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Romania

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Romania( i /romeni/rohMAYneeRomanian:
Romnia[romni.a]( )),occasionallyspelled
Rumania,[10][11][12][13][14]andformerlyalsospelled
Roumania[15][16]isaunitarysemipresidential
republiclocatedinSoutheasternEurope,northofthe
BalkanPeninsulaandonthewesternshoreofthe
BlackSea.ItbordersHungary,Serbia,Ukraine,
Moldova,andBulgaria.Itcovers238,391square
kilometres(92,043sqmi)andhasatemperate
continentalclimate.Withits20.1millioninhabitants,
itistheseventhmostpopulousmemberofthe
EuropeanUnion.Itscapitalandlargestcity,
Bucharest,isthesixthlargestcityintheEuropean
Union.
ModernRomaniaemergedwithintheterritoriesofthe
ancientRomanprovinceofDacia,andwasformedin
1859throughapersonalunionoftheprincipalitiesof
MoldaviaandWallachia.Thenewstate,officially
namedRomaniasince1866,gainedindependence
fromtheOttomanEmpirein1877.Attheendof
WorldWarI,Transylvania,BukovinaandBessarabia
unitedwiththesovereignKingdomofRomania.At
theendofWorldWarII,territorieswhichtoday
roughlycorrespondtotheRepublicofMoldovawere
occupiedbytheSovietUnion,andafewyearslater
Romaniabecameasocialistrepublicandmemberof
theWarsawPact.Afterthe1989Revolution,Romania
beganatransitionbacktowardsdemocracyanda
capitalistmarketeconomy.
Followingrapideconomicgrowthinthe2000s,
Romaniahasaneconomypredominantlybasedon
services,andisaproducerandnetexporterof
machinesandelectricenergy,featuringcompanies
likeAutomobileDaciaandOMVPetrom.Living
standardshaveimproved,andcurrently,Romaniais
anuppermiddleincomecountrywithahighHuman
DevelopmentIndex.IthasbeenamemberofNATO
since2004,andpartoftheEuropeanUnionsince
2007.Around90%ofthepopulationidentify
themselvesasEasternOrthodoxChristians,andare
nativespeakersofRomanian,aRomancelanguage.
Witharichculturalhistory,Romaniahasbeenthe
homeofinfluentialartists,musicians,andinventors,
andfeaturesavarietyoftouristattractionssuchas
"Dracula'sCastle".

Romania
Romnia(Romanian)

Flag

Coatofarms

Anthem:Deteaptte,romne!
(Awakenthee,Romanian!)
0:00

MENU

Locationof Romania ( darkgreen )


inEurope( green&darkgrey )
intheEuropeanUnion ( green )[ Legend]

Capital
andlargestcity

4425N2606E

Officiallanguages

Romanian[1]

Ethnicgroups(2011[2])

Bucharest

88.9%
Romanians
6.5%
Hungarians
3.3%
Roma
0.3%
Ukrainians
0.2%
Germans
0.8%other

minorities

Contents
1Etymology

Demonym

Romanian

Government

Unitarysemi
presidential
republic
KlausIohannis
VictorPonta
ClinPopescu
Triceanu
ValeriuZgonea

2History
2.1Earlyhistory
2.2MiddleAges
2.3Independenceandmonarchy
2.4WorldWarsandGreaterRomania
2.5Communism
2.6Democracy
3Geography

President
PrimeMinister
PresidentoftheSenate
PresidentoftheChamber
ofDeputies
Legislature
Upperhouse
Lowerhouse

4Governance
4.1Foreignrelations
4.2Military
4.3Administrativedivisions
5Economy
5.1Infrastructure
5.2Tourism
5.3Scienceandtechnology
6Demographics
6.1Languages
6.2Religion
6.3Urbanization
6.4Education
6.5Healthcare
7Culture
7.1Artsandmonuments

Formation
PrincipalityofWallachia
PrincipalityofMoldavia
Principalityof
Transylvania
UnitedPrincipalitiesa

8Seealso
9Notes
10References
11Sources
11.1Primarysources

24January1859
1877/1878b

Proclamationofthe
RomanianPeople's
Republic
RomanianRevolution

30December
1947

Currentrepublic
AccessiontotheEuropean
Union
Area
Total

Water(%)
Population
2014estimate
2011census
Density

11.2Secondarysources
12Externallinks

1330
1346
1570

Independencefrom
theOttomanEmpire
KingdomofRomania
GreatUnionc

7.2Holidays,traditionsandcuisine
7.3Sports

Parliament
Senate
Chamberof
Deputies

GDP(PPP)
Total
Percapita

14March1881
1December1918

1627December
1989
21November
1991
1January2007

238,391km2
(83rd)
92,043sqmi
3
19,942,642[3]
(58th)
20,121,641[2]
(58th)
84.4/km2(118th)
218.6/sqmi
2015estimate
$403.579billion
(46th)[4]
$20,355(61st)[5]

Etymology
RomaniaderivesfromtheLatinromanus,meaning
"citizenofRome".[17]Thefirstknownuseofthe
appellationwasattestedinthe16thcenturybyItalian
humaniststravellinginTransylvania,Moldavia,and
Wallachia.[18][19][20][21]
Theoldest
surviving
document
writtenin
Romanian,a
1521letter
knownasthe
"Letterof
Neacufrom
Neacu'sletterfrom1521,theoldest
survivingdocumentwrittenin
Romanian.

Cmpulung",[22]isalsonotableforincludingthefirst
documentedoccurrenceofthecountry'sname:
WallachiaismentionedasearaRumneasc("The
RomanianLand",earafromtheLatinterra,"land"
currentspelling:araRomneasc).

GDP(nominal)
Total
Percapita

2015estimate
$215.302billion
[6](51st)
$10,859[7](72nd)

Gini(2013)

34[8]
medium

HDI(2013)

0.785[9]
high54th

Currency

Romanianleu
(RON)

Timezone
Summer(DST)

EET(UTC+2)
EEST(UTC+3)

Drivesonthe

right

Callingcode

+40

Patronsaint

SaintAndrew

ISO3166code

RO

InternetTLD

.rod

a.

ThedoubleelectionofAlexandruIoanCuzainMoldavia
andWallachia(respectively,5and24January1859).

b.

Independenceproclaimedon9May1877,internationally
recognisedin1878.

c.

TheunionofRomaniawithBessarabia,Bukovinaand
Transylvaniain1918.

d. Also.eu,sharedwithotherEuropeanUnionmember
Twospellingforms:romnandrumnwereused
states.
interchangeably[a]untilsociolinguisticdevelopments
inthelate17thcenturyledtosemanticdifferentiationofthetwoforms:rumncametomean
"bondsman",whileromnretainedtheoriginalethnolinguisticmeaning.[23]Aftertheabolitionof
serfdomin1746,thewordrumngraduallyfelloutofuseandthespellingstabilisedtotheform
romn.[b]TudorVladimirescu,arevolutionaryleaderoftheearly19thcentury,usedthetermRumnia
toreferexclusivelytotheprincipalityofWallachia."[24]

TheuseofthenameRomaniatorefertothecommonhomelandofallRomaniansitsmodernday
meaningisfirstdocumentedintheearly19thcentury.[c]Thenamehasbeenofficiallyinusesince11
December1861.[25]EnglishlanguagesourcesstillusedthetermsRumaniaorRoumania,derivedfrom
theFrenchspellingRoumanieand/ortheGreek,asrecentlyasWorldWarII,[26]butthename
hassincebeenreplacedwiththeofficialspellingRomania.[27]

History
Earlyhistory
ThehumanremainsfoundinPeteracuOase("TheCaveoftheBones"),radiocarbondatedasbeing
fromcca.40,000yearsago,representtheoldestknownHomosapiensinEurope.[28][29]

