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Connection Handbook 1
BACKGROUND AND THEORY

Handbook 1: Design of Structural Steel Connections

Handbook 1:
Design of Structural Steel Connections

First Edition 2007


Author T.J. Hogan
Contributing author and editor S.A. Munter
Level 13, 99 Mount Street, North Sydney. NSW 2060. Phone 9931 6666. Email enquiries@steel.org.au Website: www.steel.org.au

Handbook 1.
Design of structural steel connections.

by

T.J.Hogan

contributing author & editor


S.A.Munter

first edition - 2007

AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE


(ABN)/ACN (94) 000 973 839
Handbook 1.
Design of structural steel connections
Copyright 2007 by AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE

Published by: AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without
the written permission of Australian Steel Institute.
Note to commercial software developers: Copyright of the information contained within this publication is
held by Australian Steel Institute (ASI). Written permission must be obtained from ASI for the use of any
information contained herein which is subsequently used in any commercially available software package.
FIRST EDITION 2007 (LIMIT STATES)
National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry:

Hogan, T.J.
Handbook 1: Design of structural steel connections
1 st ed.
Bibliography.
ISBN 978 0 909945947 (pbk.).
1.
Steel, StructuralStandards - Australia.
2.
Steel, StructuralSpecifications - Australia.
3.
Joints, (Engineering)Design and construction.
I.
Munter, S.A.
II.
Australian Steel Institute.
III.
Title
(Series: Structural steel connection series; 1).

This publication originated as part of


Design of structural connections
First edition 1978
Second edition 1981
Third edition 1988
Fourth edition 1994

Also in this series:


Design capacity tables for structural steel, Volume 3: Simple connections open sections
Design Guide 1: Bolting in structural steel connections
Design Guide 2: Welding in structural steel connections
Design Guide 3: Web side plate connections
Design Guide 4: Flexible end plate connections
Design Guide 5: Angle cleat connections
Design Guide 6: Seated connections

Disclaimer: The information presented by the Australian Steel Institute in this publication has been
prepared for general information only and does not in any way constitute recommendations or
professional advice. While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the
accuracy of the information contained in this publication, this information should not be used or relied
upon for any specific application without investigation and verification as to its accuracy, suitability and
applicability by a competent professional person in this regard. The Australian Steel Institute, its officers
and employees and the authors and editors of this publication do not give any warranties or make any
representations in relation to the information provided herein and to the extent permitted by law (a) will
not be held liable or responsible in any way; and (b) expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for
any loss or damage costs or expenses incurred in connection with this publication by any person, whether
that person is the purchaser of this publication or not. Without limitation, this includes loss, damage, costs
and expenses incurred as a result of the negligence of the authors, editors or publishers.
The information in this publication should not be relied upon as a substitute for independent due
diligence, professional or legal advice and in this regards the services of a competent professional person
or persons should be sought.
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

ii

CONTENTS
Page
List of figures
List of tables
Preface
About the author
About the contributing author and editor
Acknowledgements

iv
v
vi
vii
vii
viii

1 CONCEPT OF DESIGN GUIDES............... 1


1.1 Background
1
2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION................... 2
2.1 General considerations
2
2.2 Forms of construction
3
2.3 Connection design models
6
2.4 Connection characteristics
7
3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS .................. 10
3.1 Bolt types and bolting categories
10
3.2 Bolt dimensions
11
3.3 Dimensions of wrenches for
installing bolts
12
3.4 Bolt mechanical properties
14
3.5 Design requirements for bolts
15
3.6 AS 4100 Design requirements
Strength limit state
17
3.7 AS 4100 design requirements
Serviceability limit state
23
3.8 Geometric requirements of
AS 4100 for bolted connections
26
3.9 Bolt group loaded in-plane
28
3.10 Design example No. 1 Design of
bolts in lap splice connection
39
3.11 Design example No. 2 Design of
bolt group loaded in-plane
41
3.12 Bolt group loaded out-of-plane
44
3.13 Prying action
46
3.14 Design example No. 3 Design
of bolt group loaded out-of-plane
50
4 WELDS AND WELD GROUPS................. 52
4.1 Weld types
52
4.2 Standard weld symbols
53
4.3 Selection of prequalified welding
consumables
54
4.4 Weld categories
55
4.5 Design of butt welds
Strength limit state
56
4.6 Design of fillet welds
Strength limit state
58
4.7 Weld group loaded in-plane
62
4.8 Weld group loaded out-of-plane
66

Page
4.9 Weld group loaded by general
set of design actions
4.10 Properties of common fillet
weld groups
4.11 Practical fillet weld groups
4.12 Design example No. 4
Design of fillet weld group
loaded in-plane
4.13 Design example No. 5
Design of fillet weld group loaded
out-of-plane

67
69
71

75

76

5 CONNECTION COMPONENTS ................77


5.1 Angle components
77
5.2 Flat bar components
79
5.3 Plate components
80
5.4 Design capacities
81
6 SUPPORTED MEMBERS .........................86
6.1 General
86
6.2 Uncoped sections
87
6.3 Design example No. 6
UB unholed and holed moment
and shear capacity
93
6.4 Single web coped sections
95
6.5 Design example No. 7
UB single web coped moment
and shear capacity
101
6.6 Double web coped sections
102
6.7 Design example No. 8
UB double web coped moment
and shear capacity
105
6.8 Lateral torsional buckling
106
6.9 Block shear failure of coped
sections
107
6.10 Web reinforcement of coped
supported members
109
7 SUPPORTING MEMBERS......................110
7.1 Rationalised dimensions
110
7.2 Gauge lines
113
8 MINIMUM DESIGN ACTIONS ON
CONNECTIONS......................................116
8.1 AS 4100 Requirements
116
9 REFERENCES........................................118
APPENDICES
A
Limcon software
B
ASI Handbook 1
comment form

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

120
125

iii

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1
Figure 2
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Figure 7
Figure 8
Figure 9
Figure 10
Figure 11
Figure 12
Figure 13
Figure 14

Figure 15
Figure 16

Figure 17
Figure 18
Figure 19
Figure 20
Figure 21
Figure 22

Figure 23

Figure 24
Figure 25
Figure 26
Figure 27
Figure 28
Figure 29
Figure 30
Figure 31
Figure 32

Page
Rigid connections ........................... 4
Simple connections ........................ 5
Moment rotation characteristics
of typical connections ..................... 7
End plate tear-out failure edge
distances ...................................... 16
End plate tear-out failure force
components .................................. 16
End plate tear-out, simple case .... 16
Lap joint and brace/gusset
connection .................................... 21
Bolt group subject to in-plane
moment ........................................ 28
Bolt group subject to shear
forces at centroid .......................... 29
Bolt group subject to a general
load set......................................... 29
Graphical relationshipBolt force
to component displacement......... 30
Horizontal and vertical bolt
forces at an extreme bolt .............. 31
Single bolt column loaded
in-plane......................................... 32
Single bolt columnForces
and edge distances for end plate
tear-out or bearing failure ............. 33
Double bolt column loaded
in-plane......................................... 35
Double bolt columnForces
and edge distances for end plate
tear-out or bearing failure ............. 36
Bolted plate splice ........................ 39
Bolt group loaded in-plane............ 41
Bolt group loaded out-of-plane
Design actons............................... 44
Double bolt column geometry ....... 45
Prying mechanism in T-stub
connection .................................... 46
Graphical relationshipBolt
load/applied load for a stiff
T-stub flange ................................ 47
Graphical relationshipBolt
load/applied load for a flexible
T-stub flange ................................ 47
T-stub critical dimensions and
design actions .............................. 48
T-stub parameters ........................ 48
Bolt group loaded out-of-plane ..... 50
T-stub geometry ........................... 51
Weld types.................................... 52
Symbols for welds on drawings .... 53
Design throat thickness of
incomplete penetration butt weld .. 57
Design throat thickness of
fillet welds..................................... 58
Design actions on a fillet weld ...... 60

Page
Figure 33 Design forces per unit length
parallel to weld group axes x, y, z .61
Figure 34 Fillet weld subject to longitudinal
and transverse shear forces ..........61
Figure 35 General fillet weld group................63
Figure 36 Horizontal and vertical weld
component forces at a point
in a weld group ..............................65
Figure 37 Fillet weld group loaded
out-of-plane ...................................66
Figure 38 General fillet weld group................67
Figure 39 Possible critical points in
particular fillet weld group..............71
Figure 40 Fillet weld group loaded inand out-of-plane ............................72
Figure 41 Two parallel vertical welds
loaded out-of-plane .......................72
Figure 42 Two parallel horizontal welds
loaded out-of-plane .......................74
Figure 43 Fillet weld group loaded in-plane ...75
Figure 44 Fillet weld group loaded
out-of-plane ...................................76
Figure 45 Rectangular connection
component geometry.....................81
Figure 46 Rectangular component design
moment capacityMajor axis........82
Figure 47 Rectangular component design
moment capacityMinor axis........82
Figure 48 Rectangular component design
capacity in axial tension ...............83
Figure 49 Examples of block shear
failure in components ....................84
Figure 50 Block shear area in components ...85
Figure 51 Section with holes in both flanges .88
Figure 52 Section with holes in one flange ....88
Figure 53 Section with holes in one flange ....89
Figure 54 Single web coped (SWC) sections 95
Figure 55 SWC universal beam (UB) ............95
Figure 56 T-Section of SWC UB showing
elastic neutral axis.........................96
Figure 57 SWC UB T-section with plastic
neutral axis in web.........................96
Figure 58 SWC UB T-section with plastic
neutral axis in the flange ...............97
Figure 59 SWC universal beam example ....101
Figure 60 Double web coped (DWC)
sections .......................................102
Figure 61 Elastic neutral axis in
DWC section ...............................103
Figure 62 DWC universal beam example ....105
Figure 63 Block shear failure in DWC
members .....................................107
Figure 64 Block shear area in SWC
and DWC members .....................108
Figure 65 Web reinforcement of coped
supported members.....................109

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

iv

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1
Table 2
Table 3
Table 4

Table 5
Table 6
Table 7
Table 8
Table 9
Table 10

Table 11
Table 12

Table 13

Table 14
Table 15
Table 16
Table 17
Table 18
Table 19
Table 20
Table 21
Table 22
Table 23

Table 24

Table 25
Table 26
Table 27

Page

Page

Bolt category identification


system .......................................... 10
Dimensions of commercial
bolts and nuts ............................... 11
Dimensions of high strength
structural bolts and nuts ............... 11
Dimensions of wrenches for
determining erection
clearances ................................12,13
Metric hexagon commercial bolts . 14
High strength structural bolts ........ 14
AS 4100 Clause 9.3.2 provisions,
strength limit state, static loads..... 17
Design areas of bolts.................... 18
Strength limit state commercial
bolts 4.6/S bolting category .......... 19
Strength limit state high strength
structural bolts 8.8/S, 8.8/TB,
8.8/TF bolting categories .............. 20
Reduction factor for lap
connections .................................. 22
AS 4100 Clause 9.3.3
provisions serviceability
limit stateStatic loads ................ 24
Serviceability limit state high
strength structural bolts 8.8/TF
bolting category ............................ 25
Minimum edge distances .............. 26
AS 4100 provisions for slotted
and oversize holes........................ 27
Single bolt column ........................ 32
Bolt group design factors
for single column of bolts .............. 34
Double bolt column....................... 35
Bolt group factors for double
column of bolts ............................. 37
Bolt group factors for double
column of bolts ............................. 38
Prequalified welding
consumables ................................ 54
Strength of weld metal .................. 54
Design capacities of equal
leg fillet welds per unit length
Category SP ................................. 59
Design capacities of equal
leg fillet welds per unit length
Category GP................................. 59
Properties of common fillet weld
groups treated as line elements.... 69
Equal anglesRationalised
dimensions for detailing ................ 77
Unequal anglesRationalised
dimensions for detailing ................ 77

Table 28 Gauge lines for angles ..................78


Table 29 Strengths of angles to
AS/NZS 3679.1 Grade 300............78
Table 30 Flats ..............................................79
Table 31 Strength of plate to AS/NZS 3678
Grade 250 .....................................80
Table 32A Universal beams, Grade 300
Design section moment and
web capacities...............................91
Table 32B Parallel flange channels,
Grade 300Design section
moment and web capacities ..........91
Table 32C Welded beams, Grade 300
Design section moment and
web capacities...............................92
Table 33A Single web coped universal
beams, Grade 300Design
section moment and shear
capacities ......................................99
Table 33B Single web coped parallel
flange channels, Grade 300
Design section moment and
shear capacities ..........................100
Table 34A Double web coped universal
beams, Grade 300Design
section moment and shear
capacities ....................................104
Table 34B Double web coped parallel
flange channels, Grade 300
Design section moment and
shear capacities ..........................104
Table 35 Universal beams rationalised
dimensions for detailing...............110
Table 36 Universal columns rationalised
dimensions for detailing...............110
Table 37 Welded beams rationalised
dimensions for detailing...............111
Table 38 Welded columns rationalised
dimensions for detailing...............111
Table 39 Parallel flange channels
rationalised dimensions for
detailing.......................................112
Table 40 Gauge lines for universal
sections .......................................113
Table 41 Gauge lines for welded section
flanges.........................................114
Table 42 Gauge lines for welded section
webs............................................114
Table 43 Gauge lines for parallel flange
channels......................................115

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

PREFACE
This new series of connection publications by the Australian Institute of Steel (ASI) covering
capacity tables, theory and design of individual simple connections will be known as the
Structural Steel Connections Series, Part 1: 1 st ed. 2007 (Connection Series, Part 1). This
Connection Series, Part 1 details the method of design and provides capacity tables and
detailing parameters for a range of simple connections commonly used for structural steelwork
in Australia. Connections have a major engineering and economic importance in steel structures
influencing design, detailing, fabrication and erection costs. Standardisation of design approach
integrated with industry detailing is the key to minimum costs at each stage. This Connections
Series, Part 1 in conjunction with the future Connection Series, Part 2 for rigid connections
(collectively the Structural Steel Connections Series or Connection Series) replaces and
enhances an ASI flagship publication first released in 1978 at which time connection design
theories were developed for the purpose of generating and releasing connection capacity
tables. The first three editions were released in permissible stress format. The fourth edition
Design of Structural Connections (often referred to as the Green Book) was released in 1994 in
limit state format but there was no subsequent release of a limit state companion document
containing connection design capacity tables.
Handbook 1: Design of structural steel connections is the hub of a new Connections Series
expanding and revising the elemental connection theory contained in previous editions of
Design of Structural Connections. This has been achieved through extensive local and
international literature reviews using ASIs close association with like organisations and
searching the wealth of material contained in the ASI Library facility (the largest in the Southern
Hemisphere). This process consolidated industry best practice, references and research
papers. Handbook 1 formulates the elemental equations and procedures for the assessment of
bolts, bolt groups, welds, weld groups, connection components and supporting members in
standardised structural connections. Dimensions and clearances for bolt installation have been
revised and new theory for bolt groups loaded out-of-plane added.
The new Connections Series format with separate design guides for individual connection types
is intended to facilitate addition to or revision of connection model theory using relevant new
local or international research as deemed appropriate by the ASI. Connection models
developed using the Handbook 1 theory follow a stylised page format with a numbered DESIGN
CHECK procedure to simplify connection capacity assessment. This Connection Series, Part 1
also revises the third edition of Bolting of steel structures in Design Guide 1 now known as
Bolting in structural steel connections. Another important design guide (Design Guide 2) has
been specifically developed called Welding in structural steel connections. Design Capacity
Tables V3: Simple Connections Open Sections consolidates design capacity tables contained
in the individual connection design guides (specifically Design Guide 3: Web Side Plate, Design
Guide 4: Flexible End Plate and Design Guide 5: Angle Cleat Connections) and is known as the
Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel V3, Simple Connections (Simple Connection DCTs
V3).
Engineering Systems has worked closely with the ASI to further develop Limcon as the
companion program for this new Connection Series. The latest version of Limcon (V3.5) fully
implements the new connection design models and was employed in checking the design
tables. The Limcon output for one or more of the worked examples is included in an appendix to
each design guide for each connection design type. The program is an efficient tool covering
the full range of structural connections, including those beyond the scope of capacity tables
provided in the Connection Series.
An appendix to each publication in the series also contains an ASI comment form. Users of this
Connections Series are encouraged to photocopy this one page form and forward any
suggested improvements which may be incorporated into future editions.

T.J. Hogan
S.A. Munter

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

vi

ABOUT THE AUTHOR


Tim Hogan is Director of SCP Consulting Pty Ltd. His academic achievements include a
Bachelor of Engineering from the University of NSW with 1st Class Honours and the University
Medal. Post graduate qualifications include a Master of Engineering Science and a Master of
Business Administration. Tim is a Member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with CPEng
and FIE Aust. status.
His early experience was on bridge design and construction with the NSW Public Works
Department and subsequently as Development Engineer and then Engineering Manager with
the Australian Institute of Steel Construction until 1980. Consulting experience with SCP
Consulting since 1980 has included design and supervision of large steel framed buildings,
industrial buildings, mill buildings, retail developments, defence infrastructure and composite
steel-concrete buildings. His published works deal primarily with the areas of composite
construction, steel connections, fabrication and erection of steel structures and he was a major
contributor and editor of the Commentary to AS 4100. He is a member of a number of
Standards Australia Committees dealing with steel and composite structures and is currently
Chairman of Committee BD-001 Steel Structures and BD-032 Composite Construction. He
received an award from Standards Australia for his contributions to writing of Australian
Standards.

ABOUT THE CONTRIBUTING AUTHOR AND EDITOR


Scott Munter is now the National Structural Decking Manager for BlueScope Lysaght. He was
formerly the National ManagerEngineering & Construction for the Australian Steel Institute
(ASI) and worked in this role from 2000 to 2007. This key role involved setting the technical
leadership of ASI in support of design and construction to enable the efficient specification and
use of steel in construction. Responsibilities included ASI technical publications, advice on
industry best practice, ASI and Code committees, presentations and lecturing.
Scott is a Member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with CP Eng & NPER (Structural)
status. He holds a Bachelor of Structural Engineering from the University of Technology,
Sydney with 1 st Class Honours and the University Medal. His professional career includes 15
years in consulting civil and structural engineering working for Tim Hogan at SCP Consulting.
His consulting experience includes a strong steel focus with major infrastructure, industrial and
commercial developments plus domestic construction.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to extend special thanks to:
The ASI Connections Steering Ccommittee consisting of Richard Collins (Engineering Systems),
Anthony Ng (OneSteel Market Mills), Arun Syam (Smorgon Steel Tube Mills) for their respective
contributions with the development and review of the technical and editorial content of the
revised ASI Connection Manual.
Significant contributions were made by:

Richard CollinsEngineering Systems in the development and upgrade of the Limcon


software code in parallel with the design theory aiding in the editing and validation of the
revised models.

Standards Australia for providing their technical typesetting expertise.

Whizzcad Pty Ltd with drafting and graphics for publishing.

ASI State Engineering & Construction Special


engineering and industry review of manuscripts.

Sub-Committees

for

progressive

Together with support of:

All facets of the ASI membership including design engineers, steelwork detailers and
fabricators in contributing industry best practice and standards through ASI surveys and
direct consultation to establish the theory and geometry in this new ASI Connection
Manual.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

viii

CONCEPT OF DESIGN GUIDES

1.1

Background

The ASI was formed in 2002 through the merger of Australian Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC) and Steel Institute of Australia (SIA). The former AISC published a design manual giving
guidance on the design of structural connections in steelwork (Ref. 2).
ASI is updating Reference 2 by way of the Connection Series including design guides, dealing
with connection parts and individual connection types. The overall series of connections
publications will be known as the Connections Series.
The former AISC also published a manual containing standardised detailing for simple
connections, accompanied by load tables (Ref. 3).
Wherever possible each design guide for individual connection types contains standardised
detailing and design capacity tables for the connection type covered by that design guide
derived using the design models in that design guide.
The Connection Series is a specialist series devoted to the design of connections in structural
steel in accordance with current Australian Standard AS4100 (Ref 1.), reflecting the current
state of knowledge of connection behaviour from test results. In some instances, the test
evidence is sparse and in other instances the evidence is contradictory or clouded. Each design
guide in the Connection Series has been written by weighing the evidence to provide
recommended design procedures based in part on the design procedures used in equivalent
manuals and/or published papers.
Each design guide is intended to provide a design model which gives a reasonable estimate of
connection design capacity and effort has been expended in researching and developing design
models which can be justified on the basis of the available research and current design
practice. It is to be emphasised that for the connections model presented, the design model is
not the only possible model. It is therefore not intended to suggest that other models may
not result in adequate connection capacity and further reference is made to the
Disclaimer on page ii of this publication as to the required investigation and verification
by a competent professional person or persons in regards to the accuracy, suitability and
applicability of the materials provided in this Connections Series.
The connections dealt with are those presently in common use in Australia and reflect the types
of connections covered within the earlier AISC Standardized Structural Connections (Ref. 3).

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.1

General considerations

In structural steel connections, there are two fundamental considerations:


(a)

the connection designer requires a realistic estimate of connection strength in order that a
connection will be economical (not over-designed) and safe (design capacity exceeds
design actions); and

(b)

the connection must be detailed in such a way that it is economic to fabricate and erect,
while recognising that the connection detailing may have an important impact on the
strength of the connection.

Any design model for assessing the strength of a connection must take account of the following
four elements:
(i)

the strength of the fasteners (bolts and welds);

(ii)

the strength of the connection components (plates, flat bars, angles, gusset plates);

(iii)

the strength of the connected member in the vicinity of the connection;

(iv)

the strength of the supporting member in the vicinity of the connection.

Codes for the design of steel structures primarily deal with member design as a whole, rather
than specifically allowing for local effects, and provide only the basic information on fastener
design. No code specifies a detailed design procedure for any type of connection, leaving the
assessment of how a connection behaves and how its behaviour should be allowed for in design
to the individual designer. This presents the designer with a considerable task considering the
large number of different connection types that may be encountered, each requiring individual
research and assessment. A series such as this seeks to assist the designer by providing
guidance in order to reduce the task considerably.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.2

Forms of construction

AS 4100 allows for three forms of construction which relate to the behaviour of the connections.
It then requires that the design of the connections be such that the structure is capable of
resisting all design actions, calculated by assuming that the connections are appropriate to the
form of construction of the structure or structural part. The design of the connections required is
to be consistent with the form of construction assumed.
The three forms of construction are:
Rigid constructionFor rigid construction, the connections are assumed to have sufficient
rigidity to hold the original angles between the members unchanged. The joint
deformations must be such that they have no significant influence on the distribution of
the action effects nor on the overall deformation of the frame.
Semi-rigid constructionFor semi-rigid construction, the connections may not have sufficient
rigidity to hold the original angles between the members unchanged, but are required to
have the capacity to furnish dependable and known degree of flexural restraint. The
relationship between the degree of flexural restraint and the level of the load effects is
required to be established by methods based on test results.
Simple constructionFor simple construction, the connections at the ends of members are
assumed not to develop bending moments. Connections between members in simple
construction must be capable of deforming to provide the required rotation at the
connection and are required to not develop a level of restraining bending moment which
adversely affects any part of the structure. The rotation capacity of the connection must
be provided by the detailing of the connection and must have been demonstrated
experimentally. The connection is then required to be considered as subject to reaction
shear forces acting at an eccentricity appropriate to the connection detailing.
Examples of rigid connections include (Figure 1):
welded moment connection
bolted moment end plate
moment splice (bolted or welded)
moment transmitting base plate.
Examples of simple connections include (Figure 2):
angle seat
bearing pad
flexible end plate
angle cleat
web side plate or fin plate.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

FIGURE 1 RIGID CONNECTIONS

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

FIGURE 2 SIMPLE CONNECTIONS

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.3

Connection design models

Clause 9.1.3 of AS 4100 (Ref. 1) nominates the basic requirements that any design model must
have for the design of a steel connection if the design model is to be acceptable. These
requirements are as follows:
Each element in a connection shall be designed so that the structure is capable of
resisting all design actions. The design capacities of each element shall be not less than
the calculated design action effects.
Connections and the adjacent areas of members shall be designed by distributing the
design action effects so that they comply with the following requirements:
(a)

The distributed design action effects are in equilibrium with the design action effects
acting on the connection.

(b)

The deformations in the connection are within the deformation capacities of the
connection elements.

(c)

All of the connection elements and the adjacent areas of members are capable of
resisting the design action effects acting on them.

(d)

The connection elements shall remain stable under the design action effects and
deformations.

Design shall be on the basis of a recognised method supported by experimental evidence.


Residual actions due to the installation of bolts need not be considered.
The onus is placed on the structural steel designer to ensure that the actual behaviour of a
connection does not have a deleterious effect on the members of the steel frame and that the
connection conforms to the requirements specified in AS 4100 (Ref. 1).
AS 4100 attempts to correct for the difference between assumed and real behaviour only in the
case of simple construction. AS 4100 recognises that real simple connections will actually
transmit some bending moment as well as the shear force for which such connections are
designed (see Section 2.4).
These bending moments are conservatively neglected in proportioning the beams, since their
magnitudes are at present not reliably known, but they are accounted for in proportioning the
columns through the application of AS 4100 Clause 4.3.4, which requires the line of action of a
beam reaction to be taken at 100 mm from the face of the column towards the span, or at the
centre of bearing, whichever is the greater. Thus all building columns in practice become beamcolumns, being designed for at least this minimum level of bending moment from a connection.
Note that loss of rigidity in real rigid connections will cause a redistribution of bending
moments in a frame which may adversely affect some members (see Section 2.4).

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.4

Connection characteristics

Figure 3 illustrates typical moment-rotation characteristics for a variety of both simple and
rigid connections. It is clear from this figure that no connection is either fully rigid (vertical axis)
or truly pinned (horizontal axis) and it is also apparent that whether a connection is rigid or
simple may well depend on the rotation which is imposed on it by the supported member.
Although no connections are ideal pins, all of the typical simple connections would be suitable
for simple design within the meaning of Clause 4.2 of AS 4100. Connections connect a
member to a support. In the case of simple connections, supports may be considered to be
flexible or stiff, in the extreme. In practice, no support is purely flexible (i.e. all beam end
rotation is accommodated by movement of the support) nor purely stiff (i.e. all beam end
rotation is accommodated by deformation within the connection), but rather lies somewhere
between the two extremes.

FIGURE 3 MOMENT ROTATION CHARACTERISTICS OF TYPICAL CONNECTIONS


In a true flexible support situation, the laws of statics demand that the bolt or weld groups and
the connection components must resist the full effect of the bending moment and shear at the
position of the connection.
The bending moment at the support is a function of the stiffness and strength of the support and
of the supported member, the detailing and strength of the bolt and weld groups, and the
stiffness and strength of the connection components. Significant rotation may take place in the
bolt group or in the connection components.
There are two extremes of design approach possible with a stiff support situation:
(a)

maintain a significant stiffness and strength throughout all elements of the connection;

(b)

arrange that some element of the connection is rotationally flexible (while not impairing
the load carrying capability of the connection).
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

It is generally assumed that the angle seat, bearing pad, flexible end plate and the angle cleat
connections can be detailed into category (b). It is, however, necessary in dimensioning the
components for these connections to ensure that as much flexibility as possible is achieved.
Making the flexible component too stiff places unnecessary rotation requirements and bending
moments on the other components and the support.
The web side plate connection nominally seems to fit into category (a). The weld is stiff and
possesses little ductile rotational capacity. The plate may be capable of significant rotation if a
plastic hinge can form in it. The bolt group is also capable of significant rotation and tests
suggest that most of the rotation occurs in the bolt group. Obviously, where the rotation occurs
is a function of the relative stiffnesses and strengths of the components, and their interactions.
A further complication is that it is possible to have two extremes of behaviour with a simple
connection attached to a stiff support:
(a)

rotation capacity provided directly adjacent to the support (flexible end plate, flexible
angle cleat);

(b)

rotation capacity provided at a distance from the support (angle seat, web side plate).

