Australian inst of Steel

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 3.9K

Australian inst of Steel

© All Rights Reserved

- A Teaching Guide for Structural Steel Connections
- ASI - Design Model for Light Bracing Cleat Connections
- ASI Design Guide - Wind Actions on Steel Sheds and Garages
- Wind Loading Handbook
- Moment Connections Seismic Applications
- General Connection in Steel Structures
- Australian Steel Detailers Handbook
- Economical Structural Steel Work
- Steel Connections
- Design of Portal Frame Buildings by S.T.woolcock, S.kitipornchai, M.a.bradford 3rd Ed 1999
- AISC-Worked Examples for Steel Structures
- Design capacity tables for structural steel_sc_v27_n4
- ASI Connection Design Guide 6 - Seated Connections
- ASI Connection Design Guide 3 - Web Side Plate Connections
- Design Guide 2009
- Pinned base plates
- ASI Connection Design Guide 1 Bolting
- AS4100 UNSW Design of Steel members
- Economical Structural Steel Work 1
- ASI Connection Design Guide 2 - Welding

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 134

17/1/08

11:25 AM

Page 1

Connection Handbook 1

BACKGROUND AND THEORY

Handbook 1:

Design of Structural Steel Connections

Author T.J. Hogan

Contributing author and editor S.A. Munter

Level 13, 99 Mount Street, North Sydney. NSW 2060. Phone 9931 6666. Email enquiries@steel.org.au Website: www.steel.org.au

Handbook 1.

Design of structural steel connections.

by

T.J.Hogan

S.A.Munter

(ABN)/ACN (94) 000 973 839

Handbook 1.

Design of structural steel connections

Copyright 2007 by AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE

All rights reserved. This book or any part thereof must not be reproduced in any form without

the written permission of Australian Steel Institute.

Note to commercial software developers: Copyright of the information contained within this publication is

held by Australian Steel Institute (ASI). Written permission must be obtained from ASI for the use of any

information contained herein which is subsequently used in any commercially available software package.

FIRST EDITION 2007 (LIMIT STATES)

National Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication entry:

Hogan, T.J.

Handbook 1: Design of structural steel connections

1 st ed.

Bibliography.

ISBN 978 0 909945947 (pbk.).

1.

Steel, StructuralStandards - Australia.

2.

Steel, StructuralSpecifications - Australia.

3.

Joints, (Engineering)Design and construction.

I.

Munter, S.A.

II.

Australian Steel Institute.

III.

Title

(Series: Structural steel connection series; 1).

Design of structural connections

First edition 1978

Second edition 1981

Third edition 1988

Fourth edition 1994

Design capacity tables for structural steel, Volume 3: Simple connections open sections

Design Guide 1: Bolting in structural steel connections

Design Guide 2: Welding in structural steel connections

Design Guide 3: Web side plate connections

Design Guide 4: Flexible end plate connections

Design Guide 5: Angle cleat connections

Design Guide 6: Seated connections

Disclaimer: The information presented by the Australian Steel Institute in this publication has been

prepared for general information only and does not in any way constitute recommendations or

professional advice. While every effort has been made and all reasonable care taken to ensure the

accuracy of the information contained in this publication, this information should not be used or relied

upon for any specific application without investigation and verification as to its accuracy, suitability and

applicability by a competent professional person in this regard. The Australian Steel Institute, its officers

and employees and the authors and editors of this publication do not give any warranties or make any

representations in relation to the information provided herein and to the extent permitted by law (a) will

not be held liable or responsible in any way; and (b) expressly disclaim any liability or responsibility for

any loss or damage costs or expenses incurred in connection with this publication by any person, whether

that person is the purchaser of this publication or not. Without limitation, this includes loss, damage, costs

and expenses incurred as a result of the negligence of the authors, editors or publishers.