PriortotheRomanconquestofDacia,theterritoriesbetweenDanubeandDniesterriverswereinhabited
byvariousThracianpeoples,includingtheDaciansandtheGetae.[30]Herodotus,inhiswork
"Histories",notesthereligiousdifferencebetweentheGetaeand
otherThracians,[31]however,accordingtoStrabo,theDaciansandthe
Getaespokethesamelanguage.[30]DioCassiusdrawsattentiontothe
culturalsimilaritiesbetweenthetwopeople.[30]Thereisascholarly
disputewhethertheDaciansandtheGetaewerethesame
people.[32][33]
RomanincursionsunderEmperorTrajanbetween101102ADand
105106ADledtoresultthatabouthalfoftheDaciankingdom
Romanprovincesintheregions
becameaprovinceoftheRomanEmpirecalled"DaciaTraiana".The
nowformingRomaniainthe
Romanrulelasted165years.Duringthisperiodtheprovincewas
2ndcenturyAD
fullyintegratedtotheRomanEmpireandasizeablepartofthe
populationwasnewcomersfromotherprovinces.[34]TheRoman
colonistsintroducedtheLatinlanguage.Accordingtofollowersofthecontinuitytheory,theintense
RomanizationgavebirthtotheProtoRomanianlanguage.[35][36]Theprovincewasrichoforedeposits
(especiallygoldandsilverinplaceslikeAlburnusMaior).AsaresultofinvasionsbyGermanictribes,
RomantroopswerepulledoutofDaciaaround271AD,makingitthefirstprovincetobe
abandoned.[37][38]
Theterritorywaslaterinvadedanddominatedbyvariouspeoples,includingGoths,[39]Huns,[40]
Gepids,[41]Avars,[42]Bulgars,[41]Slavs,Magyars,Pechenegs,[43]andCumans,whohavebeenlabelled
as"migratorypeoples"inRomanianhistoriography.Manyofthesepopulationsalsosettled,cohabitated
andmixedwiththelocals.[44][45]Severalcompetingtheorieshavebeenproposedtoexplaintherelations
(ornonrelations)betweenancientDaciansandpresentdayRomanians.[46]

MiddleAges

ThethreeRomanianprincipalitiesof
Wallachia,Moldavia,and
Transylvaniain1600.

IntheMiddleAges,RomanianslivedinthreeRomanian
principalities:Wallachia(Romanian:araRomneasc"The
RomanianLand"),Moldavia(Romanian:Moldova)andin
Transylvania.[47]TheexistenceofindependentRomanian
voivodeshipsinTransylvaniaasearlyasthe9thcenturyis
mentionedinGestaHungarorum,[48]butbythe11thcentury,
Transylvaniahadbecomealargelyautonomouspartofthe
KingdomofHungary.[49]Intheotherparts,manysmalllocal
stateswithvaryingdegreesofindependencedeveloped,butonly
underBasarabIandBogdanIthelargerprincipalitiesof
WallachiaandMoldaviawouldemergeinthe14thcenturyto
fightthethreatoftheOttomanEmpire.[50][51]

By1541,aswiththeentireBalkanpeninsulaandmostofHungary,Moldavia,Wallachia,and
TransylvaniawereunderOttomansuzerainty,preservingpartialorfullinternalautonomyuntilthemid
19thcentury(Transylvaniauntil1711[52]).Thisperiodfeaturedseveralprominentrulerssuchas:
StephentheGreat,VasileLupu,andDimitrieCantemirinMoldaviaMateiBasarab,VladtheImpaler,
andConstantinBrncoveanuinWallachiaandJohnHunyadiandGabrielBethleninTransylvania.[53]
In1600,thethreeprincipalitieswereruledsimultaneouslybytheWallachianprinceMichaeltheBrave

(MihaiViteazul),whichwasconsideredin
laterperiodsastheprecursorofamodern
Romaniaandbecameapointofreferencefor
nationalists,aswellasacatalystfor
achievingasingleRomanianstate.[54]

Independenceandmonarchy
DuringtheperiodoftheAustroHungarian
ruleinTransylvaniaandofOttoman
suzeraintyoverWallachiaandMoldavia,
mostRomaniansweregivenfewrights[55]in
aterritorywheretheyformedthemajorityof
thepopulation.[56][57]Nationalisticthemes
becameprincipalduringtheWallachian
uprisingof1821,andthe1848revolutionsin
WallachiaandMoldavia.Theflagadopted
forWallachiabytherevolutionarieswasa
blueyellowredhorizontaltricolour(with
blueabove,inlinewiththemeaning
"Liberty,Justice,Fraternity"),[58]while
RomanianstudentsinParishailedthenew
governmentwiththesameflag"asasymbol
ofunionbetweenMoldaviansand
Wallachians".[59][60]Thesameflag,withthe
tricolourbeingmountedvertically,would
laterbeofficiallyadoptedasthenationalflag
ofRomania.[61]

Borderanimationshowingtheterritorialchangesofthe
RomanianprincipalitiesthroughouttheMiddleAgesandthe
ModernAge

Afterthefailed1848revolutionsnotallthe
GreatPowerssupportedtheRomanians'
expresseddesiretoofficiallyuniteinasingle
state.[62]ButintheaftermathoftheCrimean
War,theelectorsinbothMoldaviaand
Wallachiavotedin1859forthesameleader,
AlexandruIoanCuza,asDomnitor(princein
Romanian),andthetwoprincipalities
ChangesinRomania'sterritorysince1859.
becameapersonalunionformallyunderthe
suzeraintyoftheOttomanEmpire.[63]
Followingcoupd'tatin1866,CuzawasexiledandreplacedwithPrinceCarolIofRomaniaofthe
HouseofHohenzollernSigmaringen.Duringthe18771878RussoTurkishWarRomaniafoughtonthe
Russianside,[64]andintheaftermath,itwasrecognizedasanindependentstatebothbytheOttoman
EmpireandtheGreatPowersbytheTreatyofSanStefanoandtheTreatyofBerlin.[65][66]Thenew
KingdomofRomaniaunderwentaperiodofstabilityandprogressuntil1914,andalsoacquired
SouthernDobrujafromBulgariaaftertheSecondBalkanWar.[67]

WorldWarsandGreaterRomania

RomaniaremainedneutralforthefirsttwoyearsofWorldWarI.
FollowingthesecretTreatyofBucharest,accordingtowhich
RomaniawouldacquireterritorieswithamajorityofRomanian
populationfromAustriaHungary,itjoinedtheEntentePowers
anddeclaredwaron27August1916.[68]TheRomanianmilitary
campaignbegandisastrouslyforRomaniaastheCentralPowers
occupiedtwothirdsofthecountrywithinmonths,before
reachingastalematein1917.Totalmilitaryandcivilianlosses
from1916to1918,withincontemporaryborders,wereestimated
at748,000.[69]Afterthewar,thetransferofBukovinafrom
Austriawasacknowledgedbythe1919TreatyofSaint
Germain,[70]ofBanatandTransylvaniafromHungarybythe
1920TreatyofTrianon,[71]andofBessarabiafromRussianrule
bythe1920TreatyofParis.[72]

A1917Britishmapshowing
territorieswithmajorityRomanian
populations.

ThefollowinginterwarperiodisreferredasGreaterRomania,as
thecountryachieveditsgreatestterritorialextentatthattime
(almost300,000km2or120,000sqmi).[73]Theapplicationof
radicalagriculturalreformsandthepassingofanewconstitution
createdademocraticframeworkandallowedforquickeconomic
growth.Withoilproductionof7.2milliontonsin1937,Romania
rankedsecondinEuropeandseventhintheworld.[74][75]andwas
Europe'ssecondlargestfoodproducer.[76]However,theearly
1930sweremarkedbysocialunrest,highunemployment,and
strikes,astherewereover25separategovernmentsthroughout
thedecade.Onseveraloccasionsinthelastfewyearsbefore
WorldWarII,thedemocraticpartiesweresqueezedbetween
conflictswiththechauvinisticIronGuardandtheauthoritarian
tendenciesofkingCarolII.
RomaniandictatorIonAntonescuand
DuringWorldWarII,Romaniatriedagaintoremainneutral,but
AdolfHitlerinMunich(June1941).
on28June1940,itreceivedaSovietultimatumwithanimplied
threatofinvasionintheeventofnoncompliance.[77]Again
foreignpowerscreatedheavypressureonRomania,bymeansoftheSovietNaziRibbentropMolotov
Pactofnonaggressionfrom23August1939.AsaresultofittheRomaniangovernmentandthearmy
wereforcedtoretreatfromBessarabiaaswellasfromnorthernBukovinainordertoavoidwarwiththe
SovietUnion.[78]ThekingwascompelledtoabdicateandappointedgeneralIonAntonescuasthenew
PrimeMinisterwithfullpowersinrulingthestatebyroyaldecree.[79]Romaniawaspromptedtojoin
theAxismilitarycampaign.Thereafter,southernDobrujawascededtoBulgaria,whileHungary
receivedNorthernTransylvaniaasresultofanAxispowers'arbitration.[80]Romaniancontributionto
OperationBarbarossawasenormous,withtheRomanianArmyofover1.2millionmeninthesummer
of1944,fightinginnumberssecondonlytoNaziGermany.[81]Romaniawasthemainsourceofoilfor
theThirdReich,[82]andthusbecamethetargetofintensebombingbytheAllies.Growingdiscontent
amongthepopulationeventuallypeakedinAugust1944withKingMichael'sCoup,andthecountry
switchedsidestojointheAllies.Itisestimatedthatthecoupshortenedthewarbyasmuchassix
months.[83]EventhoughtheRomanianArmyhadsuffered170,000casualtiesafterswitchingsides,[84]