Note that case (b) requires that the support and the components between the hinge and the
support always be subject to bending moment as well as shear force. Using the recommended
design models for simple connections in relevant Design Guides of this Manual, the possibility
of either a stiff or a flexible support is accounted for in the formulation of the design model.
Another observation also should be made. In determining the design model to be adopted for a
simple or rigid connection, the detailing practice, the effect of tolerances and the magnitude of
the design capacities of connection elements must all be considered. Connection detailing
practice differs between countries, as do the tolerances on the lengths of members, the
tolerances on the positioning of members and the design capacities in many of the connection
elements.
These factors may alter the significance of some aspects of any design model and consequently
different design models may be appropriate in different countries. These factors can also create
problems with the analysis of results from much of the research data, as the failure loads of the
connection are often compared with the relevant design capacities of the time rather than being
compared with the measured strength of the individual components within the connection.
It is very important to note that virtually all of the reported testing of simple connections has
been carried out in the stiff support situation. This is of some significance in assessing the
results and the reported connection behaviour, and is another reason why there is no distinction
in any of the Design Guides of this Manual between a stiff and a flexible support condition in the
recommended design models for any simple connection.
This Manual meets the requirements of AS 4100 by providing a rational and recognised design
model for a range of common steel connections, each design model reflecting engineering
principles and known connection behaviour from experimental data in each Design Guide. The
emphasis in this Manual is on practical design models whose assumptions are transparent to
the user. The model in each Design Guide is related to current codes of Standards Australia in
respect of member and fastener design, and member and fastener mechanical properties, which
are presented in this Design Guide.
The philosophy of the Manual is the same as that espoused in Reference 4, being as follows:
(i)

take into account overall connection behaviour, carry out an appropriate analysis in order
to determine a realistic distribution of forces within the connection;

(ii)

ensure that each component or fastener in each action path has sufficient capacity to
transmit the applied action;

(iii)

recognise that this procedure can only give a connection where equilibrium is capable of
being achieved but where compatibility is unlikely to be satisfied, and therefore ensure
that the connection elements are capable of ductile behaviour.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

Connections are considered in the Manual and in AS 4100 to consist of the following connection
elements:
(A)

fasteners (bolts or welds);

(B)

components (plates, gussets, cleats);

(C)

supported members;

(D)

supporting members,

all of whose design capacities must be evaluated in order to estimate the design capacity of a
connection. This Guide deals with the design capacity of these elements as isolated elements
so that the formulae derived can be used in later Guides concerned with individual connections.
The design models contained within this Manual are considered to be applicable only to
connections which are essentially statically loaded. Connections subject to dynamic loads,
earthquake loads or fatigue applications may require additional considerations.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.1

Bolt types and bolting


categories

In Australia a standard bolting category identification system has been adopted in AS 4100 for
use by designers and detailers. This system is summarised in Table 1.
TABLE 1
BOLT CATEGORY IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM
Details of bolt used
Property
class

Min. bolt
tensile
strength
(MPa)

Min. bolt
yield
strength
(MPa)

4.6/S

4.6

400

240

Commercial
bolt

8.8/S

8.8

830

660

High strength AS/NZS 1252


Structural
(Ref. 6)
Bolt

Bolts are used


Snug tightened.
Now the most
common procedure
used in simple
connections in
Australia.

8.8/TF

8.8

830

660

8.8/TB

8.8

830

660

High
Strength
Structural
BoltFriction
type
AS/NZS 1252
connection
(Ref. 6)
High strength
Structural
Bolt
Bearing type
connection

In both applications,
bolts are fully
Tensioned to the
requirements of
AS 4100. Cost of
tensioning is an
important
consideration in the
use of these bolting
procedures.

Bolting
category

8.8/T

Bolt name

Australian
Standard
AS 1111.1
(Ref. 5)

Remarks

Least costly and


most commonly
available is Grade
4.6 bolt. Use Snug
tightened.

The use of the various bolting categories is discussed in Reference 7 while the appropriate
bolting category for each connection type is identified in the Design Guide for that connection
type.
Generally, bolting categories 4.6/S and 8.8/S are used in simple connections while category
8.8/TB is used in rigid connections and bolted splices. Category 8.8/TF is recommended only
for use in connections where a no-slip connection under serviceability loads is essential. 8.8/TF
is the only bolting category which requires consideration of the condition of the contact surfaces
in a bolted connection.
Design drawings and shop detail drawings should both contain notes summarising Table 1.
The dimensions of bolts conforming to AS 1111.1 may be found in Table 2, while the
dimensions of bolts conforming to AS/NZS 1252 may be found in Table 3. These dimensions
are required for checking clearances in connections.
Connections also require detailing so that there is sufficient clearance for wrenches used to
tighten the nut. Clearances for three common types of wrench are given in Table 4.
The mechanical properties of bolts specified in AS 1111.1 and AS/NZS 1252 are given in
Tables 5 and 6.
A more detailed discussion of bolting generally may be found in Design Guide 1 (Reference 7).

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

10

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.2

Bolt dimensions

TABLE 2
DIMENSIONS OF COMMERCIAL BOLTS AND NUTS
AS 1111.1 Bolts (Ref. 5), AS 1112.3 Nuts (Ref. 33)
Bolt

Nut

Desig- Thread Shank Width Width Height Width


nation pitch
dia. across across of head across
flats corners
flats
nom.

max.

min.

nom.

Width
across
corners

Washer
Height of Outside Nominal
normal
dia.
thickness
nuts

max.

min.

max.

max.

M12

1.75

12

18

20

18

20

12

24

2.5

M16

2.0

16

24

26

10

24

26

16

30

M20

2.5

20

30

33

13

30

33

19

37

M24

3.0

24

36

40

15

36

40

22

44

M30

3.5

30

46

51

19

46

51

26

56

M36

4.0

36

55

61

23

55

61

32

66

TABLE 3
DIMENSIONS OF HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS AND NUTS
AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)
Bolt

Nut

Desig- Thread Shank Width Width Height Width


nation pitch
dia. across across of head across
flats corners
flats
nom.

max.

max.

max.

Width
across
corners

Washer
Height of Outside Nominal
normal
dia.
thickness
nuts

max.

max.

max.

max.

nom.

M16

2.0

16

27

31

11

27

31

17

34

M20*

2.5

20

34

39

13

32

39

21

42

M24

3.0

24

41

47

16

41

47

24

50

M30

3.5

30

50

58

20

50

58

31

60

M36

4.0

36

60

69

24

60

69

37

72

*NOTE: At the time of developing this design guide M20 high strength structural bolts and nuts are still
typically being supplied in Australia with dimensions complying to AS 12521983 despite this code being
superseded by the ISO aligned standard AS/NZS 1252:1996. The 1996 Standard specified a new across
flat (AF) dimension of 34 mm for M20 bolts compared to 32 mm specified in the 1983 Standard. The
dimensions listed in Table 3 are in accordance with the current 1996 standard. International
manufacturers have been reluctant to adopt the ISO AF sizes. Australian suppliers of structural bolts are
typically ordering the mechanical properties to AS/NZS 1252:1996.

Used in this guide to designate metric bolts with thread complying with AS 1275.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

11

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.3

Dimensions of wrenches for


installing bolts

TABLE 4
DIMENSIONS OF WRENCHES FOR DETERMINING ERECTION CLEARANCES
DIMENSIONS OF OPEN ENDED WRENCHES
ISO 3318 (Ref. 34)
CLEARANCES4.6/S CATEGORY
Nom. bolt
dia.
12
16
20
24
30
36

AF

Clearance
X max.

(mm)

(mm)

18
24
30
36
46
55

45
57
70
83
104
123

CLEARANCES8.8/S CATEGORY
AF

Clearance
X max.

(mm)

(mm)

27
34
41
50
60

64
78
93
112
133

Nom. bolt
dia.
16
20
24
30
36

DIMENSIONS OF SOCKETSHAND WRENCHES


ISO 2725-1 (Ref. 35)
CLEARANCES8.8/TF AND 8.8/TB CATEGORIES
Sockets*
20 mm drive

Clearance

C max.
(Normal)

C min.
(Long)

D max.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

60

85

40

25

20

65

85

48.3

30

24

70

85

57.1

35

Nom.
bolt dia.

*Bolt diameters above M24 cannot be tensioned with


a hand wrench.

Please Note: Australian rigging crews can interchange between metric, UNC and imperial sockets for
erection of steelwork. This factor combined with the numerous global manufacturers of erection
equipment of both high and low quality makes the task of locking in exact equipment dimensions from
suppliers virtually impossible. Dimensions for open ended wrench clearances and all sockets have been
tabulated from the nominated International Standards (ISO). All other equipment dimensions are supplied
as a guide only from supplier specifications. Sockets meeting M20 AS/NZS 1252:1996 may be in limited
supply in Australia and not available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

12

TABLE 4 (continued)
DIMENSIONS OF WRENCHES FOR DETERMINING ERECTION CLEARANCES
DIMENSIONS OF IMPACT WRENCHES
ISO 2725-2 (Ref. 36)
CLEARANCES8.8/TF AND 8.8/TB CATEGORIES
Impact wrench
type
Normal
wrenches
Heavy wrenches

B
(mm)

A
(mm)

to 370
some
to 600

55
65

Sockets
20 mm drive

Clearance

Nom.
bolt dia.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

54

48

30

20

57

58

35

24

58

61.1

35

Sockets
25 mm drive

Clearance

Nom.
bolt dia.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

60

58

35

20

63

58

35

24

70

68

40

Please Note: Australian rigging crews can interchange between metric, UNC and imperial sockets for
erection of steelwork. This factor combined with the numerous global manufacturers of erection
equipment of both high and low quality makes the task of locking in exact equipment dimensions from
suppliers virtually impossible. Dimensions for open ended wrench clearances and all sockets have been
tabulated from the nominated International Standards (ISO). All other equipment dimensions are supplied
as a guide only from supplier specifications. Sockets meeting M20 AS/NZS 1252:1996 may be in limited
supply in Australia and not available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

13

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.4

Bolt mechanical properties

TABLE 5
METRIC HEXAGON COMMERCIAL BOLTS

STANDARD SPECIFICATION:
PROPERTY CLASS:
NORMAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURE:
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

MOST COMMONLY USED SIZES:


TENSILE AND PROOF LOADS:

AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5)
4.6
Hot or cold forging (generally cold)
Tensile strength
400 MPa (nom. and min.)
Yield stress
240 MPa (min.)
Stress under proof load 225 MPa (min.)
M12, M16, M20, M24, M30, M36
Tensile
Minimum
Proof load
Designation stress area breaking load
(mm 2 )
(kN)
(kN)
M12
84.3
33.7
19.0
M16
157
62.8
35.3
M20
245
98.0
55.1
M24
353
141
79.4
M30
561
224
126
M36
817
327
184
NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 22% min.
Hardness = 114 HB min.

TABLE 6
HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS

STANDARD SPECIFICATION:
PROPERTY CLASS:
NORMAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURE:
MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

MOST COMMONLY USED SIZES:


TENSILE AND PROOF LOADS:

AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)


8.8
Hot or cold forging, hardened and tempered
Tensile strength
800 MPa (nom.), 830 MPa (min.)
Stress at perm. set
640 MPa (nom.), 660 MPa (min.)
Stress under proof load 600 MPa
(M16), M20, M24, (M30), (M36)/ ( )available but rarely used
Tensile
Minimum
Proof load
Designation stress area breaking load
(mm 2 )
(kN)
(kN)
M16
157
130
94.5
M20
245
203
147
M24
353
293
212
M30
561
466
337
M36
817
678
490
NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 12% min.
Impact strength = 30 J min. Hardness = 242 HB min.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

14

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.5

Design requirements for bolts

AS 4100 is a design code written in limit state format, in which two limit states might require
consideration in the design of bolted connections:
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

(requires consideration for all bolted connections)

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

(requires consideration only for that class of


connections which are required not to slip under
serviceability loads)

A commentary on AS 4100 is found in Reference 8.


In any bolted connection, there are three modes of force transfer to be considered, these modes
being:
(a)

shear/bearing mode where the forces are perpendicular to the bolt axis and are
transferred by shear and bearing on the bolt and bearing on the ply material;

(b)

friction mode where the forces are perpendicular to the bolt axis but are transferred by
frictional resistance between the mating surfaces, the frictional resistance being improved
by applying an initial clamping force;

(c)

axial tension where the forces to be transferred are parallel to the bolt axis.

Most connections have bolts which transfer load in the shear/bearing mode, with the exception
of the bolted moment end plate and the column base plate in which the bolts can be subject to
both shear force and axial tension.
A bolt in shear/bearing mode (bolting categories 4.6/S, 8.8/S and 8.8/TB) bears against the
sides of the bolt holes and load is transferred by shear in the bolts and bearing on the
connected plies. The shear strength of the bolt is affected by the strength of the bolt material
and by the available bolt area across the shear plane. Consequently, the situation of whether
plain shank or thread intercepts the shear plane affects the strength of the connection, as
discussed in detail in Reference 7. In practice, it is very difficult to ensure that threads are
excluded from the shear plane in many practical connections for reasons discussed in
Reference 7, since the practice requires that the erector install a bolt of the correct minimum
length into the bolt hole and the practice often leads to bolts of excessive length. Most
connectionsespecially the simple connectionsare designed on the assumption that threads
will be included in the shear plane, as this assumption most accurately reflects the field
situation and is a conservative basis for design.
The failure in the connected plies may occur in one of two ways:
(i)

local bearing failure;

(ii)

tear-out failure of the plies behind a bolt.

Local bearing type failures involve a piling up of ply material in front of the hole around the bolt
shank, either the plain shank or threaded length.
End plate tear-out failure occurs in connections in which the end distance (ae1 or a e2 in Figure 4)
falls below 3.2 times the bolt diameter, the end distance representing the length of ply which
must fail in shear for failure of the connected ply to occur. The end distance is defined in
AS 4100 as the minimum distance from the edge of a hole to the edge of a ply in the direction
of the component of force plus half the bolt diameter. Plate tear-out type failures are observed
in joints subject to a force which acts towards a free edge.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

15

Defining
dh

= hole diameter = df + 2 mm

df

= bolt diameter

sp

= bolt pitch

ae

= distance from hole edge to an


edge in the direction of a
component of force plus half the
hole diameter

Since the end distance is defined from the hole edge and the hole is usually 2 mm larger than the
bolt diameter then:
a e1 = (a e 1 mm)
a e2 = (sp 0.5d h 1 mm)

FIGURE 4 END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE EDGE DISTANCES


Note that an edge may not only mean the physical edge of a connection component or a beam
web or flange, but may also include the edge of an adjacent hole (see Figure 4), which reflects
the fact that plate tear-out is theoretically possible between holes, although in practice bolt
centres are such that it is normally not observed.
In many cases, the end tear-out mode is relatively straightforward, as in Figure 4 or Figures 5
and 6. However, in bolt groups components of force may act in many directions if the bolt group
is subject to an in-plane moment. It is to be remembered that end tear-out design requirements
apply to connection components, connected members and supporting members as appropriate,
each of which will have a different end distance and ply thickness.

FIGURE 5 END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE FORCE


COMPONENTS

FIGURE 6 END PLATE TEAROUT, SIMPLE CASE

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

16

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.6

AS 4100 Design requirements


Strength limit state

The strength limit state design provisions which apply for static load applications are found in
Clause 9.3.2 of AS 4100. These provisions are summarised in Table 7.
TABLE 7
AS 4100 CLAUSE 9.3.2 PROVISIONS,
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE, STATIC LOADS
Limit state
Bolt in shear

AS 4100 Clause
9.3.2.1

Design requirement

Vf

V f

V f* = design shear force


Vf

= nominal capacity in shear


= 0.62 f uf k r A v

= capacity factor = 0.8

f uf

= minimum tensile strength of bolt (Tables 1, 5, 6)


= 400 MPa Property Class 4.6 to AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5)
= 830 MPa Property Class 8.8 to AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)

kr

= reduction factor for bolted lap splice connections. For all


other connections, k r = 1.0.

Av

= available bolt shear area.


For a single bolt with single shear plane, threads included,
A v = A c core area.
For a single bolt with single shear plane, threads
excluded, A v = A o shank area.

Bolt in tension

9.3.2.2

N tf* N tf
N tf* = design tension force
N tf

= nominal capacity in tension


= A s f uf

= capacity factor = 0.8

As

= tensile stress area

Bolt in shear and 9.3.2.3


tension

V f * 2 N tf* 2
1. 0
+

V f N tf

Ply in bearing

Vb* V b
Vb* = design bearing force on a ply

9.3.2.4

Vb

= nominal capacity of ply in bearing

Vb

3.2 d f t pf up (local failure in bearing)

a e t p f up (tear-out failure)

= capacity factor = 0.9

df

= bolt diameter

tp

= thickness of the ply

ae

= minimum distance from the edge of a hole to the edge of a


ply in the direction of the component of force plus half the
bolt diameter

f up

= tensile strength of the ply

NoteFiller plates: Where filler plates exceed 6 mm but are less than 20 mm in total thickness, the
nominal shear capacity Vf specified in Table 7 is required by Clause 9.3.2.5 of AS 4100 to be reduced by
15%. Filler plates greater than 20 mm in total thickness should not be used as no design guidance is
available in AS 4100.
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

17

Design areas of bolts


Bolted connections subject to shear may be either installed with the threads of the bolt crossing
the shear plane or with the plain shank of the bolt crossing the shear plane. The alternative
arrangements are discussed in Reference 7. In a joint with a number of shear planes, some
shear planes may cross the threaded part of the bolt while other shear planes may cross the
shank.
Clause 9.3.2.1 of AS 4100 recognises that the strength of the bolt across any shear plane is
dependent upon the available shear area of the bolt at that plane. It allows for all possible
combinations by defining the shear area as:
Av

= available bolt shear area


= n n Ac + n x Ao

where:
Ac

= core area (see Table 8)

Ao = plain shank area (see Table 8)


nn

= number of shear planes with threads intercepting the shear plane

nx

= number of shear planes with shank intercepting the shear plane

Usually either:
n n = 1 and nx = 0 when there are two plies and threads intercept the shear plane (thus
giving Av = A c)
OR
n n = 0 and nx = 1 when there are two plies and the shank intercepts the shear plane (thus
giving Av = A o).
The core area and plain shank area for bolt diameters commonly used are given in Table 8.
Also given in Table 8 is the tensile stress area used when bolts are subject to tension.
TABLE 8
DESIGN AREAS OF BOLTS
Nom. dia.
(mm)

Areas (mm 2 )

Designation
A c core

df

76.2

A s tensile
stress
84.3

A o shank

12

M12

16

M16

144

157

201

20

M20

225

245

314

24

M24

324

353

452

30

M30

519

561

706

36

M36

759

817

1016

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113

18

TABLE 9
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
COMMERCIAL BOLTS
4.6/S BOLTING CATEGORY
(f uf = 400 MPa, = 0.8)
Designation

Axial
tension

Shear values (single shear)

N tf

Threads included in
shear planeN
V fn

Threads excluded
from shear planeX
V fx

kN

kN

kN

M12

27.0

15.1

22.4

M16

50.2

28.6

39.9

M20

78.4

44.6

62.3

64.3

89.7

M24

113

M30

180

103

140

M36

261

151

202
= 0.8

= 0.8
4.6N/S

4.6X/S

NOTE: Bearing/Plate tear-out design capacity. For all reasonable combinations


of ply thickness, bolt diameter and end distance, the design capacity for a ply in
bearing (V b ) exceeds both V fn and V fx, and does not control design.

SHEARTENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

19

TABLE 10
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS
8.8/S, 8.8/TB, 8.8/TF BOLTING CATEGORIES
(f uf = 830 MPa)
Desig- Axial
nation tension

Single shear

Plate tear-out in kN

Bearing in kN

Threads
Threads
included in excluded
from shear
shear
plane X
plane N

V b for t p and a e of:

V b for t p

tp = 6

tp = 8

t p = 10

t p = 12

10

N tf

V fn

V fx

kN

kN

kN

M16

104

59.3

82.7

113 151 189

M20

163

92.6

129

78 89 100 103 118 133 129 148 166 155 177 199 142 189 236

M24

234

133

186

170 227 283

M30

373

214

291

213 283 354

35 40

45

35

40

45

35

40

45

35

40

45

a e <a emin = 1.5d f


= 0.8

= 0.8
8.8N/S

8.8X/S

= 0.9

= 0.9

f up =410 MPa

f up =410 MPa

NOTE: The above table lists the design capacity of a ply in bearing for Grade 250 (f up = 410 MPa) plate
only. For design capacities for ply failure in other grades of steel, multiply the above values by the ratio of
the actual f up to 410 MPa.

SHEARTENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

20

Lap splice connections

FIGURE 7 LAP JOINT AND BRACE/GUSSET CONNECTION


For lap splice connections of the type shown in Figure 7 in which the bolts are in shear/bearing
mode, theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the measured strength of the
connection is affected by the length of the connection.
Conventional theories of bolted lap splice connection design assume that rigid plate theory
applies and that all bolts in the connection are equally loaded. However, studies show that the
longer the connection is, the less uniform is the load distribution among the bolts in the
connection while the behaviour is elastic. As a connection is loaded so that yielding of the plies
or bolts or both occur, plastic deformations permit a redistribution of load resulting in a more
uniform load distributionif the redistribution proceeds without premature failure of either bolts
or plies. Some connections may be so long that redistribution does not completely occur.
AS 4100 Clause 9.3.2.1 uses a reduction factor k r to account for this effect, and the expression
for k r is given in Table 11. The source of the expression used is explained in Reference 8.
Connections affected by the requirement for lap splice connections and for which k r may not be
taken as 1.0 without calculation using Table 11 are:
(a)

bracing cleat (unusually long connections, relatively rare);

(b)

bolted flange splice.

For all other connections, generally k r = 1.0.


Values of k r for various bolt pitches and numbers of bolts in a line are given in Table 11.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

21

TABLE 11
REDUCTION FACTOR FOR LAP CONNECTIONS (k r)
Length

L j < 300

300 L j 1300

L j > 1300

1.0

1.075L j /4000

0.75

mm
kr

VALUES OF k r FOR VARIOUS BOLT PITCHES


Pitch

Values of k r for n of

sp

65

1.0

1.0

0.994

0.978

0.961

0.945

70

1.0

1.0

0.988

0.970

0.953

0.935

75

1.0

1.0

0.981

0.963

0.944

0.925

80

1.0

0.995

0.975

0.955

0.935

0.915

85

1.0

0.990

0.969

0.948

0.926

0.905

90

1.0

0.985

0.963

0.940

0.918

0.895

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22

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.7

AS 4100 design requirements


Serviceability limit state

General
Under certain conditions, a bolted connection which does not slip under the serviceability shear
force may be specified. This type of connection is known as a friction-type joint and employs the
8.8/TF bolting category.
The no slip requirement applies for the serviceability limit stateit would be totally unrealistic to
have no slip for the strength limit statethough a separate check is also required by AS 4100
for the strength limit state, under the assumption that slip has occurred before this state is
reached.
The design requirements of AS 4100 for 8.8/TF bolting category are summarised in Table 12.
With the bolt hole clearances permitted by AS 4100, the maximum amount of slip that can occur
with a single bolt in a single hole is 23 mm. In actual connections, as the number of bolts in a
connection increases, so the potential for slip decreases since the normal inaccuracies in
fabrication and erection mean that some bolts in the connection are most likely to be in bearing
mode even before the connection is loaded in shear.
Slip under the applied shear force only needs to be restricted where such slip affects the
serviceability or behaviour of the structure. Such instances are rare and are mostly restricted to
cases of continually reversing loading or fatigue loading.
Design parameters
Initial bolt tension
There can be considerable variation in the level of bolt tension possible, unless control is
exercised over the bolt installation procedure. The procedures within Section 15 of AS 4100 for
bolt installation are intended to ensure that a reliable level of installed bolt tension is achieved
so that the design provisions against slip under the serviceability shear force are themselves
reliable.
Hole types
Different hole typesround, short slotted, long slotted and oversizeare permitted by Section
14 of AS 4100.
All of the hole types, except the standard round hole with 23 mm clearance, may cause a loss
of clamping force in the vicinity of the bolt because of loss of area due to the bigger hole. The
clamping force is highly localised around the hole and any loss of hole area has a significant
effect on the tension achieved, which in turn affects the slip resistance at the interface.
The factor for different hole types, k h, is intended to compensate for this effect, and varies from
0.70 to 1.00 according to hole type (see Table 12).
Contact surface condition
The value of the slip factor, , is highly dependent on the condition of the contact or faying
surfaces. This slip factor should be determined using a test procedure as laid down in
Appendix J of AS 4100. The slip factor used in AS 4100 for bare steel surfaces is 0.35.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

23

TABLE 12
AS 4100 CLAUSE 9.3.3 PROVISIONS
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATESTATIC LOADS
Limit state
Bolt in shear

AS 4100 Clause
9.3.3.1

Design requirement
Vsf*
*
sf

V sf

= design shear forceserviceability limit state

= capacity factor = 0.7

V sf

= nominal shear capacityserviceability limit state


= n ei N ti k h

= slip factor
= 0.35 for clean as-rolled surfaces or as determined by
testing in accordance with Appendix J of AS 4100

n ei

= number of effective interfaces

N ti

= minimum bolt tension at installation (see Table 13)

kh

= factor for different hole types


= 1.0 for standard holes
= 0.85 for oversize holes
= 0.85 for short slotted holes

for the hole dimensions


permitted by AS 4100

= 0.70 for long slotted holes


Bolt in shear and
tension

9.3.3.3

Vsf* N tf*

+
1 .0
Vsf N tf
N tf* = design tension forceserviceability limit state

N tf = nominal tension capacity of the bolt


= N ti (see Table 13)

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

24

TABLE 13
SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS
8.8/TF BOLTING CATEGORY
Slip factor, = 0.35
Number of effective interfaces, n ei = 1
Capacity factor, = 0.7for bolt serviceability limit state

Designation

N ti , bolt tension
at installation

N tf = N ti

kN

kN

M16

95

M20

145

M24
M30

66.5

V sf = Design capacity in shear (kN) for


kh = 1

k h = 0.85

k h = 0.7

Standard holes

Oversize holes
short slotted
holes

Long slotted
holes

23.3

19.8

16.3

101

35.5

30.2

24.9

210

147

51.5

43.7

36.0

335

234

82.1

69.8

57.5

NOTE: N ti is given in Clause 15.2.5.1 of AS 4100.

