establish that the peripheral device, such as a
printer, is able to communicate successfully with the computer is called handshaking.
(d) A buffer is a temporary storage space in memory used to store data while it is being
moved from one place to another. For example, the processor could send data to a
printer at very high speed. The problem is that the printer cannot print at the speed the
data are sent, so there needs to be a place for the data to be stored temporarily until
the printer is ready to deal with it.
(e) A group of a fixed number of bits is called a byte, and a number of bytes together are
called a block. By adding together all the bits in a transmission unit of data the system
can check that the receiver receives the same number of bits as was sent. The count of
the number of bits sent is called the checksum.

Chapter 11
Test Yourself (page 74)
A hard copy
B posted
C electronic mail
D multimedia
E sound card

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Things to do (page 74)


(a)

Output on a screen is useful for just checking that the apparatus is producing readings
correctly. Hard copy is used to keep a permanent record of the results to be used in your
notes. Advantage of hard copy hardcopy can be taken away and studied.
Disadvantage of hard copy costs of obtaining the output are higher because of the cost
of the paper and ink/toner.
Advantage of screen output output on screen is more environmentally friendly as no
paper or ink/toner is used.
Disadvantage of screen output only available while the computer is turned on.

(b)

(i)

Graphics might have been created or obtained from another package (e.g. from
the internet), from a photo package, from a free disk, etc.

(ii)

DTP packages are capable of reading graphics files in many different formats
which makes them easy to import.

Examination Questions (page 309)


1 Any sensible answers here.
2 (a) Computer technology which creates a simulated multidimensional environment for
the user.
(b) Customers can virtually view the design of their kitchen from different angles.
Changes can be made to the kitchen and then viewed to see the effect.

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Chapter 12
Things to do (page 81)
1 (a)

(b) It needs to be in the same order as the master file otherwise there would be too much
forward and backward winding of the tape which would take a long time.
(c) Their account number or customer number
(d) The primary key field
(e) The master file has not been updated by the transaction file.
(f) The bottom-left tape file on the diagram (i.e. the updated customer file)
(g) The old customer file
(h) After the validation and update stages
(i) The old customer file, the new customer file, and the payments transaction file.
2 (a) So that the transactions are in the same order as in the master file.
(b) Amendment, insertion, deletion
(c) Reference to a record that is not included in the master file.
An instruction to delete a record that was deleted during the last update.

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Examination Questions (page 309)


1 (a) A barcode is read using a scanner.
(b) Need to know that item has been accepted.
Items could be missed if the rejected signal were used.
(c) Quantity in stock
(d) Any three from: supplier code (the primary key field); supplier name; fax number;
address.
(e) (i) Item code
(ii) To provide a backup to the master file should it become damaged.

Chapter 13
Test Yourself (page 91)
A

systems analyst

output

fact find

feasibility study

feasibility report

design

analysis

trained

documentation

parallel

evaluated

Things to do (page 91)


1 See chapter.
2 (a) How to get into the system; what inputs are required; how bookings are confirmed;
how to get help; how to produce output.
(b) How to correct mistakes made by the reservation clerks; setting up passwords and
ensuring system security; monitoring the accuracy of the clerks work; organising
entry of new timetable details.

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(c) Systems flowcharts and other diagrams which show how the system works; program
listings which have comments at the side (i.e. annotated listings); names and
structures of the files used.
3 (a) Facts such as: how many employees, how many people in each branch, management
structure, how many houses each sells, whether each branch uses the same admin.
system, etc.
(b) Involve the staff in the project; interview each member to reassure them.

Examination Questions (page 309)


1 (a) implementation; (b) analysis; (c) analysis; (d) design; (e) design; (f) testing; (g)
evaluation; (h) design
2 Interviews
Advantages: questions can be explained further if interviewee does not understand them;
interviewer can ask for clarification of an answer; extended answers can be given.
Disadvantages: very time consuming if lots of people need to be interviewed; people can
vent their hostility in the development of the new system; some people will not tell the
truth (anonymous questionnaires could reveal the truth).
Questionnaires
Advantages: data can be collected quickly; answers might be more honest if they are
completed anonymously.
Disadvantages: extended answers are restricted; false answers might be given; hard job
making sure everyone concerned fills them in.
Observation
Advantages: you look at all the paper documents; you can look at the level of workflow at
different times.
Disadvantages: very time consuming; people might object to being spied upon; people
might pretend to be overworked.
Looking at existing documentation
Advantage: can see quickly what goes on
Disadvantage: documentation might be out of date.
3 (a) See above answer for methods of fact finding.
(b) Any two from the following: design of outputs from the system; design of inputs to
the system; designing data preparation; file design; code design; selection of
software.

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(c) Direct: there is a direct and complete change to the new system.
Phased: the new system is phased in gradually.
Parallel: the old and the new systems are run alongside each other for a period.
4 (a) Fact finding about the existing system. Identification of problems with the existing
system. Finding what the user requirements are. Producing a feasibility study.
(b) Detailing how the system will match the users requirements. Determination of the
input and output requirements. Identification of the files needed. Determining the
hardware and software requirements. Working out the data structures/database
design.
(c) Installation of the new system/writing of the programs needed.
(d) Upgrades to hardware and software. Writing patches in software to cope with changes
in user requirements.
5 (a) C; (b) B and G; (c) D; (d) A and E; (e) F
6 See answer to Question 4.
7 See chapter for the stages of systems analysis.
8 (a) Evaluation; (b) Testing; (c) Analysis; (d) Design; (e) Implementation; (f) Testing

Chapter 14
Questions (page 97)
Physical quantity

Digital or analogue

Wind speed

Analogue

Wind direction

Analogue

Temperature

Analogue

Rainfall

Analogue

Sensor

Digital or analogue

Wind speed (optical sensor)

Digital

Wind direction (optical sensor)

Digital

Temperature (integrated circuit sensor)

Analogue

Rainfall (optical sensor)

Digital

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Things to do (page 98)


1 (a) Random-access memory
(b) So that the sensors do not need to be connected to the computer all the time. This
makes them easier to place in remote locations because they can rely on their own
power source.
2 To see the way the quantities vary over a unit of time such as a day or a week. Graphs of
the quantities against time are usually plotted so the time will be needed for this.
3 (a) Read-only memory
(b) The program is available as soon as the power is switched on since it is not necessary
to load it from a disk. The program is retained when the power is switched off.
4 See chapter.
5 (a) Spreadsheet or database
(b) (i) Typically a spreadsheet/graphics package but could use others (even a word
processor as they can create graphics).
(ii) Cant have negative sunshine. Total hours of 25 in a day is also impossible.
(iii) Since the total is used to calculate the average, the average will be wrong as well.
(c) The date of those days when the rainfall is greater than 5<thin space>cm are
displayed.
(d) (i) Readings would need to be taken every day (even Christmas Day) and at the same
time. This would be tedious and time consuming.
(ii) The people who collect the data might be ill or the readings could be made
incorrectly.
(iii) It is only worth analysing a complete set of data.
(f) Change the instruction WAIT 30 to WAIT 15 keeping the other instructions the same.
(g) (i) Once the computer gets to the last instruction it stops. It needs a looping
instruction.
(ii) At the end, write RETURN (or a similar looping statement).
(h) It needs a validation program with a range check to prevent silly values being stored.

Examination Questions (page 310)


1 (a) Data logging
(b) (i) Heat/temperature sensor
(ii) To take the temperature at set times during the day.
(c) (i) Any figure in the range 5 to 30 minutes.

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(ii) A sufficient number of readings should be taken so that an accurate graph can be
produced.
(d) As a table or graph/chart.
2 (a) Boxes should be filled in the following order: Download information; Add
information to regional weather file; Save regional weather file.
(b) Need to have a diagram in the following order: Computer at the regional weather
centremodemtelephone networkmodemcomputer at remote weather station.
(c) (i) Following should be ticked:
Restarting the system wastes time as the same information may be collected from
the same remote weather stations on several occasions.
The information available is not collected if part of the system is faulty.
(ii) systems analysis and design
monitoring and evaluation
(d) Advantages: It is quicker since you do not need to visit the weather stations to collect
the information. It is more reliable data are always collected regularly at the same
time. It is cheaper to collect the information since there is no need for extra
employees to pick up the data.
Disadvantages: System is expensive to set up. Breaks in communication lines are
hard to find.
3 (a) (i) Because the anemometer produces analogue signals and computers can only
process digital signals.
(ii) An analogue to digital converter (ADC) is needed.
(b) Any two from: The data can be obtained 24/7. No human is needed to take the
readings as they are taken continuously. The computer can process the readings and
present the information graphically which makes the information easier to
understand.

Chapter 15
Questions (page 101)
2 (a) Used as a separate computer rather than being networked together.
(b) May be input directly into their computer to update the stock file and reorder goods if
necessary.
(c) The disk would need to be sent to the shops by post or via a carrier. With lists on
paper they may be faxed which is much quicker.

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3 Being sent two letters instead of one. Having to wait for goods that are sold out. Not
knowing whether the goods are available elsewhere without phoning around.
4 Suppliers would like to avoid paperwork by using EDI which is more efficient. Binscope
does not have the technology to do this.
No facilities for electronic mail which is quicker.

Questions (page 109)


1 To identify the user of a terminal to the system.
2 There might be more than one person with the same first name. The user ID needs
to be unique.
3 A string of characters that the user has to type in to access the system. It is used to
authenticate the user to the system.
4 A user ID is used to allocate space on the disk drive for the user, whereas a

password is

to make sure that only an authorised person uses the system.

Questions (page 109)


The low cost of IT equipment; the internet; fast communication links to the organisation

Questions (page 109)


Advantages

Disadvantages

You can obtain access


from any workstation

Cost of installation is high

Users access rights can be


controlled

There is usually complete


reliance on the server

Expensive peripherals may


be shared

There is a need for more


security

Data and software can be


stored centrally

A network manager is
needed

Questions (page 122)


1 (a) The other computer may not be switched on and therefore could not be stored.
(b) (i) Mail (usually adverts) which is just sent without being asked for.
(ii) They can just give a simple instruction that sends it to everybodys mailbox. It is
much simpler than printing letters, addressing envelopes and posting.
2 Not everyone has a computer. Not everyone has a phone. Everyone can receive mail
through the post. Everybody knows how to use the ordinary mail system.