Romania'sroleinthedefeatofNaziGermanywasnotrecognizedbytheParisPeaceConferenceof
1947,[85]astheSovietUnionannexedBessarabiaandotherterritoriescorrespondingroughlytopresent
dayRepublicofMoldova.
TheAntonescuregimeplayedamajorroleintheTheHolocaustinRomania,[86]andcopiedtheNazi
policiesofoppressionandgenocideofJewsandGypsies,mainlyintheEasternterritoriesreoccupiedby
theRomaniansfromtheSovietUnioninTransnistriaandinMoldavia.[87]JewishHolocaustvictimsin
Romaniatotaledmorethan280,000,plusanother11,000Gypsies("Roma").[88]

Communism
DuringtheSovietoccupationofRomania,theCommunist
dominatedgovernmentcalledfornewelectionsin1946,
whichwerefraudulentlywon,withafabricated70%
majorityofthevote.[89]Thustheyrapidlyestablished
themselvesasthedominantpoliticalforce,[90]andin1947,
forcedKingMichaelItoabdicateandleavethecountry,and
proclaimedRomaniaapeople'srepublic.[91][92]Romania
remainedunderthedirectmilitaryoccupationandeconomic
controloftheUSSRuntilthelate1950s.Duringthisperiod,
Romania'svastnaturalresourceswerecontinuouslydrained
bymixedSovietRomaniancompanies(SovRoms)setupfor
unilateralexploitativepurposes.[93][94][95]

NicolaeCeauescuruledRomaniaasits
dictatorfrom1965until1989.

In1948,thestatebegantonationalizeprivatefirmsandto
collectivizeagriculture.[96]Untiltheearly1960s,theCommunistgovernmentestablishedaterrorregime
carriedoutmainlythroughtheSecuritate(theRomaniansecretpolice).Duringthisperiodtheylaunched
severalcampaignsofpurgesinwhichnumerous"enemiesofthestate"and"parasiteelements"ofthe
societywereimprisonedforpoliticaloreconomicreasons,torturedandeventuallykilled.[97]
Punishmentsincludeddeportation,internalexileandinternmentinforcedlabourcampsandprisons,
sometimesforlifedissentwasvigorouslysuppressedbytheregime.[98]Nevertheless,anticommunist
resistancewasoneofthemostlonglastingintheEasternBloc.[99]Tensofthousandsofpeoplewere
killedaspartofrepressioninCommunistRomania.[100][101]A2006Commissionestimatedthenumber
ofdirectvictimsofthecommunistrepressionattwomillionpeople.[102]Thisexcludescivilianswho
diedinlibertyasaresultoftheir"treatment"andmalnutritionincommunistprisonsandthosewhodied
becauseofthedireeconomiccircumstancesinthecountry,andwhosenumbersremainunknownbut
couldreachafewmillions.[102][103]
In1965,NicolaeCeauescucametopowerandstartedtoconducttheforeignpolicymoreindependently
fromtheSovietUnion.Thus,communistRomaniawastheonlyWarsawPactcountrywhorefusedto
participateattheSovietled1968invasionofCzechoslovakia(Ceauescuevenpubliclycondemnedthe
actionas"abigmistake,[and]aseriousdangertopeaceinEuropeandtothefateofcommunisminthe
world"[104])itwasalsotheonlycommuniststatetomaintaindiplomaticrelationswithIsraelafterthe
1967SixDayWarandestablisheddiplomaticrelationswithWestGermanythesameyear.[105]Atthe
sametime,closetieswiththeArabcountries(andthePLO)allowedRomaniatoplayakeyroleinthe
IsraelEgyptandIsraelPLOpeacetalks.[106]AsRomania'sforeigndebtsharplyincreasedbetween
1977and1981(fromUS$3billionto$10billion),[107]theinfluenceofinternationalfinancial

organizations(suchastheIMFandtheWorldBank)grew,graduallyconflictingwithCeauescu's
autocraticrule.Thelattereventuallyinitiatedapolicyoftotalreimbursementoftheforeigndebtby
imposingausteritystepsthatimpoverishedthepopulationandexhaustedtheeconomy.Atthesametime,
CeauescugreatlyextendedtheauthorityoftheSecuritatesecretpoliceandimposedaseverecultof
personality,whichledtoadramaticdecreaseinthedictator'spopularityandculminatedinhisoverthrow
andeventualexecution,togetherwithhiswife,intheviolentRomanianRevolutionofDecember1989.

Democracy
Aftertherevolution,theNationalSalvationFront(NSF),ledbyIonIliescu,tookpartialmultiparty
democraticandfreemarketmeasures.[108][109]InApril1990a
sitinprotestcontestingtheresultsoftheelectionsandaccusing
theNSF,includingIliescu,ofbeingmadeupofformer
CommunistsandmembersoftheSecuritate,rapidlygrewto
becomewhatwascalledtheGolaniad.Thepeaceful
demonstrationsdegeneratedintoviolence,promptingthe
interventionofcoalminerssummonedbyIliescu.Thisepisode
hasbeendocumentedwidelybybothlocal[110]andforeign
media,[111]andisrememberedastheJune1990
Mineriad.[112][113]
ThesubsequentdisintegrationoftheFrontproducedseveral
politicalpartiesincludingtheSocialDemocraticParty,andthe
DemocraticParty.TheformergovernedRomaniafrom1990
until1996throughseveralcoalitionsandgovernmentswithIon
Iliescuasheadofstate.Sincethentherehavebeenseveral
democraticchangesofgovernment:in1996EmilConstantinescu
waselectedpresident,in2000Iliescureturnedtopower,while
TraianBsescuwaselectedin2004andnarrowlyreelectedin
2009.[114]

TheRomanianRevolutionin1989
wasoneofthefewviolent
revolutionsinEuropethatbroughtan
endtocommunistrule.

AftertheColdWarRomaniadevelopedclosertieswithWestern
EuropeandtheUnitedStates,eventuallyjoiningNATOin2004,
andhostingthe2008summitinBucharest.[115]Thecountry
appliedinJune1993formembershipintheEuropeanUnionand
becameanAssociatedStateoftheEUin1995,anAcceding
Countryin2004,andafullmemberon1January2007.[116]
RomaniajoinedtheEuropeanUnion
Followingthe"freetravelagreement"withtheEUandthe
in2007andsignedtheLisbonTreaty
economicinstabilitythroughoutthe1990s,alargenumberof
RomaniansemigratedtoNorthAmericaandWesternEurope,
withparticularlylargecommunitiesinItalyandSpain.Currently,theRomaniandiasporaisestimatedat
overtwomillionpeople.[117]
Duringthe2000s,RomaniaenjoyedoneofthehighesteconomicgrowthratesinEuropeandhasbeen
referredattimesas"theTigerofEasternEurope".[118]Thishasbeenaccompaniedbyasignificant
improvementinlivingstandardsasthecountrysuccessfullyreducedinternalpovertyandestablisheda
functionaldemocraticstate.[119][120]However,Romania'sdevelopmentsufferedamajorsetbackduring
thelate2000srecessionleadingtoalargegrossdomesticproductcontractionandbudgetdeficitin
2009.[121]ThisledtoRomaniaheavilyborrowing,eventuallybecomingthelargestdebtortothe

InternationalMonetaryFundin2010.[122]Worseningeconomic
conditionsledtounrestandtriggeredapoliticalcrisisin
2012.[123]Romaniastillfacesissuesrelatedtoinfrastructure,[124]
medicalservices,[125]education,[126]andcorruption.[127]Another
majorconcernisemigration,whichhaskeptunemploymentlow
butisseenasathreattothecountry'sfuture.

Geography

The2008NATOSummitwasheldin
Bucharest.