SHEARTENSION INTERACTION DIAGRAM


k h = 1.0

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

25

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.8

Geometric requirements of
AS 4100 for bolted connections

Minimum edge distance


Minimum edge distances from the centre of a bolt hole to the edge of a plate or the flange of a
rolled section are specified in AS 4100 as follows:
1.75 d f for sheared or hand flame cut edges
1.50 d f for machine flame cut, sawn or planed edges
1.25 d f for rolled edges or rolled sections
where d f is the nominal diameter of the fastener.
Table 14 lists these minimum edge distances for commonly used bolt diameters.
TABLE 14
MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCES
Nominal
diameter of
fastener d f

Sheared or
hand flame
cut edge

Rolled plate; machine


flame cut, sawn or
planed edge

Rolled edge
of a rolled
section

mm

mm

mm

mm

12

21

18

15

16

28

24

20

20

35

30

25

24

42

36

30

30

53

45

38

36

63

54

45

Maximum edge distance


AS 4100 specifies the maximum edge distance from the centre of a bolt to the nearest edge.
This is limited to 12tp or 150 mm, whichever is the lesser, where tp is the thickness of the
thinner outer ply.
Minimum pitch of bolts
Minimum pitch of bolts is specified in AS 4100 to be 2.5 times the nominal diameter of the bolt.
However, if it is intended to tension bolts with a special tensioning tool, the minimum distance
between the centres of bolt holes shall be appropriate to the type of tool used (Table 4).
Maximum pitch of bolts
Maximum pitch of bolts is stipulated in AS 4100 to be the lesser of 15tp and 200 mm where tp
may be taken as the thickness of the thinner outside ply. However, in the following cases the
maximum distances are required to be:
(a)

For fasteners which are not required to carry design actions in regions not liable to
corrosion: the lesser of 32tp and 300 mm.

(b)

For an outside line of fasteners in the direction of the design force: the lesser of
4tp + 100 mm, and 200 mm.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

26

Bolt holes
The diameter of bolt holes in bolted connections is stipulated in AS 4100 to be larger than the
bolt diameter by either:
2 mm for M24 bolts or smaller
3 mm for bolts larger than M24
6 mm for holes in base plates
The large oversize holes permitted in base plates is to assist in column erection and is related
to the out-of-position tolerance for anchor bolts permitted in AS 4100.
In some applications, the use of slotted or oversize holes may be justified in order to ease
erection difficulties. AS 4100 makes provision for the use of short and long slotted holes and
oversize holes, and the detailed provisions for such holes are summarised in Table 15.
TABLE 15
AS 4100 PROVISIONS FOR SLOTTED AND OVERSIZED HOLES
(df = nominal bolt diameter)
Hole type

Maximum size (mm)


General

Short slotted

Long slotted

Oversize

Limitations

M20

M24

Width: d f + 2

22

26

Length: 1.33 d f
or d f + 10
(whichever is the
greater)

30

34

Width: d f + 2

22

26

Length: 2.5 d f

50

60

1.25 d f or d f + 8
(whichever is the
greater)

28

32

May be used in shear connections. In friction-type


joints, slots may be used without regard to direction of
loading. In bearing-type joints, slots must be normal to
the direction of the load; bolts must bear uniformly;
joint cannot be eccentrically loaded. May be used in
any or all plies of both types provided hardened
washers or plate washers are used under bolt head
and nut.
May be used in shear connections, but only in
alternate plies. In friction-type joints, may be used
without regard to direction of loading. In bearing-type
joints, slots must be normal to the direction of the
load; bolts must bear uniformly and the joint cannot be
eccentrically loaded. Special washer or plate (8 mm
thick) to cover all exposed long slotted holes.
May be used in any or all plies of bearing-type and
friction-type connections provided hardened washers
or plate washers are installed over the oversize holes.

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27

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.9

Bolt group loaded in-plane

AS 4100 Clause 9.4 specifies the assumptions which must be made when analysing any bolt
group so that the design actions on individual bolts in the group may be determined.
Clause 9.4.1 deals specifically with a bolt group subject to in-plane loading which generates
only shear force on the bolts in the group. This Clause specifies that the design method to be
used must comply with the following assumptions:
(a)

The connection plates are considered to be rigid and to rotate relative to each other about
a point known as the instantaneous centre of rotation of the bolt group.

(b)

In the case of a bolt group subject to a pure couple only, the instantaneous centre of
rotation coincides with the bolt group centroid.
In the case of a bolt group subject to an in-plane shear force applied at the group
centroid, the instantaneous centre of rotation is at infinity and the design shear force is
uniformly distributed throughout the group.
In all other cases, either the results of independent analyses for a pure couple alone and
for an in-plane shear force applied at the bolt group centroid shall be superposed, or a
recognised method of analysis shall be used.

(c)

The design shear force in each bolt shall be assumed to act at right angles to the radius
from the bolt to the instantaneous centre, and shall be taken as proportional to that
radius.

FIGURE 8 BOLT GROUP SUBJECT TO IN-PLANE MOMENT


*
) is applied, Clause
For the situation shown in Figure 8 where only an in-plane torque (M bm
9.4.1(b) of AS 4100 nominates that the instantaneous centre of rotation coincides with the bolt
group centroid. Noting that for bolt 'n':

sin n =

yn
rn

cos n =

xn
rn

equilibrium requires that:

xn
=0
rn

(Eqn 3.9.1)

yn
=0
rn

(Eqn 3.9.2)

*
n

*
n

V r

*
n n

*
= +Mbm

(Eqn 3.9.3)

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28

FIGURE 9 BOLT GROUP SUBJECT TO SHEAR FORCES AT CENTROID


For the situation shown in Figure 9 where both V *bv and V *bh act at the bolt group centroid,
Clause 9.4.1(b) of AS 4100 gives the result:
*
Vv* (= design shear force on a bolt due to action V bv
)=

Vbv*
nb

(Eqn 3.9.4)

*
Vh* (= design shear force on a bolt due to action V bh
)=

Vbh*
nb

(Eqn 3.9.5)

n b = number of bolts in bolt group


For the general case of a bolt group loaded by vertical shear, horizontal shear, and an in-plane
moment generated by the vertical shear force acting at an eccentricity (e) from the bolt group
centroid, as in Figure 10, three equations can be generated which satisfy force and moment
equilibrium.

FIGURE 10 BOLT GROUP SUBJECT TO A GENERAL LOAD SET

V
V
V

*
n

cos n + Vbv* = 0

(Eqn 3.9.6)

*
n

sin n Vbh* = 0

(Eqn 3.9.7)

r + Vbv* (e x e ) + Vbh* y e = 0

(Eqn 3.9.8)

*
n n

In order to solve these equations for Vn* the design shear force on bolt n one further equation
is required and the form of this equation depends on the analysis method used.
Various methods of analysis have been proposed for bolt groups including the linear or elastic
method, the plastic and the force/displacement or elastic/plastic method. These can all be
developed from the centre of rotation concept which forms the basis of Clause 9.4.1 of
AS 4100.

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29

Traditionally, design has been done using the elastic method of analysis, which is readily
amenable to a closed-form solution and to hand calculations. Reference 8 notes that there is
little benefit arising from the use of other methods of analysis.
The relationship between the force on a bolt and the component displacement may be thought
of that as shown in Figure 11. The linear assumption assumes that the bolt force is linearly
related to the displacement and has the advantage that it leads to a closed form solution which
is not available with any other assumption. Typically, assumption (c) of Clause 9.4.1 of AS 4100
leads to a linear equation of the form F* (bolt force) = k r where k is a constant and r is the
distance from the centre of rotation to an individual bolt.

FIGURE 11 GRAPHICAL RELATIONSHIPBOLT FORCE TO COMPONENT


DISPLACEMENT
Historically, rivet and bolt groups have been designed using the linear (elastic) method and
tests have indicated that the method is generally conservative.
The plastic method of analysis assumes that all bolts not at the centre of rotation are deformed
sufficiently to become fully plastic and that all transmit the same force at the point of failure of
the group. The method requires an iterative solution by computer, since it is not possible to
solve Equations 3.9.6 to 3.9.8 explicitly.
Other methods available (Ref. 10) have attempted to measure the relationship between the
relative displacement of the connected components and the force developed on the bolt (this
method is often termed displacement-compatibility). They then use this relationship in solving
Equations 3.9.6 to 3.9.8. The method used to obtain a solution is again an iterative one,
generally requiring the use of a computer to provide a satisfactory solution. The relationship
between the relative displacement and the bolt force is dependent on a number of factors
including (Ref. 10):
(i)

the thickness of the connected components, and

(ii)

the yield strengths of these components.

Because much of the deformation which occurs in realistic cases is due to bearing failure of the
connected material, a single definition of this relationship is really only suited to the application
for which it was derived by tests.
The AISC Manual (Ref. 9) now has design aids as well as rapid design methods available,
particularly for routine bolt group configurations.
*
The method for bolt groups loaded by in-plane design action set ( Vbv* , Vbh* , Mbm
) in this Guide
uses the linear method. The method was also used in Reference 2, and is used in a number of
equivalent Manuals as either the primary method of analysis or as an alternative method
(Reference 9). As Reference 9 notes, the load-deformation method is more accurate but
requires tabulated values or an iterative solution while the linear method is simplified but
conservative as it neglects the ductility of the bolt group and potential for load redistribution.

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30

Using the linear method, Clause 9.4.1 (c) of AS 4100 relates the design shear force on any bolt
*
) on the bolt furthest from the centre of rotation by the linear
( Vn* ) to the design shear force ( Vmb
relationship
Vn*

rn *
Vmb
rmax

(Eqn 3.9.9)

where:
r max

= maximum value of r n

*
mb

V is the value of interest for design being the design shear force on the extreme bolt which
can be found by substituting Eqn 3.9.9 into Eqn 3.9.3 giving
*
Vmb
rmax

2
n

*
= Mbm

or
*
Vmb

*
Mbm
rmax
rn2

letting
l bp

= (polar moment of area of bolt group)

r
= (x
=

2
n
2
n

+ y n2

then
*
Vmb

*
Mbm
rmax
l bp

(Eqn 3.9.10)

*
*
*
Vmb
can be resolved into horizontal ( Vmh
) and vertical components ( Vmv
)as in Figure 12(a).
*
Vmh

y max
*
* y max
*
= M bm
= Vmb sin max = Vmb r
l bp
max

(Eqn 3.9.11)

*
Vmv

x max
*
* x max
*
= M bm
= Vmb cos max = Vmb r
l bp
max

(Eqn 3.9.12)

FIGURE 12 HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL BOLT FORCES AT AN EXTREME BOLT


For the situation shown in Figure 10, where Vbv* is eccentric to the bolt group centroid by x = e
and is acting simultaneously with Vbh* (through the centroid), the principle of superposition may
be used (as permitted by Clause 9.4.1(b) of AS 4100). That is, the effects of a torque
(equivalent to Vbv* e in magnitude and direction) acting on the bolt group are summed with the
effects of Vbv* and Vbh* acting at the bolt group centroid so as to simulate the situation in
Figure 10. Using the principle of superposition, the maximum design force on the extreme bolt
in the group can be found by summation of the design shear forces from each design action
taken separately.
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31

*
Using vectorial addition to obtain the resultant design shear force ( Vres
) on the extreme boltas
in Figure 12(b)
*
Vres

(V

*
*
Vbv* Mbm
x max 2 Vbh* Mbm
y max 2
+
+

l bp
l bp

nb
nb

*
v

*
+ Vmv

) + (V
2

*
h

*
+ Vmh

(Eqn 3.9.13)

This equation can also be used to solve any general problem for a bolt group subject to in-plane
actions.
The design requirement considering only shear on the bolt becomes:
*
Vres

V f

where Vf = design capacity of single bolt in shear (Section 3.6).

For bolt groups subject to a combination of in-plane vertical shear, in-plane horizontal shear
and in-plane bending moment, general equations governing the design of such bolt groups can
be derived. A summary of the governing expressions is given herein, while a full derivation of
the expressions is given in Reference 2. The purpose of deriving such expressions is to have
simple expressions available for use with specific connections in other Design Guides.
Governing equations for common cases are given in Tables 16 and 18.
TABLE 16
SINGLE BOLT COLUMN
The governing interaction equation for a single column bolt group considering bolt shear
failure can be obtained as follows:

Equation 3.9.13 can be transformed to:


2

Vbh*
V*
M*
+ bm + bv 1.0

Vdh Mdm
Vdv

(Eqn 3.9.14)

where Mdm , Vdh and Vdv are functions of Vf as follows


(see Reference 2):

V dh = np( V f)
V dv = np( V f)
M dm =

npsp (np + 1)
6

(Vf )

for np 1

= 0
for np = 1
*
If V = 0 and M bm
= Vbv* e (e = eccentricity of Vbv* )
a common case in many simple connections
*
bh

Vbv* Zb ( Vf) becomes the simple design


requirement

(Eqn 3.9.15)

where

Zb is a function of e, s p and np
FIGURE 13 SINGLE BOLT
COLUMN LOADED IN-PLANE

In Reference 2, it is shown that:


np
Zb
=
for np 1
2

6e
1+

s p (n p + 1)
=0

(Eqn 3.9.16)

for np = 1

In the above expressions, Vf = nominal capacity of a single bolt in shear-strength limit state

= 0.8
as discussed in section 3.6.
Tables of values of Zb can be developed to allow rapid design (Table 17).
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design of structural steel connections, first edition

32

The governing interaction equation for end plate tear-out/bearing failure for a single
column bolt group can be obtained as follows:

It is also necessary in bolted connections to check the components of forces acting towards the
edge of a component or supported member to ensure that end plate tear-out or bearing failure
will not occur. The derivation of expressions to cover this situation may be found in
Reference 2. The equations derived may be summarized as follows for the case of:
*
Vbh* = 0 and M bm
= V bv* e

(V ) + (V )

*
Vres
=

* 2
v

* 2
mb

Vbf (bearing failure)

Vbv* ( V ev) n p

(vertical tear-out)

Vbv* Ze( Veh) n p

(horizontal tear-out)

where:
Vv*

Vbv*
np

*
*
Vmb
= Vbv

np 1
6e
np sp (np + 1)

np = 1
np 1

= 0

Ze

sp (np + 1)

np = 1

6e

= 0

(Section 3.6)

V bf = 3.2 d f tp fup

(Section 3.6)

V ev = a ev t p fup

(Section 3.6)

V eh = a eh t p fup
fup

= tensile strength of ply

tp

= thickness of ply

a ev = vertical edge distance

(Figure 14)
(Figure 14)

aeh = horizontal edge distance

= 0.9

df

= bolt diameter

np

= number of bolts in single column

FIGURE 14 SINGLE BOLT COLUMN


FORCES AND EDGE DISTANCES FOR
END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE OR
BEARING FAILURE

Tables of values of Ze can be developed to speed up the design process (Table 17).

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

33

TABLE 17
BOLT GROUP DESIGN FACTORS FOR SINGLE COLUMN OF BOLTS
s p = 70 mm
np

V dh /V f

V dv/V f

M dm /V f

0.070

0.140

0.233

0.350

0.490

0.653

0.840

1.05

l bp 10

2.45

9.80

24.5

49.0

85.75

137

206

294

NOTE: V dh , Vdv and V f are in kN. M dm is in kNm. l bp is in mm .

Zb FOR SINGLE COLUMN OF BOLTS


s p = 70 mm
e

Values of Z b for n p =

mm

0
10
20
30
40
50

2.00
1.92
1.74
1.52
1.32
1.15

60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150

3.00
2.93
2.76
2.52
2.28
2.05

4.00
3.94
3.78
3.56
3.30
3.04

5.00
4.95
4.81
4.60
4.34
4.07

6.00
5.96
5.83
5.63
5.39
5.12

7.00
6.96
6.84
6.66
6.43
6.17

8.00
7.96
7.86
7.69
7.48
7.22

9.00
8.97
8.87
8.72
8.51
8.27

1.01
0.894
0.802
0.725
0.661

1.84
1.66
1.51
1.38
1.27

2.79
2.56
2.36
2.18
2.02

3.80
3.54
3.29
3.07
2.87

4.84
4.56
4.29
4.03
3.80

5.89
5.60
5.31
5.04
4.78

6.95
6.66
6.36
6.07
5.79

8.00
7.72
7.42
7.13
6.83

0.606
0.560
0.520
0.485
0.454

1.17
1.09
1.01
0.949
0.891

1.87
1.75
1.64
1.54
1.45

2.68
2.52
2.37
2.24
2.11

3.58
3.38
3.19
3.02
2.87

4.53
4.30
4.08
3.88
3.70

5.52
5.27
5.03
4.80
4.59

6.55
6.27
6.01
5.76
5.53

Ze FOR SINGLE COLUMN OF BOLTS


s p = 70 mm
e
mm

Values of Z e for n p =
2

10
20
30
40
50

3.50
1.75
1.17
0.875
0.700

4.67
2.33
1.56
1.17
0.933

5.83
2.92
1.94
1.46
1.17

7.00
3.50
2.33
1.75
1.40

8.17
4.08
2.72
2.04
1.63

9.33
4.67
3.11
2.33
1.87

10.5
5.25
3.50
2.63
2.10

11.67
5.83
3.89
2.92
2.33

60
70
80
90
100

0.583
0.500
0.438
0.389
0.350

0.778
0.667
0.583
0.519
0.467

0.972
0.833
0.729
0.648
0.583

1.17
1.00
0.875
0.778
0.700

1.36
1.17
1.02
0.907
0.817

1.56
1.33
1.17
1.04
0.933

1.75
1.50
1.31
1.17
1.05

1.94
1.67
1.46
1.30
1.17

110
120
130
140
150

0.318
0.292
0.269
0.250
0.233

0.424
0.389
0.359
0.333
0.311

0.530
0.486
0.449
0.417
0.389

0.636
0.583
0.538
0.500
0.467

0.742
0.681
0.628
0.583
0.544

0.848
0.778
0.718
0.667
0.622

0.955
0.875
0.808
0.750
0.700

1.06
0.972
0.897
0.833
0.778

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

34

TABLE 18
DOUBLE BOLT COLUMN
The governing interaction equation for a double bolt
column bolt group considering bolt shear failure can
be obtained as follows:
2

Vbv*

Vdv

2s pg

+
2

1 + s pg

2
2
1 + s pg

Vbv*

Vdv

*
*
M bm
M bm

M dm M dm

*
Vbh* M bm
Vbh*

V dh M dm Vdh

1 .0

(Eqn 3.9.17)

where Vdv, Vdh and M dm are functions of Vdf as


follows (see Reference 2):
V dv

2n p (V f)

V dh

2n p (V f)

M dm =
=
s pg

FIGURE 15 DOUBLE BOLT COLUMN


LOADED IN-PLANE

)
)

npsp (Vf )

s g (Vf)

(n

Vf

) (
(

1 2
np 1 + sg / sp
3
(np 1)2+ sg / sp

for np 1
for np = 1

sg

1)sp

nominal capacity of single bolt in shearstrength limit state

0.8

*
If Vbh* = 0 and M bm
= V bv* e (e = eccentricity of Vbv* ) a common case in many simple
connections

Vbv* Zb (Vf) becomes the simple design requirement

(Eqn 3.9.18)

where
Zb is a function of e, s p, np, s g and s pg
The formula for Zb is derived in Reference 2 as follows:
Zb

2n p

e
s
s
2e / s g
2
/
pg
g
2
1 +

2
+
+
1
2
2

1 np + 1 1
1 np + 1 1
1+

1+


3 n p 1 s pg
3 n p 1 s pg

2n p

[1 + Z 1 ] 2 + [Z 1 / s pg ] 2

for n p 1

(Eqn 3.9.19)

where
Z1

2e / s g
1 np + 1 1

3 n p 1 s pg
2
1 + 2e / sg

1+

Zb

for n p = 1

Tables of values of Zb can be developed to allow rapid design (Table 18).


handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

35

The governing interaction equation for end plate tear-out/bearing failure for a double
column bolt group can be obtained as follows:

It is also necessary in bolted connections to check the components of forces acting towards the
edge of a component or supported member to ensure that end plate tear-out or bearing failure
will not occur. The derivation of expressions to cover this situation may be found in
Reference 2. The equations derived may be summarized as follows for the case of:
*
Vbh* = 0 and Mbm
= Vbv* e

(V

*
Vres
=

*
v

*
+ Vmv

) + (V )
2

* 2
mh

Vbf (bearing failure)

Vbv*

Zev(Vev) 2n p

(vertical tear-out)

Vbv*

Zeh (Veh) 2n p

(horiz. tear-out)

where
Vv*

Vbv*
2np

*
*
Vmv
= Vbv

*
*
Vmh
= Vbv

lbp

Zev =

Zeh =

es g
2lbp
e(np 1)sp
2lbp

np sp2
6

1+

[(n 1) + 3(s
2
p

1
npes g

/ sp

np 1

lbp

l bp

FIGURE 16 DOUBLE BOLT


COLUMNFORCES AND EDGE
DISTANCES FOR END PLATE TEAROUT FAILURE OR BEARING FAILURE

np 1

e(np 1)sp np

sg
Zev =

sg + 2e

np = 1

Zeh = 0

np = 1

V bf = 3.2 d f tp fup

(Section 3.6)

V ev = a ev t p fup

(Section 3.6)

V eh = a eh t p fup

(Section 3.6)

fup

= tensile strength of ply

tp

= thickness of ply

aev

= vertical edge distance

a eh = horizontal edge distance

(Figure 16)
(Figure 16)

= 0.9

df

= bolt diameter

np

= number of bolts in each bolt column

Tables of values of Zex and Zeh can be developed to expedite the design process (Table 19).

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

36

TABLE 19
BOLT GROUP FACTORS FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS
s g = 70 mm
s p = 70 mm
np

V dh /V f
V dv/V f
M dm /V f

2
2
0.070

4
4
0.198

6
6
0.344

8
8
0.531

10
10
0.764

12
12
1.04

14
14
1.37

16
16
1.74

18
18
2.16

2
2 / 1 + spg

1.41

1.79

1.90

1.94

1.96

1.97

1.98

1.98

2
2spg / 1 + spg

2.00

1.41

0.894

0.632

0.485

0.392

0.329

0.283

0.248

I bp 103

2.45

9.80

26.95

58.80 110.25 186.20 291.55 431.20 610.05

NOTE: V dh , Vdv and V f are in kN. M dm is in kNm. l bp is in mm 3 .

Zb FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS


s p = 70 mm
s g = 70 mm
e

Values of Z b for n p =

mm
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150

1
2.00
1.56
1.27
1.08
0.933
0.824
0.737
0.667
0.609
0.560
0.519
0.483
0.452
0.424
0.400
0.378

2
4.00
3.47
3.04
2.68
2.39
2.15
1.96
1.79
1.65
1.53
1.42
1.33
1.25
1.17
1.11
1.05

3
6.00
5.51
5.01
4.55
4.13
3.77
3.45
3.17
2.93
2.72
2.54
2.37
2.23
2.10
1.99
1.88

4
8.00
7.57
7.07
6.55
6.06
5.60
5.18
4.80
4.46
4.16
3.89
3.65
3.44
3.25
3.07
2.92

5
10.0
9.62
9.15
8.62
8.09
7.57
7.08
6.62
6.20
5.81
5.47
5.15
4.86
4.60
4.37
4.15

6
12.0
11.7
11.2
10.7
10.2
9.62
9.08
8.56
8.08
7.62
7.20
6.82
6.46
6.14
5.84
5.56

7
14.0
13.7
13.3
12.8
12.3
11.7
11.1
10.6
10.1
9.55
9.07
8.63
8.21
7.82
7.46
7.13

8
16.0
15.7
15.4
14.9
14.4
13.8
13.2
12.7
12.1
11.6
11.0
10.5
10.1
9.63
9.21
8.83

9
18.0
17.8
17.4
17.0
16.5
15.9
15.4
14.8
14.2
13.6
13.1
12.5
12.0
11.5
11.1
10.6

Zev, Zeh FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS


s p = 70 mm
s g = 70 mm
e
mm

Values of Z ev for n p =
1
.778
.636
.538
.467
.411
.368
.333
.304
.280
.259
.241
.225
.212
.200
.189

2
.875
.778
.700
.636
.583
.538
.500
.467
.437
.412
.389
.368
.350
.333
.318

3
.928
.865
.811
.762
.720
.681
.647
.616
.588
.562
.538
.517
.497
.478
.461

4
.955
.913
.875
.840
.808
.778
.750
.724
.700
.677
.656
.636
.618
.600
.583

5
.969
.940
.913
.887
.863
.840
.818
.797
.778
.759
.741
.724
.708
.692
.677

6
.978
.957
.937
.917
.899
.881
.864
.847
.831
.816
.801
.787
.773
.760
.747

7
.983
.967
.952
.937
.922
.908
.895
.881
.869
.856
.844
.832
.821
.810
.799

Values of Z eh for n p =
8
.987
.975
.963
.951
.939
.928
.917
.906
.895
.885
.875
.865
.856
.846
.837

9
.990
.980
.970
.960
.951
.942
.933
.924
.915
.906
.898
.890
.882
.874
.866

2
7.00
3.50
2.33
1.75
1.40
1.17
1.00
.875
.778
.700
.636
.583
.538
.500
.467

3
6.42
3.21
2.14
1.60
1.28
1.07
.917
.802
.713
.642
.583
.535
.494
.458
.428

4
7.00
3.50
2.33
1.75
1.40
1.17
1.00
.875
.778
.700
.636
.583
.538
.500
.467

5
7.88
3.94
2.63
1.97
1.58
1.31
1.13
.984
.875
.788
.716
.656
.606
.563
.525

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

6
8.87
4.43
2.98
2.22
1.77
1.48
1.27
1.11
.985
.887
.806
.739
.682
.633
.591

7
9.92
4.96
3.31
2.48
1.98
1.65
1.42
1.24
1.10
.992
.902
.826
.763
.708
.661

8
11.0
5.50
3.67
2.75
2.20
1.83
1.57
1.38
1.22
1.10
1.00
.917
.846
.786
.733

9
12.1
6.05
4.04
3.03
2.42
2.02
1.73
1.51
1.35
1.21
1.10
1.01
.931
.865
.807

37

TABLE 20
BOLT GROUP FACTORS FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS
s g = 90 mm
s p = 70 mm
np

V dh /V f
V dv/V f
M dm /V f

2
2
0.090

4
4
0.228

6
6
0.382

10
10
0.804

2
2 / 1 + spg

1.23

1.68

8
8
0.571
1.84

1.90

12
12
1.08
1.94

14
14
1.41
1.96

16
16
1.78
1.97

18
18
2.20
1.97

2
2spg / 1 + spg

2.00

1.58

1.08

0.788

0.612

0.498 0.419

0.361

0.317

I bp 10

4.05

13.0

31.75

65.20 118.25 195.80 302.76 444.00 624.46

NOTE: V dh , Vdv and V f are in kN. M dm is in kNm. l bp is in mm 3 .