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3 Suppliers would like to avoid paperwork by using EDI which is more efficient. Binscope
does not have the technology to do this; No facilities for electronic mail which is quicker.
5 They should not be something easily guessed (e.g. your nickname, name of your pet etc.);
They should not be too short; They should consist of letters and numbers and other
characters (e.g. $, @, : etc.); They should consist of upper and lower case characters.

Test Yourself (page 112)


A

network

LANs

WANs

modems

analogue

electronic

protocol

gateway

Things to do (page 112)


1 (a) Local Area Network
(b) Holds all the programs and data needed for the network.
(c) Fast laser printers would only be used now and again and, since they are expensive, it
is not worth having one attached to each computer.
(d) Any three from:

Peripherals such as scanners, printers, etc. can be shared.

All users can access centrally held data.

Software usually only has to be installed on the file server.

It is easier to maintain security.

(e) They can use the email facility.


They can produce quotes over the net and increase their market share.
They can advertise cheaply to generate more business.
(f) To produce a backup copy of the hard drive in case data are damaged.

Examination Questions (page 312)


1 (a) Any two from: videoconferencing; video over the internet; payments made by
Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT)
(b) See chapter for diagrams of network topologies.

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(c) In the order Bus, Star, Ring.


(d) Any two from: ability to send email; ability to share data; cheaper network versions
of software; easier to manage data on a network; better security of files on the
network.
(e) (i) Local area network. A network usually confined to a single building.
(ii) Wide area network. A network covering a wide geographical area.
2 Any two from: providing email and file transfer facilities; downloading upgrades of
software; home shopping; for gaining research material.
3 (a)
LAN

WAN

Difference 1

Confined to a
small area

Can be world wide

Difference 2

Cable
belongs to
the company

Communication
channels from a
third party are used

(b) Two from:

Staff are able to all gain access to centrally held data.

Peripherals can be shared.

It is possible to send memos, reports etc. via email.

Staff can use any terminal connected to the network.

(c) One from:

If a file server breaks, then the whole network fails.

Lots of users can slow down access to files held on the network.

It is easier to spread viruses over the network.

4 Advantages:
Cheaper
Much faster when sending mail internationally
Can attach files
Easy to send the same document to lots of people

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Disadvantages:
Not everyone can send or receive email
Email is not as secure as ordinary mail
Use of email may cause the loss of jobs
5 Any two benefits from:

Programs and data can be shared.

It is usually easier to make the network more secure,

Internal email can be used to communicate between staff.

6 (a) See network diagrams in book chapter.


(b) Advantage:
As there is a dedicated path from each computer to the server/central computer, this
makes this type of network very fast; Faults in network cables will not affect the
whole network; It is easy to add more computers.
Disadvantages:
If the computer at the centre of the network fails then the whole network will fail.
More cabling is needed compared to other network topologies so there is a higher
cost.
(c) Advantage:
Simplest network to create and manage; There is no need for a server to control the
network; Less cabling needed compared to some topologies such as a star.
Disadvantage:
A break in one of the network cables will result in the failure of the whole network;
Slower than other topologies such as star topology.
7 (a) Internet stands for INTERnational NETwork.
Intranet stands for INTernal Restricted Access NETwork.
An intranet contains only information concerning a particular organisation.
Intranets are usually only used by the employees of a particular organisation.
Intranets are based on an internal local network.
With an intranet, you can block sites which are outside the internal network.
For the intranet to work, it is not necessary to use modems.
The information is all stored on local servers.
Intranets are usually behind a firewall which prevents them from being accessed by
hackers.
The internet can be accessed from anywhere using a range of devices such as
computers, PDAs and phones.

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(b) Any two from the following:

Intranets are usually behind firewalls which protects the information from being
hacked into.

They can be used in schools as they can prevent students from accessing
unwanted information.

The internal email system is more secure than relying on the ordinary email
system which makes use of the internet.

Only information relevant to the organisation can be accessed and this means you
can restrict staff from wasting time on the internet.

8 (a) Any two from:

There will be no trailing wires, which can cause a tripping hazard

It is cheaper as there is no need to install wires in walls, floors and ceilings.

The network can be accessed from anywhere in the building.

(b) Any two from:

There will be decreased security as it is possible for hackers to access a wireless


network unless precautions are taken (such as use of firewalls, proper use of
passwords, etc.).

Some wireless networks have a limited range.

You might be in a place where it is impossible to get a wireless signal to access a


network.

Chapter 16
Test Yourself (page 119)
A

data

physical

keypads

backup

backup

smoke, gas

viruses

antivirus

tape

encrypted

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Things to do (page 120)


1 (a) Need to mention the following. A virus is a program written to cause annoyance or
damage. The virus can replicate itself and spread from one computer to another. It is
caught by downloading files of dubious origin from the internet as well as by putting
disks into computers that contain a virus.
(b) (i) Need to scan the memory and drives using a virus scanning program. If it finds
any then the same program will be able to remove them.
(ii) All disks and emails should be scanned and the hard drive should also be scanned
at certain intervals automatically.
2 (a) A copy made in case the original copy is corrupted or lost.
(b) Computers consist of many parts which can fail at any time.
(c) Danger of accidental damage by dropping; Danger of theft from the car or from
home; Danger of son giving the wrong command and deleting some important files;
Danger of introducing viruses from copies of games.]
(d) List may include the following: Regular backups of data should be taken and stored
away from the computer; Personal data held on the computer should be encrypted;
Programs should not be downloaded and stored on the computer; All storage devices
connected to the computer should be scanned before use; Anti-virus software should
be installed and kept up to date; No eating or drinking near the computer; Password
must be used to control access to the computer; Computer should be not left
unattended in a public place.

Examination Questions (page 313)


1 (a) A program that copies itself and damages the data or adversely affects the system in
some way.
(b) Attached to an email or other file downloaded from the internet.
From a floppy which has been used with an infected computer.
From a program disk such as a game.
(c) Use antivirus software.
(d) Run virus checking software to check all files coming into the computer.
Dont download files from the internet.
Dont allow people to insert floppies that have been used with other machines.
2 Any two from:

Use passwords so that only people authorised can see the contents.

Do not leave computers switched on with the files loaded.

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Keep disks locked away when not in use.

Shred any printouts produced.

3 (a) One from: it can erase or ruin data; display annoying messages; slow the system
down.
(b) Use antivirus software to remove the virus and repair the data.
4 (a) (i) See answer to 1(a)
(ii) Scan all disks and files using antivirus software. Dont copy illegal software.
Dont download from the internet.
(b) (i) Unauthorised access to a computer.
(ii) One from:

Use passwords that are long enough and are changed regularly.

Use encryption with sensitive data (e.g. credit card details).

Use methods to prevent physical access to the computer system.

5 Two from:

Install antivirus software and perform regular scans.

Do not open file attachments to emails unless they are from trusted sources.

Do not download free software unless it comes from a reputable source.

Scan removable media before opening any files on it.

6 Two from:

Viruses could be transferred to the laptops.

They could be stolen.

They could have illegal software loaded onto them by pupils.

The settings could be changed, which causes annoyance.

7 (a) Any two from the following:

Key pads can be used to restrict entry to the rooms containing the computers.

Keyboard locks can be used to restrict the use of computers.

ID badges should be worn by all staff so that intruders can be easily identified.

Computers should be secured to desks using cables or metal frames.

(b) One from:

Use transaction logs to show who has viewed and altered information.

Use access controls so that employees can only view the information that is
needed for their particular job. This is achieved using the user-IDs.

8 (a) Firewalls are hardware, software or both that is used to filter out unauthorised
requests from outside users to gain access to an internal network using the internet.

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(b) Keeps hackers out; can be used to restrict access to the internet so that pupils in a
school cannot access undesirable information.

Chapter 17
Questions (page 124)
1 (a) Whether anyone in your family eats beef; how much is spent in the shop in a week;
whether you buy all the items in the one store; how much you spend in each of the
departments; how many special offers you buy; what days and times you shop at the
store; etc.
(b) Using a loyalty card links the customers personal details to their purchases. Before,
if they used cash the shop did not know who they were. Now they do.
(c) Two from: to understand the buying habits of customers; to keep the customers loyal
to their store; to provide the customers with details of special offers.

Things to do (page 128)


1 (a) Four from: overdraft limit; salary; direct debits; date of birth; any similar
information.
(b) The bank can send them details of investments if they have a large credit balance.
(c) Easier to set a search condition to produce a list of customers.
(d) Customers could be refused loans if information about their account is incorrect;
customers might take their business elsewhere; banks could lose money; the wrong
person could be credited or debited.
2 (a) School, doctors surgery, hospital, Department of Social Security, etc.
(b) Electoral roll, driving licence authority, tax office, university, etc.
3 (a) Job centre, Department of Social Security.
(b) See chapter.
4 (a) Medical records are exempt from the act but the doctor might agree to her seeing her
file if she thinks it will put her mind at rest.
(b) Police records are exempt from the act so his request will be refused.
5 Passwords should be used to access the patient records.
Screen should go blank after a set period of inactivity.
Printouts should be shredded before being thrown away.
6 (a) Married they may think that a woman who has children is more likely to take time
off when they are sick if they are not married.

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Date of birth they may discriminate on the basis of age.


No of children they may feel that someone who has children will put their family
first before their job.
(Note that there are other possible answers here)
(b) Married. They may think married people are more reliable.
Religion. Often asked but could be relevant in some jobs.
Union member. May not want people in unions.
Do you travel to work by public transport? If you do they may think you may be late
for work too often.
Outstanding value of mortgage and other loans. Lots of financial commitments may
mean that people are more willing to work overtime.
(Note that there are other possible answers here)
7 Paragraphs should mention the following points:
(a) Screen should go blank after a period of inactivity.
Switch the machine off when not in use and lock it with a key.
(b) Bolt the computer to the desk or fit an alarm.
Place computers in less accessible places away from the public.
(c) Do not write passwords down.
(d) Dont keep keys in a desk drawer since it will be the first place that people who want
to gain access will look.

Examination Questions (page 314)


1 (a) It places certain obligations on the data controller.
The data controllers have to register their uses of the personal data with the Data
Commissioner.
(b) Two from:

It has led to fewer unskilled jobs since many of these have been replaced by
computers.

Older people feel alienated because they do not understand the technology.

There is a constant need for retraining.

The internet can be used for criminal activities/pornography.

2 Data in electronic form is easier to copy, transfer (over the internet or other networks) and
access if it is not protected by proper security. It is not possible to detect very easily if
data have been altered. It is much faster to make alterations without being seen.