Withanareaof238,391squarekilometres(92,043sqmi),
Romaniaisthelargestcountryin
SoutheasternEuropeandthetwelfth
largestinEurope.[128]Itliesbetween
latitudes43and49N,and
longitudes20and30E.Theterrain
isdistributedroughlyequally
betweenmountains,hillsandplains.
TheCarpathianMountainsdominate
thecentreofRomania,with14
mountainrangesreachingabove
2,000mor6,600ft,andthehighest
pointatMoldoveanuPeak(2,544m
or8,346ft).[128]Theyaresurrounded
bytheMoldavianandTransylvanian
plateausandPannonianand
Wallachianplains.TheDanuberiver
TopographicmapofRomania
formsalargepartoftheborderwith
SerbiaandBulgariaandflowsinto
theBlackSeaformingtheDanubeDelta,thesecondlargestandbestpreserveddeltainEurope,andalso
abiospherereserveandabiodiversityWorldHeritageSite.[129]
OwingtoitsdistancefromopenseaandpositionontheSoutheasternportionoftheEuropeancontinent,
Romaniahasaclimatethatistemperateandcontinental,withfourdistinctseasons.Theaverageannual
temperatureis11C(52F)inthesouthand8C(46F)inthenorth.[130]Insummer,average
maximumtemperaturesinBucharestriseto28C(82F),andtemperaturesover35C(95F)fairly
commoninthelowerlyingareasofthecountry.[131]Inwinter,theaveragemaximumtemperatureare
below2C(36F).[131]Precipitationisaverage,withover750mm(30in)peryearonlyonthehighest
westernmountains,whilearoundBucharestitdropstoaround600mm(24in).[132]
Ahighpercentage(47%ofthelandarea)ofthecountryiscoveredwithnaturalandseminatural
ecosystems.[134]RomaniahasoneofthelargestareasofundisturbedforestinEuropecoveringalmost
27%oftheterritory.[135]Thefaunaconsistsof33,792speciesofanimals,33,085invertebrateand707
vertebrate,[136]withalmost400uniquespeciesofmammals,birds,reptilesandamphibians,[137]
includingabout50%ofEurope's(excludingRussia)brownbears[133]and20%ofitswolves.[138]Some
3,700plantspecieshavebeenidentifiedinthecountry,fromwhichtodate23havebeendeclared
naturalmonuments,74missing,39endangered,171vulnerableand1,253rare.[136]Therearealmost
10,000km2(3,900sqmi)(about5%ofthetotalarea)ofprotectedareasinRomaniacovering13

nationalparksandthreebiospherereserves.[139]TheDanube
Delta,at5,800km2(2,200sqmi),[140]isthelargestcontinuous
marshlandinEurope,[141]andsupports1,688differentplant
speciesalone.[142]

Governance
TheConstitutionofRomaniaisbasedontheConstitutionof
France'sFifthRepublicandwasapprovedinanational
referendumon8December1991,andamendedinOctober2003
tobringitintoconformitywiththeEUlegislation.Thecountryis
governedonthebasisofmultipartydemocraticsystemandof
thesegregationofthelegislative,executiveandjudicialpowers.
Itisasemipresidentialrepublicwhereexecutivefunctionsare
heldbybothgovernmentandthepresident.[143]Thelatteris
electedbypopularvoteforamaximumoftwotermsoffive
yearsandappointstheprimeminister,whointurnappointsthe
CouncilofMinisters.Thelegislativebranchofthegovernment,
collectivelyknownastheParliament(residingatthePalaceof
theParliament),consistsoftwochambers(SenateandChamber
ofDeputies)whosemembersareelectedeveryfouryearsby
simpleplurality.[144][145]

Romania'spopulationofbrownbears
isthelargestinEuropeoutsideof
Russia(around6,600
individuals). [133]

VictorPonta,thePrimeMinisterof

Thejusticesystemisindependentoftheotherbranchesof
RomaniasinceMay2012
government,andismadeupofahierarchicalsystemofcourts
culminatingintheHighCourtofCassationandJustice,whichis
thesupremecourtofRomania.[146]Therearealsocourtsof
appeal,countycourtsandlocalcourts.TheRomanianjudicial
systemisstronglyinfluencedbytheFrenchmodel,considering
thatitisbasedoncivillawandisinquisitorialinnature.The
ConstitutionalCourt(CurteaConstituional)isresponsiblefor
judgingthecomplianceoflawsandotherstateregulationstothe
constitution,whichisthefundamentallawofthecountryandcan
PalaceoftheParliamentofRomania
onlybeamendedthroughapublicreferendum.[144][147]The2007
entryintotheEUhasbeenasignificantinfluenceonitsdomestic
policy,andincludingjudicialreforms,increasedjudicialcooperationwithothermemberstates,and
measurestocombatcorruption.Nevertheless,a2013reportbyErnst&YoungdescribedRomania
amongthemostcorruptcountriesintheEU,onparwithSpainandItaly.[148]

Foreignrelations
SinceDecember1989,RomaniahaspursuedapolicyofstrengtheningrelationswiththeWestin
general,morespecificallywiththeUnitedStatesandtheEuropeanUnion.ItjoinedtheNorthAtlantic
TreatyOrganization(NATO)on29March2004,theEuropeanUnion(EU)on1January2007,whileit
hadjoinedtheInternationalMonetaryFundandtheWorldBankin1972,andisafoundingmemberof
theWorldTradeOrganization.[149]

ThecurrentgovernmenthasstateditsgoalofstrengtheningtieswithandhelpingotherEasternEuropean
countries(inparticularMoldova,UkraineandGeorgia)withtheprocessofintegrationwiththe
West.[150]Romaniahasalsomadeclearsincethelate1990sthatitsupportsNATOandEUmembership
forthedemocraticformerSovietrepublicsinEasternEuropeandtheCaucasus.[150]Romaniaalso
declareditspublicsupportforTurkey,andCroatiajoiningtheEuropeanUnion.[150]Becauseithasa
largeHungarianminority,RomaniahasalsodevelopedstrongrelationswithHungary.Romaniaopted
on1January2007,toadheretheSchengenArea,anditsbidtojoinwasapprovedbytheEuropean
ParliamentinJune2011,butwasrejectedbytheEUCouncilinSeptember
2011.
InDecember2005,PresidentTraianBsescuandUnitedStatesSecretaryof
StateCondoleezzaRicesignedanagreementthatwouldallowaU.S.
militarypresenceatseveralRomanianfacilitiesprimarilyintheeasternpart
ofthecountry.[151]InMay2009,HillaryClintondeclaredUSSecretaryof
Statethat"Romaniaisoneofthemosttrustworthyandrespectablepartners
oftheUSA."[152]
RelationswithMoldovaareaspecialcase,consideringthatthetwo
KlausIohannis,the
countriessharethesamelanguageandacommonhistory.[150]Amovement
currentPresidentof
forunificationofRomaniaandMoldovaappearedintheearly1990safter
Romania.
bothcountriesachievedemancipationfromcommunistrule,[153]butlost
groundinthemid1990swhenanewMoldovangovernmentpursuedan
agendatowardspreservingaMoldovanrepublicindependentofRomania.[154]Romaniaremains
interestedinMoldovanaffairsandhasofficiallyrejectedtheMolotovRibbentropPact,[153]andafterthe
2009protestsinMoldovaandsubsequentremovalofCommunistsfrompower,relationsbetweenthe
twocountrieshaveimprovedconsiderably.[155]

Military
TheRomanianArmedForcesconsistofLand,Air,andNavalForces,andareledbyaCommanderin
chiefunderthesupervisionoftheMinistryofDefense,andbythepresidentastheSupremeCommander
duringwartime.TheArmedForcesconsistofapproximately15,000civiliansand75,000aremilitary
personnel45,800forland,13,250forair,6,800fornavalforces,and8,800inotherfields.[156]The
totaldefencespendingin2007accountedfor2.05%oftotalnationalGDP,orapproximately
US$2.9billion(59thintheworld),withatotalof$11billionspentbetween2006and2011for
modernizationandacquisitionofnewequipment.[157]

RomaniansoldiersinAfghanistan
duringajointoperationin2003.