Zb FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS


s p = 70 mm
s g = 90 mm
e

Values of Z b for n p =

mm
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150

1
2.00
1.64
1.38
1.20
1.06
0.947
0.857
0.783
0.720
0.667
0.621
0.581
0.545
0.514
0.486
0.462

2
4.00
3.50
3.09
2.76
2.48
2.25
2.06
1.90
1.76
1.64
1.53
1.44
1.35
1.28
1.21
1.15

3
6.00
5.49
5.00
4.56
4.16
3.82
3.52
3.25
3.02
2.82
2.64
2.48
2.34
2.21
2.09
1.99

4
8.00
7.53
7.02
6.51
6.04
5.60
5.20
4.84
4.51
4.23
3.97
3.73
3.52
3.33
3.16
3.01

5
10.0
9.57
9.08
8.55
8.03
7.52
7.05
6.61
6.20
5.83
5.50
5.19
4.91
4.66
4.43
4.22

6
12.0
11.6
11.1
10.6
10.1
9.54
9.01
8.51
8.04
7.61
7.20
6.83
6.48
6.16
5.87
5.60

7
14.0
13.7
13.2
12.7
12.2
11.6
11.1
10.5
9.99
9.50
9.03
8.60
8.19
7.82
7.47
7.14

8
16.0
15.7
15.3
14.8
14.3
13.7
13.1
12.6
12.0
11.5
11.0
10.5
10.0
9.59
9.19
8.81

9
18.0
17.7
17.3
16.9
16.4
15.8
15.2
14.7
14.1
13.5
13.0
12.4
11.9
11.5
11.0
10.6

Zev, Zeh FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS


s p = 70 mm
s g = 90 mm
e
mm

Values of Z ev for n p =
1
.818
.692
.600
.529
.474
.429
.391
.360
.333
.310
.290
.273
.257
.243
.231

2
.903
.823
.756
.699
.650
.607
.570
.537
.508
.481
.458
.436
.417
.399
.382

3
.938
.883
.834
.791
.751
.716
.684
.654
.627
.602
.579
.558
.538
.519
.502

4
.959
.921
.886
.853
.823
.795
.769
.744
.721
.700
.679
.660
.642
.625
.608

5
.971
.944
.918
.894
.871
.849
.828
.809
.790
.772
.754
.738
.722
.707
.693

6
.979
.959
.940
.921
.903
.886
.869
.854
.838
.823
.809
.795
.782
.769
.757

7
.984
.969
.954
.939
.925
.911
.898
.885
.873
.861
.849
.837
.826
.815
.805

Values of Z eh for n p =
8
.988
.975
.964
.952
.941
.930
.919
.908
.989
.888
.878
.869
.859
.850
.841

9
.990
.980
.971
.961
.952
.943
.934
.925
.917
.908
.900
.892
.884
.876
.869

2
9.29
4.64
3.10
2.32
1.86
1.55
1.33
1.16
1.03
.929
.844
.774
.714
.663
.619

3
7.56
3.78
2.52
1.89
1.51
1.26
1.08
.945
.840
.756
.687
.630
.582
.540
.504

4
7.76
3.88
2.59
1.94
1.55
1.29
1.11
.970
.862
.776
.706
.647
.597
.554
.517

5
8.45
4.22
2.82
2.11
1.69
1.41
1.21
1.06
.938
.845
.768
.704
.650
.603
.563

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

6
9.32
4.66
3.11
2.33
1.87
1.55
1.33
1.17
1.04
.932
.848
.777
.717
.668
.622

7
10.30
5.15
3.43
2.57
2.06
1.72
1.47
1.29
1.14
1.03
.936
.858
.792
.736
.687

8
11.33
5.66
3.78
2.83
2.26
1.89
1.62
1.42
1.26
1.13
1.03
.944
.871
.809
.755

9
12.39
6.20
4.13
3.10
2.48
2.07
1.77
1.55
1.38
1.24
1.13
1.03
.953
.885
.826

38

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.10 Design example No. 1


Design of bolts in lap splice
connection

Check a bolted splice in a 180 20 plate in the following configuration to ensure that it can
transmit the design tension capacity of the plate being spliced.

FIGURE 17 BOLTED PLATE SPLICE


Plates:

Grade 250 to AS/NZS 3678

Spliced plate:

20 mm thick

fy = 250 MPa

Ag

= 180 20 = 3600 mm 2

An

= 3600 2 22 20 = 2720 mm2

AS 4100, Clause 7.2 N t


Nt

fu = 410 MPa

3600 250/10 3 = 900 kN


0.85 1.0 2720 410/10 3 = 948 kN

Design capacity:

N t = 0.9 900 = 810 kN

Bolts and splice plates are to be able to


transmit this design capacity

Splice plates:

2 No 10 mm thick

fy = 260 MPa

Ag

= 2 180 10 = 3600 mm

An

= 2 (180 10 2 22 10) = 2720 mm 2

Nt

3600 260/10 3 = 936 kN

Nt

0.85 1.0 2720 410/10 3 = 948 kN

Design capacity:

N t = 0.9 936 = 842 kN >810 kN

Bolts:

M20 category 8.8/S in 22 mm diameter holes


grip = 40 mm

fu = 410 MPa

bolt length = 70 mm

minimum plain shank length = 16.5 mm

SATISFACTORY

(Ref. 7)
(Ref. 7)

Hence, threads intercept one shear plane, plain shank intercepts the other shear planebolts
subject to shear on two planes.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

39

Design capacity of bolts in shear = Vfn + V fx = 92.6 + 129 = 221.6 kN (Table 10)

L j = 70 mm (first to last bolt, each side of splice location) hence, k r = 1.0


Plate crushing and tear-out:

Spliced plate in bearing:


From Table 7

Vb

M20 bolts
a e1 = 39 mm

d f = 20 mm
fup = 410 MPa

tp = 20 mm

3.2 410 20 20/10 = 525 kN


3

39 20 410/10 3 = 320 kN

Splice plates:
From Table 7

V b (= 0.9 320 kN) > Vf (= 221.6 kN)

DOES NOT CONTROL

a e1 = 34 mm

tp = 10 mm

Vb

fup = 410 MPa

3.2 410 10 20/10 = 262 kN


3

34 10 410/10 3 = 139 kN
V b = 0.9 139 kN > 92.6 kN threads included
= 125.5 < 129 kN threads excluded

DOES NOT CONTROL


DOES CONTROL

Design capacity on two shear planes per bolt reduces to = 92.6 + 125.5 = 218 kN.
Total design capacity of 4 bolts each side of splice location = 4 218 = 872 kN
> 810 kN SATISFACTORY

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

40

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.11 Design example No. 2


Design of bolt group loaded inplane

If the bolts in the connection shown in Figure 18 are M20 bolts in 8.8/S bolting category,
determine the maximum design vertical force that the bolts in the bolt group can sustain.

FIGURE 18 BOLT GROUP LOADED IN-PLANE


Design actions at bolt group centroid:

Vbv*

= V* kN

*
Mbm

= 0.5 V* kNm

Using first principles approach of Eqns 3.9.10 to 3.9.13

Design capacity of bolt group based on design shear capacity of bolts


nb

= 8

Ibp

(x

2
n

+ y n2

r max

45 2 + 105 2 = 114.2 mm

= 8 45 2 + 4 105 2 + 4 35 2
= 65200 mm2

Vv*

Vbv*
nb

= 0.125V*

Vh*

Vbh*
nb

=0

*
M bm
r max
I bp

*
Vmb
=

0.5V * 1000 114.2


= 0.876V*
65200

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

41

Using Eqns 3.9.11 and 3.9.12:


*
Vmh
=

*
M bm
y max
I bp

*
Vmv
=

*
M bm
x max
Ibp

0.5V * 1000 105


= 0.805V*
65200
0.5V * 1000 45
= 0.345V*
65200

(V ) + (V )

2
*
mv

2
*
mh

*
Note that Vmb
=

= 0.876V* as before

Using Eqn 3.9.13:

(V

*
=
Vres

*
v

*
+ Vmv

) + (V
2

*
h

*
+ Vmh

(0.125 + 0.345 ) 2 + 0.805 2 V *

= 0.932V*
Vf
Bolt design capacity: M20 bolts 8.8/S bolting category

grip = 15.4 + 8 = 23.4 mm From Reference 7, 55 mm long bolt is shortest possible bolt
55 mm long bolt has minimum plain shank of 10 mm (<15.4) threads intercept shear plane
Vdf = V fn = 92.6 kN (Table 10)
Crushing on 8 mm ply, Vb = 3.2 20 8 410/10 3 = 210 kN

BOLT SHEAR CONTROLS

(Plate tear-out assessed for components of bolt forces separately.)


*
Vres
= 0.932 V* 92.6 kN

V* 99.4 kN
Design capacity of bolt group based on end plate tear-out considerations:

Now vertical end plate tear-out is not likely in either column or bracket, while horizontal end
plate tear-out will occur in the 8 mm web of the channel member before occurring in column
flange. Hence,
tp = 8 mm,

fup = 410 MPa

= 0.9

a eh 1 = 50 1 mm = 49 mm

*
Vmh
on top bolt = 0.805V* V b = a e tpfup

V*

0.9 49 8 410
= 180 kN
0.805 10 3

DOES NOT CONTROL

Using the closed form solution approach of Table 18


Bolt group design parameters (Table 18):

s p = 70 mm
2
1+ s

Z1 =

Zb =

s g = 90 mm

np = 4

2spg

= 0.788

= 1.84

2
1 + spg

2
pg

spg =

90
= 0.4286 e = 500 mm s g/s p = 1.2857
3 70
1 2
2
3 np 1 + s g / s p

n p s p = 570.7
(n p 1) 2 + s g / s p 2

) (
(

)
)

2 500 / 90
= 2.761
1 5
1
1+
3 3 0.4286 2
2 4
3.761 + (2.761 / 0.4286 ) 2
2

= 1.072

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

42

Design capacity of bolt group based on design shear capacity of bolts:

Using Table 18,

Vbv* Zb (Vf ) = 1.072 92.6 = 99.4 kN

Method (a) using Z b:

since Vbv* = V * then V * 99.4 kN


Using Eqn 3.9.17, Method (b) using interaction equation: Vbh* = 0
V dv = 8 92.6 = 740.8 kN
M dm = 571 92.6 = 52847 kNmm = 52.8 kNm
2

V* 2
V * 0.5V * 0.5V *
740.8 + 0.788 740.8 52.8 + 52.8 1.0

[V *] 2 [1.8222 + 10.054 + 89.336 ] 10 -6 1.0


Solving,

V * 99.4 kN (as method (a))

Design capacity of bolt group based on end plate tear-out considerations:

Using Table 18, l bp =

4 70 2
2
15 + 3 (90 / 70 ) = 65200 mm3
6

Now, vertical end plate tear-out is not likely in either column or bracket, while horizontal end
plate tear-out will occur in the 8 mm web of the channel member before occurring in column
flange. Hence,
tp

= 8 mm,

= 0.9

f up = 410 MPa

a eh 1 = 50 1 mm = 49 mm

V eh = 0.9 49 8 410/10 = 145 kN


3

V bf = 0.9 3.2 20 8 410/10 3 = 189 kN


Then using Table 18, with Vbv* = 99.4 kN (maximum capacity controlled by bolt shear)
Vv*

99.4
= 12.4 kN
2 4

*
Vmh

99.4 500 3 70
= 80.0 kN Veh = 145 kN
2 65200

*
Vmv

99.4 500 90
= 34.3 kN
2 65200

*
Vres

(12.4 + 34.3) 2 + 80.0 2

= 92.6 kN Vbf = 189 kN

SATISFACTORY

SATISFACTORY

CONCLUSION: Plate tear-out does not control the design capacity of the connection.

DESIGN CAPACITY OF BOLT GROUP = 99.4 kN

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

AS BEFORE

43

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.12 Bolt group loaded out-of-plane

AS 4100 Clause 9.4.2 specifies that for a bolt group loaded such that it is subject to out-ofplane loading, the design actions shall be determined in accordance with Clause 9.1.3.
Clause 9.1.3 of AS 4100 nominates the basic requirements that any design model must have for
the design of a steel connection if the design model is to be acceptable. These requirements
are as follows:
Each element in a connection shall be designed so that the structure is capable of
resisting all design actions. The design capacities of each element shall be not less than
the calculated design action effects.
Connections and the adjacent areas of members shall be designed by distributing the
design action effects so that they comply with the following requirements:
(a)

The distributed design action effects are in equilibrium with the design action effects
acting on the connection.

(b)

The deformations in the connection are within the deformation capacities of the
connection elements.

(c)

All of the connection elements and the adjacent areas of members are capable of
resisting the design action effects acting on them.

(d)

The connection elements shall remain stable under the design action effects and
deformations.

Design shall be on the basis of a recognised method supported by experimental evidence.


Residual actions due to the installation of bolts need not be considered.
A bolt group loaded out-of-plane can be subject to a bending moment applied normal to the
mating surface (M*) and a coincident vertical shear force (V*) and horizontal tension force N t* .
If n b = number of bolts in the connection, then V* and N t* can be assumed to be equally
distributed among the bolts, giving:
Vv* = design shear force per bolt due to vertical shear V* =

V*
nb

N tn* = design tension force per bolt due to horizontal axial tension N t* =

N t*
nb

The method used in this Design Guide to determine the design tension force in the bolts due to
the design action M* is based on the following assumptions:
(1)

the neutral axis is at the centroid of the bolt group (Figure 19);

(2)

the bolts above the neutral axis are all in tension and the bolts below the neutral axis are
assumed to be notionally in compression;

(3)

a plastic distribution of bolt force is assumed on both sides of the neutral axis.

The method is one suggested in Reference 9, Case II (neutral axis at centre of gravity).

FIGURE 19 BOLT GROUP LOADED OUT-OF-PLANEDESIGN ACTIONS


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design of structural steel connections, first edition

44

*
Using these assumptions, the design axial tension in the bolts on the tension side ( N tm
) is given

by:
*
= design force per bolt in tension due to design bending moment M*
N tm

M*
nt y m

(Eqn 3.12.1)

nt

= number of bolts above the neutral axis

ym

= lever arm between resultant tensile force and resultant compression force

For the common case of a double column of bolts (Figure 20)


n b = 2n p = number of bolts in connection
when n p = odd number (3,5,7, etc.)
n t = (np 1)

ym =

(n

+ 1) s p
2

(Eqn 3.12.2)

when n p = even number (2,4,6, etc.)


nt = np

ym =

np sp
2

(Eqn 3.12.3)

FIGURE 20 DOUBLE BOLT COLUMN


GEOMETRY
Reference 9 also offers an alternative formulationCase I (neutral axis not at centre of gravity),
which is a direct but less conservative method.
Governing bolt interaction equations for a double column bolt group:

The bolts above the neutral axis are subject to shear force and tension force and must satisfy
the interaction equation of Table 7.
*
2
Vv* 2 N tn* + N tm
1 .0

V
N
tf
f

(Eqn 3.12.4)

The bolts below the neutral axis have a notional compression force due to the design bending
moment M*. This would normally be ignored, so that the bolts below the neutral axis would
normally only need to satisfy
Vv* 2 N tn* 2
1 .0

+
Vf N tf

(Eqn 3.12.5)

which would not be a critical design criterion.


The bolts may be subject to Prying Action under the design action N t* and under design action
M* for bolts on the tension side. Prying action may increase the design tension force in the bolts
above the values calculated using this Section. Prying action is discussed in Section 3.13.
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design of structural steel connections, first edition

45

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.13 Prying action

Bolt groups subject to out-of-plane moment or direct tension may be subject to an additional
tensile force due to the flexural behaviour of the plate which the bolts connect to a support. This
phenomenon is known as prying action and is illustrated in Figure 21. Any increase in tension
force in the bolt due to prying should be taken into account in the design of the bolts and the
connected plate.
The mechanism of prying can be understood by reference to Figure 21. Considering a T-stub
under tensile load, the contact pressure between the T-stub flange and the base will be reduced
and additional prying forces develop in the general region of the flange tip, thus increasing the
tensile force in the bolts, as the flange of the T-stub deforms.

FIGURE 21 PRYING MECHANISM IN T-STUB CONNECTION


A review of the literature relating to prying may be found in References 2 and 10. This Section
is based primarily on Reference 10, which suggests that the level of prying force is influenced
by a number of items, including:
(a)

the stiffness of the connected plate;

(b)

the stiffness of the bolt;

(c)

the magnitude of the clamping forces induced into the bolts at installation;

(d)

the bolt grip;

(e)

the number of lines of fasteners;

(f)

the stiffness of the support;

(g)

the dimensions of the bolt position relative to the edge of the connected plate and the
point of application of the force.

If the connected plate is sufficiently stiff (thick plate), the flexural deformations of the plate will
be small compared to the elongation of the bolts and very little prying force will be developed
(refer to Figure 22). The connected plate will bend in single curvature.
If the connected plate is sufficiently flexible (thin plate), the flexural deformations of the plate
will be large and prying force will develop (refer to Figure 23). Bending of the plate develops a
prying force acting between the bolt line and the edge of the plate, which may continue up until
bolt failure. The connected plate may bend in either single or double curvature.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

46

The test results plotted in Reference 10 show that experimentally measured levels of prying
force may vary between 0% and 40% depending on the exact test arrangement. Precise
evaluation by calculation is difficult despite the various studies on the subject reported in
References 2 and 10.

FIGURE 22 GRAPHICAL
RELATIONSHIPBOLT
LOAD/APPLIED LOAD FOR A STIFF
T-STUB FLANGE

FIGURE 23 GRAPHICAL RELATIONSHIP


BOLT LOAD/APPLIED LOAD FOR A FLEXIBLE
T-STUB FLANGE

A further complication is that if there are more than one line of bolts either side of the point of
application of the design action, tests have shown that the outer line of bolts is not very
effective in carrying the applied design action unless the connected plate is thick or stiffened
(Ref. 10). The assessment of prying force for such arrangements is little studied and is not
further developed in this Guide.
A simple approach is as follows:
(i)

for thick connected plates to a rigid supportuse an allowance for prying of 0% to 10% by
increasing the calculated tension force in a bolt by the selected percentage.

(ii)

for thin connected platesuse an allowance for prying of 20% to 40% by increasing the
calculated tension force in a bolt by the selected percentage.

What constitutes a plate that is sufficiently thick so as to reduce prying is discussed later.
If an analytical approach is desired to be used, the following method taken from Reference 10 is
suggested. It is an approach also used in References 9 and 11. In using this analytical
approach, it needs to be recognised that a lot of the experimental research is based on tee
stubs bolted to supports and subject to tension. Some T-stub research has the T-stubs also
bolted to the flanges of an I-section. Few realistic connections in Australia where prying is of
interest involve a genuine T-stub detail as most involve plates bolted to I -section supports.
Figure 24(a) shows a tee stub connection and identifies two critical dimensions (a e and a f).
Figure 24(b) shows the same T-stub in a deformed condition when subject to a tension force
N t* . If the T-stub deforms as shown, it presses against the support (assumed to be rigid) at the
ends of the T-stub and generates a reactionit is this reaction which is the prying force ( Nq* ).

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47

FIGURE 24 T-STUB CRITICAL DIMENSIONS AND DESIGN ACTIONS


If the flange part of the T-stub is very stiff, then the bolt force versus applied tension force
relationship will be like that in Figure 22. If the flange part of the T-stub is very flexible, then the
bolt force versus applied tension force relationship will be like that in Figure 23.
The relevant parameters for an analytical method are given in Figure 25.

FIGURE 25 T-STUB PARAMETERS


Equilibrium of forces gives:
N t* + 2N q* = 2N tf*

(Eqn 3.13.1)

Equilibrium of moments about the centre of the bolt gives:


M l* + M 2* = 0.5N t* af

(Eqn 3.13.2)

where
M 2*

design bending moment acting on the net cross-section of the flange of the
T-stub, through the bolt centreline

Ml*

design bending moment acting on the gross cross-section of the flange of the
T-stub, at the face of the T-stub stem

letting

net cross - section area at bolt hole location


gross cross - section area at face of stem

M 2* M l* then M 2* normalised becomes = Ml*

and

then Eqn 3.13.2 can be expressed in a different form as:


M 1* (1 + ) = 0.5N t* af
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design of structural steel connections, first edition

(Eqn 3.13.4)
48

Solving for M 1* results in:


M 1*

0.5N t* a f
N t* a f
=
(1 + ) 2(1 + )

(Eqn 3.13.4)

For the design of the plate/flange of the T-stub


M 1*

M s (design section moment capacity of T-stub flange)

Methods of determining Ms for connection components (such as the T-stub flange) are
discussed in Section 5 of this Guide.
In order to determine the design tension force in the bolt, it is to be noted that:
M 2*

N q* a e = M 1*

N t* a f
M 1*
=
ae
2(1 + ) a e

(Eqn 3.13.5)

Hence,
Nq*

using Eqn 3.13.4

(Eqn 3.13.6)

The total design force in the bolt ( N tf* ) is then given by:
N tf*


a
0.5Nt* + Nq* = Nt* 0.5 + f

ae 2(1 + )

(Eqn 3.13.7)

The behaviour of the flange of the T-stub as observed experimentally suggests that flange
deformation is such that modified values of a e and a f should be used, as follows:
ae

a e + 0.5d h

af

a f 0.5d h

dh

bolt hole diameter

where

Using these modified parameters, the equations of interest become the following
equations:

a

N tf* = N t* 0.5 + f

a e 2(1 + )

M 1* =

N t* a f
2(1 + )

(Eqn 3.13.8)

(Eqn 3.13.9)

The structural connection designer has a multitude of solutions to choose from by varying as
Thornton illustrates in Reference 12these being
Option 1

Choose = 0, single curvature bending in the T-stub flange. There is zero prying,
so Ntf* = 0.5Nt* , but a thicker plate is required that satisfies
M 1* = 0.5N t* a f M s

Option 2

Choose = 1, double curvature bending in the T-stub flange. Equations 3.13.8


and 3.13.9 apply directly and M1* Ms, N tf* N tf

Option 3

Choose any value of . Thornton in Reference 12 illustrates a family of curves


showing how the prying force values vary with values of .

Equations 3.13.8 and 3.13.9 are a consistent set of equations which relate plate thickness and
bolt force.
The foregoing is a general treatment which is adapted in other Design Guides for individual
connections as requirednotably the Bolted Moment End Plate and Column Base Plate subject
to bending moment.
The AISC Manual (Ref. 9) contains an alternative formulation which is claimed to provide better
correlation with available test data
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design of structural steel connections, first edition

49

BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS

3.14 Design example No. 3


Design of bolt group loaded
out-of-plane

If the bolts in the connection shown in Figure 26 are M20 bolts in 8.8/S bolting category,
determine if they are satisfactory under the design action shown.

FIGURE 26 BOLT GROUP LOADED OUT-OF-PLANE


Bolt design capacities:

From Table 10,


V fx = 129 kN

No threads intersect shear plane

N tf = 163 kN
V b > Vfx

since tp = 25 mm bearing or end plate tear-out is not critical.

Bolt group design parameters:

Using Section 3.12,

nb = 8

s p = 70 mm

nt = np = 4

ym =

np sp
2

n p = 4 (even numbering)

= 140 mm

Design actions:
250
= 31.3 kN
8
250 250
M*
=
= 111.6 kN
N tf* =
nt y m
4 140

Vv* =

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50

Design capacityBolt and plate:

Using Section 3.13 to consider prying:


(A)

Assume = 0, no prying, N tf* =111.6 kN


31.3 2 111 .6 2
Bolt interaction equation (Section 3.12)
+
= 0.53 < 1.0
129 163

SATISFACTORY

Checking plate thickness using Sections 5.3 and 3.13: treating area around top two bolts
as a T-stub as in Figure 27:

FIGURE 27 T-STUB GEOMETRY


Section 3.13

a f = 50 mm

a f = 50 11 = 39 mm

d h = 22 mm

N t* = 2 111.6 kN = 223.2 kN

For =0,

M1* = 223.2 39/2 = 4352 kNmm

(Section 5.3)

M s =

0.9 250 25 2 70
4 10 3

= 2460 kNmm
< M1*

NOT SATISFACTORY

since the plate is thin, prying will occur and the design tension force on the bolts must be
reassessed.
(B)

Assume = 1
=

70 22
= 0.685
70

af = 39 mm

ae = 40 + 11 = 51 mm

a f

39 1 0.685
=

= 0.155 (Total prying force is 31%)


a e 2(1 + ) 51 2 (1.685 )
N tf* = N t* [0.5 + 0.155 ] = 223.2 0.655 = 146 kN

31.3 2 146 2
Bolt Interaction Equation (Section 3.12)
+
= 0.86 1.0
129 163
M1* =

223 39
2 1.685

= 2580 kNm

SATISFACTORY

(compare to 4350 kNm if no prying is assumed)

M s = 2460 kNm (from before)

SATISFACTORY

CONCLUSIONS

(1)

Bolts are satisfactory even if prying is considered

(2)

25 mm thick plate is just satisfactory, will bend in double curvature and 31% prying force
will be involved. The plate is not thick enough for no prying to occur. For no prying to
occur, a plate thickness of 36 mm is required for which:
M s =

0.9 250 36 2 70
4 10 3

= 5130 kNm
>4352 kNm = M1*

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

51

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.1

Weld types

Six types of weld are included in AS 4100 (see Figure 28):


Complete penetration butt welda weld where fusion exists between weld metal and the
parent metal throughout the entire depth of the joint. A butt weld is one in which the weld lies
substantially within the extension of the planes of the surfaces of one or more of the parts
joined.
Incomplete penetration butt welda butt weld where, by design, fusion does not extend
throughout the full depth of the joint.
Fillet welda weld of approximately triangular cross-section which is formed in the corner
between the surfaces of two components.
Plug welda weld made by completely or partially filling a circular hole in one component with
filler metal, with the filler metal fusing to the contiguous component exposed through the hole.
Slot welda weld made by depositing a fillet weld around the periphery of an elongated hole in
one component so as to join it to the surface of a contiguous component exposed through the
hole.
Compound welda weld comprising a fillet weld superimposed on a butt weld.

AS 4100 restricts the use of plug and slot welds to applications where these welds either
transmit shear in lap joints or where they prevent buckling of lapped parts or where they join
component parts of built-up members.

FIGURE 28 WELD TYPES


The design and detailing of the six types of weld included in AS 4100 are extensively dealt with
in AS 4100 (Ref. 1) and its associated commentary (Ref. 8) as well as in AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14)
and Design Guide 2.
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52

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.1

Standard weld symbols

NOTES:
1. The letters CP in the tail of the arrow indicate a complete penetration butt weld.
2. The tail should be omitted if no reference T is required.
3. The size of a fillet weld shall be to the left of the symbol.
4. For an incomplete penetration butt weld, the design throat thickness shall be to the left of the symbol.
Where no design throat thickness is shown, a complete penetration butt weld is assumed required.
5. Arrow side and other side welds are made the same size unless otherwise dimensioned.
6. Symbols only apply between abrupt changes in direction of welding unless governed by the weld all
round symbol or otherwise dimensioned.

