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Complex

Analysis

ISBN

978-7-115-17840-4

ISBN 978-7-115-17840-4/O1

Complex Analysis,

first

edition

(ISBN 9780521809375) by Kunihiko

Kodaira,

published by Cambridge

University

Press 2007. All

rights

reserved.

This reprint edition for the

People's

Republic of China is published by arrangement

with the Press Syndicate of the University

of Cambridge, Cambridge, United

Kingdom.

\302\251 Cambridge

University

Press and POSTS & TELECOMPRESS2008.

first

This

Macao SAR

edition

is for sale in the

mainland

and Taiwan,

and may not be bought

of China only,

excluding

for export therefrom.

Hong

Kong SAR,

Preface

This book aims to give a clear explanation

of classical

theory of analytic

functions; that

is,

the

theory

variable. In modern treatments

of holomorphic functions of one complex

of function

theory

it is customary to call a

function

holomorphic

if its derivative exists. However, we return

definition, calling a function

holomorphic

if its derivative

to the old

exists and is

continuous, sincewe believe this is a more natural approach.

The first

difficulty

one encounters

in writing

an introduction

to function

theory is the topology involved

in Cauchy's

formula. In the first

chapter

of

topologically

simple case, and from

the

that

Theorem and Cauchy's integral book we prove the

latter

in

a

result

we deduce the basic

propertiesof holomorphic

version of Cauchy's

functions.

In

Theorem and

the necessarytopological

considerations

the second chapter we prove

the general

integral

formula.

I have tried to replace

with

elementary

geometric

considerations.

original

Chapter

many-valued

This way turned out to be longer than Japanese three-volume edition I had to

5 was completed.My original

analytic

and

functions,

to introduce

intention

I expected,

so that in the

2 before

end Volume

was to present classical

in particular the Riemann surface of an

the general concept of a Riemann

algebraic function,

surface

as its generalization.

Now, with

the

appearance

Japanese edition in a single volume,

the

link

Riemann

surfaces

and function

theory is restored.

between

of the complete the theory of

Similarly, for the theory

of Riemann surfaces, with

the topology of curved surfaces is known,

the

plan

the assumption

that

was to introduce the

content of Weyl's

book:

The Concept of Riemann Surfaces. Part II:

Functions

on

Riemann

Surfaces,

but

that

would

have

been counter

to the

approach

with elementary

tried

to illuminate

original policy of replacing the topological

geometrical considerations.

Thus, in Chapter 7, I have

topological characteristics of compact Riemann

mann's

mapping theorem. Consequently,

Chapter

surfaces

by

7 became

using

Rie-

longer than

was

planned,

so Chapter

8 is limited to covering the

Riemann-Roch

theorem and Abel's theorem, which are the most basictheorems regarding

analytic

functions

on compact Riemann surfaces.

Contents

1

Holomorphic

functions

1.1

Holomorphic

a.

The complex

functions

plane

b. Functions of a complex variable

c. Holomorphic

functions

1.2 Power

series

a. Series whose terms

b.

Power series

are functions

1.3 Integrals

a. Curves

b. Integrals

c. Cauchy's

integral

formula for circles

d. Power

series

expansions

1.4 Properties of holomorphic

functions

a. wth-order derivatives

b.

c.

Limits

of sequences

The Mean Value

d. Isolated

singularities

e.

Entire functions

of holomorphic functions

Theorem

and the maximum principle

2

Cauchy's

Theorem

2.1 Piecewisesmooth curves

a. Smooth Jordan curves

b. Boundaries

of bounded

closed regions

1

1

1

5

9

15

15

16

24

25

30

35

43

47

47

49

51

52

58

60

60

60

65

2.2 Cellular

Contents

decomposition

a. Calls

b. Cellular decomposition

2.3 Cauchy's Theorem

a. Cauchy's

Theorem

b. Cauchy's integral formula

c. Residues

d. Evaluation

of definite integrals

2.4 Differentiability

and homology

3 Conformal mappings

3.1 Conformal

mappings

3.2 The Riemann sphere

3.3

a. The

Riemann

sphere

b. Holomorphic functions

c. Local

coordinates

with

d. Homogeneous coordinates

Linear fractional transformations

a. Linear

fractional

b.

Cross ratio

transformations

an isolated singularity at oo

c. Elementary conformal mappings

4

Analytic

continuation

4.1 Analytic continuation

a. Analytic continuation

b.

Analytic

continuation

by expansion in power series

4.2 Analytic

continuation

along curves

4.3 Analytic

continuation

4.4

Cauchy's Theorem

by integrals

(continued)

5 Riemann's Mapping Theorem

5.1 Riemann's

Mapping

5.2 Correspondence

Theorem

of boundaries

74

74

80

101

101

104

106

109

113

117

117

132

132

135

137

138

139

139

142

148

153

153

153

157

160

180

190

200

200

214

a.

b.