TheLandForceshaveoverhauledtheirequipmentinthepastfew
years,andareactivelyparticipatingintheWarin
Afghanistan.[158]TheAirForcecurrentlyoperatesmodernized
SovietMiG21Lancerfighterswhichareduetobereplacedby
twelveF16s,purchasedfromPortugalinOctober2013.[159]The
AirForcepurchasedsevennewC27JSpartantactical
airlifters,[160]whiletheNavalForcesacquiredtwomodernized
Type22frigatesfromtheRoyalNavy.[161]Romaniantroops
participatedintheoccupationofIraq,reachingapeakof730
soldiersbeforebeingslowlydrawndownto350soldiers.
RomaniaterminateditsmissioninIraqandwithdrewitslast

troopson24July2009,amongthelastcountriestodoso.Romaniacurrentlyhassome1,900troops
deployedinAfghanistan.[162]TheRegeleFerdinandfrigateparticipatedinthe2011militaryintervention
inLibya.[163]
InDecember2011,theRomanianSenateunanimouslyadoptedthedraftlawratifyingtheRomania
UnitedStatesagreementsignedinSeptemberofthesameyearthatwouldallowtheestablishmentand
operationofaUSlandbasedballisticmissiledefencesysteminRomaniaaspartofNATO'seffortsto
buildacontinentalmissileshield.[164]

Administrativedivisions
Romaniaisdividedinto41countiesandthemunicipalityofBucharest.Eachcountyisadministeredbya
countycouncil,responsibleforlocalaffairs,aswellasaprefectresponsiblefortheadministrationof
nationalaffairsatthecountylevel.Theprefectisappointedbythecentralgovernmentbutcannotbea
memberofanypoliticalparty.[165]Eachcountyisfurthersubdividedintocitiesandcommunes,which
havetheirownmayorandlocalcouncil.Thereareatotalof319citiesand2,686communesin
Romania.[166]Atotalof103ofthelargercitieshavemunicipalitystatuses,whichgivesthemgreater
administrativepoweroverlocalaffairs.ThemunicipalityofBucharestisaspecialcaseasitenjoysa
statusonpartothatofacounty.Itisfurtherdividedintosixsectorsandhasaprefect,ageneralmayor,
andageneralcitycouncil.[166]
TheNUTS3(NomenclatureofTerritorialUnitsforStatistics)leveldivisionsofEuropeanUnionreflect
Romania'sadministrativeterritorialstructure,andcorrespondtothe41countiesplusBucharest.[167]The
citiesandcommunescorrespondtotheNUTS5leveldivisions,buttherearenocurrentNUTS4level
divisions.TheNUTS1(fourmacroregions)andNUTS2[168](eightdevelopmentregions)divisions
existbuthavenoadministrativecapacity,andareinsteadusedforcoordinatingregionaldevelopment
projectsandstatisticalpurposes.[167]

SM MM
BH SJ
AR
TM
CS

BN
CJ

SV

BT
NT

IS

MS HR
BC VS
AB
HD
SB BV CV VN GL
BZ BR
GJ VL AG PH
TL
DB
IF
IL
MH
B CL
DJ OT
CT
TR GR

Development Area Population


region
(km2) (2011)[169]
Northwest 34,159 2,600,132
Center
Northeast

34,082 2,360,805
36,850 3,302,217

Southeast

35,762 2,545,923

South
34,489 3,136,446
Bucharest 1,811 2,272,163
Ilfov
Southwest 29,212 2,075,642
West

*Togetherwithitsmetropolitanarea.

Economy

32,028 1,828,313

Mostpopulous
urban
center*[170]
ClujNapoca
(411,379)
Braov(369,896)
Iai(382,484)
Constana
(425,916)
Ploieti(276,279)
Bucharest
(2,272,163)
Craiova
(285,098)
Timioara
(384,809)

In2014,RomaniahadaGDP(PPP)ofaround$386billionanda
GDPpercapita(PPP)of$19,397.[171]AccordingtoCIA'sThe
WorldFactbook,Romaniaisanuppermiddleincomecountry
economy.[172]AccordingtoEurostat,Romania'sGDPpercapita
(PPS)wasat55%oftheEUaveragein2013,anincreasefrom
42%in2007(theyearofRomania'saccessiontotheEU).[173]
After1989thecountryexperiencedadecadeofeconomic
instabilityanddecline,ledinpartbyanobsoleteindustrialbase
andalackofstructuralreform.From2000onwards,however,
DaciaDusterconceptattheGeneva
theRomanianeconomywastransformedintooneofrelative
MotorShow(2009)
macroeconomicstability,characterisedbyhighgrowth,low
unemploymentanddeclininginflation.In2006,accordingtothe
RomanianStatisticsOffice,GDPgrowthinrealtermswasrecordedat7.7%,oneofthehighestratesin
Europe.[174]However,arecessionfollowingtheglobalfinancialcrisisof20082009forcedthe
governmentwasforcedtoborrowexternally,includinganIMF20bnbailoutprogram.[175]GDPhas
beengrowingbyover2%eachyearsince.[176]AccordingtoIMF,theGDPpercapitapurchasingpower
paritygrewfrom$14,875in2007toanestimated$19,397in2014.[177]Romaniahasoneofthelowest
netaveragemonthlywageintheEUin2013of387,andaninflationof3.7%.[178]Unemploymentin
Romaniawasat7%in2012,whichisverylowcomparedtootherEUcountries.[179]
Industrialoutputgrowthreached6.5%yearonyearinFebruary
2013,thehighestintheEU27.[180]Thelargestlocalcompanies
includecarmakerAutomobileDacia,Petrom,Rompetrol,Ford
Romania,Electrica,Romgaz,RCS&RDSandBanca
Transilvania.[181]Exportshaveincreasedsubstantiallyinthepast
fewyears,witha13%annualriseinexportsin2010.Romania's
mainexportsarecars,software,clothingandtextiles,industrial
machinery,electricalandelectronicequipment,metallurgic
products,rawmaterials,militaryequipment,pharmaceuticals,
finechemicals,andagriculturalproducts(fruits,vegetables,and
flowers).Tradeismostlycentredonthememberstatesofthe
EuropeanUnion,withGermanyandItalybeingthecountry's
singlelargesttradingpartners.Theaccountbalancein2012was
estimatedtobe4.52%oftheGDP.[182]

ExporttreemapofRomaniain2012

Afteraseriesofprivatizationsandreformsinthelate1990sand2000s,governmentinterventioninthe
RomanianeconomyissomewhatlowerthaninotherEuropeaneconomies.[183]In2005,thegovernment
replacedRomania'sprogressivetaxsystemwithaflattaxof16%forbothpersonalincomeand
corporateprofit,amongthelowestratesintheEuropeanUnion.[184]Theeconomyispredominantly
basedonservices,whichaccountfor51%ofGDP,eventhoughindustryandagriculturealsohave
significantcontributions,makingup36%and13%ofGDP,respectively.Additionally,30%ofthe
Romanianpopulationwasemployedin2006inagricultureandprimaryproduction,oneofthehighest
ratesinEurope.[185]
Since2000,Romaniahasattractedincreasingamountsofforeigninvestment,becomingthesingle
largestinvestmentdestinationinSoutheasternandCentralEurope.Foreigndirectinvestmentwasvalued
at8.3billionin2006.[186]Accordingtoa2011WorldBankreport,Romaniacurrentlyranks72ndout

of175economiesintheeaseofdoingbusiness,scoringlowerthanothercountriesintheregionsuchas
theCzechRepublic.[187]Additionally,astudyin2006judgedittobetheworld'ssecondfastest
economicreformer(afterGeorgia).[188]
Since1867theofficialcurrencyhasbeenleu(Romanianleu),andfollowingadenominationin2005,it
hasbeenvaluedat0.20.3.AfterjoiningtheEUin2007,Romaniaisexpectedtoadopttheeuro
sometimearound2020.[189]

Infrastructure
AccordingtotheCIAFactbook,Romania'stotal
roadnetworkwasestimatedin2009at81,713
kilometres(50,774mi)(excludingurbanareas),out
ofwhich66,632km(41,403mi)waspaved
roads.[190]Thereareplanstobuilda2,262.7km
(1,406.0mi)longmotorwaysystem,consistingof
sixmainmotorwaysandsixbypassmotorways,but
asofDecember2013,635.9km(395.1mi)have
beenlaiddown,with419km(260mi)under
constructionorintendering.[191]TheWorldBank
estimatestherailwaynetworkat22,298kilometres
(13,855mi)oftrack,thefourthlargestrailroad
networkinEurope.[192]Railtransportexperienceda
Romania'sroadnetwork.
dramaticdeclineafter1989,andwasestimatedat
99millionpassengerjourneysin2004buthas
experiencedarecent(2013)revivalduetoinfrastructureimprovementsandpartialprivatizationof
lines,[144]accountingfor45%ofallpassengerandfreightmovementsinthecountry.[144]Bucharest
Metro,theonlyundergroundrailwaysystem,wasopenedin1979andmeasures61.41km(38.16mi)
withanaverageridershipin2007of600,000passengersduringtheworkweek.[193]Therearesixteen
internationalcommercialairportsinservicetoday,withfiveofthem(HenriCoandInternational
Airport,AurelVlaicuInternationalAirport,TimioaraInternationalAirport,ConstantaInternational
AirportandSibiuInternationalAirport)beingcapableofhandlingwidebodyaircraft.Over7.6million
passangersflewthroughBucharest'sHenriCoandInternationalAirportin2013.[194]
Romaniaisanetexporterofelectricalenergyandis46th
worldwideintermsofconsumptionofelectricenergy.[195]
Aroundathirdoftheproducedenergycomesfromrenewable
sources,mostlyashydroelectricpower.[196]In2010,themain
sourceswerecoal(36%),hydroelectric(33%),nuclear(19%),
andhydrocarbons(11%).[197]Ithasoneofthelargestrefining
capacitiesinEasternEurope,eventhoughoilandnaturalgas
productionhasbeendecreasingformorethanadecade.[195]With
oneofthelargestreservesofcrudeoilandshalegasin
Europe,[195]itisamongthemostenergyindependentcountriesin
theEuropeanUnion,[198]andislookingtofurtherexpandits
nuclearpowerplantatCernavod.[199]