FIGURE 29 SYMBOLS FOR WELDS ON DRAWINGS


(from AS 1101.3, Ref. 13)

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53

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.2

Selection of prequalified
welding consumables

TABLE 21
PREQUALIFIED WELDING CONSUMABLES
Steel grade in
AS/NZS 3678
(Ref. 27)
AS/NZS 3679.1
(Ref. 29)

Steel
type

Weld metal classification


Manual metal-arc AS 1553.1
(Ref. 15)

Submerged arcAS 1858.1


(Ref. 16)

Classification

Grade

Flux coredAS 2203.1 (Ref. 17)


Gas metal arcAS/NZS 2717.1
(Ref. 18)

200, 250, 300

E41XX, E48XX

0 and 1

W40X, W50X

250L0

E41XX, E48XX

W402, W502

250L15, 300L15

E41XX, E48XX

W403, W503

350, WR350, 400

E48XX, E41XX

0 and 1

W50X, W40X

350L0, WR350L0

E48XX, E41XX

W502, W402

350L15, 400L15

E48XX, E41XX

W503, W403

NOTE: See expanded version of this table in AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).

TABLE 22
STRENGTH OF WELD METAL
Weld metal designation

f uw (MPa)

E41XX, W40X

410

E48XX, W50X

480

NOTE: fuw is the nominal tensile strength of the deposited weld


metal used for design.

As required by AS 4100, all welding must comply with AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).
Table 21 is based on Table 4.5.1 of AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14) and matches weld metal strength and
ductility to base metal strength and ductility, when using any of the welding procedures
complying with AS 1554.1. In Tables 21 and 22, X or XX indicates any number(s) representing a
variety of different electrode compositions may be used.

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54

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.3

Weld categories

AS 4100 permits the use of two weld categories as follows:


SPstructural purpose
GPgeneral purpose
The difference between these weld categories lies in the level of permissible imperfections
allowed by AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14). SP weld category has smaller permitted imperfectionsand is
accordingly more reliablethan category GP. Once the permitted level of imperfections is
exceeded the imperfections are classed as defects. Each category of weld cannot be accepted
under AS 1554.1 if the level of permitted imperfections for that category is exceeded, unless it
can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics assessment that the defects will not be injurious
to the performance of the structure (refer to Design Guide 3 for a more detailed explanation).
The selection of weld category is at the discretion of the designer but it is expected that most
welds will be weld category SP in practice.
Capacity factors for each weld category are as follows:
Complete penetration butt welds
GP (general purpose)

= 0.6 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100)

Category GP may be selected where the weld is essentially statically loaded and is not loaded
above 66.7% of the design capacity of a SP weld.
SP (structural purpose)

= 0.9 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100)

Category SP shall be selected where a GP quality weld is not appropriate.


The cut-off value of 66.7% for the two weld types is due to the ratio of GP to SP capacity factors
(), i.e.:
0.6/0.9 100 = 66.7%
Fillet weld/Incomplete penetration butt weld/Plug or slot weld/Weld group
GP (general purpose)

= 0.6 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100)

Category GP may be selected where the weld is essentially statically loaded and is not loaded
above 75% of the design capacity of a SP weld.
SP (structural purpose)

= 0.8 (Table 3.4 of AS 4100)

Category SP shall be selected where a GP weld quality is not appropriate.


The cut-off value of 75% for the two weld types is due to the ratio of GP to SP capacity factors
(), i.e.:
0.6/0.8 100 = 75%

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55

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.4

Design of butt weldsStrength


limit state

Complete penetration butt weld


AS 4100 Clause 9.7.2.7 requires that the design capacity is taken as equal to the nominal
capacity of the weaker part of the parts joined multiplied by the capacity factor () of:
0.90weld category SP
0.60weld category GP
provided that the weld procedure is qualified in accordance with AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).
To specify this type of weld on a drawing, the term complete penetration butt weld or the
appropriate symbol from AS 1101.3 is sufficient (Fig. 29). The design throat thickness is then
the size of the weld which is the minimum depth which the weld extends from its face into a
jointthat is the thickness of the thinner part.
Incomplete penetration butt weld
AS 4100 Clause 9.7.2.7 requires that the design capacity shall be calculated as for a fillet weld
using a design throat thickness determined using Clause 9.7.2.3(b) of AS 4100.
The size of an incomplete penetration butt weld is a function of:
(a)

the required design throat thickness

(b)

the welding process

(c)

the details of the weld preparation

and rather than specifying the size of such a weld on the drawings it is usual to specify the
required design throat thickness. This then allows the fabricator to produce the required weld by
selecting the most advantageous combination of welding process, weld preparation and welding
position. The whole procedure must be qualified in terms of AS 1554.1 before fabrication
commences.
AS 4100 Clause 9.7.2.3 specifies the design throat thickness of a butt weld as follows:
(a)

Complete penetration butt weldThe design throat thickness for a complete penetration
butt weld shall be the size of the weld.

(b)

Incomplete penetration butt weldThe design throat thickness for an incomplete


penetration butt weld shall be as follows:
(i)

Prequalified preparation for incomplete penetration butt weld, except as provided in


(iii), as specified in AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).

(ii)

Non-pre-qualified preparation for incomplete penetration butt weld, except as


provided in (iii)
(A)

where < 60

(d 3) mm, for single V weld;


[(d 3 + d 4) 6] mm, for double V weld

(B)

where >60

d mm, for single V weld;


(d 3 + d 4) mm, for double V weld

where
d

= depth of preparation (d 3 and d 4 are the values of d for each side of the
weld)

= angle of preparation.

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56

(iii)

For an incomplete penetration butt weld made by an automatic arc welding process
for which it can be demonstrated by means of a macro test on a production weld
that the required penetration has been achieved, an increase in design throat
thickness up to the depth of preparation may be allowed. If the macro test shows
penetration beyond the depth of preparation, an increase in design throat thickness
up to that shown in Figure 9.7.3.4 (of AS 4100) may be allowed.

For fully-automatic arc welding processes, Clause 9.7.2.3(b)(iii) permits advantage to be taken
of the penetration achievable with such processes to reduce the size of the weld deposited,
provided a macro test demonstrates the viability of the procedure (see Figure 30).

(a) Incomplete penetration butt weld made by


other than a fully automatic process

(b) Incomplete penetration butt weld made by a


fully automatic process

FIGURE 30 DESIGN THROAT THICKNESS OF INCOMPLETE PENETRATION BUTT WELD

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57

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.5

Design of fillet weldsStrength


limit state

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.10 specifies that a fillet weld subject to a design force per unit length
v w* (kN/mm) shall satisfy:
v w* v w

where:

= capacity factor = 0.80 SP category fillet weld


= 0.60 GP category fillet weld

vw

= nominal capacity of fillet weld per unit length (kN/mm)see Tables 23, 24
= 0.6 fuw tt k r

fuw = nominal tensile strength of deposited weld metalsee Table 22


tt

= design throat thickness

kr

= reduction factor to account for the length of a welded lap connection


= 1.0 for most connections except long lap splices

The design throat thickness is the smallest dimension from the root of the weld to the
hypotenuse of the triangular weld profile, drawn perpendicular to the hypotenuse (see
Figure 31).

FIGURE 31 DESIGN THROAT THICKNESS OF FILLET WELDS


Advantage may be taken of the increased penetration achievable with a fully automatic welding
process, in order to reduce the size (but not the design throat thickness) of a fillet weld85% of
the penetration being considered as part of the design throat thickness (see Figure 31(c)). The
viability of the increased penetration must be demonstrated by means of a macro test.
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58

Remarks on (equal) fillet weld leg sizes, tw are as follows:


1)

for tw = 35 mm: Used for a minimum size fillet weld

2)

for tw = 68 mm: Sizes preferred for structural connectionssingle pass welds.

3)

for tw = 1012 mm: Not recommended for all casescannot be guaranteed as single pass
welds. Check with fabricator before specifying.
TABLE 23
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
DESIGN CAPACITIES OF EQUAL LEG FILLET WELDS PER UNIT LENGTH
Category SP, = 0.8, k r = 1.0
Weld size

Design capacity per unit length


of weld, v w

(mm)

(kN/mm)
Leg: tw

Throat: t t

E41XX/W40X

E48XX/W50X

2.12

0.417

0.489

2.83

0.557

0.652

3.54

0.696

0.815

4.24

0.835

0.978

5.66

1.11

1.30

10

7.07

1.39

1.63

12

8.49

1.67

1.96

f uw = 410 MPa

f uw = 480 MPa

t t = t w/ 2

where: f uw = nominal tensile strength of the weld metal


(Table 22)

TABLE 24
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
DESIGN CAPACITIES OF EQUAL LEG FILLET WELDS PER UNIT LENGTH
Category GP, = 0.6, k r = 1.0
Weld size

Design capacity per unit length


of weld, v w

(mm)

(kN/mm)
Leg: tw

Throat: t t

E41XX/W40X

E48XX/W50X

2.12

0.313

0.367

2.83

0.417

0.489

3.54

0.522

0.611

4.24

0.626

0.733

5.66

0.835

0.978

10

7.07

1.04

1.22

12

8.49

1.25

1.47

t t = t w/ 2

f uw = 410 MPa

f uw = 480 MPa

where: f uw = nominal tensile strength of the weld metal


(Table 22)

Theoretical and experimental work indicates that longitudinally loaded fillet welds provide lower
strength but higher ductility than transversely loaded fillet welds (Refs. 19, 20). This is not
reflected in the nominal capacity expression of AS 4100 but the lower bound longitudinally
loaded strength is used together with an average capacity factor, to give the design capacity.
The increase in strength for transversely loaded fillet welds is variously estimated at 13%
(Ref. 19) to 44% (Ref. 20) but the decrease in ductility is a factor of 4 (Ref. 20).
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59

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.10 specifies that the design force per unit length on a fillet weld shall be
determined as the vectorial sum of the design forces per unit length on the effective area of the
weld. The effective area is taken as the product of the effective length and the design throat
thickness (AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.6).
For the design of a fillet weld, AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.10 specifies that the nominal capacity be
based on a failure stress of 0.6fuw in shear on the design weld throat (tt) which is assumed to be
the failure plane (see Figure 32). Considering the design actions in terms of force per unit
length ( v n* , v vt* , v vl* )on the fillet weld throat in Figure 32, a general form of a failure criterion may
be written as (Ref. 21):

v n*2 + k v v vl*2 + v vt*2 k w (0.6 fuw t t )

k wv w

where
kv

= coefficient which varies according to the failure criteria used

v n*

= design force per unit length of weld normal to the plane of the fillet weld throat

v vl*

= design force per unit length of weld longitudinal to the plane of the fillet weld
throat

v vt* = design force per unit length of weld transverse to the plane of the fillet weld throat

= capacity factor

kw

= a factor to account for the failure criteria of a single weld element determined from
test data

For Clause 9.7.3.10 of AS 4100, values of k v = 1.0 and k w = 1.0 were adopted based on the
studies reported in Reference 21. Accordingly, AS 4100 requires that the design force per unit
length be the vectorial sum of all design forces per unit length acting on the effective area of the
fillet weld.

FIGURE 32 DESIGN ACTIONS ON A FILLET WELD


Hence, if the design forces per unit length are resolved into three mutually orthogonal
components relative to the throat of the fillet weldas in Figure 32then:
*
= vectorial sum of the three components, resultant design force per unit length
v res

(v ) + (v ) + (v )
* 2
n

*
vt

*
vl

v w
*
The design requirement then becomes: v res
v w, where values of v w are given in Tables 23
and 24.

The design method of AS 4100 involving the calculation of fillet weld force per unit length using
linear methods combined with vectorial addition of component forces is conservative, but the
chosen value of the capacity factor () reflects this conservatism (Ref. 21). Any other
combination of design criteria would involve the use of a smaller capacity factor to arrive at
essentially the same result.

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60

In many actual fillet welds, it is more convenient to define a fillet weld orientation with respect to
three mutually orthogonal axes, usually arranged so that the fillet weld lies in the x-y planeas
in Figure 33.

FIGURE 33 DESIGN FORCES PER UNIT LENGTH PARALLEL TO


WELD GROUP AXES (x, y, z)
Using this approach, three mutually orthogonal components of design force per unit length exist,
being:
one parallel to the fillet weld x-axis ( v x* )
one parallel to the fillet weld y-axis ( v y* )
one parallel to the fillet weld z-axis ( v z* )
*
=
so that v res

v x*2 + v y*2 + v z*2

v w

is the design requirement

Specifically, for a fillet weld subject only to longitudinal shear forceas in Figure 34(a)the
design capacity per unit length of fillet weld is given by:
v w = f uw tt
and

*
v res
= v z* since v n* = v vt* = 0, v vl* = v z*

(a) Fillet weld subject to longitudinal shear force

(b) Fillet weld subject to transverse shear force

FIGURE 34 FILLET WELD SUBJECT TO LONGITUDINAL AND


TRANSVERSE SHEAR FORCES
For a fillet weld subject only to transverse shear forceas in Figure 34(b)the design capacity
per unit length of fillet weld is also:
v w = f uw tt
In this case, using components resolved with respect to the throat (as Figure 32):
v n* = v y* / 2
*
v res
=

(v

*
y

/ 2

v vt* = v y* / 2

) + (v
2

*
y

/ 2

= v y* v w

v vl* = 0

is the design requirement

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61

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.6

Weld group loaded in-plane

Fillet weld groupsTypes and analysis


AS 4100 Clause 9.8 specifies the assumptions which must be made in analysing fillet weld
groups. No mention is made of a butt weld group because most usual connections involving a
weld group are made using fillet welds.
AS 4100 Clause 9.8 deals with three types of fillet weld groups, as follows:
weld group subject to in-plane loading (Clause 9.8.1)
weld group subject to out-of-plane loading (Clause 9.8.2)
weld group subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane loading (Clause 9.8.3)
For each type of fillet weld group, both a general and an alternative method of analysis are
permitted. It is convenient to use the general method for most connections but the alternative
method for others. The above three sub-clauses nominate the assumptions which must be
made for the analysis of a fillet weld group in order to determine the design force per unit length
at any point in the fillet weld group. Once this design value is determined, the fillet weld must
satisfy the requirements of Clause 9.7.3.10 at all points in the group.
In the general method of analysis, the nominal capacity of a welded connection with a constant
size weld is assessed by treating that connection as a weld group of unit thickness in isolation
from the attached elements or members.
The alternative method of analysis for all three types of loading on fillet weld groups states that
the design force per unit length in the fillet weld group shall be determined by considering the
fillet weld group to be an extension of the member connected by the fillet weld group and by
proportioning the design force per unit length to satisfy equilibrium between the fillet weld group
and the elements of the connected member. That is, an assumption is made about the
distribution of forces so that equilibrium is satisfied at the weld/member interface. This method
is specific to each connection type and will be demonstrated in Example No. 5 and when used
in a relevant Design Guide.
Fillet weld group loaded in-plane
Clause 9.8.1.1 of AS 4100 deals specifically with a fillet weld group subject to in-plane loading
which generates in-plane shear forces on the fillet weld group. The Clause restricts the design
method to be used to the following assumptions:
(a)

The connection plates shall be considered to be rigid and to rotate relative to each other
about a point known as the instantaneous centre of rotation of the weld group.

(b)

In the case of a weld group subject to a pure couple only, the instantaneous centre of
rotation coincides with the weld group centroid.
In the case of a weld group subject to an in-plane shear force applied at the group
centroid, the instantaneous centre of the rotation is at infinity and the design force per unit
length ( v w* ) is uniformly distributed throughout the group.
In all other cases, either the results of independent analyses for a pure couple alone and
for an in-plane shear force applied at the weld group centroid shall be superposed, or a
recognised method of analysis shall be used.

(c)

The design force per unit length ( v w* ) at any point in the fillet weld group shall be
assumed to act at right angles to the radius from that point to the instantaneous centre,
and shall be taken as proportional to that radius.

Note that the Clause permits the use of superposition under (b) and this method will be used
extensively in this Section. Also note the similarity in wording to that for bolt groups loaded inplaneessentially the method for fillet weld groups is identical to that for such bolt groups and
the development in this Section will reflect this.
If a connection at the end of a member is viewed as a weld group in isolation from that member
then the nominal capacity of the weld group may be determined by either an elastic or an
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62

ultimate strength approach. Both methods are based upon assumptions (a) and (b) of Clause
9.8.1.1, that is the rotation being assumed about an instantaneous centre.
The elastic or linear method is the traditional approach to the assessment of the load capacity
of a weld group. The design force per unit length of weld is considered to be proportional to the
distance from the instantaneous centre, as in assumption (c) of Clause 9.8.1.1, quoted above.
This method has been adopted in AS 4100 because reliability studies reported in Reference 21
have indicated that the method is sufficiently reliable, while having the virtue of being simpler to
apply than the alternative methods and being amenable to hand calculation.
Applying the provisions of Clause 9.8.1.1 of AS 4100 to the general fillet weld group of Figure
35 the analysis proceeds as follows:

FIGURE 35 GENERAL FILLET WELD GROUP


Letting

Lw
ds

= length of weld
= unit length of weld at point (x s, y s)

v s*

= calculated force per unit length at point (x s, y s)

then, equilibrium requires that:

Fy* =

(v
(v

M z* =

[v

Fx* =

(Eqn 4.7.1)

(Eqn 4.7.2)

*
s

d s sin s

*
s

d s cos s

*
s

d s sin s (y s y p ) +

] [v

*
s

d s cos s (x s x p )

(Eqn 4.7.3)

Noting that Clause 9.8.1.1(c) of AS 4100 specifies that v s* = k wr s where k w = constant of


proportionality (in units of force per unit length) and r s = radius from the instantaneous centre of
rotation to length d s, and further noting that:
coss = (x s x e)/r s

sins = (ys y e)/r s

these expressions reduce to:


Fx* = k w

(y

y e )d s

(Eqn 4.7.4)

Fy* = k w

(x

x e )d s

(Eqn 4.7.5)

M z* = k w

(y

y e ) (y s y p )d s + k w

x e ) (x s x p )d s

(Eqn 4.7.6)

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63

(x

With the origin at the weld group centroid:

x d
s

ds = 0

2
s

= L w = total length of fillet weld

y d
2
s

= lwy

x d +y d
2
s

x d
2
s

= lwx

= l wy + l wx = l wp

where lwx, l wy, and l wp are second moments of area of a weld group of unit throat thickness
calculated about weld group centroid, for the x -axis, y -axis and polar axis respectively.
Using these substitutions, the three equations of equilibrium may be re-written as:
Fx* = k wLwy e

(Eqn 4.7.7)

Fy* = k wLwx e

(Eqn 4.7.8)

M z* = k w[l wp + Lw( x ex p + y ey p)]

(Eqn 4.7.9)

Rearranging these equations gives explicit solutions for the three unknowns ( x e, y e, k w):

xe

ye

kw

Fy*

(Eqn 4.7.10)

k w Lw

Fx*
k w Lw

(Eqn 4.7.11)

M z* + Fx* y p + Fy* xp

(Eqn 4.7.12)

l wp

Hence, the design force per unit length ( v w* ) at any point ( x s, y s) is given by:
v w* = k wr s

where r s =

(xs xe ) 2 + (y s y e ) 2

(Eqn 4.7.13)

v w* must be less than v w (design capacity per unit length), given in Tables 22 and 23.

An alternative method of solution is to apply the principle of superposition permitted in AS 4100


Clause 9.8.1.1(b). For the weld group of Figure 35, the applied design actions may be
*
transferred to the weld group centroid to give a design action set ( Fx* , Fy* , M zo
) where:
*
*
*
*
M zo
= M z + Fx y p Fy x p

(Eqn 4.7.14)

From Clause 9.8.1.1(b) of AS 4100, in-plane shear forces are uniformly distributed so that:
v x*

= force per unit length in x -axis direction due to Fx*


= Fx* / Lw

v y*

*
= force per unit length in y -axis direction due to Fy
*
= Fy / Lw

*
) applied at the weld group centroid,
For the pure couple ( M zo

xe

= ye = 0

then

kw

with

v m* = k wr s

and

*
M zo
and rs =
l wp

Fy* = Fx* = 0

x s2 + y s2

*
*
Taking components of v m* parallel to the x ( v mx
) and y ( v my
) axes gives (see Figure 36)

*
*
*
v mx
= v m sin s = v m

*
*
*
v my
= + v m cos s = + v m

ys
M* y
= zo s
rs
l wp

(Eqn 4.7.15)

xs
M* x
= + zo s
rs
l wp

(Eqn 4.7.16)

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64

FIGURE 36 HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL WELD COMPONENT FORCES


AT A POINT IN A WELD GROUP
Superposition of the components due to each design action gives:
v x*

v y*

*
ys
Fx* M zo

Lw
l wp

Fy*
Lw

*
M zo
xs
l wp

(Eqn 4.7.17)
(Eqn 4.7.18)

with the resultant force per unit length being given as:
*
v res
=

(v ) + (v )
* 2
x

* 2
y

(Eqn 4.7.19)

which must be less than v w (design capacity per unit length).


Equations 4.7.13 and 4.7.19 are alternative design requirementseither may be used as
desiredeach of which complies with the requirements of AS 4100.

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65

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.7

Weld group loaded out-of-plane

Clause 9.8.2.1 of AS 4100 deals specifically with a fillet weld group subject to out-of-plane
loading which generates out-of-plane shear forces on the fillet weld group. The Clause restricts
the design method to be used to the following assumptions:
(a)

The fillet weld group shall be considered in isolation from the connected element; and

(b)

The design force per unit length in the fillet weld resulting from a design bending moment
shall be considered to vary linearly with the distance from the relevant centroidal axes.
The design force per unit length in the fillet weld group resulting from any shear force or
axial force shall be considered to be uniformly distributed over the length of the fillet weld
group.

Clause 9.8.2.1 of AS 4100 does not specifically mention that superposition is permitted but the
Commentary (Ref. 8) states that the same comments as were made about Clause 9.8.1.1 apply.
Superposition is thus assumed to be permitted for out-of-plane loading in this Guide.
As with the analysis for in-plane loading, the weld group loaded out-of-plane is analysed by
treating it as a weld group of unit thickness and is considered in isolation from the member
(Figure 37). Once again, the nominal capacity could be determined by either a linear or an
ultimate strength approach. However, Clause 9.8.2.1(b) of AS 4100 specifically mentions a
linear relationship for determining the design force per unit length in the fillet weld resulting from
the design bending moment. The same comments made earlier about the reasons for AS 4100
using the linear method in relation to in-plane loading also apply for out-of-plane loading.

FIGURE 37 FILLET WELD GROUP LOADED OUT-OF-PLANE


For out-of-plane loading, AS 4100 Clause 9.8.2.1(b) is quite specific in stating that for a fillet
weld group subject to moment the design force per unit length is related to distance from the
weld group centroid. Accordingly, for the weld group of Figure 37, analogous equations to Eqns
in Section 4.7 can be written as follows:
v

or

*
x

Fx*
=
Lw

(Eqn 4.8.1)

Fy*

v y*

v z*

Fz* M x* y
for moment M x* about x-axis as in Figure 37
+
Lw
l wx

(Eqn 4.8.3)

v z*

*
Fz* M y x
for moment M y* about y-axis (not shown in Figure 37)
+
Lw
l wy

(Eqn 4.8.4)

(Eqn 4.8.2)

Lw

The resultant design force per unit length is:


*
v res
=

(v ) + (v ) + (v )
* 2
x

* 2
y

* 2
z

using Clause 9.7.3.10 of AS 4100

which must be less than v w (design capacity per unit length).


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66

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.8

Weld group loaded by general


set of design actions

Page 1 of 2

For a fillet weld group subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane loading simultaneously,
Clause 9.8.3.1 of AS 4100 states that the design action shall be obtained using the previous
methods for in-plane and out-of-plane loading separately such that Clause 9.7.3.10 of AS 4100
is satisfied at all points, and the design shear forces per unit length in different directions being
combined using vectorial addition.
Hence, for the general fillet weld group of Figure 38, subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane
loading:

FIGURE 38 GENERAL FILLET WELD GROUP


the general design expressions becomeby combining Eqns 4.7.17, 4.7.18, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 4.8.3
and 4.8.4
v x*

v y*

v z*

Fx* M z* y

Lw
l wp

Fy*
Lw

M z* x
l wp

*
Fz* M x* y M y x
+

Lw
l wx
l wy

(Eqn 4.9.1)

(Eqn 4.9.2)

(Eqn 4.9.3)

where
v x* , v y* and v z* are the design forces per unit length in the x , y , z directions respectively on an

elemental length of weld. The x and y -axes are the principal axes of the weld group and the
z -axis is perpendicular to the weld group and through the centroid.
Fx* , Fy* and Fz* are the design forces applied to the weld group along the x , y , z axes

respectively.
M x* , M y* and M z* are the design bending moments applied to the weld group about the

respective x , y , z-axes, with M z* moments due to in-plane forces being determined relative to
weld centroid location.

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67

lwx and lwy are the second moment of areas of the weld group for a unit thickness of weld about
the x and y-axes respectively. l wp(= lwx + l wy) is the polar moment of inertia about the z -axis, and
L w is the total length of weld.
It is also legitimate for the above expressions to be slightly modified in order to allow them to
reflect realistic distributions of the force set ( Fx* , Fy* and Fz* ) between components of the total
weld group, as follows:
v x*

v y*

*
z

Fx* M z* y

Lwx
l wp

Fy*
Lwy

(Eqn 4.9.4)

M z* x
l wp

(Eqn 4.9.5)

*
Fz* M x* y M y x
+

=
Lwz
l wx
l wy

(Eqn 4.9.6)

where

L wx, L wy , L wz = the lengths of weld assumed to receive the component forces along the individual
x , y and z -axes respectively;
The resultant design force per unit length is:
*
v res
=

(v ) + (v ) + (v )
* 2
x

* 2
y

* 2
z

which must be less than v w as before.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

68

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.9

Properties of common fillet


weld groups

TABLE 25
PROPERTIES OF COMMON FILLET WELD GROUPS TREATED AS LINE ELEMENTS
Type of fillet weld
group

lwx

lwy

lwp

d
2

d3
12

d3
12

d3
+
6
b 2d a 3
+
+
2
3
2
a(b a )

ad 2 +
ad 2 +

b
2

d
2

b
2

d
2

For a = 0

For a = b

(2b + d )

2ab + b
2a + 2b + d
2

For a = 0
2

b
(2b + d )

(2a + d )d
2(a + b + d )
For a = b

d
2

d
2
For a = 0

d
2

For a = 0

d3
6

b 2d
2

bd 2 a 3
+
+
2
3
2
a(d a )

b3
+ ab 2
6

For a = 0
bd
2

a2 + b2
2(a + b + d )

b 2d a 3
2
+
+ a(b a )
2
3

d3
6

d 3 b 2d
+
6
2
bd 2 a 3
+
+
2
3
b3
2
a(d a ) +
+ ab 2
6

For a = 0

For a = 0

b3
6

a d y 2+

For a = 0

a3
a

+ a x 2 +
12
2

3
2
b
dx +
+
12
b

b x 2
2

d
+
12

2
d

d y 2 + by
2

For a = b
d2
(6b + d )
12

a 3 a(d a ) 2
+
6
2
bd 2 d 3
+
+
2
12
For a = 0
d2
(6b + d )
12

bd 2 b 3
+
2
6

l wx + l wy

For a = b

b 3 (b + 2d )
3 (2b + d )

2a b x 2 + d x
+

2b 3
b

+ 2b x 2
12
2

For a = 0

l wx + l wy

b 3 (b + 2d )
3 (2b + d )

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69

TABLE 25 ( continued)
PROPERTIES OF COMMON FILLET WELD GROUPS TREATED AS LINE ELEMENTS
Type of fillet weld
group

lwx

lwy

b
2

d
2

d
bd
+
6
2

b
2

d
2

bd 2 +

d
2

d
2

d 3
8

d3
6

b
db
+
6
2

b3
3

d 3
8

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

lwp

d 3 bd 2
+
6
2
3
b
db 2
+
+
6
2

bd 2 +

d 3 b3
+
6
3

I wx + I wy

70

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.10 Practical fillet weld groups

Critical points
Many fillet weld groups comprise lines of welds parallel to the x and y axes. For such relatively
regular fillet weld groups, the identification of possible critical points is correspondingly more
straightforward.