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3 (a) Almost any valid field relating to personal information or the persons lifestyle can be
put here.
(b) The data should be processed fairly and lawfully.
Personal data shall be obtained for only one or more specified or lawful purposes, and
shall not be further processed in any manner incompatible with that purpose or those
purposes.
Personal data shall be adequate, relevant and not excessive in relation to the purpose
or purposes for which they are processed.
(Any other of the Data Protection Principles could be chosen.)
(c) You have the right to see any personal details held about you (provided it is not in
certain categories).
You have the right to compensation if a company contravenes the act and causes
some damage to you.
4 (a) Any four from: gender; marital status; names of children; university student number;
degree course taken; loan payment; address, rent paid etc.
(b) Data has no meaning attached to it whereas information has a context and a meaning.
5 (a) Any two from the following: the right to seek compensation for the damaged caused
by wrong information; the right to have any wrong information corrected; the right to
see the data held about them.
(b) Wrong address goods delivered to the wrong address; Wrong date of birth a child
could be given credit by mistake and the child could buy goods they had no money to
pay for; Wrong credit card information someone else could be charged for the
goods they have purchased.
(c) The following should be ticked: Word-processed documents; A database of friends
names and addresses; Files stored on paper.

Chapter 18
Test Yourself (page 135)
A

credit card

phantom

smart

PIN

piracy

hacking

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Things to do (page 136)


2 Viruses are often deliberately introduced to disks containing pirated software. Pirated
disks are placed in many different computers so it is a good way for virus writers to
distribute their viruses.
3 (a) Yes. She should buy another copy.
(b) No. Making backup copies for security purposes is allowed.
(c) No. This is piracy.
(d) The memo should explain why it is illegal. Point out that the company could face a
large fine if found out. Above all, the memo should be tactfully written.

Examination Questions (page 314)


1 (a) Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988
(b) (i) Illegally entering a computer system with the intention of changing data
(ii) A program that copies itself and causes annoyance to users
2 (a) It makes the copying of software illegal.
It makes using more copies of software than you have paid for on a network illegal.
It makes the modification of software without permission illegal.
(b) A person who accesses a computer system without permission.
(c) They can view confidential information
They can delete or amend data.
They can use the data to commit fraud.
3 (a) Personal Identification Number. A secret number you need to type in to verify that
you are an authorised user of the network.
(b)

It means that only authorised users are allowed access to the system.
If someone steals the card it will be no use to gain access unless they know the
PIN as well.

4 (a) Two from: removing removable media before it has finished saving data; program or
system crashes; virus attacks; hackers altering/deleting data; machine malfunction.
(b) Train users to make sure they user virus scanners, do not remove removable media
before it has finished writing, etc.
Install up-to-date virus-scanning software to prevent viruses entering the system.
Using a firewall to prevent hackers accessing the system.

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Chapter 19
Things to do (page 140)
1 Some people would regard such a use as an infringement of privacy because it is spying
on people without their knowledge. It could be used by the state to monitor the
whereabouts of people they want to monitor. Corrupt police officers could use the system
for their own ends (e.g. to monitor the movements of their husbands or wives etc.).
3 (a) Filing clerks, people who deliver internal mail.
(b) Typist who now use word processors.
Clerical staff who now use computers.

Examination Questions (page 314)


1 (a) Any three from: systems analysts; programmers; computer engineers; IT teachers;
etc.
(b) Any three from: increased leisure time; greater possibility of working from home;
fewer dangerous jobs; use of the internet, use of email; etc.
(c) Any two from:

Alterations to records are not visible.

It is much faster to copy data without being seen.

It is easier to cross-reference data.

2 Global network issues (particularly the use of the Internet).


Information may be accessed from anywhere in the world.
Possibility of teleworking so where you live would not be as important.
Freedom of information (should there be any form of censorship?).
The use of chat services breaks down barriers between different cultures.
Can get criminal activities (e.g. get rich quick schemes).
Spending too much time on the Internet causes problems.
Opportunity of hacking etc.
Employment/unemployment issues
There are many new types of jobs created such as: systems analysts, programmers,
network managers, IT technicians, computer engineers, etc.
Increased leisure time; greater possibility of working from home; fewer dangerous jobs;
faster processing of information.

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Social issues
Young people are spending too much time on the internet or playing computer games.
Generation is likely to be less healthy.
People dont communicate as well as they used to.
High-tech society alienates those people who do not understand the technology.
Reliance on IT
Reliance on IT can be seen with the effects of the Millennium bug.
Sometimes people cannot do the job manually if they need to.
Environmental
Less paper means fewer trees have to be cut down.
Laser printers give out ozone which causes harmful UV rays to reach the earth.
Less wastage in chemical processes reduces energy needed.
3 Illegal copying of software. Hacking into other peoples computer systems. Writing and
distributing viruses. Using the internet to distribute untrue material about a person.
Transferring personal data without permission. Accessing illegal pornographic images
using the internet.
4 Robots are initially very expensive. They replace jobs, thereby causing unemployment.
Robots need to be carefully programmed. They need to be regularly maintained.

Chapter 20
Questions (page 144)
1 (a) temperature/heat sensor; (b) mercury tilt switch; (c) proximity sensor; (d) sound
sensor; (e) temperature sensor; (f) pH sensor; (g) humidity sensor; (h) humidity sensor; (i)
light sensor; (j) light sensor

Questions (page 145)


1 Can continually monitor patients. Nurses can only monitor patients at certain intervals.
Frees up staff to deal with emergencies. Fewer nurses are needed and the money can be
used elsewhere in the NHS.
2 Patients relatives might feel that the system is impersonal. If equipment malfunctions,
then it can have serious consequences. The initial purchase cost of the equipment is high.

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Questions (page 148)


If the window is open then close it
Detect temperature
If the temperature is greater than 28 C then buzz and open the window
Detect temperature
If the temperature is less than 24 C then buzz and close the window
Go back to the first detect temperature instruction to repeat
If the window is open then close it
Detect temperature
If the temperature is greater than 28 C switch off the heater, buzz and open the window
Detect temperature
If the temperature is less than 24 C then switch on the heater, buzz and close the window
Go back to the first detect temperature instruction to repeat

Questions (page 150)


1 See chapter
2 (a) More accurate than a human. You could easily miss a vehicle.
Cheaper than employing people.
Can note the times the readings are made so that graphs may be drawn.
Less tedious.
Data collected manually would still need to be entered into the computer.
(b) Any statistical graph (except a pie chart) could be drawn (e.g. cars per minute at
different times).

Things to do (page 150)


1 (a) The angle turned through could be wrong and/or it could be in the wrong direction.
Commands could be in the wrong order or a command could be missing.
The steps in the Forward or Back command could be wrong.
(b) Needs a sensor which is able to sense an object blocking its path and then produces a
signal to tell it to stop.
2 (a) The sensor measures the temperature and if it is too cold the microprocessor turns on
the heater. If it is too hot it turns the heater off. It only does this if the water covers
the water level sensor. If the water sensor is not covered then the valve opens to let
the cold water in. The arrangement where data signals are fed back to the
microprocessor which makes the decision about what to do, is called feedback.

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(b) (i) Between the temperature sensor and the microprocessor. (N.B. the water level
sensor only detects whether the water is present or not and therefore produces a
digital signal).
(ii)

Temperature is a continuous quantity with an infinite number of possible values


and is therefore an analogue signal. The sensor also produces an analogue signal
which needs to be converted to a digital one before the microprocessor can
understand it.

3 (a) Closed-loop
(b) Open-loop
(c) A closed-loop traffic light system would keep the same timed sequence regardless of
traffic conditions.
An open-loop system uses sensors to detect the traffic and will alter the sequencing
accordingly.
4 (a) Two from: electrical activity of the heart, temperature, respiration. etc.
(b) Three from:

Fewer nurses are needed.

Computer is alert at all times.

Only needs to alert the doctors if the quantities measured fall outside certain predescribed values.

(c) Explaining medical treatment to patients; Giving news to relatives; Connecting up


medical equipment.
5 (a) Light sensors are used. When the light beam is broken, the microprocessor knows that
the car is passing. When it detects the light again, it knows that the car has passed.
(b) Wait until sensor activates
Print tickets
Wait until ticket sensor activates
Open barrier
Switch red off and green on
Wait until second sensor shows the car has gone
Switch red on and green off
Close barrier
(c) Date and time of entry
(d) Punched holes and magnetic strip

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6
Situation

Sensor

Time
interval

Period of
logging

Collecting data on seasonal


temperature variations for
weather records

Heat

Daily

10 years

Collecting data about the


temperature change which
takes place when ice is added
to a beaker of water

Heat

5 minutes

1 hour

7 See answer to the questions (there is a similar question on page 148).


8 (a) Temperature
(b) The sensor measures the temperature and relays a signal back to the chip which
decides whether the temperature is low enough. This is called feedback. If the
temperature is not low enough, the compressor is turned on. Once the temperature is
low enough, the chip sends back a signal to switch the compressor off. The whole
process is repeated.
(c) Measure temperature. If the temperature is not low enough then turn compressor on.
Measure temperature. If the temperature is too low, turn off the compressor. Go back
to the first instruction.
(d) Usually a switch, positioned near the hinge, closes when the door is opened.
(e) If the fridge door is open for longer than a certain period such as 5 minutes, an alarm
will sound.

Examination Questions (page 315)


1 (a) A robot is a device that can be programmed to do a particular task.
(b) Any two from: produces the same high-quality work all the time; doesnt take tea
breaks or holidays; cheaper than employing people; no problems with trade unions.
(c) Handling the radioactive fuel rods inside a nuclear reactor.
Obtaining rock samples from distant planets (not the Moon).
2 (a) Direct data capture
(b) (i) Heat sensor
(ii) To measure the temperature automatically.
(c) (i) Every half hour (i.e. 48 readings) or every hour (24 readings).
(ii) Need enough readings to see the fine detail of temperature change.
(d) Best presented graphically in the form of a line graph (or bar chart).