The information in this publication should not be relied upon as a substitute for independent due

diligence, professional or legal advice and in this regards the services of a competent professional person

or persons should be sought.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

ii

CONTENTS

Page

List of figures

List of tables

Preface

About the author

About the contributing author and editor

Acknowledgements

iv

v

vi

vii

vii

viii

1.1 Background

1

2 BACKGROUND DISCUSSION................... 2

2.1 General considerations

2

2.2 Forms of construction

3

2.3 Connection design models

6

2.4 Connection characteristics

7

3 BOLTS AND BOLT GROUPS .................. 10

3.1 Bolt types and bolting categories

10

3.2 Bolt dimensions

11

3.3 Dimensions of wrenches for

installing bolts

12

3.4 Bolt mechanical properties

14

3.5 Design requirements for bolts

15

3.6 AS 4100 Design requirements

Strength limit state

17

3.7 AS 4100 design requirements

Serviceability limit state

23

3.8 Geometric requirements of

AS 4100 for bolted connections

26

3.9 Bolt group loaded in-plane

28

3.10 Design example No. 1 Design of

bolts in lap splice connection

39

3.11 Design example No. 2 Design of

bolt group loaded in-plane

41

3.12 Bolt group loaded out-of-plane

44

3.13 Prying action

46

3.14 Design example No. 3 Design

of bolt group loaded out-of-plane

50

4 WELDS AND WELD GROUPS................. 52

4.1 Weld types

52

4.2 Standard weld symbols

53

4.3 Selection of prequalified welding

consumables

54

4.4 Weld categories

55

4.5 Design of butt welds

Strength limit state

56

4.6 Design of fillet welds

Strength limit state

58

4.7 Weld group loaded in-plane

62

4.8 Weld group loaded out-of-plane

66

Page

4.9 Weld group loaded by general

set of design actions

4.10 Properties of common fillet

weld groups

4.11 Practical fillet weld groups

4.12 Design example No. 4

Design of fillet weld group

loaded in-plane

4.13 Design example No. 5

Design of fillet weld group loaded

out-of-plane

67

69

71

75

76

5.1 Angle components

77

5.2 Flat bar components

79

5.3 Plate components

80

5.4 Design capacities

81

6 SUPPORTED MEMBERS .........................86

6.1 General

86

6.2 Uncoped sections

87

6.3 Design example No. 6

UB unholed and holed moment

and shear capacity

93

6.4 Single web coped sections

95

6.5 Design example No. 7

UB single web coped moment

and shear capacity

101

6.6 Double web coped sections

102

6.7 Design example No. 8

UB double web coped moment

and shear capacity

105

6.8 Lateral torsional buckling

106

6.9 Block shear failure of coped

sections

107

6.10 Web reinforcement of coped

supported members

109

7 SUPPORTING MEMBERS......................110

7.1 Rationalised dimensions

110

7.2 Gauge lines

113

8 MINIMUM DESIGN ACTIONS ON

CONNECTIONS......................................116

8.1 AS 4100 Requirements

116

9 REFERENCES........................................118

APPENDICES

A

Limcon software

B

ASI Handbook 1

comment form

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

120

125

iii

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1

Figure 2

Figure 3

Figure 4

Figure 5

Figure 6

Figure 7

Figure 8

Figure 9

Figure 10

Figure 11

Figure 12

Figure 13

Figure 14

Figure 15

Figure 16

Figure 17

Figure 18

Figure 19

Figure 20

Figure 21

Figure 22

Figure 23

Figure 24

Figure 25

Figure 26

Figure 27

Figure 28

Figure 29

Figure 30

Figure 31

Figure 32

Page

Rigid connections ........................... 4

Simple connections ........................ 5

Moment rotation characteristics

of typical connections ..................... 7

End plate tear-out failure edge

distances ...................................... 16

End plate tear-out failure force

components .................................. 16

End plate tear-out, simple case .... 16