FIGURE 39 POSSIBLE CRITICAL POINTS IN


PARTICULAR FILLET WELD GROUP
The possible critical points for a fillet weld group consisting of lines of weld parallel to the x and
y axes only are shown numbered 1 to 8, in Figure 39.
Governing design equation
*
v res
=

(v ) + (v ) + (v )
* 2
x

* 2
y

* 2
z

v w = (0.6 fuw t t )

(Section 4.9)

Design procedure
The design of any general fillet weld group subject to a general design action set ( Fx* , Fy* , Fz* ,
M x* , M y* , M z* ) may be obtained by evaluating the design action set ( v x* , v y* , v z* ) using the

equations given in Section 4.9, using the property set ( L wx, L wy , L wz , I wx , I wY, I wp ,) from Table 24,
and checking that the governing inequality given above is satisfied, at each of the critical points
(1-8).

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

71

Restricted cases of forces on weld elements


For a fillet weld group loaded in-plane by a
common design action set of forces ( Fx* , Fy* )
and design moment ( M z* ), the design force
equations reduce to the expressions:
Fx* M z* y

v x* =
Lwx
I wp
v y*
v

*
z

Fy*
Lwy

M z* x
I wp

= 0

For a fillet weld group loaded out-of-plane by


a common design action set of forces ( Fy* , Fz* )
and design moment ( M x* ), the design force
equations reduce to the expressions:
v x*

= 0

v y*

v z*

Fy*
L wy
Fz*
M*y
+ x
L wz
I wx

FIGURE 40 FILLET WELD GROUP


LOADED IN- AND OUT-OF-PLANE
Examining two types of weld groups common to a number of connections in order to obtain
simple closed-form solutions for subsequent use in other Design Guides gives the following:
(a)

Two parallel vertical welds loaded out-of-plane


Consider the fillet weld group shown in Figure 41
which is loaded by an out-of-plane moment ( M x* )
and design vertical ( Fy* ) and horizontal ( Fz* ) shear
forces acting at the weld group centroid.
Weld group properties are:
L wx = L wy = L wz =2 L w

I wx

(L )
w

Lw
2

(Table 24)
at points 3, 4, 7, 8 (+ve at 3, 8,

-ve at 4, 7 in Figure 41)


Design forces per unit length using the above
equations 4.9.4 to 4.9.6 and the above weld group
properties are:
v x*

= 0

v y*

*
= Fy / (2Lw )

v z*

Fz*
M *L / 2
+ x w3
at points 3, 8 (top)
2Lw
(Lw ) / 6

Fz*
M *L / 2
at points 4, 7 (bottom)
x w3
(Lw ) / 6
2Lw

FIGURE 41 TWO PARALLEL


VERTICAL WELDS LOADED
OUT-OF-PLANE

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

72

(v ) + (v )

Governing equationvectorial addition

* 2
y

* 2
z

v w

Substitution of the appropriate design forces per unit length ( v y* , v z* ) into this equation enables
the fillet weld group to be rapidly designed for any action set ( Fy* , Fz* , M x* ).
For Fz* = 0, M x* = 0

since v z* = 0, the design requirement reduces to v y* v w


since v y* = Fy* /(2 L w) then Fy* 2 L w ( v w)

Hence, v dv = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to vertical shear only = 2 L w( v w)
since v y* = 0, the design requirement reduces to v z* v w
For Fy* = 0, M x* = 0
since v z*

= Fz* /(2 L w) then Fz* 2 L w ( v w)

Hence, v dh = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to horizontal shear only = 2 L w( v w)
For Fy* = 0, Fz* = 0

since v y*

*
= 0 and v z

3M x*
L2w

the design requirement reduces to v z* v w

M z*
Hence, Mdm

1 2
Lw (v w )
3

= design capacity of fillet weld group subject only to moment applied at the weld
group centroid
=

1 2
Lw (v w )
3

For Fz* = 0, M x* = Fy* e, e = eccentricity of Fy*


v y* =

Fy*
2Lw

v z* =

3M x*
L2w

3Fy* e
L2w

On substitution into the governing equation of Section 4.9:


Fy*

2L w
then Fy*

2 3Fy* e 2
+ 2 (v w ) 2
L w
2Lw (v w )

(the design capacity of a fillet weld group subject to a vertical shear force
6e 2

1 +

Lw
only at an eccentricity of e).

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

73

(b)

Two parallel horizontal welds loaded out-ofplane

Consider the fillet weld group shown in Figure


42 which is loaded out-of-plane by a moment
( M x* ) and design vertical ( Fy* ) and horizontal
( Fz* ) shear forces acting at the weld group
centroid.
Weld group properties are:
L wx

= L wy = L wz = 2L w

I wx

Lw t 2
(Table 24)
2

at points 1, 2, 5, 6 y = t/2 in Figure 42


Design forces per unit length using previous
equations and the above weld group properties
are:
v x*

= 0

v y*

= Fy* / (2Lw )

v z*

Fz*
M * (t / 2)
+ x 2
2Lw
Lw t / 2

Fz*
M*
+ x at points 1, 2 in Figure 42
2Lw Lw t

Fz*
M * (t / 2)
x 2
2Lw Lw t / 2

Fz*
M*
x at points 5, 6 in Figure 42
2Lw Lw t

FIGURE 42

Governing equationvectorial addition ( v x* = 0)


For Fz* = 0, M z* = 0

(v ) + (v )
*
y

*
z

v w

*
since v z* = 0, the design requirement reduces to v y v w

since v y* = Fy* /(2 L w) then Fy* 2 L w ( v w)


Hence, v dv = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to vertical shear only = 2 L w( v w)
For Fy* = 0, M x* = 0

since v y* = 0, the design requirement reduces to v z* v w


since v z* = Fz* /(2 L w) then Fz* 2 L w ( v w)

Hence, v dh = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to horizontal shear only = 2 L w( v w)
For Fy* = 0, Fz* = 0

M x*
then M x* L wt( v w)
Lw t

since v z* =
Hence, Mdm

v z* v w (as above)

since v y* = 0

= design capacity of fillet weld group subject only to moment applied at the weld
group centroid
= L wt( v w)

For Fz* = 0, M x* = Fy* e, (e = eccentricity of Fy* )


v y* =

Fy*

2Lw

v z* =

Fy e
M x*
(at points 1, 2, 5, 6)
=
Lw t
Lw t

On substitution into the governing equation of Section 4.9:


Fy* 2 Fy*e 2
2
(v w )
+

2Lw Lw t
2Lw
(the design capacity of a fillet weld group subject to a vertical shear
then Fy* (v w )
1 + 4(e / t ) 2

force only at an eccentricity of e ).


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design of structural steel connections, first edition

74

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.11 Design example No. 4


Design of fillet weld group
loaded in-plane

Using Table 25, type 4 weld group with


a = b = 275 mm; d = 300 mm
Weld centroid:

b2
2b + d

= 89.0 mm
Design actions: F = 0 Fy* = 180 kN
(Figure 40a)
M z* = 180 (275 + 175 89.0)
*
x

= 64980 kNmm

FIGURE 43 FILLET WELD GROUP


LOADED IN-PLANE
Weld group properties:

L wx
I wp

= 2 275 + 300 = 850 mm


= L wy = L wz = L w = 850 mm (total weld length resists shear force)
= I wx + I wy

I wp

Lw

assume

300 2 (6 275 + 300 ) 275 3 (275 + 2 300 )


+
(Table 25)
12
3(2 275 + 300 )

= 21.8 10 6 mm3
at points 1, 6:

x
y

at points 2, 3, 4, 5: x

= 275 89.0 = +186


= 300/2 = 150
y = 150

= 89.0

Design forces per unit length:


v x*

M z* y
64980 150
=
I wp
21.8 10 6

= +0.447 at points 1, 2, 3 ( y = +150)


= 0.447 at points 4, 5, 6 ( y = 150)
v y*

Fy*
L wy

M z* x 180 64980 186


=
+
850
I wp
21.8 10 6

= 0.767 at points 1, 6
=

(critical)

180 64980 (89.0 )


+
850
21.8 106

= +0.054 at points 2, 3, 4,5

(not critical)

Resultant design force per unit length: points 1, 6 (critical points)


*
v res
=

( 0.447 ) +( 0.767 )
2

= 0.888 kN/mm
From Table 25SP weld category
6 mm E48XX fillet weld
*
v w = 0.978 kN/mm > v res

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

SATISFACTORY
75

WELDS AND WELD GROUPS

4.12 Design example No. 5


Design of fillet weld group
loaded out-of-plane

FIGURE 44 FILLET WELD GROUP LOADED OUT-OF-PLANE


Design actions:

Fy* = 450 kN
M x*

Fz* = 0

= 90 kNm
= 90000 kNmm

Weld group properties:


L w = 2(300 + 200) = 1000 mm (Table 25)

Use AS 4100 Clause 9.8.2.2 Alternative analysis due to the connection type.
It can be assumed that the vertical shear is primarily taken by the webs of the box section. If so
this vertical shear must be assumed to be transferred through the vertical fillet weld only.
Hence,
L wy = 2 300 = 600 mm
For weld group,
= 300 mm
d
= 200 mm
b
I wx =

at points 1, 2, 3, 8 y
at points 4, 5, 6, 7 y

d 3 bd 2
+
(Table 25, type no. 6 weld group)
6
2

= 13.5 10 6 mm3 on substitution


= 150 mm
= 150 mm

Design forces per unit length:


v x* = 0
v y*

=
=

v z*

=
=
=

450
= 0.75
at points 3, 4, 7, 8
600
0
at points 1, 2, 5, 6
90000 ( 150 )
13.5 10 6
+1.00 at points 1, 2, 3, 8 ( y = +150)
1.00 at points 4, 5, 6, 7 ( y = 150)

Resultant design force per unit length:


*
v res
=

( 0.75) 2 +( 1.00 ) 2

= 1.25 kN/mm
From Table 23SP weld category
8 mm E48XX fillet weld
*
v w = 1.30 kN/mm > v res

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

SATISFACTORY
76

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.1

Angle components

NOTES:
1

Only sizes likely to be used in structural connections are included.

Gradecommonly available only in Grade 300 to AS/NZS 3679.1


(Ref. 29).

TABLE 26
EQUAL ANGLES
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Designation
Leg size
Rationd
thickness
b1 b1
mm mm
200200

150150

125125

100100

90 90

75 75

mm
26EA
20EA
18EA
16EA
13EA
19EA
16EA
12EA
10EA
16EA
12EA
10EA
8EA
12EA
10EA
8EA
6EA
10EA
8EA
6EA
10EA
8EA
6EA
5EA

Mass
per m
kg/m
76.8
60.1
54.4
48.7
40.0
42.1
35.4
27.3
21.9
29.1
22.5
18.0
14.9
17.7
14.2
11.8
9.2
12.7
10.6
8.22
10.5
8.73
6.81
5.27

Dimensions
Actual
thickness
t
r1
mm
mm
26.0
18
20.0
18
18.0
18
16.0
18
13.0
18
19.0
13
15.8
13
12.0
13
9.5
13
15.8
10
12.0
10
9.5
10
7.8
10
12.0
8
9.5
8
7.8
8
6.0
8
9.5
8
7.8
8
6.0
8
9.5
8
7.8
8
6.0
8
4.6
8

Centre
of area
r2
mm
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5

pB = nL
mm
59
57
56
55
54
44
43
42
41
37
35
34
34
29
28
28
27
26
25
24
22
21
21
20

Designation
Leg size
Rationd
thickness
b1 b1
mm mm
6565

5555
5050

mm
10EA
8EA
6EA
5EA
6EA
5EA
8EA
6EA
5EA
3EA

Mass
per m
kg/m
9.02
7.51
5.87
4.56
4.93
3.84
5.68
4.46
3.48
2.91

Dimensions
Actual
thickness
r2
t
r1
mm
mm mm
9.5
6
3
7.8
6
3
6.0
6
3
4.6
6
3
6.0
6
3
4.6
6
3
7.8
6
3
6.0
6
3
4.6
6
3
3.0
6
3

Centre
of area
pB = nL
mm
20
19
18
18
16
15
15
15
14
13

NOTE: Dimensions may not add correctly due to rounding.

TABLE 27
UNEQUAL ANGLES
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Designation
Leg size
b1 b2

Rationd
thickness

mm mm
150100

mm
12UA
10UA
16UA
12UA
10UA
8UA
12UA
10UA
8UA
6UA
10UA
8UA
6UA

150 90

125 75

100 75

Mass
per m
kg/m
22.5
18.0
27.9
21.6
17.3
14.3
17.7
14.2
11.8
9.16
12.4
10.3
7.98

Dimensions
Actual
thickness
r2
t
r1
mm
mm mm
12.0
10
5
9.5
10
5
15.8
10
5
12.0
10
5
9.5
10
5
7.8
10
5
12.0
8
5
9.5
8
5
7.8
8
5
6.0
8
5
9.5
8
5
7.8
8
5
6.0
8
5

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

Centre of area
pB
mm
49
48
52
51
50
49
43
42
42
41
32
31
30

nL
mm
24
23
23
21
20
20
18
17
17
16
19
19
18

77

TABLE 28
GAUGE LINES FOR ANGLES

Nominal
leg length

s g1

s g2

s g3

Bolt

Nominal
leg length

s g3

Bolt

200

75

75

120

M24

100

55

M20

150

55

55

90

M20

90

55

M20

125

45

50

75

M20

75

45

M20

65

35

M16

55

35

M16

50

30

M16

NOTES:
1

The gauges given are suitable for general use in member detailing. When angles are used as
components in connections, gauge lines may be varied from the values given above in order
to suit a particular connection.

The bolt diameters listed are the maximum that can be accommodated on the thickest angles
of each leg length, using either:
(a)

high strength structural bolts with washers to AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6); or

(b)

commercial bolts with large series washers to AS 1237 (Ref. 23).

For thinner legs and commercial bolts with normal series washers, it may be possible to
accommodate a larger bolt diameter.

TABLE 29
STRENGTHS OF ANGLES TO AS/NZS 3679.1 (Ref. 29) GRADE 300
Thickness of angle

Yield stress

Tensile strength

mm

MPa

MPa

<11

320

440

11, 17

300

440

>17

280

440

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

78

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.2

Flat bar components

NOTES:
1

Only sizes likely to be used in structural connections are included.

Only a limited range of sizes listed may be available at the time of


fabrication. Check manufacturer or steel merchant catalogues for current
availability.

Commonly available in Grade 300 to AS/NZS 3679.1 (Ref. 29).

TABLE 30
FLATS
Width thickness

Width thickness

mm mm
50 5
50 6
50 8
50 10
50 12
50 16
50 20
50 25

Mass
per
metre
kg/m
1.96
2.36
3.14
3.92
4.71
6.28
7.85
9.81

mm mm
110 6
110 8
110 10
110 12
130 5
130 6
130 8
130 10

Mass
per
metre
kg/m
5.18
6.91
8.64
10.4
5.1
6.12
8.16
10.2

65 5
65 6
65 8
65 10
65 12

2.55
3.06
4.08
5.10
6.12

130 12
130 16
130 20
130 25
150 5

12.2
16.3
20.4
25.5
5.89

65 16
65 20
75 5

8.16
10.2
2.94

150 6
150 8
150 10

7.06
9.42
11.8

Thickness
of bar
mm

Yield
stress
MPa

Tensile
strength
MPa

75 6
75 8
75 10

3.53
4.71
5.89

150 12
150 16
150 20

14.1
18.8
23.5

<11
11, 17
>17

320
300
280

440
440
440

75 12
75 16
75 20
75 25
75 40
90 6
90 8
90 10
90 12
100 5
100 6
100 8
100 10

7.06
9.42
11.8
14.7
23.6
4.24
5.65
7.06
8.48
3.92
4.71
6.28
7.85

150 25
150 50
180 6
180 10
180 12
180 20
200 6
200 8
200 10
200 12
200 16
200 20
200 25

29.4
58.9
8.48
14.1
17.0
28.3
9.42
12.6
15.7
18.8
25.1
31.4
39.2

9.42
12.6
15.7
19.6
39.2

100
100
100
100
100

12
16
20
25
50

Width thickness

mm mm
250 6
250 8
250 10
250 12
300 6
300 8
300 10
300 12

Mass
per
metre
kg/m
11.8
15.7
19.6
23.5
14.1
18.8
23.5
28.3

Strength of flat bars to


AS/NZS 3679.1 (Ref. 29)
Grade 300

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

79

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.3

Plate components

Standard thicknesses of plate available in Grade 250 to AS/NZS 3678 (Ref. 27) are as follows:
5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, 45, 50 mm
Typical applications for connection components cut from plate are:
end plates (flexible, rigid)
column base plates
fin plates
gusset plates
stiffeners
splice plates
TABLE 31
STRENGTH OF PLATE TO AS/NZS 3678 (Ref. 27)
GRADE 250
Thickness of
plate
mm
8
> 8, 12
>12, 50
>50, 80
>80, 150

Yield stress
MPa
280
260
250
240
230

Tensile
strength
MPa
410
410
410
410
410

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

80

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.4

Design capacities

General
Connection components (cleats, gusset plates, brackets) must have their strength assessed in
order to determine the strength of a connection as a whole. AS 4100 Clause 9.1.9 specifies that
connection components shall have their capacities assessed using the provisions of Sections 5,
6, 7 or 8 of AS 4100 as applicable. AS 4100 Table 3.4 specifies a capacity factor of 0.90 for
connection components.
A connection component is typically of rectangular cross-section (d i ti ) as shown in Figure 45,
with or without a single line of holes of diameter d h (as in Figure 45) or multiple lines of holes.

FIGURE 45 RECTANGULAR CONNECTION COMPONENT GEOMETRY


Design shear capacity of rectangular component
Since the shear distribution in a rectangular cross-section is non-uniform, Clause 5.11.3 of
AS 4100 is applicable. This specifies the nominal shear capacity (Vv) as:
2Vu
f*
0.9 + vm*
f va

Vv

Vu

where
Vu

= the nominal shear capacity of a web with a uniform shear stress distribution
determined in accordance with Clause 5.11.2 of AS 4100

*
fvm
, fva* = the maximum and average design shear stress respectively in the web

determined by a rational elastic analysis

Now, for a rectangular section (d i ti ) subject to a design shear force of V*:


Vu = Vw = 0.60 fyi d i ti
*
fvm

V *Q
= Ib

fva*

Hence, fvm*
Vv

t id i
12

Q=

(Clause 5.11.4 of AS 4100no allowance required for holes)

V*
=
d it i
t id i
8

b = ti

1 .5
f*
therefore vm* = 1.5
= V *
f va
d it i

2Vu
= 0.833 Vu = 0.50 fyi d i ti on substitution of Vu = 0.60 fyi d i ti
0 .9 + 1 .5

V v = design shear capacity of rectangular component


= 0.9 Vv
= 0.45 fyi d i ti
V*, the design shear force
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

81

Design moment capacityMajor axis for rectangular component


The rectangular component when bent about its major axis (Figure 46)
would be considered compact in most connections. Thus Clause 5.2.1 of
AS 4100 specifies the nominal moment capacity as:
Ms = fyZ e
Clause 5.2.3 gives: Ze = lesser of S (=ti d i 2/4) and 1.5 Z (= 1.5 ti d i 2/6)
Hence, Ms =

f yit i d i

and M s = design moment capacity=

0.90 f yit id i
4

FIGURE 46

= 0.225 fyi ti d i 2
M*, design bending moment

Local buckling in flexure is not normally a problem with connection components. Table 5.2 of
AS 4100 does not provide a plasticity slenderness limit for elements with compression at one
edge and tension at the other but both edges unsupported, which is the way most components
are used. Usually attachment to a member prevents local buckling of the component.
Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100 only specifies an allowance for holes be made in flanges, which a
rectangular component does not possess (Fig. 46).
Design moment capacityMinor axis for rectangular component

FIGURE 47
The rectangular component when bent about its minor axis would be considered compact. Thus
Clause 5.21 of AS 4100 specifies the nominal moment capacity as:
Ms = f yi Z e

Ze = lesser of S = d i ti 2/4

where:

1.5Z= (d i ti 2/6) 1.5


Hence, Ms = fyi d i ti 2/4
M s = 0.9 fyi d i ti 2/4 = 0.225 fyi d i ti 2 M* design bending moment
Design capacity in axial compression for rectangular component
Usually, connection components are so short that only gross section yielding can occur without
any local or member buckling. Any exceptions for an individual connection will be covered in the
relevant Design Guide. Accordingly, Section 6 of AS 4100 specifies the nominal capacity in
axial compression as the nominal section capacity given by Clause 6.2.1, which results in:
N s = k f An f yi
where
kf

= the form factor given in Clause 6.2.2

An = the net area of the cross-section, except that for sections with penetrations or
unfilled holes that reduce the section area by less than 100 {1[fy/(0.85fu )]}%, the
gross area may be used. Deductions for fastener holes shall be made in
accordance with Clause 9.1.10 of AS 4100.
In the absence of local buckling, k f may be taken as 1.0 while:
An = Ag for all holes filled with bolts (which is the usual case) = d i ti
= (d i ti n pd h) if holes are not filled and unfilled holes reduce gross area by more than
100 {1[fy/(0.85fu)]}%
Then, N s = design capacity in axial compression
= 0.9 Anf yi N*, the design axial compression force
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

82

Design capacity in axial tension for rectangular component


Clause 7.2 of AS 4100 specifies the nominal section capacity in tension as the lesser of:
Nt

= Ag f yi

Nt

= 0.85 k t An fui

and

where
Ag = the gross area of the cross-section
fyi

= the yield stress used in design

kt

= the correction factor for distribution of forces determined in accordance with


Clause 7.3

An = the net area of the cross-section, obtained by deducting from the gross area the
sectional area of all penetrations and holes, including fastener holes. The
deduction for all fastener holes shall be made in accordance with Clause 9.1.10 of
AS 4100
fui

= the tensile strength used in design

For components in connections, a uniform force distribution usually applies for which k t = 1.0.
Now Ag = d i ti and An = d i ti n p d h ti (Figure 48)
so

Nt

fyi d i ti and
0.85 fui (d i ti n p d h ti )

N t 0.90 fyi d i t i and


0.765 fui (d i ti n p d h ti )

and

N t N*, the design axial force in tension

FIGURE 48 RECTANGULAR COMPONENT DESIGN CAPACITY


IN AXIAL TENSION
Design capacity against rupture due to block shear failure for rectangular component
A connection component may fail when a block of material ruptures as illustrated in Figure 49.
Figure 49(a) shows block shear failure of a gusset plate subject to tension while Figure 49(b)
shows block shear failure of a cleat component subject to a shear force.
AS 4100 does not address the failure mechanism of rupture due to block shear. The AISC
Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J4.3 contains provisions which apply to plates, gussets, angles
and brackets for block shear strength.

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83

FIGURE 49 EXAMPLES OF BLOCK SHEAR FAILURE IN COMPONENTS (after Ref. 11)


The following explanation of block shear failure is based on Reference 11. Block shear failure
involves both shear and tensile failure, a fact which is evident in the connections shown in
Figure 49.
If the region subject to direct tension fractures, it will be through the bolt holes. Regions subject
to shear are more difficult to assess because it is unclear whether the assessment should be on
the basis of net section through the holes or gross section along a plane parallel to the applied
load. Tests of gusset plates show that when the net section fractures in tension, shear action is
one of yield acting on planes generally parallel to the direction of load but not through the bolt
holes. Tests also show that fracture at the net tension section is reached before shear fracture
takes place on the other surfaces.
Clause J4.3 of the AISC Specification (Ref. 22) provides a design provision in which the design
capacity is determined by the sum of the shear strength along the parallel failure surface and
tensile strength on the perpendicular failure surface. The design capacity is then given by the
following expression in Clause J4.3 of Ref. 22:
V bs = [0.6 f u Anv + fu Ant U bs ] [0.6f y Agv + fu Ant U bs ]
where

= 0.75

fu

= specified minimum tensile strength of component (fui in this Guide)

fy

= specified minimum yield stress of component (fyi in this Guide)

Agv = gross area subject to shear


Agt = gross area subject to tension
Anv = net area subject to shear
Ant = net area subject to tension
U bs = 1 when tension stress is uniform
= 0.5 when tension stress is non-uniform
Reference 11 argues that separate equations for design capacity are required for:
(a)

gusset plates, cleats, angles (connection components)this Section.

(b)

coped beam webs (supported members)see Section 6.9.

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84

The design capacity recommended by Kulak at Reference 11 and this Design Guide for
connection components such as gusset plates, angle cleats, web cleats is as follows:
V bs = [Ant f ui + 0.6fyi Agv)
where terms are as defined above.
The AISC Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J4.3 gives the same expression as above for the upper
bound using U bs = 1 which the Commentary implies applies for other than multiple row shear
connections in coped beam webs. The application to connection components subject to shear
force is not specifically addressed in the Commentary.
Relevant areas Ant and Agv are defined as shown in Figure 50.

SHEAR FORCE

TENSION FORCE

A nt = ( l t 0.5dh ) t i

A nt

A gv = l vt i

A gv = l vt i

A gv = l vt i

dh

= hole diameter

nh = no. of holes in vertical line

ti

= thickness of component

= ( l t 1.5dh ) t i

A nt = ( l t ( nh 1) dh ) t i

FIGURE 50 BLOCK SHEAR AREA IN COMPONENTS


The Steel Construction Institute publication (Ref. 24) contains provisions for the assessment of
block shear in connection components which appears to be based on shear yielding rather than
rupture.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

85

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.1

General

For the design of some connections, an assessment is required of the design capacity of the
supported member in bending, shear, bearing, etc. (in particular for flexible connections) while
for other connections it is useful to know the design capacity in shear or bending because the
connection may be designed for a selected proportion of the member capacity (such as rigid
connections or splices). Sections 6.2 to 6.4 are intended to give a summary of the relevant
design capacities in bending and shear for:
uncoped sections

Section 6.2

single web coped sections

Section 6.3

double web coped sections Section 6.4


for use in other Design Guides when assessing connected member strength locally at a
connection.
Since the concern is the member strength locally at a connection, only section capacity is
considered, not member capacity, which is separately assessed as part of the design of the
member.
For coped and uncoped sections the relevant design capacities are moment and shear (yield
and buckling). The nominal capacities are derived using in Clauses 5.2, 5.11, 5.12 and 5.13 of
AS 4100.
So that the design capacities of coped beams do not control the design capacity of the
connection it is important that the length and depth of the cope must be kept as small as
practical. AS 4100 requires that the re-entrant corner at the cope be radiused to at least 10 mm
(Clause 14.3.3).