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3 (a) FILL
MOVE
FILL
MOVE
FILL
MOVE
(b) (i) The computer has no way of knowing whether there is a bottle under the hopper
since there is no sensor to detect the hopper.
(ii) A touch sensor to detect that the bottle has moved into the correct position.
(iii) It senses to see if there is a bottle present and when the bottle is in a suitable
position a signal is sent back to the computer. If the bottle isnt in the correct
position the computer instructs the conveyer belt to move so that it is.
(c) Realtime should be ticked.
(d) Running costs will be lower (less wages); more likely to have the correct amount in
each bottle.
Leads to greater unemployment. The initial costs of the equipment are high.
4 (a) Any two from: to protect the computer or provide additional power; to convert the
analogue signals to digital ones and vice versa; to enable the sensors to be connected
to the computer.
(b) Analogue signals vary continuously whereas digital signals can only be one value or
another (e.g. 0 or 1).
(c) The data from the sensors is input into a spreadsheet and the spreadsheet graph/chart
function is used to plot a graph.
5 (a) Sensors are used to take measurements of the conditions at set intervals (every half
hour, every hour, etc.) and these signals are sent to the computer where they are
stored and compared with the ideal conditions.
(b) The signal from a particular sensor is compared with the ideal value stored by the
computer. If it is not in the range of the ideal value then the computer will send a
signal to turn a device on which will alter the conditions until the conditions lie in the
range again. This process takes place continuously.
(c) The data could be stored in a database or spreadsheet file and then the
graphing/charting facilities of these packages could be used to produce graphs/charts
to present the values.
(d) Finding the mean values.
Finding the number of readings taken that were outside the allowable range.

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6 Measurements from the sensor are constantly taken and fed back to the computer where
they are compared with a range of values. If the measurement lies outside the range then a
signal will be sent to turn the pump on thus adding more air. Once the signal from the
sensor lies inside the range the computer will send a signal to turn the pump off. This
process of monitoring/feedback takes place continuously.
7 An infrared beam is emitted which bounces off objects in front of the buggy. When an
obstacle is detected, the buggy can take another route.
8 Position/proximity sensors to sense an obstacle.
Memory to remember the route.
Some processing ability to know to erase those instructions of the route that were
incorrect.
9 (a) System uses the signals from several satellites to obtain the exact position of any
object (e.g. aircraft, ship, car, etc.) on the Earths surface.
(b) Computer inside the GPS works out a route and then gives output in the form of
sound instructions directing the driver to their destination.
(c) Two advantages from the following:

Less fuel is used because you can travel straight to the destination without getting
lost.

it is safer as the person is not trying to read directions from a map while they are
driving.

The system could save your life if you got lost in a desert.

You can tell the emergency services your exact whereabouts if there is an
emergency.

(d) Two disadvantages from the following:

Satellite navigation systems in cars may be stolen.

New roads may be built or routes changed that the system will not know about.

The systems can often send you along unsuitable roads.

Sometimes the satellite signal is blocked by tall buildings or mountains.

Backup maps still need to be kept in case the satellite navigation system breaks
down.

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Chapter 21
Things to do (page 156)
1 Overloaded sockets cause a fire hazard. Room needs re-wiring with more sockets put in.
Trailing wires are easy to trip over. Sink them under the floor.
Some desks are either too high or too low and are likely to cause backache when used.
Replace with desks of the correct height.
Chairs are non-adjustable and are therefore illegal for use in an office. Replace with
adjustable chairs.
There are no blinds on the windows so the sun will shine in and cause glare on the
screens. Need adjustable blinds on the windows.
Office is too cramped. More space is needed between the desks.

Examination Questions (page 317)


1 RSI. Can be prevented by the use of wrist guards or correct seating posture.
Eye strain. Can be prevented by the use of glasses so there is a need to have regular eye
tests.
Other ergonomics answers can be given.
2 Use an adjustable chair and footrest. Have regular eye tests and wear glasses if needed.
3 (a) The smallest dot of light on a screen.
(b) There may be some danger from low level X-rays but many experts consider the
dangers to be negligible.
Eye strain caused by focusing on the screen for a long period of time.
(c) RSI causing joints to seize up due to typing, or backache through sitting at the
computer for a long period of time.
4 Two from: circuit breaker to protect against the risk of electrocution; no obstacles in
walkways (e.g. boxes of printer paper, trailing wires, etc.); all plugs have been wired
correctly; no overloaded sockets; faulty equipment should be removed immediately; no
drinks allowed by machines.
5 Seats should be adjustable with four legs and castors; blinds on windows should be
included to reduce glare; the floor should be carpeted to reduce noise; wires should pass
through walls or trunking so as not to create a tripping hazard.

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6 (a) Videoconferencing/teleconferencing allows two or more individuals situated in


different places to talk to each other in real time and see each other at the same time.
They are also able to exchange electronic files with each other and pass electronic
documents around rather than paper documents. It allows people to conduct 'virtual'
meetings.
(b) Advantages of using videoconferencing:
Less stress as employees do not have to experience delays at airports, accidents, road
works, etc.
Improved family life, as less time spent away from home staying in hotels.
They do not have to put in long working hours travelling to and from meetings.
Saves money as business does not have to spend money on travelling expenses, hotel
rooms, meals, etc.
Improved productivity of employees, as they are not wasting time travelling.
Meetings can be called at very short notice without too much planning.
Greener as there are fewer people flying to meetings. This cuts down on carbon
dioxide emissions.
Roads will not be clogged up with traffic and this will cause less stress and reduce
pollution.
(c) Disadvantages of using videoconferencing:
The cost of the equipment, as specialist videoconferencing equipment is expensive.
Poor image and sound quality.
People can feel very self-conscious when using videoconferencing and may fail to
come across well.
Although documents and diagrams in digital form can be passed around, an actual
product or component cannot be passed around.
Lack of face-to-face contact may mean a discussion may not be as effective.
If the delegates are in distant locations, there can be a time lag, which can be
distracting.
7 Ability to surf the Internet you can use the Internet anywhere you can get a signal in
order to obtain information about train times, flights etc.
Ability to send and receive email can send and receive email away from a computer.
Can access GPS can obtain maps to guide you around new places.

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Chapter 22
Questions (page 159)
1 (a) Sending copies of documents to other solicitors, courts, etc.
(b) Sending copies of accounts to the clients, HM Revenue and Customs, etc.
(c) Sending plans to the local councils for approval.
(d) Sending copies of estimates and plans to clients.
2 The copy would show a signature but it is difficult to be sure that it is the clients. It could
have been scanned in and inserted into the document.

Questions (page 162)


1 No travel costs. Less pollution. Able to fit household chores around your work. Flexible
working hours. Handy for families with young children. No wasted time travelling to and
from work.
2 Too many distractions (TV, radio, etc.). Higher heating and lighting costs. No social
interaction with colleagues. Could be lonely.
3 Don't have to pay for large buildings. Lower heating and lighting costs. Staff are usually
paid by results so if they dont work hard they wont get paid as much.

Test Yourself (page 162)


A

fax

document

data interchange

teleconferencing

telecommuting

Examination Questions (page 317)


1 (a) Any two from: printer; hard disk; CD-ROM; DVD; scanner; etc.
(b) (i) Modem or ISDN card/adapter.
(ii) Any one from: internet service provider software; communications software; web
browser; etc.
(iii) One from: cheap form of advertising; easy to keep the information up to date;
advert reaches a wide audience.
(iv) They need to have a computer/all the equipment to access the internet, which is
expensive.

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(c) Producing pages showing wanted people. Advertising stolen property that has been
recovered so that it can be returned to the owners.
2 (a) Using computers with video cameras and ISDN/fast broadband links to have a
meeting without anyone having to leave their desks. They can see each other and talk
to each other in real time and can pass computer-prepared documents to each other.
(b) Two from:

It is much cheaper since there is no need to pay travel or hotel costs.

People do not waste valuable time travelling.

Meetings can be held at short notice.

3 (a) See answer to 2(a) above. Note teleconferencing and electronic conferencing are the
same thing.
(b) Much cheaper since no need to pay travel or hotel costs. People do not waste valuable
time travelling and you do not have to pay staff to cover for them as much.
(c) ISDN adapter/card; special videoconferencing software; a video camera; a
microphone; speakers; etc.
4 (a) A large, worldwide collection of interconnected computers.
(b) Prepare the message. Type in the address of the person you wish to send the message
to. Send the message.
(c) Four from: shopping, weather, financial news, news, sport, chat lines, file transfer
facilities, downloading software, etc.
(d) Advantages: more up to date; easier for the users to find stories that interest them;
cheaper source of information; does not waste paper; can use animation and video
clips; can hear the information, so suitable for blind people; etc.
Disadvantages: equipment and software needed is expensive; loss of jobs (e.g.
typesetters, delivery drivers, etc.); widens the gap between rich and poor; some older
people do not understand computers so this could alienate them; etc.

Chapter 23
Things to do (page 170)
1 (a) Easy to vary the number of tills and the frequency at which people join the queues to
see what happens. Manual calculations involve a huge amount of work and are
therefore off-putting.
(b) Since there are so many temperatures that could be tried it would take too long to put
them into the calculations manually.
2 See the examples contained in the chapter.

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3 (a) No need to travel to the area where the animals live. Can build up the model on a
computer in your own home or school.
(b) Would be both expensive and dangerous.
(c) Spreadsheet or specialist model building package.
4 See chapter.
5 (a) Various options could be investigated using the model so that the best solution could
be found without going to the effort and expense of doing it for real.
(b), (c) and (d) The arrangement of the road junction (e.g. how many roads, lanes, etc.) to
enable an accurate model to be created. Data can be collected on current traffic flow using
a data logger. Information obtained from similar layouts on speeds through the junction
could be added to the model to give a realistic picture.

Examination Questions (page 318)


1 (a) Used to provide tax advice based on questions asked by the computer to the user.
(b) Cheaper than using the services of a real tax expert.
2 (a) Relatively replicate formula down column D. Highlight the formula and, while
keeping your hand on the mouse button, drag it down the column. Release mouse
button.
(b) Could use the data in columns B and C to produce bar charts next to each other for
each month over the whole year.
(c) (i) Working out how many items of a certain produce need to be sold before the
costs are covered (i.e. working out the break-even point).
(ii) You can see the effect of increased costs on the break-even point.
You can see how many items need to be sold to realise a certain amount of profit.
3 (a) The weather; the number of predators (e.g. ladybirds); the type of crop; the method
used to apply the insecticide; when in the growing season the insecticide was applied.
(b) (i) It would be hard to determine whether they died as a result of the first dose or the
extended dose.
(ii)
T

1,300

1,200

800

300

1,000

900

700

700

400

600

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(iii) IF T > V*300 THEN N = V*300 ELSE N = T


(c) As the size of the insect population is reduced, then the crop yields will increase.
The more insecticide, the more crop yield.
If the growing conditions/weather are ideal then the crop yield will increase.
(d) Compare the results from the model with the real situation. You would have to
count/estimate the number of insects on the crop before and after addition of the
fertiliser.
4 (a) Expert systems are ICT systems that use artificial intelligence to make decisions
based on data supplied in the form of answers to questions. This means that the
system is able to respond in the way that a human expert in the field would to come to
a conclusion
(b) Any two from: knowledge base; inference engine; user interface.
(c) One advantage such as:
It has more expertise than a single doctor.
It always remembers to ask a question that a doctor may forget.
It makes fewer mistakes than a human.
It is cheaper to use an expert system because human experts in their field demand
high wages.
(d) One disadvantage such as:
They lack common sense they cannot decide whether a result is sensible or
ridiculous.
They lack senses they cannot detect body language from a patient.
The system relies on the rules being correct. Mistakes in these rules could make the
expert system inaccurate.
5 One of the following: to help with prospecting for minerals and oil; car engine fault
diagnosis; for giving tax advice.
6 Knowledge base, user interface
7 Any six from the following:

Potential users of the system are interviewed to find out what is required from the
desired expert system.