Lap joint and brace/gusset

connection .................................... 21

Bolt group subject to in-plane

moment ........................................ 28

Bolt group subject to shear

forces at centroid .......................... 29

Bolt group subject to a general

load set......................................... 29

Graphical relationshipBolt force

to component displacement......... 30

Horizontal and vertical bolt

forces at an extreme bolt .............. 31

Single bolt column loaded

in-plane......................................... 32

Single bolt columnForces

and edge distances for end plate

tear-out or bearing failure ............. 33

Double bolt column loaded

in-plane......................................... 35

Double bolt columnForces

and edge distances for end plate

tear-out or bearing failure ............. 36

Bolted plate splice ........................ 39

Bolt group loaded in-plane............ 41

Bolt group loaded out-of-plane

Design actons............................... 44

Double bolt column geometry ....... 45

Prying mechanism in T-stub

connection .................................... 46

Graphical relationshipBolt

load/applied load for a stiff

T-stub flange ................................ 47

Graphical relationshipBolt

load/applied load for a flexible

T-stub flange ................................ 47

T-stub critical dimensions and

design actions .............................. 48

T-stub parameters ........................ 48

Bolt group loaded out-of-plane ..... 50

T-stub geometry ........................... 51

Weld types.................................... 52

Symbols for welds on drawings .... 53

Design throat thickness of

incomplete penetration butt weld .. 57

Design throat thickness of

fillet welds..................................... 58

Design actions on a fillet weld ...... 60

Page

Figure 33 Design forces per unit length

parallel to weld group axes x, y, z .61

Figure 34 Fillet weld subject to longitudinal

and transverse shear forces ..........61

Figure 35 General fillet weld group................63

Figure 36 Horizontal and vertical weld

component forces at a point

in a weld group ..............................65

Figure 37 Fillet weld group loaded

out-of-plane ...................................66

Figure 38 General fillet weld group................67

Figure 39 Possible critical points in

particular fillet weld group..............71

Figure 40 Fillet weld group loaded inand out-of-plane ............................72

Figure 41 Two parallel vertical welds

loaded out-of-plane .......................72

Figure 42 Two parallel horizontal welds

loaded out-of-plane .......................74

Figure 43 Fillet weld group loaded in-plane ...75

Figure 44 Fillet weld group loaded

out-of-plane ...................................76

Figure 45 Rectangular connection

component geometry.....................81

Figure 46 Rectangular component design

moment capacityMajor axis........82

Figure 47 Rectangular component design

moment capacityMinor axis........82

Figure 48 Rectangular component design

capacity in axial tension ...............83

Figure 49 Examples of block shear

failure in components ....................84

Figure 50 Block shear area in components ...85

Figure 51 Section with holes in both flanges .88

Figure 52 Section with holes in one flange ....88

Figure 53 Section with holes in one flange ....89

Figure 54 Single web coped (SWC) sections 95

Figure 55 SWC universal beam (UB) ............95

Figure 56 T-Section of SWC UB showing

elastic neutral axis.........................96

Figure 57 SWC UB T-section with plastic

neutral axis in web.........................96

Figure 58 SWC UB T-section with plastic

neutral axis in the flange ...............97

Figure 59 SWC universal beam example ....101

Figure 60 Double web coped (DWC)