Contents

The

principle

of reflection

Modular functions

c. Picard's Theorem

d. The

Schwarz-ChristofTel

formula

6 Riemann surfaces

6.1 Differential

forms

a. Differential forms

b. Line

integrals

c. Harmonic forms

d. Harmonic

functions

6.2 Riemann surfaces

a. Hausdorff

spaces

224

233

241

241

247

247

247

249

257

258

260

260

b.

Definition of Riemann surfaces

263

6.3 Differential

forms on a Riemann surface

268

a. Differential

forms

b. Line integrals

c.

d.

e. Green's Theorem

Locally

Partition

finite

open coverings

of unity

6.4 Dirichlet's

Principle

a. Inner product and norm

b. Dirichlet's

Principle

c.

Analytic functions

7 The structure of Riemann surfaces

7.1 Planar

Riemann

surfaces

a. Planar Riemann surfaces

b. Simply

c. Multiply

connected

connected

Riemann

regions

surfaces

7.2 Compact Riemann

surfaces

a. Cohomology groups

b. of compact Riemann surfaces

Structure

c. Homology

groups

268

272

275

278

284

294

294

299

314

319

319

319

329

333

340

340

344

360

4

Contents

8

Analytic

functions

on a closed Riemann surface

376

8.1

Abelian

differentials

of the

first

kind

376

a. Harmonic 1-formsof the first kind

376

8.2

b.

Abelian differential

of the first kind

Abelian

differentials

of the second and third

kind

a. Meromorphic

functions

b.

Abelian

differentials

of the second and third

kind

8.3 The Riemann-Roch Theorem

a.

ExistenceTheorem

b. The Riemann-Roch Theorem

8.4 Abel's

Theorem

a. Existence Theorem

b.

Problems

Index

Abel's

Theorem

379

379

379

380

381

3 81

382

389

389

391

394

1

Holomorphic functions

1.1

Holomorphic

functions

a.

An

The complex plane

expression

z =

x + iy,

where

x and y are real numbers and

i = y/\342\200\224

1, is called

a complex number. The sum, difference,

and

product

of

two complex numbers z = x +

iy

and

w = u + iv are defined by

z + w = (x + u) + i{y + v),

=

z \342\200\224w

(x - u) + i(y -

v)9

zw

= (xii \342\200\224

yv)

+1 (xi; + jra)

These expressions are obtained by first evaluating

polynomials in the \"variable\"

i and

then replacing

z + w,

i2 by

z \342\200\224

w,

and

zw as

\342\200\224

1.

Therefore,

addition,

subtraction,

and multiplication as defined

above

satisfy

the

associative, commutative, and distributive laws. the real number line is represented by R. The plane R2 is the

product R x R, that

As

usual,

is, the collection of all pairs (x,y) of real numbers.

If

one identifies the point (x,y) of the plane

R2 with

the

complex

number

z = x + iy,

then

R2 is

called the complex plane. The complexplane is

represented

by

C.

The absolute

value \\z\\ of the

complex

number

z = x + iy

is defined

by

For

two complex numbers z = x + iy and w = u

+ iv

\\z-w\\

= J{x-u)2

+ (y-v)2

is the distancebetweenthe points z and w in the plane C. In particular, | z | is

the

distance

If one

between

represents

the point z and the origin 0.

the complex

number

z = x + iy by the vector

Oz from 0

to z, then (x, y) are the coordinates

of z and | z | = ^/(x2

+ y2) is the length of

Oz. Therefore, if zx and z2 sum, then the vector Ow is

are complex

numbers, and w = zx + z2 is their

equal

to the sum of 0zt and 0z2 (Fig.

1.1):

2 Holomorphicfunctions

Fig.

l.l

id=zx+z2

For any complex number z = x + iy, one

calls

the

x \342\200\224iy

The conjugate of z is representedby z:

z =

x \342\200\224

iy.

imaginary

axis

0

.

Fig. 1.2

Furthermore,

x is calledthe

\342\200\242z =

x+iy

real

\342\200\242 \342\200\224 x\342\200\224iy

z

raz/

parr

of

axis

z = x + iy,

and

conjugate

>> is called

of z.

the

imaginary part. The real part of z is representedby Re z, the imaginary part

by Im z:

Re z = x = z-fz

2

'

Imz

'

\342\200\224

=

y

iXf--)

2

The

line R x {0} in the complex plane is calledthe real axis and the line {0}

x R is called

the imaginary axis. The conjugate z of z and z are represented

by points in the complex plane, that

axis. Obviously

are symmetric

with regard to the real

I =

z,

z + w=z-l-vv,

z \342\200\242 z \342\200\242

w

=

w.

z \342\200\224

w=z

\342\200\224

w,

1.1

Holomorphicfunctions

3

Moreover

\\Z\\2 = \\z\\2 = X2 + y2 = Z'Z.