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

86

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.2

Uncoped sections

Moment capacity
The nominal section moment capacity (Ms) is calculated as follows:
Ms = fyZe

(AS 4100, Clause 5.2.1)

where
Ze = effective section modulus
= Zc
sy s

(Z c Z )

sy sp

= Z +

if s sp

(Clause 5.2.3)

if sp < s sy

(Clause 5.2.4)

Z = elastic section modulus


S = plastic section modulus
Zc = effective section modulus for a compact section = [S; 1.5Z]min
Clause 5.2.2 specifies that for a section with flat compression plate elements, the section
slenderness ( s) shall be taken as the value of the plate element slenderness ( e) for the
element of the cross-section which has the greatest value of e/ ey
where
b f

e =

t 250

ey = the plate element yield slenderness limit (see Table 5.2 of AS 4100, Ref. 1)
b = the clear width of the element outstand from the face of the supporting plate element
or the clear width of the element between the faces of supporting plate elements
t

= the element thickness

The section plasticity and yield slenderness limits ( sp) and (sy) respectively shall be taken as
the values of the element slenderness limits ( ep) and ( ey) respectively given in Table 5.2 of
AS 4100 for the element of the cross-section which has the greatest value of e/ ey .
Rolled sections (HR)
ep = 9 for a flange outstand
= 82 for a web
ey = 16 for a flange outstand
= 115 for a web

Welded sections (LW)


ep = 8 for a flange outstand
= 82 for a web
ey = 15 for a flange outstand
= 115 for a web

In terms of Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100, for sections without holes, or for sections with holes that
reduce either of the flange areas by not more than 100 {1 [f y/(0.85fu)]}%, the elastic and
plastic section moduli may be calculated using the gross section. If the holes reduce either of
the flange areas by more than this, Z and S shall be calculated using either:
(a)

(An/Ag) times the value for the gross section, in which An is the sum of the net areas of the
flanges and the gross area of the web, and Ag the gross area of the section; or

(b)

the net section.

The design section moment capacity (Ms) is calculated from the nominal section moment
capacity (Ms) and the capacity factor ( = 0.9), so that:
M s = fy Z e
Tables of Ze and Ms for rolled and welded I sections are contained in Reference 25 while
tables of Ms for hollow sections are contained in Reference 26.

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87

Where the area of bolt holes in the flanges are such that the limit in AS 4100 is exceeded, the
following formulae for Z and S may be used to determine Ze.
Using the approach based on method (b) above:
SECTION WITH HOLES IN BOTH FLANGES

Defining:
A = area of unholed section (gross area)
Ix = second moment of area about x-axis of
unholed section
Sx = plastic section modulus about x-axis of
unholed section
n h holes d h diameter each flange
tf = flange thickness

FIGURE 51 SECTION WITH HOLES IN


BOTH FLANGES
A holed section = A 2n h d h tf = An
I x holed section = Ix 2n h d h tf d t f 2
2

I holed section
Z x holed section = x
d/2
Sx holed section = Sx 2n h d h tf d t f
2

Z e = min of [1.5 Z x , Sx ] for compact sections or use formula in Clause 5.2.4 of AS 4100
(Page 1 of this Section) for non-compact sections

SECTION WITH HOLES IN ONE FLANGE


Defining
A = area of unholed section
Ix = second moment of area about x-axis of
unholed section
n h holes d h diameter bottom flange
tf = flange thickness
FIGURE 52 SECTION WITH HOLES IN
ONE FLANGE
y bh =

A d 2 nh d h t f t f 2
A nh d h t f

y th = d y bh

I x

holed section

Z x

holed section top flange

Z x

holed section bottom flange =

A holed section = A n hd htf = An

y bh d/2
nhd ht f3
n h d h tf d t f 2 [A n h d h t f ] y 2
2
12

I x holed section
=
y th

= Ix

I x holed section
y bh

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

88

For plastic section modulus, equating areas above/below plastic section neutral axis:
bf t f + (d 1 y bp )t w = bf t f nh d h t f + y bp t w

solving gives y bp =

(Figure 53)

d1t w + nhd ht f
2t w

FIGURE 53 SECTION WITH HOLES IN ONE FLANGE


Sx holed section = bf t f (d1 y bp + t f / 2) + (d1 y bp ) 2t w / 2 +
Z e

2
y bp
tw

+ (bf nhd h )t f (y bp + t f / 2)

= min of [1.5 Z x , Sx ] compact sections, formula in Clause 5.2.4 of AS 4100


(page 1 of this Section) for non-compact sections

= 0.9fy Ze
M sx

Under method (a) of AS 4100:


An
Z
Z x =
A
An
S
S x =
A

which is a lot simpler but less exact than using method (b).
The AS 4100 limits for rolled sections above which holes must be accounted for are as follows:
for Grade 300 rolled sections, fu = 440 MPa
fy = 280 MPa, limit is 25.1%
= 300 MPa, limit is 19.8%
= 320 MPa, limit is 14.4%
If the deduction for holes is below these values, then the Z and S of the gross section may be
used.
for Grade 300 welded plate sections, fu = 430 MPa
fy = 280 MPa, limit is 23.4%
= 300 MPa, limit is 17.9%
= 310 MPa, limit is 15.2%
If the deduction for holes is below these values, then the Z and S of the gross section may be
used.
Note that Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100 only requires deductions be made for holes in flangesno
deduction need be made for holes in webs.
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89

Shear capacity

The shear stress distribution of H and channel shaped sections can be assumed to be
approximately uniform, in terms of Clauses 5.11.1 and 5.11.2 of AS 4100.
Hence, provided the maximum web panel depth to thickness ratio (dp/t w) of the section
satisfies
dp
tw

82
fy

250

where
dp = depth of web panel = d 2tf
d

= depth of a section

tf

= thickness of flange

t w = thickness of the web


the nominal shear capacity of the web (Vv) is determined as:
Vv = Vw, the nominal shear yield capacity of the web
= 0.6 fyA w
where
Aw = gross sectional area of the web
= dptw (for welded sections)
= dtw (for hot-rolled sections)
If the above dp/t w inequality is not satisfied, then for an unstiffened web:
Vv = Vb
= vV w

where v =
dp

t w

82
2 1 .0
fy


250

The design shear capacity of a web (V v) is calculated from the nominal shear capacity of the
web (Vv) and the capacity factor ( = 0.9).
Therefore, for an uncoped section:
Vvo = 0.54fy Aw

where Aw is as defined above. AS 4100 does not have any requirement to adjust V vo for the
presence of bolt holes in the web of a connection presumably because such holes are usually
filled with bolts.
When a cross-section is subject to both shear force and bending moment simultaneously,
AS 4100 Clause 5.12.3 provides that the nominal web shear capacity in the presence of
bending moment be given by:
for M* 0.75M s; and

Vvm = Vv

1.6M *
= Vv 2.2 M

for 0.75Ms M* Ms

where
Vv

= the nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone = Vvo (noted above)

Ms = the nominal section moment capacity = Mso (noted above)


the design capacity being given by Vvm , where = 0.9.
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90

TABLE 32A
UNIVERSAL BEAMS
GRADE 300
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND WEB CAPACITIES
Holed one Holed two Holed/
flanges Unholed NOTES:
flange

M sx
M sx
V v

M sx
calculated for two
diameter
holes in one flange
kNm
kNm
kN
sx

M
calculated
for two
927*
927*
1180
diameter
holes
in
both
flanges
829*
829*
1100

Unholed
Designation

M sx
kNm

610UB 125
113
101

927
829
782

530UB 92.4
82.0

782*

782*

1100

640
558

578
504

544
478

939
876

460UB 82.1
74.6
67.1

496
449
399

443
401
356

412
372
333

788
719
667

410UB 59.7
53.7

324
304

286
269

264
251

548
529

360UB 56.7
50.7
44.7

273
242
222

239
212
196

219
195
180

496
449
420

310UB 46.2
40.4
32.0

197
182
134

170
157
115

155
144
105

356
320
283

250UB 37.3
31.4
25.7

140
114
92.0

118
96.9
74.0

106
87.5
67.5

283
265
214

200UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2

90.0
74.6
65.3
51.8

75.2
62.1
55.0

67.0
55.4
48.1

225
204
174
154

180UB 22.2
18.1
16.1

56.2
45.2
39.8

186
151
135

150UB 18.0
14.0

38.9
29.3

161
130

22 mm
22 mm

* loss of area in flange is below


AS 4100 limit, so gross section value
may be used.
M20 bolts will not fit.

TABLE 32B
PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS
GRADE 300
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND WEB CAPACITIES

Designation

Mass
per metre

Unholed

M sx

V v

kg/m

kNm

kN

380PFC

55.2

238

657

300PFC

40.1

152

415

250PFC

35.5

114

346

230PFC

25.1

73.3

258

200PFC

22.9

59.7

207

180PFC

20.9

49.0

187

150PFC

17.7

37.0

156

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

91

TABLE 32C
WELDED BEAMS
GRADE 300
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND WEB CAPACITIES
Unholed Holed one Holed two Unholed/
flange
flanges
Holed
Designation

NOTES:

M sx

M sx

M sx

V v

M sx

kNm

kNm

kNm

kN

1200WB 455
423
392
342
317
278
249

7110
6510
5910
4980
4500
3790
3250

7110*
6510*
5910*
4980*
4500*
3790*
3250*

7110*
6510*
5910*
4980*
4500*
3790*
3250*

2900
2900
2900
2900
2900
2900
2900

diameter holes in one flange

M sx
calculated for two 24 mm
diameter holes in both flanges

1000WB322
296
258
215

4130
3720
3100
2580

4130*
3720*
3100*
2580*

4130*
3720*
3100*
2580*

2490
2490
2490
2490

900WB282
257
218
175

3440
3070
2510
2020

3440*
3070*
2510*
2020*

3440*
3070*
2510*
2020*

1730
1730
1730
1730

800WB192
168
146
122

2030
1720
1540
1220

2030*
1720*
1430
1140

2030*
1720*
1330
1050

1190
1190
1190
1190

700WB173
150
130
115

1610
1350
1210
1020

1610*
1350*
1110
944

1610*
1350*
1020
868

1100
1100
1100
1100

calculated for two 24 mm

* loss of area in flange is below


AS 4100 limit, so gross section value
may be used.

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

92

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.3

Design example No. 6


UB unholed and holed moment
and shear capacity

Determine the unholed and holed moment and shear capacity of a 250UB31.4 universal beam,
Grade 300, Yield stress, f y = 320 MPa.
Moment capacity

Flange slenderness

ef =

bf t w
2t f

Web slenderness

ew =

d1
tw

fy
250
fy

250

= 8.13

= 38.4

320
= 9.19
250

320
= 43.4
250

To calculate Zex the plate element slenderness values are compared with the plate element
slenderness limits in Table 5.2 of AS 4100.
Bending about the x-axis puts the flange in uniform compression. Hence
ef = 9.19

ep = 9

ey = 16

ef / ey = 0.574

(Table 5.2 of AS 4100)

Bending about the x-axis places one edge of the web in tension and the other in compression.
Hence
ep = 82

ew = 43.4

ey = 115

ew / ey = 0.377

(Table 5.2 of AS 4100)

The flange has the higher value of e / ey and hence is the critical element in the section. From
Clause 5.2.2 of AS 4100 the section slenderness and slenderness limits are the flange values,
i.e.
sp = 9
sy = 16
s = 9.19
Now sp < s sy.

The section is NON-COMPACT.


3

Zx

= 354 10 mm3

Sx = 397 103 mm3 (Ref. 25)

Zc

= min [Sx, 1.5 Z x]

= min [397, 1.5 354] 103 = 397 103 mm3

(
(

sy s
=Z+
sy sp

Z ex

)
) (Z

Z )

(16 9.19 )
(397 354 ) 10 3
= 354 10 3 +
(16 9 )

= 395 10 3 mm 3

M sx = 0.9 320 395 103 /106 = 114 kNm (refer Table 32A)
Moment capacity with 2 22 mm dia. holes on one flange

nh = 2

dh = 22 mm

Check AS 4100 limit


area of holes
area of flange
ratio of areas
AS 4100 limit

=
=
=
=

t f = 8.6 mm

A = 4010 mm2

d = 252 mm (Ref. 25)

2 22 8.6 = 378 mm2


146 8.6
= 1256 mm2
0.30
[1 320/0.85 440] = 0.144

Hence, holes must be accounted for.


y bh =

4010 126 2 22 8.6 4.3


= 138.7 mm
4010 2 22 8.6

y th = 252 138.7 = 113.3 mm

y = 138.7 126.0 = 12.7 mm


I x

= 44.5 106

2 22 8.63
252 8.6
2
2 22 8.6
[4010 2 22 8.6] 12.7
2
12

= 38.3 106 mm 4
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design of structural steel connections, first edition

93

min Z x =

38.3 10 6
= 276 10 3
138.7

d1 = 234 mm
y bp =

t w = 6.1 mm

bf = 146 mm

234 6.1 + 2 22 8.6


= 148.0 mm
2 6.1

S = 146 8.6(234 148.0 + 4.3 ) + (234 148 ) 2 3.05 + 148.0 2 3.05


+ (146 2 22) 8.6 (148.0 + 3.05 )

= 336 103 mm3


Z e = min of [1.5 276, 336] 10 3

= 336 103 mm3

3
6
M x =0.9 320 336 10 /10

= 96.9 kNm (refer Table 32A)

Shear capacity

dp

= d1 = 234 mm

dp

tw

234
= 38.4
6. 1

82
320
250

= 72.5

V vo =0.54 320 (252 6.1)/103 = 265 kN (refer Table 32A)

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

94

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.4

Single web coped sections

FIGURE 54 SINGLE WEB COPED (SWC) SECTIONS


Design moment capacity

The formulae quoted in Section 6.2 also apply for determining the nominal section moment
capacity of a single web coped section, except that for a SWC section (which is a tee section in
cross section (Fig. 54)):
ep = 9, for a flange outstand or web subject to either uniform compression or maximum
compression at unsupported edge and tension at supported edge
ey = 16, for flange outstand subject to uniform compression
= 25, for a web subject to maximum compression at unsupported edge and tension at
supported edge
The assumption made for single coped sections is that local buckling of the web, which is in
compression due to the bending moment induced by the end reaction, does not occur. This
assumption is made on the basis that the cope length involved is small (usually of the order of
100150 mm) and that the stiffening effect of the connection itself inhibits local buckling.
Reference 9 also contains a similar assumption.
Where individual connections require additional assessment for local bucking of the supported
member, a method that may be used is presented later in this Section (following the plastic
modulus formulation).
Assuming the full tee section as effective locally at the connection,
Ze = [Ss; 1.5 Zs]min

where the plastic modulus ( Ss) and the elastic modulus (Zs) of a single web coped section are
given by the expressions following. Notation used is shown in Figure 55.

FIGURE 55 SWC UNIVERSAL BEAM (UB)


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design of structural steel connections, first edition

95

Elastic Modulus Z s (Figure 56)

Zs = min of:

Ix
;

(
+
d
w tf yc )

Ix

yc

FIGURE 56 T-SECTION OF SWC UB


SHOWING ELASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS
where
Ix =

bf t f3
t d3
+ bf t f (y c 0.5t f ) 2 + 0.0152r 4 + 0.4292r 2 (y c t f 0.223r ) 2 + w w + t w d w (t f + 0.5d w y c ) 2
12
12

yc =

0.5bf t f2 + 0.4292r 2 (t f + 0.223r ) + d w t w (t f + 0.5d w )


bf t f + 0.4292r 2 + d w t w

Plastic Modulus Ss

There are two situations to consider, namely:


(a)

plastic section neutral axis in web.

(b)

plastic section neutral axis in bottom flange.

(a)

N.A. in web (Figure 57)

FIGURE 57 SWC UB T-SECTION WITH PLASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS IN WEB


b ftf + 0.4292 r 2 + (y s tf) tw = (d w + tf y s) tw for equal areas either side of neutral axis.
y s

d w t w + 2t f t w bf t f 0.4292r 2
2t w

tf + r

Ss

= b f t f (y s t f / 2) + 0.4292r 2 (y s t f 0.223r )
+ t w (y s t f )

(y s t f )
2

+ (d w + t f y s ) t w

(d w

+ tf ys )
2

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design of structural steel connections, first edition

96

(b)

N.A. in flange (Figure 58)

FIGURE 58 SWC UB T-SECTION WITH PLASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS IN THE FLANGE


bfys

= bf (t f y s ) + 0.4292r 2 + d w t w for equal areas either side of neutral axis

y s

Ss

= bf y s

bf t f + 0.4292r 2 + d w t w
tf
2bf

(t y s ) + 0.4292r 2 (t y + 0.223r ) + d t (t + d / 2 y )
ys
+ bf (t f y s ) f
f
s
w w f
w
s
2
2

The design capacity of a single web coped section is hence:


M ss = 0.9f yZ e

where Ze = [Ss, 1.5Zs ]min

f y = [f yf ,f yw] min

Where local buckling is desired to be assessed for a SWC beam, Reference 9 contains in Part 9
a design moment capacity which is based on work by Cheng et al. This assessment can be
summarised as follows:
M ss = 0.9 fcr Zs
where
fcr
E

tw
tf
dw
d
Lc

2E
=
12 1 2

tw

dw + tf

f k f y

= 200 10 3 MPa
= poissons ratio = 0.3
= plate buckling model adjustment factor
= 2L c/d
when L c/d 1.0
1+ L c/d
when L c/d > 1.0
d +t
= 2.2 w f
Lc

1.65

when

2.2(d w + t f )
Lc

=
=
=
=
=

web thickness
flange thickness
web depth (Figure 55)
uncoped section depth (Figure 55)
length of cope (Figure 55)

when

Lc

(d w + t f )

1. 0

Lc
> 1. 0
(d w + t f )

Note that if there are holes in the flange of the tee section at the SWC, then a deduction for
holes must be made in accordance with Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100, in the same manner as
illustrated in Section 6.2. Coped sections rarely have holes in the remaining flange at simple
connections.
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

97

Design shear capacity

A tee shaped section such as a single web coped section will have a non-uniform shear stress
distribution. Using AS 4100 Clauses 5.11.1 and 5.11.3, the nominal shear capacity (Vv) is given
by:
Vv

2Vu
f *
0.9 + vm
*
f va

Vu

where
Vu
*
fvm
, fva*

= the nominal shear capacity of a web with a uniform shear stress distribution
determined in accordance with Clause 5.11.2
= the maximum and average design shear stresses respectively in the web
determined by a rational elastic analysis.

Now since dw /d w

82
fy / 250

for all rolled sections to AS/NZS 3679.1, and using Clause 5.11.4 of

AS 4100:
Vu = Vw = 0.6 f y A w = 0.6 f y d w t w
Now fva*
and

*
=
fvm

V*
dwtw
V * Qc
Qd
f*
= c w
so that vm
Ix
Ixtw
fva*

First Moment of Area Qc (using the notation in Figure 56)


Qc

= first moment of area of section at cope


=

y dA

= b f tf (y c 0.5tf) + 0.4292r 2 (y c tf 0.223r) + tw (y c tf ) 2/2


Second Moment of Area I xas defined earlier in this Section.
The design capacity is hence:
V ws = 0.9 Vv =

1.08 f y d w t w
0.54 f y d w t w where fy = f y of web
Qc d w
0 .9 +
Ix

When a cross-section is subject to both shear force and bending moment simultaneously,
AS 4100 Clause 5.12.3 provides that the nominal web shear capacity in the presence of
bending moment be given by:
for M* 0.75M s; and

Vvm = Vv

1.6M *

= Vv 2.2

M s

for 0.75Ms M* Ms

where
Vv

= the nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone = Vws above

Ms = the nominal section moment capacity = Mss above


the design capacity being given by Vvm , where = 0.9.
AS 4100 does not have a requirement to adjust V ws for the presence of bolt holes in the web at
a SWC connection presumably because such holes are usually filled with bolts.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

98

TABLE 33A
SINGLE WEB COPED UNIVERSAL BEAMS
GRADE 300
COPE DEPTH = 65 mm
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES
M ss

V ws

kNm

kN

610UB125
113
101

342
315
310

919
860
863

530UB 92.4
82.0

231
210

720
673

460UB 82.1
74.6
67.1

161
146
134

586
536
499

Designation

410UB 59.7
53.7

96.4
97.2

399
387

360UB 56.7
50.7
44.7

74.1
66.4
64.6

350
318
298

310UB 46.2
40.4
32.0

43.2
41.0
34.5

239
216
192

250UB 37.3
31.4
25.7

27.4
24.8
19.5

179
169
136

200UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2

15.0
13.0
11.2
9.3

130
117
101
88

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

99

Variations to formulae for PFC section

For a PFC, the following equations apply in lieu of those derived for a universal section given
above.
b t3
t d3
2
Ix = f f + bf t f (y c 0.5t f ) 2 + 0.0076r 4 + 0.2146r 2 (y c t f 0.223r ) + w w + t w d w (t f + 0.5d w y c ) 2
12
12
2
2
0.5bf t f + 0.2146r (t f + 0.223r ) + d w t w (t f + 0.5d w )
yc =
bf t f + 0.2146r 2 + d w t w
Qc = b ftf(y c 0.5tf) + 0.2146 r 2 (y c tf 0.223r) + tw(y c tf) 2/2
Plastic Neutral Axis in Web
d w t w + 2t f t w bf t f 0.2146r 2
tf + r
2t w

ys

Ss

= b ftf(y s tf/2) + 0.2146r2 (ys tf 0.223r)


(y s t f ) + (d + t y )t (d w + t f y s )
+ tw(y s tf)
w
f
s w
2
2

Plastic Neutral Axis in Flange


b t + 0.2146r 2 + d w t w
tf
ys = f f
2bf
Ss

= bf y s

(t y s ) + 0.2146r 2 (t y + 0.223r ) + d t (t + d 2 y )
ys
+ bf (t f y s ) f
f
s
w w f
w
s
2
2
TABLE 33B
SINGLE WEB COPED PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS
GRADE 300
COPE DEPTH = 65 mm
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES
Designation

M ss

V ws

kNm

kN

380PFC

89.9

467

300PFC

44.6

276

250PFC

28.0

215

230PFC

18.0

157

200PFC

11.4

117

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

100

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.5

Design example No. 7


UB single web coped moment
and shear capacity

Determine the design moment and shear capacity of a single web coped 410UB53.7 universal
beam, Grade 300.

FIGURE 59 SWC UNIVERSAL BEAM EXAMPLE


bf
dw
Ix
yc
Qc
ys
Ze
Ss
1.5Z
Ze
M ss
Qc d w
Ix
V ws

= 178 mm
= 403 65 10.9 = 327 mm
6

tf = 10.9 mm

fyf = 320 MPa

t wb = 7.6 mm

fyw = 320 MPa

= 53.7 10 mm
= 99.2 mm
on substitution into the expressions given earlier
= 216 10 3 mm3
= 43.1 mm
on substitution into the expression given in Section 6.4
hence, plastic neutral axis is in member web, i.e. y s > tf + r
= [Ss; 1.5Z]min
= 409 10 3 mm3 on substitution into the expression given in Section 6.4
= 1.5 53.7 10 6/(327 + 10.9 99.2) = 338 10 3 mm3
= [409 10 3; 338 10 3]min = 338 10 3 mm
= 0.9 320 338 10 3/106 = 97.2 kNm
(as in Table 33A)
216 10 3 327
= 1.313
=
53.7 10 6
0.9 1.2 320 327 7.6
=
= 387 kN
10 3 (0.9 + 1.313 )
3
< 0.9 0.6 320 327 7.6/10 = 429 kN

(value in Table 33A is 387 kN)

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

101

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.6

Double web coped sections

FIGURE 60 DOUBLE WEB COPED (DWC) SECTIONS


Design moment capacity

In this case, both edges are unsupported and AS 4100 contains no provisions for local buckling
of such a section. The assumption is usually made that local buckling of the web in triangular
compression above the neutral axis does not occur locally at connection. Reference 9 contains
a similar assumption.
For a rectangular section,
(d w t wFigure 60)

Z x = t w d w2 6

S = t w d w2 4

Z e = [1.5Z x , Sx ]min

= t w d w2 4

Hence, design moment capacity Msd = 0.9 fy 0.25 t w d w2 = 0.225fyt w d w2


Where local buckling is desired to be assessed for a DWC beam, Reference 9 contains in Part 9
a design moment capacity which is based on the work of Cheng et al. This assessment can be
summarised as follows using the notation in Figure 60.
M sd = 0.9 fcr Zx
where
= 0.62E

fd
fcr

= 3.5 7.5 (d ct/d)


= fyfe
= 1.0

fe

= (1.34 0.486)
= (1.30/ 2)

where L c 2d, d ct 0.2d


d cb 0.2d

t w2
fd
Lc d w

fcr

fy 1 d w
438 K 2t w

where d ct > 0.2d,

d cb > 0.2d

for 0.7
for 0.7 < 1.41
for > 1.41
and K is a function of (2Lc/d w) as set out below
(interpolate for intermediate values)

2L c/d w

0.25

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.75

1.5

16

13

10

4.5

2.5

1.3

0.8

0.6

0.5

0.425

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

102

Design shear capacity

FIGURE 61 ELASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS IN DWC SECTION


A double web coped section leaves a rectangular cross-section of web dw t w. In Section 5.4,
the design shear capacity for a rectangular cross-section of a component was derived and using
that result design shear capacity of a DWC section is V wd = 0.45 fy t w d w.
When a cross-section is subject to both shear force and bending moment simultaneously,
AS 4100 Clause 5.12.3 provides that the nominal web shear capacity in the presence of
bending moment be given by:
Vvm = Vv
for M* 0.75 Ms; and

1.6M *

= Vv 2.2
M s

for 0.75 Ms M* M s

where
Vv = the nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone = Vwd above
Ms = the nominal section moment capacity = Msd above
the design capacity being given by Vvm , where = 0.9.
Holes in DWC sections:

AS 4100 only requires that deductions for holes be made in flanges (Clause 5.2.6) when
calculating section moment capacity. Since a DWC section has no flanges, no deduction for
holes in the web need be made when calculating section moment capacity.
AS 4100 does not require an adjustment to V wd for the presence of bolt holes in the web at a
connection presumably because such holes are usually filled with bolts.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

103

TABLE 34A
DOUBLE WEB COPED UNIVERSAL BEAMS
GRADE 300
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES
d

d ct

d cb

dw

tw

M sd

V wd

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

kNm

kN

610UB125
113
101

612
607
602

65
65
65

52
52
52

495
490
485

11.9
11.2
10.6

197
182
180

795
741
740

530UB 92.4
82.0

533
528

65
65

53
53

415
410

10.2
9.6

126
116

610
567

460UB 82.1
74.6
67.1

460
457
454

65
65
65

50
52
54

345
340
335

9.9
9.1
8.5

84.8
75.7
68.7

492
446
410

410UB 59.7
53.7

406
403

65
65

51
53

290
285

7.8
7.6

47.2
44.4

326
312

360UB 56.7
50.7
44.7

359
356
352

65
65
65

49
51
52

245
240
235

8.0
7.3
6.9

34.6
30.3
27.4

282
252
233

310UB 46.2
40.4
32.0

307
304
298

65
65
65

52
54
53

190
185
180

6.7
6.1
5.5

17.4
15.0
12.8

183
163
143

250UB 37.3
31.4
25.7

256
252
248

65
65
65

51
52
53

140
135
130

6.4
6.1
5.0

9.0
8.0
6.1

129
119
93.6

Designation

TABLE 34B
DOUBLE WEB COPED PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS
GRADE 300
DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES
d

d ct

d cb

dw

tw

M sd

V wd

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

kNm

kN

380PFC

380

65

50

265

10.0

50.6

382

300PFC

300

65

50

185

8.0

19.7

213

250PFC

250

65

50

135

8.0

10.5

156

230PFC

230

65

50

115

6.5

6.2

108

Designation

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

104

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.7

Design example No. 8


UB double web coped moment
and shear capacity

Determine the design moment and shear capacity of a double web coped 410UB53.7 universal
beam, Grade 300.