Experts are consulted who are asked to supply data about their expertise.

The knowledge base is created using the information collected from the experts.

Rules connecting the knowledge are identified.

The rules are used to create the inference engine.

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The user interface is created which allows the user to enter data as input from various
sources. The output screens are also created.

Testing is undertaken to ensure that the expert system is producing the same results as
a human expert in the field.

The system is evaluated and improvements are made to the system before it goes live.

Chapter 24
Things to do (page 177)
1 set s, g, c, m = 0: set count = 0
repeat
input code
x = code/1000
y = INT(x)
if y = 1 then s = s + 1
else if y = 2 then g = g + 1
else if y = 3 then c = c + 1
else if y = 4 then m = m + 1
else print error
count = count + 1
until count = 100
print s, g, c, m
2
Input Y

Output N

100

1200

500

3 See the example on page 175 of the book.

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5 Total = 0
For N = 1 to 3
Read number
Total = Total + number
Next N
Average = Total/3
Print Average
6 Read grade
Case grade of
85 to 100 Display Grade A*
75 to 84 Display Grade A
65 to 74 Display Grade B
60 to 64 Display Grade C
50 to 59 Display Grade D
0 to 49 Display Grade E
Endcase

Examination Questions (page 319)


1 Two from the following:
Easier to update and understand
Easier to remove bugs in programs (i.e. easier to debug)

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It allows several programmers to work on a task as the task is broken down into several
modules
It may be possible to reuse parts of the solution
2 See chapter.
3 worst = 0
best = 0
sum = 0
for N = 1 to 365
input exchange_rate
if exchange_rate>best then best = exchange_rate
if exchange_rate<worst then worst = exchange_rate
Sum = sum + exchange_rate
next N
average = sum/365
output best, worst, average

Chapter 25
Examination Questions (page 319)
1 (a) The PIN.
(b) For security. It ensures that they are the authorised user of the card.
(c) Two from: fewer bank staff needed; takes staff away from routine transactions to do
more profitable sales type work; fewer chances of errors; provides 24 hours a day,
365 days a year banking.
(d) Two from: provides 24 hours a day, 365 days a year banking; queues are smaller; do
not need to interact with the bank staff; can visit late at night when the parking is
easier.
(e) One from: danger of being robbed; phantom withdrawals; wrong amount of money
being issued.
(f) Using a modem/fast broadband link and the internet and special software supplied by
the bank.
(g) (i) PIN and account number/name.
(ii) Two from: statement details; balance transfer; pay bill; etc.
(iii) Ability to obtain cash.
(h) Can check the account balance from home.

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Can set up standing orders and direct debits without leaving home.
(i) Need computer equipment.
Possibility of security breaches by hackers.
2 (a) The banks sort code. The customers account number.
(b) Using magnetic ink character recognition (MICR).
(c) (i) The amount the cheque is for.
(ii) This is not known until the person has written the cheque. It has to be put on the
cheque so that it can be read with the MICR reader.
(d) (i) Step 4; Step 3; Step 1; Step 2.
(ii) For security. Only the person who owns the card should know the PIN.
(iii) Magnetic stripe
(iv) Three from: order a new cheque book; obtain a balance; obtain a statement/ministatement; transfer money between accounts; etc.
(e) To identify the customer. To pay for goods using an EFTPOS terminal. To pay for
calls in some public telephones.
3 (a) Two from: manufacturers code; product code; country of origin; check digit.
(b) One from:

An itemised bill is produced that makes it easier to check.

Quicker data entry means fewer queues.

(c) The price changes so a new barcode would need to be produced.


(d) Four from: cash; cheque; store card; credit card; debit/Switch card; etc.
(e) (i) One from: they get points (i.e. money off) or coupons; they are notified about
special offers.
(ii) One from: keeps customers coming back to the store; provides the marketing
department with useful information concerning customers buying habits; can sell
lists of customers to other companies; etc.
4 Advantages could include:
Fewer queues at checkouts as transactions are completed faster.
Less wastage of food as correct amounts are ordered or made on site.
Itemised receipts make it easier for shoppers to check they have been charged correctly.
Loyalty cards allow shoppers to save money by shopping at the store regularly.
Disadvantages could include:
e-commerce means that many high street stores could close with the resulting loss in
jobs.
Most ICT developments in stores reduce the numbers of staff needed.

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Small shops will close as they can no longer attract customers because of their more
expensive goods.
Information about shoppers from loyalty card schemes erodes privacy.
5 (a) One of: bank account number, bank sort code number, encrypted PIN.
(b) Gives an instruction to remove the money from the customers account and deposit it
in the stores bank account. This happens immediately.
6 See page 183 of the Student Book.
7 (a) Analogue data are continuously changing data that do not jump from one value to the
next but instead have an infinite number of in-between values.
Digital data jump from one value to the next without any in-between values.
(b) Any three from the following: temperature; blood pressure; central venous pressure
(to determine the amount of blood returning to the heart and the capacity of the heart
to pump blood into the arteries); pulse; blood gases (e.g. concentration of dissolved
oxygen); blood sugar; brain activity; electrical activity of the heart (ECG
(electrocardiogram)); intra cranial pressure (pressure inside the skull); breakdown of
gases from a patients breath; respiratory rate
(c) Any three from the following:

Measurements are never forgotten to be taken as they are taken automatically.

Real-time monitoring patients vital readings are taken in real time which is
much better than taking readings every so often by staff. If any measurements fall
outside the acceptable range an alarm sounds to alert medical staff.

Frees up medical staff from taking routine measurements to allow them to focus
on administration of drugs, etc.

Reduces costs one member of staff can be responsible for more patients in
intensive care units.

Trends in the patients condition can be spotted the side by side graphs on the
screen make it easy for doctors to spot trends in the patients condition.

More accurate readings sensors produce more accurate readings than people,
who can make mistakes when taking readings.

8 (a) Any two from:

Students can try the procedures many times until they get them right.

There is the option for the instructor to test the trainee on each procedure.

The students can access the system using the internet and can therefore practise in
their own time.

The system could eliminate the need to practise on real patients or model mouths.

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It is less expensive than using real patients with real equipment.

(b) Any two from:

Only a limited number of dental procedures are available.

The feeling of the tools for the student dentist may not be the same as with a real
instrument.

The system does not have the interaction between a real patient and the dentist
(i.e. talking to the patient).

9 See bottom-right section of page 192 of the Student Book.

Chapter 26
Questions (page 196)
Fewer staff needed since customers type in their own details.
High street premises are not needed for the sale of goods and this makes huge cost savings.
Advertising costs are much lower as you can use banner adverts to link to your site.
Allows parents and pupils to access school information from their own homes.
It is much cheaper for schools to promote themselves using the internet.
It is easy to change information that varies from one year to the next (e.g. the dates of
terms etc.).
Other information that the school might include on this site is as follows:

Calendar of events

Details of teaching staff and their telephone extensions and email addresses

Links to useful revision sites for pupils taking their exams

Information about choosing options

Examination timetables

Details of sports results

The latest school news

Questions (page 197)


1 (a) Their computer might not be switched on and/or the computer might not be connected
to the internet at the time.
(b) (i) Mail that you have not asked for advertising products or services and which you
can waste time reading or deleting.
(ii) The cost of sending a letter to lots of people is almost the same as for sending the
same letter to just one person. This is not the case with the traditional mail.

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2 You need to consider that the postal service delivers parcels and packages as well as just
letters. Only when everyone has access to email will the service replace the traditional
mail. The parcel service is likely to grow as more goods are bought over the internet.

Questions (page 199)


1 (a) You can keep a list of the names and email addresses of your contacts. To enter their
email address into an email you can simply click on it.
(b) These are lists of names of people and their email addresses in certain groups. You
simply select the group and the email can be sent to every member of the group.
2 (a) A file attachment is a file that accompanies an email.
(b) You might want to send some photographs, spreadsheets, etc.
3 (a) If composing the email online, the steps would typically include:

Load the internet service provider and connect to the internet.

Type in the email address of the person you are sending it to (or select the address
from an address book).

Type in the email addresses of anyone else who needs to be sent a copy.

Type in the email and proofread.

Click on send.

(b) Three from: mail is sent immediately; quicker to write; you can attach the original
letter with the reply thus saving time searching for it; email is cheaper to send than a
traditional letter; saves time because you dont need to buy stamps, envelopes, etc.
(c) Two from: not everyone has an email address; emails are not as secure as ordinary
mail; people need some training to use the system.

Test Yourself (page 207)


A

internet service provider

internet

website

electronic mail

web browser

web servers

e-commerce

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Things to do (page 207)


1 (a) Any two services such as: availability of video on demand; home banking and home
shopping facilities; interactive lessons (e.g. learning a new language, new software,
etc.); catch up on demand where you can access programmes you missed.
(b) Any two of the services such as: text messages; mobile access to the internet; able to
send and receive email; satellite navigation.
2 Talk could be centred round the following points:

Hacking could invade peoples privacy.

Copyright material is harder to protect as more people spread the material around the
world.

Children could access pornographic material.

Danger of fraud as more goods and services are bought online.

Addiction to using chat rooms.

To minimise the risks:

Use software such as cyber patrol which filters out pornographic material.

Make sure that confidential information is not divulged in an email. If it is necessary


to send sensitive private information over the internet, then it should be encrypted.

Use passwords so that unsupervised young children do not have access to the internet.

Make sure that all sites which use credit card details for the purchase of goods use
encryption to keep credit card details secure.

3 (a) Advantages/disadvantages for staff

Staff can access their email anywhere there is a computer (even at home).

It is easy to send all staff the same email by making use of mailing lists.