Hence

\\zw\\2

= zwzw

and therefore

=

zwzw

= zzww = |z|2|w|2,

\\zw\\

If z ^ 0, then

= \\z\\\\w\\.

\\z\\

>

0 and z \342\200\242

z/|z|2

1/z = z/|z|2. Therefore, the collection

called

the field of complex numbers.

For z^Owe have

(w/z)z

= (w/z)z

=

1. So if z ^ 0, then

(1.1)

z has an inverse

of all complex numbers C is a field,

=

vv,

therefore

(w/z)

= w/z.

Since similar rules hold for addition,subtraction,

and

multiplication,

as

we saw above, it is now clear that if a complex number w is arrived

at by a

finite number of additions,subtractions,

multiplications,

and divisions

applied

to

a finite

number

of complex

numbers

zl9 z2,

applying the same operations in the same orderto z t,

at w. Therefore, the correspondence from

isomorphism.

C

into

C given

., zw,

then

,

zn one

arrives

by z -\342\231\246

z

is

by

an

For two arbitrary complex numbers,

|z + w|^|z| + |w|.

we

have

the following inequality

(1.2)

Proof:

Using

Re z ^

|z|

|z + w|2

=

(z + w)(z

we have

+ w) = zz + zw + wz + ww

= |z|2 + 2Re(zw) + M2 ^ |z|2+ 2|zw| + |w|2

H*l2

+

2|z||w| + |w|2 = (|z|+ |w|)2.

From

the inequality

(1.2) the triangle inequality

|z1-z3|

^ |z1-z2H-|z2-z3|,

where zl9z2, z3 are arbitrary

g

points of the complex plane, follows

|z| \342\200\224|w| <

|z \342\200\224w|.

From

|z \342\200\224

w|

+

|w|, we conclude

\\z\\

In the same way it is proved that

|w|

\342\200\224

\\z\\

^

|w \342\200\224z|. Hence

IM-MI^|z-w|.

Repeated application of (1.1) and

(1.2)

yields

1*1*2*3

=

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242**!

1*1

I

1*2 I

1*3 I \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

l*J,

|*1+z2+

\342\226\240\342\200\242\342\200\242

+zj^|*il

+

|z2|+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

+|z\342\200\236|.

at once.

(1.3)

4

Holomorphic

Therefore

junctions

\\ao + axz + a2z2+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

+

0nzn|

^

|fl0l + l*il W + I^l

M2

Since the complex plane C

can be identified

definitions and theorems pertaining to

one says that

subsets

of

C.

For

example,

subsets

the

with

the

real

plane R2,

of U2 also apply to

sequence

{zn} of complex

numbers converges to w, if the sequence

point w, that

is, if

{zn} of points converges to the

lim

n-* oo

|zn \342\200\224

vv|

= 0.

Theorem

if and

1.1 (Cauchy's criterion). The complex sequence {zn}converges

only

if for every real number e

> 0, there

exists

a natural

number

n0(e) such that

\342\200\224

zm\\<E

\\z\342\200\236

if

n > n0(e) and m > n0(e).

We have \\\\z\342\200\236\\

-

|w|| ^ \\zn - w| by (1.3), therefore from

lim,,-^

zn = w we

can conclude lim,,.^ |zn| = |w|. Hence converges, then the sequence {\\zn\\} converges

if

the

complex

sequence

too and we have

{zn}

The

converge

lim

n-*

oo

|zj

= |lim

n-* oo

zj.

infinite

series

if the

complex

\302\243 *_

x

zn =

zx + z2 + \342\226\240\342\200\242\342\200\242

+

zn

sequence

{ww}

of

partial

sums

+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242

is said

to

=

w\342\200\236 zi+z2+

\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242**

converges.

The complex

series and we write

number

w=

00

\302\243 z- = zi+z2+

w = lim,.^

wn

is called

\342\226\240\342\200\242\342\226\240

+z\342\200\236+

the sum of the

If the

sequence

does

{w\342\200\236}

divergent.

Putting an

= \\zi \\ + \\z2| +

not converge,

then the series \302\243^\302\260=t zn

\342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240

+

|z\342\200\236|,

we

have

for m < n

is called

K-wJ

=

Applying

Cauchy's

Zr= i

\\z* I converges.

* = m+l

^

\302\243 lZkl

k-m+1

= *\342\200\236-*\302\273

criterion

we conclude that

In this

case, \302\243^1x

zn is called

\302\243 *=

i zn converges

if

absolutely

convergent.

