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The conventional, present-day understanding of what we mean by species is given in

lines 7, 8 & 9.
What is that definition?

A group of living organisms that can interbreed and by this,

produce a fertile offspring.
As a definition it is quickly destroyed by the reference to Blue Whales and Fin
Whales (lines 9-17).
How do these two species contest the conventional definition?

A blue whale can breed in the wild with a fin whale and produce
fertile off spring, which can later breed with either of their parental
species and continue the cycle.
In the 3rd paragraph (lines 18-37), the two concepts of what a species is, are
What was the species concept prior to the 1930s?

The concept of species as different breeding groups was brought up

during the 1930s. Before this time, biologists simply considered
species to be different kinds of living things and in the other hand,
Charles Darwin didnt see species as real entities, instead he
thought thy were artificial collections of individuals created just for a
purpose of convenience.

Although not named in the text, who do you think was the greatest
advocate of this concept?

The main problem was that biologists considered species to be

different kinds of living things and therefore couldnt define what
they meant by the word different so they were mostly confused.
Q.4 What was/is the species concept introduced by Dobzhansky and Mayr in the

Concept of species as different breeding groups, species can only

mate within their same group/with each other.
Darwin was not particularly concerned by the concept of a species. Why
not? (Lines 29-38)

Darwin believed that species were just an artificial collection of

individuals made for convenience without a real purpose of
collaborating or helping evolution.
Q.6 Given the probable several million of mostly tiny organisms not yet described
on this planet, what problems face a natural historian who thinks s/he has found, and
wants to name a new species? (Lines 53-63)

This individual has to firstly demonstrate if this specie can belong to

a cycle and breed fertile offspring between one another or with
another species and compare its effectiveness and positive impact.


What do you understand by the term sub-species? (Line 70)

A group of plants or animals from the same type but that come in
smaller groups than specie are called sub species. They are
subdivisions (race or variety) of species.
Q.8 Organisms may differ or be similar in their morphology, anatomy and DNA
(line 74), and their ..?
The variation in beaks of the 13 (sub?) species of Darwins finches on Galpagos are
cited as a good example of natural selection working to make groups of birds distinct
one from another, rather than reproductive isolation (lines 83-98).

Humans and chimpanzees differ from one another in their

morphology, anatomy and DNA- they are good taxonomic species,
which also form distinct breeding groups who share characteristics.

Explain the argument being used.

There are many types of species, each with a different beak adapted
for feeding on one type of seed in the Galapagos Islands, and these
frequently interbreed in the wild to produce healthy hybrids. These
groups remain distinct from one another but hybrids with
intermediate beak shapes have problems with feeding on the seeds.
This is known as natural selection, which is what keeps these
species distinct.
Q.10 (i)

Why do hybridising species challenge the conventional BSC? (Lines

The notion of species (BSC) sought to place all living things into
ambiguous, discrete reproductive units. A hybrid is an offspring of
two animals, which come from different breeds or known as
genetically different individuals. Other certain species can only
breed with each other and nothing else just like us humans.

And why is the US Endangered Species Act (1973) a problem for

taxonomists? (Lines 119-120)
Red wolves and coyotes are known to have hybridised (lines 126-129).

The US endangered species act is a problem for taxonomists

because it affects and has a large impact on a species reproductive

Can you name another two species who can successfully hybridise?

A Liger, cross between male lion and female tiger.

Zonkey, cross between zebra dam and donkey sire
Darwinian evolution theory focuses very much upon species and clusters of related
individuals (lines 156-157).
Q.11 What therefore is the evolving unit in Darwinian evolution theory?

Natural selection A process in nature in which organisms possessing

certain genotypic characteristics that make them better adjusted to an
environment tend to survive, reproduce, increase in number or frequency, and
therefore, are able to transmit and perpetuate their essential genotypic
qualities to succeeding generations. It basically is when a specie starts to
selectively reproduce and have changes in genotype or genetic constitution. It
increases their chances of survival and procreation.
Q.12 Selection forces act upon the small cluster of related individuals but
specifically, and in genetic terms, what is it that is being selected for or against?

Given this discussion, what would now be your best definition of a species?

Biologists believe that species are different groups of individuals

which can breed only with one another and by this create fertile
offspring which continue this cycle, but this isnt the only right
answer. The definition for species isnt just an academic problem
because it affects how we manage and conserve endangered plants
and animals but we should really be more concerned with
conserving the our actual diversity at a genetic, morphological
(appearance), behavioral or ecological level instead of fitting it
around idealized theories. Today, molecular biology can help us
decide how to distinguish living things and give us a greater
appreciation of the diversity of life. Different species frequently
interbreed in the wild to produce healthy hybrids and each of these
are adapted differently to feed so its natural selection rather than
reproductive isolation that keeps species distinct.
Q.14 What is the fundamental event in the DNA of an organism that ultimately can
enable evolution of a new organism with different characteristics to appear?

Aegrotocatellus nankerphelgeorum


pseudonym us
Nanker Phelge by members o
The Rolling

Variation in characteristics of the specie

Q.15 For one organism, give a full classification (from Kingdom to species), saying
at each point of classification, what characteristics enable the grouping of the

Group of organisms which can interbreed and produce fertile

Common morphology share DNA, similarities in genome, shred
behavior, common ancestry,