Electricitysupplymix2010

Therewerealmost13millionconnectionstotheInternetin2012.[200]AccordingtoBloomberg,in2013
Romaniaranked5thintheworldand2ndinEuropeintermsofinternetconnectionspeed,[201]with
Timioararankedamongthehighestintheworld.[202]

Tourism
TourismisasignificantcontributortotheRomanianeconomy,
generatingaround5%ofGDP.[203]AccordingtotheWorld
TravelandTourismCouncil,Romaniawasestimatedtohavethe
fourthfastestgrowingtravelandtourismtotaldemandinthe
world,withanestimatedpotentialgrowthof8%peryearfrom
2007to2016.[204]Thenumberoftouristhasbeenrising,
reaching3.5millioninthefirsthalfof2014.[205]Tourismin
Romaniaattracted400millionininvestmentsin2005.[206]

BranCastlenearBraov,sometimes
advertisedas"Dracula'scastle",isa
popularattractionfortourists.

Morethan60%oftheforeignvisitorsin2007werefromother
EUcountries.[207]PopularsummerattractionsofMamaiaand
otherBlackSeaResortsattracted1.3milliontouristsin
2009.[208][209]MostpopularskiingresortsarealongtheValeaPrahoveiandinPoianaBraov.Castlesin
TransylvaniancitiessuchasSibiu,Braov,andSighioara.Ruraltourism,focusingonfolkloreand
traditions,hasbecomeanimportantalternative,[210]andistargetedtopromotesuchsitesasBranandits
Dracula'sCastle,thePaintedchurchesofNorthernMoldavia,andtheWoodenchurchesof
Maramure.[211]OtherattractionsincludeDanubeDelta,andSculpturalEnsembleofConstantin
BrncuiatTrguJiu.[212][213]

PeleCastleinSinaia

PelicansintheDanube
Delta

Brsanawooden
churches

PiatraCraiuluiMountains

Turdasaltmine

RnovCitadel

IronGates

Sighioara

Scienceandtechnology
Historically,Romanianresearchersandinventorshavemade
notablecontributionstoseveralfields.Inthehistoryofflight,
TraianVuiamadethefirstairplanetotakeoffonitsown
power[214]andAurelVlaicubuiltandflewsomeoftheearliest
successfulaircraft,whileHenriCoanddiscoveredtheCoand
effectoffluidics.VictorBabediscoveredmorethan50typesof
bacteriabiologistNicolaePaulescudiscoveredinsulin,while
Coand1910wasanearlyaircraft
EmilPalade,receivedtheNobelPrizeforhiscontributionsto
withductedfanpropulsion.
cellbiology.LazrEdeleanuwasthefirstchemisttosynthesize
amphetamine,whileCostinNeniescudevelopednumerousnew
classesofcompoundsinorganicchemistry.NotablemathematiciansincludeSpiruHaret,Grigore
Moisil,andtefanOdoblejaphysicistsandinventors:erbanieica,AlexandruProca,andtefan
Procopiu.
Duringthe1990sand2000s,thedevelopmentofresearchwashamperedbyseveralfactors,including
corruption,lowfundingandaconsiderablebraindrain.[215]However,sincethecountry'saccessionto
theEuropeanUnion,thishasbeguntochange.[216]Afterbeingslashedby50%in2009becauseofthe
globalrecession,R&Dspendingwasincreasedby44%in2010andnowstandsat$0.5billion(1.5
billionlei).[217]InJanuary2011,theParliamentalsopassedalawthatenforces"strictqualitycontrolon
universitiesandintroducestoughrulesforfundingevaluationandpeerreview".[218]Thecountryhas
joinedorisabouttojoinseveralmajorinternationalorganizationssuchasCERNandtheEuropean
SpaceAgency.[219][220]Overall,thesituationhasbeencharacterizedas"rapidlyimproving",albeitfrom
alowbase.[221]
ThenuclearphysicsfacilityoftheEuropeanUnion'sproposedExtremeLightInfrastructure(ELI)laser
willbebuiltinRomania.[222]Inearly2012,RomanialauncheditsfirstsatellitefromtheCentreSpatial
GuyanaisinFrenchGuyana.[223]StartingDecember2014,RomaniaisacoowneroftheInternational
SpaceStation.[224]

Demographics
Accordingtothe2011census,Romania'spopulationis
20,121,641.[2]Likeothercountriesintheregion,itspopulation
isexpectedtograduallydeclineinthecomingyearsasaresult
ofsubreplacementfertilityratesandnegativenetmigrationrate.
InOctober2011,Romaniansmadeup88.9%ofthepopulation.

Historicalpopulation
Year

Pop.

1866
1887

4,424,961
5,500,000

+24.3%

ThelargestethnicminoritiesaretheHungarians,6.5%ofthe
population,andRoma,3.3%ofthepopulation.[d][225]
HungariansconstituteamajorityinthecountiesofHarghitaand
Covasna.OtherminoritiesincludeUkrainians,Germans,Turks,
Lipovans,andTatars.[226]In1930,therewere745,421Germans
inRomania,[227]butonly
about36,000remain
today.[226]Asof2009,
therewerealso
approximately133,000
immigrantslivingin
Romania,primarilyfrom
MoldovaandChina.[119]
EthnicmapofRomaniabasedon
2011censusdata

1899
1912
1930
1939
1941
1948
1956
1966
1977
1992
2002
2011
2014
(est.)

5,956,690
7,234,919
18,057,028
19,934,000
13,535,757
15,872,624
17,489,450
19,103,163
21,559,910
22,760,449
21,680,974
20,121,641

+8.3%
+21.5%
+149.6%
+10.4%
32.1%
+17.3%
+10.2%
+9.2%
+12.9%
+5.6%
4.7%
7.2%

19,942,642

0.9%

Figurespriorto1948donotreflectcurrent
Thetotalfertilityrate
borders.
(TFR)in2013was
estimatedat1.31
childrenbornperwoman,whichisbelowthereplacementrateof2.1,andoneofthelowestinthe
world.[228]In2012,31%ofbirthsweretounmarriedwomen.[229]Thebirthrate(9.49,2012)ismuch
lowerthanthemortalityrate(11.84,2012),resultinginashrinking(0.26%peryear,2012)andaging
population(medianage:39.1,2012),withapproximately14.9%oftotalpopulationaged65yearsand
over.[230][231][232]Thelifeexpectancyin2013wasestimatedat74.45years(70.99yearsmale,78.13
yearsfemale).[228]

ThenumberofRomaniansandindividualswithancestorsborninRomanialivingabroadisestimatedat
around12million.[117]AftertheRomanianRevolutionof1989,asignificantnumberofRomanians
emigratedtootherEuropeancountries,NorthAmericaorAustralia,becauseofbetterworking
conditionsandacademicpossibilitiesofferedabroad.

Languages
TheofficiallanguageisRomanian,anEasternRomancelanguagesimilartoAromanian,Megleno
Romanian,andIstroRomanian,butsharingmanyfeatureswithotherRomancelanguagessuchas
Italian,French,Spanish,CatalanandPortuguese.Romanianisspokenasafirstlanguageby91%ofthe
population,whileHungarianandVlaxRomaniarespokenby6.7%and1.1%ofthepopulation,
respectively.[226]Thereare45,000nativeGermanspeakers,and32,000Turkishspeakersin
Romania.[233]AccordingtotheConstitution,localcouncilsensurelinguisticrightstoallminorities,with
localitieswithethnicminoritiesofover20%,thatminority'slanguagecanbeusedinthepublic
administration,justicesystem,andeducation.ForeigncitizensandstatelesspersonsthatliveinRomania
haveaccesstojusticeandeducationintheirownlanguage.[234]EnglishandFrencharethemainforeign
languagestaughtinschools.[235]In2010,theOrganisationinternationaledelaFrancophonieidentifies4
756100Frenchspeakersinthecountry.[236]Accordingtothe2012Eurobarometer,Englishisspokenby
31%ofRomanians,Frenchisspokenby17%,andItalianby7%.[237]

Religion

Romaniaisasecularstateandhasnostatereligion.Anoverwhelmingmajorityofthepopulation
identifythemselvesasChristians,with86.7%beingOrthodoxChristiansbelongingtotheRomanian
Orthodox
ReligioninRomania
Church.
Percentage
Other
Religion
(2011
census)

TheIaiMetropolitanCathedral,
foundedin1833,isthelargest
OrthodoxchurchinRomania.