1.1 Holomorphic functions 5

If Zr=

I

ls

i z\302\273

00

I*.

11=1

absolutely

I

I

lim wm

m-*oo

convergent,

I

=

lim

then

|wj^

lim

X!

Iznl

=

\302\243 k.1-

Since

absolutely

J]\"5Bl |zj

convergent

either

converges or diverges to

+ oo, Y*7=iz\302\273

if and only if \302\243^\302\260=x |zj

< + oo. If w = \302\243^\302\260=x Z||

co = ]T^L x \302\243, are both absolutely

convergent,

then

and

*s

-r-Z2C2-f23Ci-i-22C2-i-2iC3+ \342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242\342\200\242 (1.4)

Proof:

Putting

=

*\342\200\236

|*J ICll + l*.-ll IC2I + K-2I

we

have

In\302\260\302\260=1aw = Xn\302\260\302\260-i

lzJ

hand side of (1.4) is absolutely

ICJ.

In\302\260\302\260-i

convergent

IC3|+

' ' ' +l*ll ICJ

so that the series of the right-

and

I

n=l

zn

t

n= 1

\302\243 I

n=l

t-

|z.|

I

n=n=l 1

m

I

n=l

feCi+^-iC2+ \342\226\240\342\226\240\342\226\240+riC.;

ICJ- I

ff\342\200\236-o.

n=l

-=\302\253

m-*

00.

fe. Functions of a complex variable

Let D be a subset of C, i.e., D is a point-set in the complex

plane.

function / defined

in D assigns

number.

D is called the domain

to each element of D exactly

off

For

\302\243eD the

complex

one complex

number

assigned to C by / is called the value

of / at C- We write

A

<o

a>=/(0.

If S is a subset

of

where

\302\243eS,is written

D, then

as/(S)

the collection of

all complex numbers /(C),

/(S)-{/(0:CeS}.

The set f(D) of all

Writing

f(z)

instead

values

of /

co = /(C) is called the range of /

one calls z a variable

and

/(z)

a function

complex variable. Just as for functions of a real variable,

z denotes

of a

an

arbitrary element C of D, or, in

other words, a symbol

for

which

C has to be

substituted. According to generalcustom, we

denote points of D. Putting

w = /(z),

will

use the same letter z to

of z.

we call w a function

An

open

subset

the union of two

U of the complex plane is said to be connected open subsets that have no points in common.

nonempty,

if U is not

U is connected if and only be connected by an arc lying

An

open

subset

in

U.

if each

pair of points z, w of U can

6 Holomorphic

A

connected

functions

open subset of C is called a region

(or

a domain);

the closure

of a region is calleda closed region (or a c/osed domain).

In this book we will mainly

closed regions,

but

we

properties of functions,

start

defined

consider

functions defined on regions or on

by discussing

on arbitrary

limits, continuity, and other sets DcC.

Definition

1.1.

Let D be a point set in C, c an accumulation

point

of D, and

y a complex

f(z)

number.

We say that

f(z) converges to y or that y is the limit of

existsa real 5(e) > 0 satisfying

as z tends to c, if for every

real e > 0 there

|/(z)-y|

<e

ifO< |z-c| <6(e).

(1.5)

This

is written

as

lim/(z)

Z-+C

= y

or

/(z)

-\342\226\272 as z -\342\226\272

y

c.

Since/(z)

is not defined if z$D, we have

to assume

that zeD in (1.5). The

assumption that c is an accumulation point of D is necessary

possibility that there are no points

z satisfying

The proof of the following

z eD

and

0

to exclude

< |z \342\200\224

c\\

<

the

5{e).

result is similar to the proof of the ,

corresponding

result for real functions.

The function

f(z)

complex sequences

converges

to

y

as

z tends

to

{zn},znsD and zn^ c, converging

sequence {f(zn)} converges to y.

c if and only

if for

all

to

c the complex

Combining

this theorem

with Cauchy's criterion for complex

sequences,

we arrive at Cauchy's criterion for functions.

Theorem

1.2

{Cauchy's

criterion).

Let/(z)

be a function

of

the

complex

variable z defined onflcC and let c bean accumulation

f(z) converges to somevalue

there existsa

if z tends

to c if and only

real 6(e) > 0 such that if 0 < |z-c|< 6(e)

|/(z)-/(w)|<\302\243

Let f(z) be a complex function

defined

point

if for every

and 0<|w-c|<

of D. Then

real e>0

6(e).

c

on D c C, and assumethat

belongs

to D. If

lim/(z)=/(c),

(1.6)

1.1 Holomorphic

functions

1

only

It follows

at once from the definition that/(z) is continuousat c if and

if for every real e > 0 there existsa real

S(e)

> 0 suc<