FIGURE 62 DWC UNIVERSAL BEAM EXAMPLE


d
Ze
M sd

= 403 mm
d w = 285 mm
t w = 7.6 mm
2
3
3
= 7.6 285 /4 = 154.3 10 mm
= 44.4 kNm
(as Table 34A)
= 0.9 320 154.3 10 3/106

V wd = 0.45 320 285 7.6/10 3

= 312 kN

fyw = 320 MPa

(as Table 34A)

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

105

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.8

Lateral torsional buckling

Connection components and coped sections are generally so short that lateral torsional
buckling of neither the connection elements nor of the coped section will occur.
Coping of beam ends may reduce the elastic critical buckling moment of a laterally unsupported
flexural member, particularly if exceptionally long copes are involved.
In AS 4100, no specific guidance is given about the effect of web coping on the buckling
capacity of a laterally unrestrained beam, but it would be prudent to either perform a buckling
analysis using Reference 28 (permitted by Clause 5.6.4) or assume only partial restraint at the
coped end when calculating the twist restraint factor (k t) and the lateral restraint factor (k r ) in
terms of Clause 5.6.3. A k r value of 1.0 should always be used for supported members
connected by angle cleats or web plates only, whether the members are coped or uncoped due
to the lack of restraint to the top flange.
Guidance on the restraint provided by specific connections where the supported members are
either uncoped or coped may be found in Reference 30. Guidance on the lateral torsional
buckling analysis of I -section beams with copes at the support may be found in References 28
and 31, while testing is reported in Reference 32. In References 28 and 31, the situation is
analysed as an interaction problem involving buckling of the uncoped length and coped length
separately, and then combining the effects of each.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

106

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.9

Block shear failure of coped


sections

Page 1 of 2

A coped member may fail when a block of web material pulls out as illustrated in Figure 63.
AS 4100 does not address the failure mechanism of rupture due to block shear. The AISC
Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J5 contains provisions which apply to plates, gussets, angles and
brackets by reference to Clause J4.3 of the Specification.

FIGURE 63 BLOCK SHEAR FAILURE IN DWC MEMBERS


The following explanation of block shear failure is based on Reference 11. Block shear failure
involves both shear and tensile failure, a fact which is evident in the supported beam web
shown in Figure 63. Failure by block shear was discussed in Section 5.4 for connection
components and gusset plates in particular.
The mode of failure by block shear is different in coped beams than for gusset plates. Because
the shear resistance is present on only one surface in a coped beam compared to two with a
gusset plate (see Figure 49(a)), the block of failing material must rotate (Figure 63). Although
tensile failure is observed on the horizontal plane through the net section in tests on coped
sections, the distribution of tensile stress is not uniform, with higher tensile stress toward the
end of the web. There are relatively few test results for block shear failure in coped beams
(Ref. 11). A coverage of earlier work on block shear failure in coped beams is contained in
Reference 2.
Clause J4.3 of the AISC Specification (Ref. 22) provides a design provision in which the design
capacity is determined by the sum of the shear strength along the parallel failure surface and
tensile strength on the perpendicular failure surface. The design capacity is then given by the
following expressions in Clause J4.3 of Ref. 22:
V bs = [0.6f u Anv+fu Ant U bs ] [0.6f y Agv + fu A nt U bs ]
where

fu
fy
Agv
Agt
Anv
Ant
U bs

= 0.75
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

specified minimum tensile strength of component


specified minimum yield stress of component
gross area subject to shear
gross area subject to tension
net area subject to shear
net area subject to tension
1 when tension stress is uniform
0.5 when tension stress is non-uniform

Reference 11 argues that separate equations for design capacity are required for:
(a)

gusset plates, cleats, angles (see Section 5.4);


handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

107

(b)

coped beam webs (following).

The design capacity recommended by Kulak at Reference 11 and this Design Guide for coped
beam webs is as follows:
V bs = [0.5Ant fui + 0.6fyi Agv]
where terms are as defined above.
The AISC Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J4.3 gives the following expressions for the upper
bound based on guidance given in the Commentary to the Specification:
V bs = [A nt fui + 0.6fyi Agv]
= [0.5Ant fui + 0.6fyi A gv]

single column of bolts to beam web


double column of bolts to beam web

Relevant areas Ant and Agv are defined as shown in Figure 64.

For both SWC and DWC, Ant = ltt w 0.5d htw (single column of bolts)
Agv = l vt w
where

lt

= distance from end of member to centreline of holes

lv

= distance from top of coped member to centreline of bottom hole

dh

= hole diameter

tw

= thickness of web
FIGURE 64 BLOCK SHEAR AREAS IN SWC AND DWC MEMBERS

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

108

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.10 Web reinforcement of coped


supported members

The following guidance is taken directly from Reference 9, Part 9.


When the strength of a coped beam is inadequate, either a different beam can be selected to
eliminate the need for reinforcement, or reinforcement can be provided to increase the strength.
In spite of the increase in material cost, the former solution may be the most economical option
due to the appreciable labour cost associated with adding stiffeners and/or doubler plates.
When the latter solution is required, some typical reinforcing details are illustrated in Figure 65.
The doubler plate illustrated in Figure 65(a) and the longitudinal stiffening illustrated in Figure
65(b) are used with rolled sections where d w/t w 60. When a doubler plate is used, the required
doubler-plate thickness td req is determined by substituting the quantity (tw + td req) for tw in the
calculations of the design capacities for coped sections given earlier. To prevent local crippling
of the beam web, the doubler plate must be extended at least a distance d c (depth of cope)
beyond the cope as illustrated in Figure 65(a). When longitudinal stiffening is used, the
stiffening elements must be proportioned to meet the width-thickness ratios specified in
AS 4100. The stiffened cross-section must then be checked for moment capacity but local web
buckling need not be checked. To prevent local buckling of the beam web, the longitudinal
stiffening must be extended a distance d c beyond the cope as illustrated in Figure 65(b).
The combination of longitudinal and transverse stiffeners shown in Figure 63(c) may be required
for thin-web plate-girders, where d w/t w > 60. When longitudinal and transverse stiffening is used,
the stiffening elements must be proportioned to meet the width-thickness ratios specified in
AS 4100. The stiffened cross-section must then be checked for moment capacity, but local web
buckling need not be checked. To prevent local buckling of the beam web, longitudinal stiffeners
must be extended a distance L c/3 beyond the cope as illustrated in Figure 65(c).

FIGURE 65 WEB REINFORCEMENT OF COPED SUPPORTED MEMBERS

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

109

SUPPORTING MEMBERS

7.1

Rationalised dimensions

TABLE 35
UNIVERSAL BEAMS
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Flange

Depth of
section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

Designation

kg/m

Web
thickness
tw

Dimensions

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

610UB 125
113
101

612
607
602

229
228
228

20
17
15

12
11
11

6
6
5

109
108
109

544
544
544

34
31
29

653
648
644

14
14
14

530UB 92.4
82.0

533
528

209
209

16
13

10
10

5
5

99
100

474
474

30
27

573
568

14
14

460UB 82.1
74.6
67.1

460
457
454

191
190
190

16
15
13

10
9
9

5
5
4

91
90
91

406
406
406

27
26
24

498
495
492

11
11
11

410UB 59.7
53.7

406
403

178
178

13
11

8
8

4
4

85
85

358
358

24
22

444
440

11
11

360UB 56.7
50.7
44.7

359
356
352

172
171
171

13
12
10

8
7
7

4
4
3

82
82
82

310
310
310

24
23
21

398
395
391

11
11
11

310UB 46.2
40.4
32.0

307
304
298

166
165
149

12
10
8

7
6
6

3
3
3

80
79
72

261
261
256

23
22
21

349
346
333

11
11
13

250UB 37.3
31.4
25.7

256
252
248

146
146
124

11
9
8

6
6
5

3
3
3

70
70
60

217
217
208

20
18
20

295
291
277

9
9
12

200UB 29.8
25.4
22.3
18.2

207
203
202
198

134
133
133
99

10
8
7
7

6
6
5
5

3
3
3
2

64
64
64
47

170
170
170
162

19
17
16
18

247
243
242
221

9
9
9
11

180UB 22.2
18.1
16.1

179
175
173

90
90
90

10
8
7

6
5
5

3
3
2

42
43
43

141
141
141

19
17
16

201
197
195

9
9
9

150UB 18.0
14.0

155
150

75
75

10
7

6
5

3
3

35
35

120
120

18
15

172
168

8
8

TABLE 36
UNIVERSAL COLUMNS
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Flange

Depth of
section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw
mm

Designation

Web
thickness
tw

Dimensions

kg/m

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

310UC 158
137
118
96.8

327
321
315
308

311
309
307
305

25
22
19
15

16
14
12
10

8
7
6
5

148
148
148
148

244
244
244
244

42
38
35
32

451
445
440
433

17
17
17
17

250UC 89.5
72.9

260
254

256
254

17
14

11
9

5
4

123
123

197
197

31
28

365
359

14
14

200UC 59.5
52.2
46.2

210
206
203

205
204
203

14
13
11

9
8
7

5
4
4

98
98
98

159
159
159

26
24
22

293
290
287

11
11
11

150UC 37.2
30.0
23.4

162
158
152

154
153
152

12
9
7

8
7
6

4
3
3

73
73
73

121
121
121

20
18
16

223
220
215

9
9
9

100UC 14.8

97

99

47

63

17

139

10

NOTE: Dimensions in Tables 35 and 36 may not add correctly due to rounding.
handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

110

TABLE 37
WELDED BEAMS
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Flange

Depth of
section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

Designation

kg/m

Web
thickness
tw

Dimensions

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

1200WB 455
423
392
342
317
278
249

1200
1192
1184
1184
1176
1170
1170

500
500
500
400
400
350
275

40
36
32
32
28
25
25

16
16
16
16
16
16
16

8
8
8
8
8
8
8

242
242
242
192
192
167
130

1104
1104
1104
1104
1104
1104
1104

48
44
40
40
36
33
33

1300
1293
1285
1250
1242
1221
1202

1000WB 322
296
258
215

1024
1016
1010
1000

400
400
350
300

32
28
25
20

16
16
16
16

8
8
8
8

192
192
167
142

944
944
944
944

40
36
33
28

1099
1092
1069
1044

900WB 282
257
218
175

924
916
910
900

400
400
350
300

32
28
25
20

12
12
12
12

6
6
6
6

194
194
169
144

848
848
848
848

38
34
31
26

1007
1000
975
949

800WB 192
168
146
122

816
810
800
792

300
275
275
250

28
25
20
16

10
10
10
10

5
5
5
5

145
133
133
120

748
748
748
748

34
31
26
22

869
855
846
831

700WB 173
150
130
115

716
710
700
692

275
250
250
250

28
25
20
16

10
10
10
10

5
5
5
5

133
120
120
120

648
648
648
648

34
31
26
22

767
753
743
736

TABLE 38
WELDED COLUMNS
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Flange

Depth of
section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

Designation

kg/m

Web
thickness
tw

Dimensions

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

500WC 440
414
383
340
290
267
228

480
480
472
514
506
500
490

500
500
500
500
500
500
500

40
40
36
32
28
25
20

40
32
32
25
20
20
20

20
16
16
13
10
10
10

230
234
234
238
240
240
240

384
384
384
434
434
434
434

48
48
44
40
36
33
28

693
693
688
717
711
707
700

400WC 361
328
303
270
212
181
144

430
430
422
414
400
390
382

400
400
400
400
400
400
400

40
40
36
32
25
20
16

40
28
28
25
20
20
16

20
14
14
13
10
10
8

180
186
186
188
190
190
192

334
334
334
334
334
334
334

48
48
44
40
33
28
24

587
587
581
576
566
559
553

350WC 280
258
230
197

355
347
339
331

350
350
350
350

40
36
32
28

28
28
25
20

14
14
13
10

161
161
163
165

259
259
259
259

48
44
40
36

499
493
487
482

NOTE: Dimensions in Tables 37 and 38 may not add correctly due to rounding.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

111

TABLE 39
PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS
RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING
Depth of
Mass section
Designation
per m
kg/m

Flange
Width

Thickness

Web
thickness

bf

tf

mm

mm

mm

tw
mm

Dimensions
a

mm

mm

mm

mm

380PFC

55.2

380

100

18

10

90

317

32

14

300PFC

40.1

300

90

16

82

240

30

14

250PFC

35.5

250

90

15

82

196

27

12

230PFC

25.1

230

75

12

89

182

24

12

200PFC

22.9

200

75

12

69

152

24

12

180PFC

20.9

180

75

11

69

134

23

12

150PFC

17.7

150

75

10

69

111

20

10

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

112

SUPPORTING MEMBERS

7.2

Gauge lines

TABLE 40
GAUGE LINES FOR UNIVERSAL SECTIONS
Section

Flange s gf
M20

Web s gw
M24

M20

M24

Universal beams
610UB
530UB

140
140

90
90

140
140

460UB
410UB
360UB,310UB
310UB32.0

90
90
90
70

140
70
70

90
90
90

250UB
250UB25.7*
200UB
200UB18.2*
180UB
150UB

70
70
70
50
b
b

90

140
140
140
90
60

90
90
90
70

140
140
140
90
b

90
90

140
140

90
90

70
70

140
140

90
90

70
70

90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70

140
140
140
140

90
90
90
90

70
70
70
70

140
140
140
140

70
70
70
70
70
70

90
90
90
90
90

140
140

70
70
70
70
70
70

90
90
90
90
90

140
140

90
90
90

90
90
90
70
c

70
70
70

140
140

90
90
90
70
c

70
70
70

140
140

Universal columns
310UC
250UC
200UC
150UC
100UC
Preference
NOTES:
*Gauge listed for 250UB25.7 and 200UB18.2 are for M16 bolts.
bIndicates that the flange will not accommodate this size of bolt.
cIndicates that the web will not accommodate two lines of bolts with a gauge of 50 mm or more.
All dimensions are in mm.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

113

TABLE 41
GAUGE LINES FOR WELDED SECTION
FLANGES
M20

Section

M24
s gf2

s gf1

s gf1

s gf2

Welded beams
1200WB455-392

140

90

280

1200WB342-278

140

90

280

1200WB249

140

90

1000WB322-258

140

90

1000WB215

420

280

140

90

280

140

90

280

140

90

140

90

140

90

140

90

140

90

900WB282,218

140

90

900WB175

140

90

140

90

800WB

140

90

140

90

700WB

140

90

140

90

280

280
280

Welded columns
500WC

140

280

400WC

140

280

350WC

140

Preference

420

140

280

140

280

140
2

NOTE: All dimensions are in mm.

TABLE 42
GAUGE LINES FOR WELDED SECTION
WEBS
Web s gw

Section

M24

M20

Welded beams
1200WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

1000WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

900WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

800WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

700WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

500WC

140

90

70

140

90

70

400WC

140

90

70

140

90

70

350WC

140

90

70

140

90

70

Welded columns

Preference

NOTE: All dimensions are in mm.


handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

114

TABLE 43
GAUGE LINES FOR PARALLEL FLANGE
CHANNELS
Section

Flange s gf

Web s gw

M16

M20

M24

M16

M20

M24

380100

55

55

55

140

90

70

140

90

70

140

90

70

300 90

55

55

140

90

70

140

90

70

140

90

70

250 90

55

55

140

90

70

140

90

70

140

90

70

230 75

45

45

140

90

70

90

70

90

70

200 75

45

45

90

70

90

70

90

70

180 75

45

45

70

90

70

90

70

150 75

45

45

70

Parallel flange channels

Preference

65
2

55
2

NOTES:
bIndicates that the flange will not accommodate this size of bolt.
cIndicates that the web will not accommodate two lines of bolts with a gauge of 50 mm or more.
All dimensions are in mm.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

115

MINIMUM DESIGN ACTIONS ON


CONNECTIONS

8.1

AS 4100 Requirements

AS 4100 Clause 9.1.4 provides that connections shall be designed at the strength limit state for
the greater of:
(a)

the design action in the member; and

(b)

the minimum design action effects expressed either as the value or the factor times the
member design capacity for the minimum size of member required by the strength limit
state, specified in items (i) to (vii) below:
(i)

Connections in rigid constructiona bending moment of 0.5 times the member


design moment capacity.

(ii)

Connections to beams in simple constructiona shear force of 40 kN or


0.15 member design shear capacity, whichever is the lesser.

(iii)

Connections at the ends of tension or compression membersa force of 0.3 times


the member design capacity, except that for the threaded rod acting as a bracing
member with turnbuckles, the minimum tension force shall be equal to the member
design capacity.

(iv)

Splices in members subject to axial tensiona force of 0.3 times the member
design capacity in tension.

(v)

Splices in members subject to axial compressionfor ends prepared for full contact
in accordance with Clause 14.4.4.2 of AS 4100, it shall be permissible to carry
compressive actions by bearing on contact surfaces. When members are prepared
for full contact to bear at splices, there shall be sufficient fasteners to hold all parts
securely in place. The fasteners shall be sufficient to transmit a force of 0.15 times
the member design capacity in axial compression.
In addition, splices located between points of effective lateral support shall be
designed for the design axial force (N*) plus a design bending moment not less than
the design bending moment (M*) where
M* =

N * Ls
1000

= appropriate amplification factor b or s determined in accordance with


Clause 4.4 of AS 4100

L s = distance between points of effective lateral support


When members are not prepared for full contact, the splice material and its
fasteners shall be arranged to hold all parts in line and shall be designed to transmit
a force of 0.3 times the member design capacity in axial compression.
(vi)

Splices in flexural membersa bending moment of 0.3 times the member design
capacity in bending. This provision shall not apply to splices designed to transmit
shear force only.
A splice subjected to a shear force only shall be designed to transmit the design
shear force together with any bending moment resulting from the eccentricity of the
force with respect to the centroid of the connector group.

(vii)

Splices in members subject to combined actionsa splice in a member subject to a


combination of design axial tension or design axial compression and design
bending moment shall satisfy (iv), (v) and (vi) simultaneously.

The action to be designed for is the greater of the calculated design actions or the minimum
specified in (i) to (vii), as appropriate.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

116

The minimum is generally expressed as a factor times the design capacity (R u ) for the
minimum size of member required by the strength limit state. Hence, if a member is increased in
size above the minimum size for whatever reason (rationalisation of member sizes, slenderness
or serviceability considerations), it is only necessary to use the design capacity of the minimum
size required by the strength limit state for the purpose of determining the minimum design
action. For example, columns which may be subject to large compressive forces and only minor
tensile forces, any splice has to be designed for both the specified value for the minimum
member size required to resist the compression, and for the specified value for the minimum
member size required to resist the tension.
Minimum design actions for an individual connection are discussed in detail in the Design Guide
relevant for that connection.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

117

REFERENCES

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 41001998 Steel structures.

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Design of structural


connections, 4th edition, Authors Hogan, T.J. and Thomas, I.R., Editor Syam, A.A., 1994.

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF
connections, 3rd edition, 1985.

Owens, G.W. and Cheal, B.D. Structural steelwork connections, Butterworths, London,
1989.

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 1111.12000 ISO Metric hexagon bolts and screws


Product Grade C, Part 1: Bolts.

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND, AS/NZS 1252:1996 Highstrength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural engineering.

AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE, Design guide 2:, Bolting in structural steel


connections, Author Hogan, T.J., Contributing author and editor Munter, S.A., 2007.

STANDARDS
Commentary.

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Steel Construction manual, 13th


edition, 2005.

10

Kulak, G.L., Fisher, J.W. and Struik, J.H.A. Guide to design criteria for bolted and riveted
joints, 2 nd edition (2001 -Published by American Institute of Steel Construction).

11

Kulak, G. High strength boltsA Primer for structural engineers, American Institute of
Steel Construction, Steel Design Guide 17, 2002.

12

Thornton, W.A. Prying actionA general treatment, Engineering Journal, American


Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1985, pp 67-75.

13

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 1101.32005 Graphical symbols for general engineering,


Part 3: Welding and non-destructive examination.

14

STANDARDS
AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS
NEW
ZEALAND,
Structural steel welding, Part 1: Welding of steel structures.

15

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND, AS/NZS 1553.1:1995 Covered


electrodes for welding, Part 1: Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding
of carbon and carbon-manganese steels.

16

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 1858.12003 Electrodes and fluxes for submerged arc


welding, Part 1: Carbon steel and carbon-manganese steels.

17

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 2203.11990


Part 1: Ferritic steel electrodes.

18

STANDARDS
AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS
NEW
ZEALAND,
AS/NZS 2717.1:1996
WeldingElectrodesGas metal arc, Part 1: Ferritic steel electrodes.

19

Lay, M.G. Fillet weld design stresses in AS 1250, Proceedings, 23rd National Conference
of the Australian Welding Institute, Hobart, Sept., 1975, pp. 8792.

20

Butler, L.J. and Kulak, G.L. Strength of fillet welds as a function of direction of load,
Welding Journal, Welding Research Council, Vol. 36, No. 5, May 1971, pp. 231s234s.

21

Pham, L. and Bennetts, I.D. Reliability study of fillet weld design, Civil Engineering
Transactions, Institution of Engineers Australia, Vol. CE26, No. 2, May 1984, pp. 119
124.

22

AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Specification for structural steel


buildings, March 2005.

AUSTRALIA,

STEEL

AS 4100

CONSTRUCTION,

Supplement

Cored

Standardized

11999

Steel

structures

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

electrodes

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

structural

for

arc-welding,

118

23

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 1237.22002 Plain washers for metric bolts, screws and
nuts for general purposes, Part 2: Tolerances.

24

STEEL CONSTRUCTION INSTITUTE AND BRITISH CONSTRUCTIONAL STEELWORK


ASSOCIATION, Joints in steel construction: Simple connections, Publication P212,
2002.

25

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF STEEL CONSTRUCTION, Design capacity tables for


structural steel, Vol 1: Open sections, 3 rd edition, 1999.

26

AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE, Design capacity tables for structural steel, Vol 2:
Hollow sections, 2 nd edition, 2004.

27

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND, AS/NZS 3678:1996 Structural


steelHot rolled plates, floor-plates and slabs.

28

Cheng, J.R., Yura, J.A. and Johnson, C.P. Lateral buckling of coped steel beams,
Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No .1, Jan 1988, pp. 115.

29

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND, AS/NZS 3679.1:1996,


Structural steel, Part 1: Hot rolled bars and sections and AS/NZS 3679.2:1996, Part 2:
Welded I sections.

30

Trahair, N.S., Hogan, T.J. and Syam, A.A. Design of unbraced beams, Steel
Construction, Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1993.

31

Gupta, A.K. Buckling of coped steel beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,
Vol. 110, No. ST9, Sept 1984, pp. 19771987.

32

Cheng, J.R. and Yura, J.A., Lateral buckling tests on coped steel beams, Journal of
Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. ST1, Jan 1988, pp. 1630.

33

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 1112.32000 ISO metric hexagon nuts, Part 3: Product


grade C.

34

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO 33181990 Assembly tools for screws and nuts
Double-headed open-ended wrenches, double-headed ring wrenches and combination
wrenchesMaximum widths of heads.

35

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO 2725-11996 Assembly tools for screws and nuts
Square drive sockets, Part 1: Hand-operated socketsDimensions.

36

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO 2725-21996 Assembly tools for screws and nuts
Square drive sockets, Part 2: Machine-operated sockets (impact)Dimensions.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

119

APPENDIX ALimcon software

A1

Introduction

A1.1 General
This Appendix contains the output from the Limcon computer program for two of the examples
for which detailed hand calculations are included in the Design Guide. Limcon undertakes all
DESIGN CHECKS set out in the ASI design model and lists the capacity and capacity ratio for
each limit state. A detail diagram is included at the beginning of the Limcon output. A virtual
reality image of the connection can be displayed on the computer screen to facilitate checking.
Note: To express the result of each limit state check Limcon uses the capacity ratio. This is the ratio of
the design capacity to the design action effect and the minimum capacity ratio for all limit states must
not be less than 1.0.

A1.2 Bolt groupLimcon design example


In Appendix A2 Design example No. 2Design of bolt group loaded in-plane, as calculated by
hand in Section 3.11, is assessed using Limcon.
Limcon checks bearing and tearing by determining the force on each bolt and comparing this
with computed capacities. Bolts in the outside rows and columns are checked for external
tearing where a force component is directed towards an edge. Internal tearing checks are
performed on each bolt in the direction of the force components. Each result is displayed for the
critical bolt only.
Limcon uses the specified horizontal and vertical edge distances to compute external tearing
capacity. It is assumed that the horizontal edge distance applies to both sides of the bolt group
but clearly, in this example, only the edge distance on the left is of interest. A large value has
been entered for the top and bottom edge distance, as tearing checks are not relevant owing to
the presence of the beam flanges rather than free edges. In this example, tearing is checked
only for the beam web because it is clear that tear-out is not going to occur in the column
flange. Thus, plate thickness and grade are entered for the beam web. If it were not clear which
part of the connection was critical, it would be necessary to consider bolt groups in web and
flange separately.
A1.3 Weld groupLimcon design example
In Appendix A3 Design example No. 5Design of fillet weld group loaded out-of-plane, as
calculated by hand in Section 4.13, is assessed using Limcon.
The weld group is assessed according to the alternative analysis permitted by AS 4100 Clause
9.8.2.2, which treats the weld group as an extension of the connected member for determining
the distribution of shear forces. This is more conservative and, in this case, more realistic than
the assumption in Clause 9.8.1.1(b) that the shear force is uniformly distributed throughout the
group.

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

120

APPENDIX A

A2

Limcon outputDesign example


No. 2Design of bolt group
loaded in-plane

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

121

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

122

APPENDIX A

A3

Limcon outputDesign
example No. 5Design of fillet
weld group loaded out-of-plane

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

123

handbook 1
design of structural steel connections, first edition

124

APPENDIX BASI Handbook 1


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(Please photocopy this comment form and fax to ASI)

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Telephone: (02) 9931 6666

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