EasternOrthodox
RomanCatholic
Reformed
Pentecostal
GreekCatholic
Baptist
SeventhdayAdventist
Other
NonReligious

86.5%
4.6%
3.2%
1.9%
0.8%
0.6%
0.4%
1.8%
0.2%

denominationsincludeProtestantism(5.2%),
RomanCatholicism(4.7%),andGreekCatholicism(0.9%).Theremaininglessthan4%ofthe
populationinclude67,500MuslimsofTurkishandTatarethnicity,6,000Jews,and23,000peoplewho
areofnoreligionoratheist.[226]
TheRomanianOrthodoxChurchisanautocephalousEasternOrthodoxChurchinfullcommunionwith
otherOrthodoxchurches,withaPatriarchasitsleader.ItistheonlyOrthodoxchurchusingaRomance
languageandthesecondlargestinsizeaftertheRussianOrthodoxChurch.Itsjurisdictioncoversthe
territoryofRomania,withdiocesesforRomanianslivinginnearbyMoldova,SerbiaandHungary,as
wellasdiasporacommunitiesinCentralandWesternEurope,NorthAmericaandOceania.

Urbanization
Although54.0%ofthepopulationlivedin2011inurbanareas,[2]thispercentagehasbeenonthedecline
since1996.[238]Countieswithover2/3urbanpopulationareHunedoara,BraovandConstana,while
withlessthanathirdareDmbovia(30.06%)andGiurgiuandTeleorman.[2]Bucharestisthecapital
andthelargestcityinRomania,withapopulationofover1.8millionin2011.Itslargerurbanzonehasa
populationofalmost2.2million,[239]whichareplannedtobeincludedintoametropolitanareaupto20
timestheareaofthecityproper.[240][241][242]Another19citieshaveapopulationofover100,000,with
ClujNapocaandTimioaraofslightlymorethan300,000inhabitants,andIai,Constana,Craiova,
Braov,GalaiandPloietiwithover200,000inhabitants.[170]Metropolitanareashavebeenconstituted
formostofthesecities.

Education
SincetheRomanianRevolutionof1989,theRomanianeducationalsystemhasbeeninacontinuous
processofreformthathasreceivedmixedcriticism.[244]In2004,some4.4millionofthepopulation
wereenrolledinschool.Outofthese,650,000inkindergarten(36years),3.11millioninprimaryand
secondarylevel,and650,000intertiarylevel(universities).[245]Inthesameyear,theadultliteracyrate
was97.3%(45thworldwide),whilethecombinedgrossenrollmentratioforprimary,secondaryand
tertiaryschoolswas75%(52ndworldwide).[246]Schoolingiscompulsoryuntilthefirsttenyearsofthe
primaryandsecondaryschools.[247]Therealsoexistsasemilegal,informalprivatetutoringsystemused
mostlyduringsecondaryschool,whichhasprosperedduringtheCommunistregime.[248]

HighereducationisalignedwiththeEuropeanhighereducation
area.TheresultsofthePISAassessmentstudyinschoolsforthe
year2000placedRomaniaonthe34thrankoutof42participant
countrieswithageneralweightedscoreof432representing85%
ofthemeanOECDscore.[249]AlexandruIoanCuzaUniversityof
Iai,BabeBolyaiUniversityofClujNapoca,Universityof
Bucharest,andWestUniversityofTimioarahavebeenincluded
intheQSWorldUniversityRankings'top800.[250]

UniversityofBucharestwasopened
in1864.

Healthcare
Romaniahasauniversalhealthcaresystem,andtotalhealthexpendituresbythegovernmentareroughly
5%oftheGDP.[251]Itcoversmedicalexaminations,anysurgicalinterventions,andanypostoperator
medicalcare,andprovidesfreeorsubsidizedmedicineforarangeofdiseases.Thestateisobligedto
fundpublichospitalsandclinics.Themostcommoncausesofdeatharecardiovasculardiseasesand
cancer.Transmissiblediseases,suchastuberculosis,syphilisorviralhepatitis,aremorecommonthanin
WesternEurope.[252]In2010,Romaniahad428stateand25privatehospitals,[253]with6.2hospitalbeds
per1,000people,[254]andover200,000medicalstaff,includingover52,000doctors.[255]Asof2013,the
emigrationrateofdoctorswas9%,higherthantheEuropeanaverageof2.5%.[256]

Culture
Artsandmonuments
ThetopicoftheoriginoftheRomaniansbegantobediscussedandby
theendofthe18thcenturyamongtheTransylvanianSchool
scholars.[257]Severalwritersrosetoprominencein19thcentury,
includingGeorgeCobuc,IoanSlaviciMihailKoglniceanu,Vasile
Alecsandri,NicolaeBlcescu,IonLucaCaragiale,IonCreang,and
MihaiEminescu,thelaterbeingconsideredthegreatestandmost
influentialRomanianpoet,particularlyforthepoemLuceafrul.[258]In
the20thcentury,Romanianartistsreachedinternationalacclaim,
includingTristanTzara,MarcelJanco,[259]MirceaEliade,Nicolae
Grigorescu,MarinPreda,LiviuRebreanu,[260]EugneIonesco,Emil
Cioran,andConstantinBrncui.Thelatterhasasculpturalensemblein
TrguJiu,whilehissculptureBirdinSpace,wasauctionedin2005for
$27.5million.[261][262]RomanianbornHolocaustsurvivorElieWiesel
receivedtheNobelPeacePrizein1986,whilewriterHertaMller
receivedtheNobelPrizeinLiteraturein2009.

MihaiEminescuisthe
nationalpoetofRomania
andMoldova.

Incinema,severalmoviesoftheRomanianNewWavehaveachievedinternationalacclaim.Atthe
CannesFilmFestival,TheDeathofMr.LzrescubyCristiPuiuwonPrixuncertainregardin2005,
while4Months,3Weeksand2DaysbyCristianMungiuwonPalmed'Orin2007.[263]AttheBerlin
InternationalFilmFestival,IfIWanttoWhistle,IWhistlebyFlorinerbanwontheJuryGrandPrixin
2010,[264]andChild'sPosebyClinPeterNetzerwontheGoldenBearin2013.[265]

TheannualGeorgeEnescuFestivalisheldinBucharestinhonorofthe20thcenturyemponymous
composer.[266]MusicianslikeAngelaGheorghiu,Tudor
Gheorghe,GheorgheZamfir,[267][268]Inna[269]haveachieved
variouslevelsofinternationalacclaim.AttheEurovisionSong
ContestRomaniansingershaveachievedthirdplacein2005and
2010.[270]
ThelistofWorldHeritageSitesincludessixculturalsiteslocated
withinRomania,includingeightPaintedchurchesofnorthern
Moldavia,eightWoodenChurchesofMaramure,sevenVillages
VoroneMonasteryisaUNESCO
withfortifiedchurchesinTransylvania,theHorezuMonastery,
WorldHeritageSite.
andtheHistoricCentreofSighioara.[271]ThecityofSibiu,with
itsBrukenthalNationalMuseum,wasselectedasthe2007
[272]
EuropeanCapitalofCulture.
MultiplecastlesexistinRomania,includingpopulartouristattractions
[273]
ofPeleCastle,
CorvinCastle,and"Dracula'sCastle".[274]