Less time is wasted trying to contact staff by phone.

All staff will need access to computer equipment which can be expensive.

Staff will need to be trained in the use of email.

(b) Advantages/disadvantages for pupils

A whole school network would be needed, with each pupil having their own
account, and this is quite expensive.

Post is easier because all pupils will have a letterbox but sending letters is time
consuming and expensive.

Many pupils will have mobiles so it is much easier to contact them via phone than
in the past.

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(c) Advantages/disadvantages for the examination board

Email can be used to send class lists for exam entries and results between schools
and the examination board and vice versa and if these lists are sent as file
attachments, no errors will be made typing the information in again.

Email may not be secure enough for results unless the files are encrypted.

It may be hard for the head teacher to contact a specific person at the exam board
headquarters as both parties are frequently in meetings.

4 Any three advantages similar to the following:

It is easier to shop from home if you live a long way from the shops.

The goods or services are usually cheaper.

There is usually a much greater range of goods available.

Some shopping sites allow you to compare prices.

5 Any three features, such as:

Chat rooms make friends with people having similar interests from around the
world.

Home shopping you can take advantage of the cheapest products and compare
prices easily and get them delivered to your door.

Download you can download free software.

News and weather you can see what is happening around the world.

Internet access you can search for information on the internet.

Instant messages you can send instant messages to your friends who are online.

6 (a) Any two advantages such as: goods/services usually cheaper; greater choice; dont
have to waste time shopping; easier to make comparisons; lots of special introductory
offers; etc.
(b) Any two disadvantages such as: credit card details could be intercepted; it may be a
bogus company that you are dealing with; it is harder to return damaged goods; more
difficult to deal with problems such as non delivery of goods; etc.
(c) (i) Any two such as: airlines, insurance companies, grocery stores, travel agents,
book stores, etc.
(ii) Any two such as: high street travel agents as more holidays are booked online,
high street book stores, record stores, etc.
7 Chat rooms they might arrange to meet someone who is not what they say they are.
Pornography they could access this purely by accident.
Spending too much time on the internet

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8 Two from:

Check the date that the material was produced to make sure that it is up to date.

Only use known reliable sources for your information.

Compare your new source of information with more traditional sources of


information.

Examination Questions (page 322)


1 (a) (i) The following should be ticked:
Teleworking will be more widespread and more workers will work from home.
More workers will need IT skills.
Some workers in the UK will compete for jobs with workers throughout the
world.
(ii) The following should be ticked:
Employers will use the World Wide Web for advertising.
Employers will train their workers using computer-based learning materials.
Employers will use email to communicate with their workers.
(b) You can ask questions in specialist chat rooms to obtain help from other users.
You can email help requests to the help-desk.
You can obtain online help from the software suppliers.
(c) (i) It allows people in every country free communication with people in other
countries.
It prevents some governments from censoring the information they receive.
It allows access to education for everyone.
(ii) Three from:

People can put up illegal images.

Terrorist organisations can promote their cause.

Sites can promote racial hatred.

Sites can give advice on bomb making etc.

People will be free to tell lies about others.

2 Processes such as:

Send an email.

Enter the email address of the recipient.

Write a message to explain what the file you are attaching contains.

Click on attach file.

Find the file you want to send.

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Attach the file.

Click on send.

3 (a) The file is stored on the server of the internet service provider Ahmed uses. The file is
stored on the email server. When Ahmed logs on, he is told that he has an email. The
browser software obtains the text from the server and displays the message. Ahmed
downloads the file. He either saves it for later or opens it.
(b) Two from:

Internet service providers can prevent files from being sent if they are too large.

The recipient must have suitable software in order to view the contents of the file.

File attachments frequently contain viruses so people are put off from opening
them.

4 See pages 201 and 202 in the Student Book for definitions of these terms.
5 Three from:

The ability to send and receive email so that you can ask for help from others.

The ability to perform searches, to quickly find relevant information.

The ability to display web pages containing information.

The ability to cut and paste text and pictures so they can be transferred to other
software such as word-processor software.

The ability to save useful web addresses as favourites so the websites can be quickly
found again.

6 (a) You can see exactly what you are looking at (e.g. a certain house on a certain road).
(b) For downloading when you are travelling so you know where to go in a strange town
or city.
7 Uploading the transferring of a file or program from the users computer to a remote
computer where the file or program is then stored.
Downloading the transferring of a file or program from the internet to the users own
computer or portable device.
8 (a) ISP internet service provider. This is the organisation that provides you with your
connection to the internet. When you log on to the internet, you are connecting to
your internet service provider who then connects you to the internet.
(b) Podcast digital media files that can be audio or video that are released in episodes
so that you can be fed them automatically when you connect to the service. This
method is called web syndication. They are useful sources of current affairs
information.

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(c) Wikis a web page that can be viewed and modified by anyone who has web
browser software. Using web browser software allows you to change the content of a
web page.
(d) Search engine software that finds information on websites on the internet based on
input criteria. You type in a key word or phrase and the search engine locates
websites containing those key words or phrases.
(e) Web browser this is the software that you use to search for information stored on
the internet. It also compiles the web pages so that they can be displayed as the webpage developer intended.

Chapter 27
Questions (page 213)
1
Inputs

Output

2 C
3 (a)
Inputs

Output

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(b)
Inputs

Output

(c)
Inputs

Output

(d)
Inputs

Output

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5 (a)
Inputs

Output

(b)
Inputs

Output

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(c)
Inputs

Output

(d)
Inputs

Output

(e)
Inputs

Output

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6 (a)
A

(b)
A

(c)

(d)

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7
A

8 C
9 (a)
A

(b) Input A has no effect.


10
A

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11 (a) See chapter


(b)
A

Output X

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Output X

12
A

13

14

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Questions (page 219)


1 (a)

(b)

2 (a)

(b)

(c)

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(d)

(e)

3 (a)
B

(b)

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4 M = Managers key
C = Chief cashiers key
D = Deputy managers key
1 present
0 not present

Examination Questions (Page 323)


1 Note the following logic network should have been included in the book:

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Chapter 28
Test Yourself (page 225)
A

word processor

electronic mail

high

DTP

spell checker

grammar

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Things to do (page 225)


1 (a) Computer, printer and word-processing software.
(b) In RAM but some packages periodically store the work on the hard disk
automatically at predetermined intervals.
(c) Work should be saved before printing because if the printer is not on-line the program
will lock up and you can only get back to the program by switching off and loading
again, thus losing your work.
(d) Most spell checkers would be able to pick this out. An alternative method would be to
load the document and then edit it.
2 See chapter
3 2. Load document
1. Edit document
4. Save document
3. Print document

Examination Questions (page 323)


1 (a) The following should be ticked: Pictures can be copied from a clip art gallery.
Graphic images can be input using a scanner.
(b) Text can be emphasised using bold/underline/italics etc. Frames or borders can be
used. Different fonts and font sizes can be used.
(c) A standard letter is created with variables where the clients names and addresses can
be inserted. A data file can be set up or the data can be obtained from a database. The
variables in the letter are made to correspond with the variables in the database/data
file.
2 (a) See answer to 1(c) above.
(b) Prepare the message. Type in the address of the person you wish to send the message
to. Send the message.
3 Examples of the numerous answers could include:

Spellchecker to make sure that there are no spelling mistakes.

Word count to automatically determine the number of words in a document.

Drawing tools so that simple diagrams can be added to the document.

The ability to import clip art and photographs into a document to provide
illustrations.

Mail merge so that personalised letters can be sent to lots of people automatically.

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4 (a) Two from: bullets and numbering; putting the text into more than one column;
changing the margins; changing the font; etc.
(b) Two from: words can be more easily changed; you can preview the page before
printing and this saves paper; you can put pictures/photographs into a document
before printing; etc.
(c) Two from: more people type their own correspondence; need to re-train to use word
processors; de-skills the job of typing; fewer typists are needed; etc.

Chapter 29
Things to do (page 243)
1 (a) B7
(b) =B3+B4+B5+B6 or =SUM(B3..B6) or similar commands
(c) (i) Pie; (ii) Bar
(d) Atlas on CD-ROM, World Development Database, etc.

Examination Questions (page 324)


1 (a) Two from:

It is simple to set up and use.

All the information can be fitted onto a single sheet.

It is easy to make alterations if patients have to cancel and rearrange


appointments.

(b) Appointment sheet should have the following features:

The times starting at 10.00 a.m. in steps of 20 minutes and with the required
lunch hour and finishing at 4.00 p.m.

There should be a place for the patients name and possibly their patient number
(in case there are two patients with the same name on the same day).

(c) Working out the cost of treatment for each patient to produce a bill.
Preparing the end-of-year accounts for the surgery.
2 (a) C8.
(b) E8 and G8
(c) C5/D5
(d) Any of the cells from G5 to G9 will contain a different formula.

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(e) Three from:

If costs change then the spreadsheet will re-calculate automatically.

They can perform what if investigations.

It is easy to edit the cell contents.

Graphs/charts can be produced so that comparisons can be made.

The spreadsheet can be saved and re-used.

3 (a) Cell C5 should be shaded.


(b) (i) SUM(I2:I6) or =I2+I3+I4+I5+I6 etc.
(ii) =B3+C3+D3+E3
(c) (i) H3
(ii) I3 and I7
4 (a) System B; (b) System D; (c) E7*C18; (d) A15:C22
(e) (i) Once the number is changed from a 4 to a 9, all those cells containing formulae
that refer to this cell will be automatically re-calculated using the new value.
Hence the spreadsheet would show the new values instantaneously.
(ii)

The new total scores are re-calculated. The new totals now suggest that System C
with the highest score should be chosen.