sections .......................................102

Figure 61 Elastic neutral axis in

DWC section ...............................103

Figure 62 DWC universal beam example ....105

Figure 63 Block shear failure in DWC

members .....................................107

Figure 64 Block shear area in SWC

and DWC members .....................108

Figure 65 Web reinforcement of coped

supported members.....................109

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

iv

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1

Table 2

Table 3

Table 4

Table 5

Table 6

Table 7

Table 8

Table 9

Table 10

Table 11

Table 12

Table 13

Table 14

Table 15

Table 16

Table 17

Table 18

Table 19

Table 20

Table 21

Table 22

Table 23

Table 24

Table 25

Table 26

Table 27

Page

Page

system .......................................... 10

Dimensions of commercial

bolts and nuts ............................... 11

Dimensions of high strength

structural bolts and nuts ............... 11

Dimensions of wrenches for

determining erection

clearances ................................12,13

Metric hexagon commercial bolts . 14

High strength structural bolts ........ 14

AS 4100 Clause 9.3.2 provisions,

strength limit state, static loads..... 17

Design areas of bolts.................... 18

Strength limit state commercial

bolts 4.6/S bolting category .......... 19

Strength limit state high strength

structural bolts 8.8/S, 8.8/TB,

8.8/TF bolting categories .............. 20

Reduction factor for lap

connections .................................. 22

AS 4100 Clause 9.3.3

provisions serviceability

limit stateStatic loads ................ 24

Serviceability limit state high

strength structural bolts 8.8/TF

bolting category ............................ 25

Minimum edge distances .............. 26

AS 4100 provisions for slotted

and oversize holes........................ 27

Single bolt column ........................ 32

Bolt group design factors

for single column of bolts .............. 34

Double bolt column....................... 35

Bolt group factors for double

column of bolts ............................. 37

Bolt group factors for double

column of bolts ............................. 38

Prequalified welding

consumables ................................ 54

Strength of weld metal .................. 54

Design capacities of equal

leg fillet welds per unit length

Category SP ................................. 59

Design capacities of equal

leg fillet welds per unit length

Category GP................................. 59

Properties of common fillet weld

groups treated as line elements.... 69

Equal anglesRationalised

dimensions for detailing ................ 77

Unequal anglesRationalised

dimensions for detailing ................ 77

Table 29 Strengths of angles to

AS/NZS 3679.1 Grade 300............78

Table 30 Flats ..............................................79

Table 31 Strength of plate to AS/NZS 3678

Grade 250 .....................................80

Table 32A Universal beams, Grade 300

Design section moment and

web capacities...............................91

Table 32B Parallel flange channels,

Grade 300Design section

moment and web capacities ..........91

Table 32C Welded beams, Grade 300

Design section moment and

web capacities...............................92

Table 33A Single web coped universal

beams, Grade 300Design

section moment and shear

capacities ......................................99

Table 33B Single web coped parallel

flange channels, Grade 300

Design section moment and

shear capacities ..........................100

Table 34A Double web coped universal

beams, Grade 300Design

section moment and shear

capacities ....................................104

Table 34B Double web coped parallel

flange channels, Grade 300

Design section moment and

shear capacities ..........................104

Table 35 Universal beams rationalised

dimensions for detailing...............110

Table 36 Universal columns rationalised

dimensions for detailing...............110

Table 37 Welded beams rationalised

dimensions for detailing...............111

Table 38 Welded columns rationalised

dimensions for detailing...............111

Table 39 Parallel flange channels

rationalised dimensions for

detailing.......................................112

Table 40 Gauge lines for universal

sections .......................................113

Table 41 Gauge lines for welded section

flanges.........................................114

Table 42 Gauge lines for welded section

webs............................................114

Table 43 Gauge lines for parallel flange

channels......................................115

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

PREFACE

This new series of connection publications by the Australian Institute of Steel (ASI) covering

capacity tables, theory and design of individual simple connections will be known as the

Structural Steel Connections Series, Part 1: 1 st ed. 2007 (Connection Series, Part 1). This

Connection Series, Part 1 details the method of design and provides capacity tables and

detailing parameters for a range of simple connections commonly used for structural steelwork

in Australia. Connections have a major engineering and economic importance in steel structures

influencing design, detailing, fabrication and erection costs. Standardisation of design approach

integrated with industry detailing is the key to minimum costs at each stage. This Connections

Series, Part 1 in conjunction with the future Connection Series, Part 2 for rigid connections

(collectively the Structural Steel Connections Series or Connection Series) replaces and

enhances an ASI flagship publication first released in 1978 at which time connection design

theories were developed for the purpose of generating and releasing connection capacity

tables. The first three editions were released in permissible stress format. The fourth edition

Design of Structural Connections (often referred to as the Green Book) was released in 1994 in

limit state format but there was no subsequent release of a limit state companion document

containing connection design capacity tables.

Handbook 1: Design of structural steel connections is the hub of a new Connections Series

expanding and revising the elemental connection theory contained in previous editions of

Design of Structural Connections. This has been achieved through extensive local and

international literature reviews using ASIs close association with like organisations and

searching the wealth of material contained in the ASI Library facility (the largest in the Southern

Hemisphere). This process consolidated industry best practice, references and research

papers. Handbook 1 formulates the elemental equations and procedures for the assessment of

bolts, bolt groups, welds, weld groups, connection components and supporting members in

standardised structural connections. Dimensions and clearances for bolt installation have been

revised and new theory for bolt groups loaded out-of-plane added.