Holidays,traditionsandcuisine
Thereare12nonworking
publicholidays,including
theGreatUnionDay,
celebratedon1December
incommemorationofthe
1918unionof
Transylvaniawith
Romania.[275]Winter
holidaysincludethe
Christmasfestivitiesand
TraditionallypaintedEastereggs
Folkloricdancegroupwearing
theNewYearduring
Romaniantraditionalcostumesfrom
which,variousunique
BistriaNsudcounty
folkloredancesandgamesarecommon:pluguorul,sorcova,
ursul,andcapra.[276][277]ThetraditionalRomaniandressthat
otherwisehaslargelyfelloutofuseduringthe20thcentury,isapopularceremonialvestmentwornon
thesefestivities,especiallyintheruralareas.[278]SacrificesoflivepigsduringChristmasandlambs
duringEasterhasrequiredaspecialderogationfromEUlawafter2007.[279]DuringEaster,paintedeggs
areverycommon,whileon1Marchfeaturesmriorgifting,atraditionlikelyofThracianorigin.[280]
RomaniancuisinesharessomesimilaritieswithotherBalkancuisinessuchasGreek,Bulgarianand
Turkishcuisine.[281]Ciorbincludesawiderangeofsoursoups,whilemititei,mmlig(similarto
polenta),andsarmalearefeaturedcommonlyinmaincourses.Pork,chickenandbeefarethepreferred
meats,butlambandfisharealsopopular.[282]Certaintraditionalrecipesaremadeindirectconnection
withtheholidays:chiftele,tobandtochituraatChristmasdrob,pascandcozonacatEasterandother
Romanianholidays.[283]uicisastrongplumbrandyreachinga70%alcoholcontentwhichisthe
country'straditionalalcoholicbeverage,takingasmuchas75%ofthenationalproduction(Romaniais
oneofthelargestplumproducersintheworld).[284][285]Traditionalalcoholicbeveragesalsoinclude
wine,rachiu,palincandviinat,butbeerconsumptionhasincreaseddramaticallyovertherecent
years.[286]

Sports
AssociationfootballisthemostpopularsportinRomaniawithovera
millionplayers,ofwhich100,000areregisteredsportsmen.[287][288]The
governingbodyistheRomanianFootballFederation,whichbelongsto
UEFA.TheRomanianationalfootballteamhastakenpartseventimesin
theFIFAWorldCupgamesandhaditsmostsuccessfulperiodduring
the1990s,whentheyreachedthequarterfinalsofthe1994FIFAWorld
CupandwasrankedthirdbyFIFAin1997.[289]Thecoreplayerofthis
"GoldenGeneration"wasGheorgheHagi,whowasnicknamed"the
MaradonaoftheCarpathians."[290][291]Othersuccessfulplayersinclude
AdrianMutu,CristianChivu,CiprianMarica,DanPetrescuandVlad
Chiriche.ThemostfamoussuccessfulclubisSteauaBucuretiandwas
thefirstEasternEuropeanteamtowintheEuropeanChampionsCupin
1986,andbingrunnersupandin1989.DinamoBucuretireachedthe
EuropeanChampions'Cupsemifinalin1984andtheCupWinners'Cup
semifinalin1990.OtherimportantRomanianfootballclubsareRapid
Bucureti,UTAArad,UniversitateaCraiova,CFRClujandPetrolul
Ploieti.

GheorgheHagi,leaderofthe
bestperforminggeneration
oftheRomanianational
footballteaminthe1990s

Tennisisthesecondmostpopularsport,withover15,000registered
players.[288]RomaniareachedtheDavisCupfinalsthreetimes(1969,1971,1972).ThetennisplayerIlie
NstasewonseveralGrandSlamtitles,andwasthefirstplayertoberankedasnumber1byATP
between1973and1974.VirginiaRuziciwontheFrenchOpenin1978,andwasrunnerupin1980,
SimonaHalepplayedthefinalin2014andiscurrentlyranked2ndbytheWTA.[292]Otherpopularteam
sportclubsarerugbyunionandhandball.[288]TherugbynationalteamhascompetedineveryRugby
WorldCup,whileboththemen'sandwomen'shandballnationalteamsaremultiplesworldchampions,
withthefemale'sunder18teambecomingworldchampionsin2014.[293]On13January2010,Cristina
NeagubecamethefirstRomanianinhandballtowintheIHFWorldPlayeroftheYearaward.[294]
Popularindividualsportsincludeathletics,chess,dancesport,andcombatsports.[288]Whileithasa
limitedpopularitynowadays,oinisatraditionalRomaniansportinggamesimilartobaseballthathas
beencontinuouslypracticedsinceatleastthe14thcentury.[295]
RomaniaparticipatedintheOlympicGamesforthefirsttimein1900andhastakenpartin18ofthe24
summergames.IthasbeenoneofthemoresuccessfulcountriesattheSummerOlympicGames,witha
totalof301medalswonthroughouttheyears,ofwhich88goldones,ranking15thoverall,andsecond
(behindHungary)ofthenationsthathaveneverhostedthegame.Itparticipatedatthe1984Summer
OlympicsinLosAngelesindefianceofaWarsawPactboycottandfinishedsecondingoldmedals(20)
andthirdintotalmedalcount(53).[296]Almostaquarterofallthemedalsand25ofthegoldoneswere
woningymnastics,withNadiaComnecibecomingthefirstgymnastevertoscoreaperfectteninan
Olympiceventatthe1976SummerOlympics.[297]Romaniancompetitorshavewongoldmedalsin
otherOlympicsports:rowing,athletics,canoeing,wrestling,shooting,fencing,swimming,weightlifting,
boxing,andjudo.AttheWinterOlympicGames,Romaniahaswononlyabronzemedalinbobsleighat
the1968WinterOlympics.

Seealso
IndexofRomaniarelatedarticles

OutlineofRomania
RomaniaWikipediabook

Notes
a. ^"amscrisacestesfentecridenvturi,sfiepopilorrumnesti...s
neleagtoioameniicinesrumnicretini""ntrebarecretineasc"
(1559),Bibliografiaromneascveche,IV,1944,p.6.
"...cvzumcumtoatelimbileauinflurescntrucuvinteleslvitealui
Dumnezeunumainoiromniiprelimbnuavem.Pentruaceiacumare
muncscoasemdelimbajidoveascsigreceascsisrbeascprelimba
romneasc5crialeluiMoisiproroculsipatrucriiledruimvoo
frairumniileauscrisncheltuialmult...ileaudruitvoofrailor
romni,...ileauscrisvoofrailorromni"PaliadelaOrtie(1581
1582),Bucureti,1968.
naraArdealuluinulcuiescnumaiunguri,ceisaipesteseamde
muliiromnipestetotlocul...,GrigoreUreche,Letopiseulrii
Moldovei,p.133134.
b. ^InhiswellknownliterarytestamentIenchiVcrescuwrites:
"UrmailormeiVcreti!/Lasvoumotenire:/Creterealimbei
romneti/apatrieicinstire."
Inthe"IstoriafaptelorluiMavrogheneVodiarzmerieidintimpullui
pela1790"aPitarHristachewrites:"ncepdupameaideie/Cuvreo
ctevacondeie/Povesteamavrogheneasc/DelaaraRomneasc.
c. ^In1816,theGreekscholarDimitrieDanielPhilippidepublishedin
LeipzighisworkTheHistoryofRomania,followedbyTheGeographyof
Romania.
OnthetombstoneofGheorgheLazrinAvrig(builtin1823)thereisthe
inscription:"PrecumHristospeLazrdinmorianviat/AatuRomnia
dinsomnaideteptat."
d. ^2002censusdata,basedonPopulationbyethnicity
(http://www.insse.ro/cms/files/statistici/comunicate/alte/2012/Comunicat%
20DATE%20PROVIZORII%20RPL%202011.pdf),gaveatotalof
535,250RomainRomania.Manyethnicitiesnotrecordedatall,sincethey
donothaveIDcards
(http://www.edrc.ro/docs/docs/Romii_din_Romania.pdf).International
sourcesgivehigherfiguresthantheofficialcensus(
(http://europeandcis.undp.org/uploads/public/File/rbec_web/vgr/chapter1.1.
pdf)UNDP'sRegionalBureauforEurope,WorldBank
(http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/ECAEX
T/EXTROMA/0,,contentMDK:20333806~menuPK:615999~pagePK:6416
8445~piPK:64168309~theSitePK:615987,00.html),"International
AssociationforOfficialStatistics"
(https://web.archive.org/web/20080226202154/http://www.msd.govt.nz/do
cuments/publications/msd/journal/issue25/25pages154164.pdf)(PDF).

NadiaComneciwasthefirst
gymnasttoscoreaperfect
teninanOlympicevent.

cuments/publications/msd/journal/issue25/25pages154164.pdf)(PDF).
Archivedfromtheoriginal
(http://www.msd.govt.nz/documents/publications/msd/journal/issue25/25
pages154164.pdf)on26February2008.

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Retrievedfrom"http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Romania&oldid=646751340"
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