Chapter 30
Things to do (page 252)
1 (a) (i) Desk Top Publishing
(ii) See chapter
(b) (i) Laser or inkjet printer; scanner; graphics tablet
(ii) Scanner in order to scan in and digitize images in books, old photographs.
Graphics tablet in order to produce drawings by selecting graphic items from the
tablet.
Laser or ink-jet printer to produce hard copy (i.e. printouts) of the finished work.
2 To see a two-page spread on the screen the text needs to be quite small, so to avoid
eyestrain, a large screen should be used.
3 Importing a piece of clip art into the document
Centring the text
Use of italics
Text flow around the piece of clip art

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Examination Questions (page 326)


1 (a) Any four from the following: imported clip art; changed the fonts; altered the size of
the font; added borders/frames; centred text; etc.
(b) (i) It checks for spelling mistakes.
(ii) By comparing each word with its online dictionary. Also suggests alternative
words.
(c) (i) Spreadsheet/database/music etc.
(ii) Any reasonable answer connected with that produced for part (a).
2 The size of the font can be increased so that parts can stand out.
Borders can be added to make it look more attractive.
Clip art can be added to make the poster stand out.
Use the spellchecker to make sure that there are no spelling mistakes.
Use colour to make it more appealing.
etc.
3 Could take pictures using a digital camera, edit them if necessary using photo-editing
software and then import the image file into the DTP package. This is ideal for taking
photographs of the school, pupils, etc. and you do not have to worry about copyright if
you have taken the pictures.
Could scan pictures in from books, magazines, etc. and then import the picture image into
the DTP software. This method is ideal if the picture cannot be obtained from other
sources as it takes longer to set up. There may be copyright issues as you will need to
obtain permission from the copyright owner.
You can obtain picture from an online picture library. These are downloaded from the
internet. Usually there is a small charge but this covers the copyright.
You can obtain clip art from a clip art library. Usually DTP software comes with some
clip art which is copyright free. You simply click on the image and drag it into position on
the page.

Chapter 31
Questions (page 256)
Look at examples of the data to determine the widest fields. It is always best to err on the side
of caution and give the user plenty of room for fields such as name and address. Some fields

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though are always the same length and it is useful from the validation point of view to keep
these to fit the data exactly.

Questions (page 259)


Numbers are classed as characters and so they can be entered into a field specified as a
character field.

Questions (page 261)


They could send out a copy of the personnel record to each employee every three months so
that the employee could check its accuracy and make any necessary alterations.

Questions (page 264)


1 (a) The data will need to be kept continually up to date otherwise the people using the
database will not be able to rely on the information from it.
(b) Deleting old records; amendment of existing records; appending (i.e. adding) new
records.
2 You could record their age as 18 but their birthday might be tomorrow so then the age
would no longer be up to date. Instead, the date of birth is included and from this you can
get the computer to calculate the age on the basis of the current date stored by the
computers clock.
3 They might say that you had told them the wrong information when you took out the
policy and you might not therefore be insured.

Things to do (page 264)


1 (a) Word processor to send out reminders and a database to hold patient records.
(b) Database could provide lists of patients who need a check-up and these could be
imported into the word processor to produce a mail-merged letter.
(c) Advantages: cheaper; tried and tested by many users for bugs; documentation is often
better.
Disadvantage: You have to fit your system around the program so you dont always
get the ideal system.
(d) Nurses: Treatment is recorded.
Dentists: Able to run the practice more profitably.
Patients: Less time spent filling forms in.
Receptionists: For quickly producing mail-merge documents telling patients that they
are due for a check-up.

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(e) Total reliance on the system could cause problems if the system broke down.
2 (a) Price, number of bedrooms, council tax banding, room sizes, etc.
(b) Coded data takes up less space on disks when stored and takes less time to type in
initially and then when typing search conditions.
(c) Hard disk. This provides faster access so the people dont need to wait as long; Has a
very high capacity so will be able to store all the details along with the photographs.
(d) (i) Faster location of fields when searching.
(ii) More wasted space.
(e) Need a WAN with a larger computer connected via modems and telecommunication
lines to the branches. Each branch should have a PC which has a laser printer for
printouts for the customers.
3 (a) List Description, FOR Current_stock-level more than 100 and Lead_time less than 14
(b) A duplicate copy of the data should be made periodically under a different file name
and a tape streamer should be used to back up the entire hard disk every evening.
Backup copies should be stored away from the computer in a fireproof safe.
(c) Use tapes and a tape streamer to take archive copies which are stored in a fireproof
safe.
(d) (i) Supplier file
(ii) Supplier details such as name, address, credit limit, amount owed, etc.
(iii)
Field name

Field type

Size

Supp_name

character

40

Supp_add

character

60

Post_code

character

10

Tel_no.

character

13

(e) Each week the stock file is used with the supplier file to produce a list of orders to be
sent to each supplier for goods which have fallen below the minimum_stock level.
The reorder quantity is obtained from the stock file and the suppliers details are
obtained from the suppliers file.
4 List all for film_category = Adventure AND Rating = 18 AND Cost < 2.00
(a) Membership number, date of birth, phone number and members name.
(b) Any suitable form.

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5 (a) Form should include sensible details such as price, make, model, engine size, year,
etc.
The general layout of the form is important and the form should contain a suitable
amount of space for the seller to insert the information.
(b) Need a sensible sort and search command (could be in either order).
(N.B. there needs to be some way of ensuring that the vehicle is under 5 years old).
Could do this either from the year or, not as accurately, from the registration number.
(c) He would probably be able to keep the details in his head or in a card index file for
such a small number of cars.

Examination Questions (page 327)


1 (a) It avoids data duplication; makes alterations easier.
(b) Age can be calculated by the computer using the date of birth and todays date. If age
were entered it would need up-dating every time a person had a birthday.
(c) Form =7B
(d) Parent/Guardian Name

Chapter 32
Questions (page 271)
1

2 The cursor or turtle does not end up in the same place it started from and it also points in a
different direction.

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3 For a triangle like this, we could use the following program:


FORWARD 50
RIGHT 120
FORWARD 50
RIGHT 120
FORWARD 50

Things to do (page 272)


1 (a) This draws a 5 5 square.
(b) REPEAT 2 [FORWARD 4 RIGHT 90 FORWARD 6 RIGHT 90]
(N.B. Instructions in the brackets could be the other way round, i.e. FORWARD 6 etc.).
2 (a) INPUT Column_number
INPUT Row_number
FORWARD Row_number
TURN RIGHT
FORWARD Column_number
TAKE
(b) Reactors give off radiation which is very dangerous to humans.
3 (a) Traces a square of side 10 units.
(b) FORWARD 15
RIGHT 120
FORWARD 15
RIGHT 120
FORWARD 15
(c) REPEAT 6 TIMES
FORWARD 10
RIGHT 60
AGAIN

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4 FORWARD 100 LEFT 90


FORWARD 50 LEFT 90
FORWARD 100 RIGHT 90
FORWARD 50 RIGHT 90
FORWARD 100 RIGHT 90 (or could be LEFT 90)

Examination Questions (page 328)


1 There are many ways of doing this and this is only one method:
PEN DOWN
FORWARD 50
RIGHT 90
FORWARD 25
PEN UP
FORWARD 50
PEN DOWN
FORWARD 25
RIGHT 90
FORWARD 50
RIGHT 90
FORWARD 100
2 (a) One from: police, ambulance, fire brigade, driving instructor, etc.
(b) Any two such as:

Lives are not put in danger or risk.

It is cheaper because cars are not damaged.

Can control the conditions of the drive.

Can control the location of the drive.

(c) The following should be ticked: Cars take longer to stop on wet roads than on dry
roads; The faster a car is travelling, the greater the distance needed to stop; Cars
should stop at red traffic lights.
(d) Two such as:

Flight simulation used to train pilots to fly planes.

Used by economists to predict what will happen in certain situations (e.g. the
affect of interest rate increases).

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Chapter 33
Test Yourself (page 286)
He would need to sell 40 to break even.

Examination Questions (page 328)


1 (a) (i) Ambulance B
(ii) The following should be ticked: The time it will take for each ambulance to get to
the emergency; The distance each ambulance will have to travel to get to the
emergency.
(iii) Any two such as:

There are no road works or other obstructions along any of the routes that
they use.

The time of day (some roads may be more congested than others at certain
times of the day).

The number of traffic lights/junctions which will slow the ambulance down.

(b) (i) =b3*c3


(ii) @sum(d2:d4) or a similar formula.
(iii) Cell B2 contains a number
Cell C6 contains text
The value of a formula may be recalculated when the value of a number in a cell
is changed.
(iv) You could try to lower the unit cost by using a different supplier.
You could lower the quantity of the items and see how this affected the total
value.
Each of the numbers could be altered to see how the total changed.
(c) The systems analyst find out that the problems are by talking to the users. The
systems analyst looks at all the possible ways of integrating these information
systems and works out the costs of each option. The systems analyst reports the
findings of the feasibility study to the management.
2 (a) A mathematical representation of a real situation used to investigate the situation and
make predictions.
(b) Ability to perform What If calculations: ability to re-calculate automatically when
some of the values in the cells are altered; ability to produce graphs and charts.

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(c) (i) Branch 1 had much fewer sales (about 1/3) than branch 2 yet still managed to
produce a similar profit.
The predicted figures for branch 1 were lower than the actual figures whereas
with branch 2 it was the reverse situation.
(ii) Could have another column to work out the actual sales as a percentage of
predicted sales.
Could also work out the percentage profits for each branch.

Chapter 34
Things to do (page 294)
1 (a) Computer-Aided Design
(b) Alterations to drawings may be easily made and printed without redrawing. Drawings
may be stored on disk thus taking up less office space. You can transfer a plan to a
3D view.
2 (a) Addition of video clips and high-quality sound. It also utilises the higher storage
capacity of CD-ROMs.
3 (a) Drawings which have been drawn by an artist and are available for you to place in
your own documents or material.
(b) You might not be much good at art yourself or you dont have the time.
(c) Need to search for a suitable design. There might not be a suitable design. Need to be
careful about copyright.

Examination Questions (page 330)


1 (a) To enable lines to be drawn by the user using the mouse in any shape they want.
(b) So that pre-drawn shapes can be accurately produced leaving the user to simply size
them and position them. Examples include circles, rectangles, ellipses, etc.
(c) So that labels or titles can be added to the drawing.
(d) A previously drawn shape can be copied to another part of the diagram.
(e) It allows the user to choose and create new drawing colours.
2 (a) Two from: designing new products; producing architectural plans; designing a room
layout; designing a new garden; etc.
(b) Three from: being able to rotate the diagram; produce a 3D view from a plan view
and vice versa; apply shading to 3D objects; zooming that allows more details to be
seen; etc.

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3 (a) Four from: spray; flood fill; geometric shapes; rubber; zoom; text; arrows; drawing
tool; etc.
(b) Automatic dimensioning; 3D conversion; automatic shading; movement; walk
through; database of parts/drawing objects; etc.

Answers to Examination Questions


Full course Higher tier questions (page 330)
1 (a) Three from: shared access to centrally held data; ability to share expensive
peripherals; ability to send email between users; easier to update programs on the file
sharer rather than the individual computers.
(b) (i) Spreadsheet.
(ii) Two from: cost control, stock control, budgeting, payroll, etc.
(c) (i) Software consisting of a huge knowledge base about a particular subject and also
rules which need to be obeyed. This knowledge is used to solve problems by the
computer asking the user a series of questions.
(ii) System can be used to ask the questions about symptoms so less time is spent
waiting; The doctor can spend more time with the more complicated cases
leaving the simple cases for the computer to solve; The doctor cannot forget to
ask an important question; The doctor is more likely to make a correct diagnosis
resulting in the patient getting better more quickly.
(iii) Two from: many patients need the reassurance of a real doctor; expensive to
create such an expert system; bugs in the system could prove lethal.
(d) Patients medical history file.
Medicine stock file/drug information
2 (a) A standard letter is created with variables where the clients names and addresses can
be inserted. A data file can be set up or the data can be obtained from a database. The
variables in the letter are made to correspond with the variables in the database/data
file.
(b) Prepare the message. Type in the email address of the person you wish to send the
message to. Send the message.
(c) You do not always know where the goods are coming from. Harder to ask specific
questions about the goods. You usually have to give your credit card details which
could be intercepted and used fraudulently. Easier to fob you off if the goods do not
arrive on time.

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3 (a) A microprocessor is a single chip that contains the CPU and provides input and
output facilities.
(b) An analogue to digital converter.
(c) The situation is continually monitored by the use of sensors and signals are fed back
to the CPU where the CPU decides if action needs to be taken.
(d) Two from:

It may be used to provide real time control.

It can determine whether a particular action has taken place.

It monitors the current situation using sensors.

It provides a consistent output.

(e) One from: weather forecasting; telephone systems; navigation systems; defence
systems; etc.
4 (a) (i) Communication software.
(ii) It makes sure that the computers are using the same protocol so that they are able
to communicate with each other.
(b) Operating system; to control the hardware and also to run the applications software.
CAD software; software to design the bedrooms.
Database software: to keep the details, including prices, of all the components used to
make the fitted bedrooms.
(c) (i) Punched card reader/OMR.
(ii) Two from: cheaper than performing the payroll manually; fewer errors; takes less
time.
(iii) Two from: cost of training/extra equipment and software needed; resentment
from the staff whose jobs could be replaced.
5 The correct order of the boxes is as follows:
Input using keyboard
List of invalid entries
Payments transaction file
Masterfile
Sorted payments transaction file
Update program
6 (a) Software used to control the hardware and also to run the applications software.
(b) Three from: provides a user interface; controls the operation of the disk drives and
also how the data are stored on the drive; contains programs for formatting the disk,
copying files, etc.; it enables the computer to control more than one program.

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(c) (i) More than one user is able to communicate with the software at the same time.
(ii) Able to run more than one program at the same time.
(iii) As soon as a transaction or event takes place, it is processed immediately and the
results of the processing are shown.
(iv) The data are gathered, batched and then processed in one go. The output is
produced in one go.
7 (a) Digital camera/scanner.
(b) (i) Two from: faster transfer of data; takes up less space on the hard drive; quicker to
load; etc.
(ii) Need software to decompress the file.
(c) Three from: quicker to copy files on disk; easier to make alterations without any
trace; can transmit the files easily over the internet; hackers can hack into the system
if it is connected to the internet.

Full course Foundation tier questions (page 332)


1 Computers could be more readily stolen from houses. Pupils could load games onto the
machines so there could be copyright violations. Games loaded could also introduce
viruses.
2 (a) Three from: description, price, quantity in stock, supplier name, etc.
(b) Two from:

Goods do not need to be individually priced and the price can be put on the shelf
edge.

Barcodes are scanned and this reduces the number of mistakes.

It is much faster than the checkout person inputting codes using a keyboard.

(c) The screen for the new customers will need to contain places to input the information
about the customer such as name, address, telephone number, etc. With existing
customers this is known already and can simply be obtained from the customer file.
New customers may need to have their credit and other details validated so their
details may need to go to the accounts department for validation.
(d) Any sensible screen design with the more important fields in a prominent position.
Each new customer should have a unique field such as customer number.

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(e) (i) Postal code


(ii) Using the DBMS, a query could be constructed to add up the totals of the orders
made and the amounts of those orders last year. The same could be done for the
orders for this year. These data could then be exported to a spreadsheet so that
graphs could be drawn so that comparisons can be made between the two years.
3 (a) Three from:

120 to see if the range check disallows numbers greater than 100.

1 to see if the range check disallows numbers less than zero.

34 to make sure that the range check allows a valid number.

100 to test upper end of range.

0 to test lower end of range.

(b) Three from: installation instructions; how to make backup copies of the software;
how to correct common errors; how to contact the help-line; how to customise the
system.
4 (a) User training to make sure everyone who is to use the system understands it
thoroughly.
Conversion of the data onto the new system.
(b) Two from: installation instructions; how to make backup copies of the software; how
to correct common errors; how to contact the help-line; how to customise the system.
(c) Two people could enter the same data and only if they agree, will it be accepted for
processing.
Get the person inputting the data to check (i.e. proofread) what they have typed
against the paper order.
(d) Quicker to type in a code, so this saves time.
Codes are used to uniquely define a product.
(e) Regular backup copies are taken.
Copies are dumped to a tape streamer and then removed off site.
5 Finding out what outputs from the system are needed
The method of data capture used for the input (OMR, bar coding, magnetic stripes etc.);
The design of any codes used
The design of the files used by the system
The hardware configuration used
The purchase/writing of any software used
Testing the system.

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6 (a) Two from: controlling data input and output; controlling the disk drives and how and
where the data are stored on the disk; providing an interface between the user and the
hardware; etc.
(b) Windows 98, OS/2, Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 7 Unix etc.
(c) The ability of a computer to be able to perform more than one task at the same time.
(d) Any sensible network topology can be drawn.
(e) Two from: ability to share expensive peripherals; ability for all authorised users to
access the same data files; ability to use email between terminals; etc.
(f) Three from: use of passwords to allow only certain users access to certain data files;
no disk drives so that viruses cannot be introduced via floppy disks; central backing
up of data so that ordinary users do not have to remember to do this; scanning of all
portable media when attached to the computer, to check for viruses.
7 Data should be obtained and processed fairly and lawfully.
Personal data should be accurate and up to date.
Appropriate security measures should be taken to protect the personal data.
People should be allowed to see the personal data held about them so that they may check
it for its accuracy.
etc.
8 (a) Columns; fonts and sizes (or vice versa); clip art.
(b) A laser printer prints good quality text and graphics.
(c) Scanner to scan photographs and then import them into documents.
(d) (i) The following should be ticked: Formats a floppy disk; Displays a screen saver
when the computer is not being used.
(ii) The following should be ticked: Formats a floppy disk; Displays a screen saver
when the computer is not being used.
(e) (i) index, hardware
(ii) The following should be ticked: The language used should be easy to understand;
There should be no missing instructions; It should be easy to find the information
you want.
(f) The following should be ticked: The tennis club has 12 members; None of the Tennis
Clubs members can use information technology; The hardware and software needed
cost more than 2,500.
9 (a) The following should be ticked: The number printed under the barcode is also stored
in the barcode; Every member has a different number on their membership card;
Barcodes can be read into the computer without the need for data preparation.

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(b) The following should be ticked: It is faster to use a barcode reader than to type the
number into the computer; The librarian types the number into the computer if the
barcode reader is not working; The librarian could make a mistake typing in the
number.
(c) The following should be ticked: When a barcode is read, the check digit is worked
out. If it is correct then the computer assumes that the barcode has been read
accurately; Every barcode has a different check digit; When you work out the check
digit on a barcode, you should always get the same answer.
(d) (i) One records the book being borrowed and the other records the member
borrowing the book. In other words the two are linked together.
(ii) The computer will already know who the member is since the book and member
numbers are stored together.
(e) The following should be ticked: online, multitasking, multi-access

Short course Higher tier Questions (page 335)


1 (a) (i) Modem or ISDN adapter.
(ii) One from: communications software; software from an internet service provider
(ISP); web browser.
(iii) One from: huge global market; cheaper because no paper catalogues are
produced; data capture is done by the customer so fewer staff are needed;
company can have its premises anywhere in the world; etc.
(iv) Two from: computer crime (false sites or criminals obtaining their credit card
details); expensive computer equipment is needed; incur telephone charges when
browsing; there is a risk of downloading a virus; etc.
(b) One from: chat; electronic mail; bulletin board services; news; sport; online shopping;
etc.
(c) By displaying wanted posters of criminals. By asking for the publics help to solve
certain crimes. To enable people to give information direct to the police using email.
To show photographs of missing persons, etc.
(d) (i) Two from: Radio; TV; mobile phones; Teletext; etc.
(ii) One from: hacking; people can intercept the signal; not all parts of the country
can receive the signal; signal can be interrupted by electrical storms; etc.

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2 (a) Water and electricity are a lethal combination so the computer must be away from
any taps/sinks.
Food and drink must not be brought into the lab.
(b) Two from: temperature; pH; moisture; pressure; etc.
3 Illegal copying of programs; access to pornographic material on the internet; transfer of
personal data; etc.
4 Advantages: Accurate stock ordering means the stores are less likely to run out of
essential items. Prices might be cheaper as some of the savings produced by the system
are passed onto the customer. Using barcodes means that there are fewer queues at the
tills.
Disadvantages: Shelf labels sometimes disagree with the price charged at the till. Older
people may not understand the system.
5 The software is used to produce a plan outline of the room. Standard parts can then be
added, e.g. windows, radiators, etc. You can also add pre-drawn shapes such as desks,
tables, workstations, etc. You can move things around. You can view the room in 3D from
different angles. You can save and print your design.

Short course Foundation tier questions (page 336)


1 (a) Three from: programmers; systems analysts; computer engineers; IT teachers;
computer operators; etc.
(b) Three from: increased leisure time; ability to work from home; dangerous jobs can be
performed by robots; jobs are less tedious etc.
(c) Two from: easy to hack into computer-held information; there is no visible record if
alterations are made; disks may be copied in a very short time; easy to transfer files
over the internet; much easier cross-referencing of data.
2 (a) There is no human error so more accurate readings are taken. Computers can work
continuously 24 hours a day 365 days per year. No wages to pay so it is much
cheaper.
(b) Any sensible experiment, e.g. finding which paper/plastic cups are best at keeping a
hot drink hot.
(c) IT can be used to word process the report, a table of results can be imported into the
word processor and graphs can be drawn using spreadsheet software and this can also
be imported into the spreadsheet.
(d) Laser/inkjet

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