The new Connections Series format with separate design guides for individual connection types

is intended to facilitate addition to or revision of connection model theory using relevant new

local or international research as deemed appropriate by the ASI. Connection models

developed using the Handbook 1 theory follow a stylised page format with a numbered DESIGN

CHECK procedure to simplify connection capacity assessment. This Connection Series, Part 1

also revises the third edition of Bolting of steel structures in Design Guide 1 now known as

Bolting in structural steel connections. Another important design guide (Design Guide 2) has

been specifically developed called Welding in structural steel connections. Design Capacity

Tables V3: Simple Connections Open Sections consolidates design capacity tables contained

in the individual connection design guides (specifically Design Guide 3: Web Side Plate, Design

Guide 4: Flexible End Plate and Design Guide 5: Angle Cleat Connections) and is known as the

Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel V3, Simple Connections (Simple Connection DCTs

V3).

Engineering Systems has worked closely with the ASI to further develop Limcon as the

companion program for this new Connection Series. The latest version of Limcon (V3.5) fully

implements the new connection design models and was employed in checking the design

tables. The Limcon output for one or more of the worked examples is included in an appendix to

each design guide for each connection design type. The program is an efficient tool covering

the full range of structural connections, including those beyond the scope of capacity tables

provided in the Connection Series.

An appendix to each publication in the series also contains an ASI comment form. Users of this

Connections Series are encouraged to photocopy this one page form and forward any

suggested improvements which may be incorporated into future editions.

T.J. Hogan

S.A. Munter

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

vi

Tim Hogan is Director of SCP Consulting Pty Ltd. His academic achievements include a

Bachelor of Engineering from the University of NSW with 1st Class Honours and the University

Medal. Post graduate qualifications include a Master of Engineering Science and a Master of

Business Administration. Tim is a Member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with CPEng

and FIE Aust. status.

His early experience was on bridge design and construction with the NSW Public Works

Department and subsequently as Development Engineer and then Engineering Manager with

the Australian Institute of Steel Construction until 1980. Consulting experience with SCP

Consulting since 1980 has included design and supervision of large steel framed buildings,

industrial buildings, mill buildings, retail developments, defence infrastructure and composite

steel-concrete buildings. His published works deal primarily with the areas of composite

construction, steel connections, fabrication and erection of steel structures and he was a major

contributor and editor of the Commentary to AS 4100. He is a member of a number of

Standards Australia Committees dealing with steel and composite structures and is currently

Chairman of Committee BD-001 Steel Structures and BD-032 Composite Construction. He

received an award from Standards Australia for his contributions to writing of Australian

Standards.

Scott Munter is now the National Structural Decking Manager for BlueScope Lysaght. He was

formerly the National ManagerEngineering & Construction for the Australian Steel Institute

(ASI) and worked in this role from 2000 to 2007. This key role involved setting the technical

leadership of ASI in support of design and construction to enable the efficient specification and

use of steel in construction. Responsibilities included ASI technical publications, advice on

industry best practice, ASI and Code committees, presentations and lecturing.

Scott is a Member of the Institution of Engineers Australia with CP Eng & NPER (Structural)

status. He holds a Bachelor of Structural Engineering from the University of Technology,

Sydney with 1 st Class Honours and the University Medal. His professional career includes 15

years in consulting civil and structural engineering working for Tim Hogan at SCP Consulting.

His consulting experience includes a strong steel focus with major infrastructure, industrial and

commercial developments plus domestic construction.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

vii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors would like to extend special thanks to:

The ASI Connections Steering Ccommittee consisting of Richard Collins (Engineering Systems),

Anthony Ng (OneSteel Market Mills), Arun Syam (Smorgon Steel Tube Mills) for their respective

contributions with the development and review of the technical and editorial content of the

revised ASI Connection Manual.

Significant contributions were made by:

software code in parallel with the design theory aiding in the editing and validation of the

revised models.

engineering and industry review of manuscripts.

Sub-Committees

for

progressive

All facets of the ASI membership including design engineers, steelwork detailers and

fabricators in contributing industry best practice and standards through ASI surveys and

direct consultation to establish the theory and geometry in this new ASI Connection

Manual.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

viii

1.1

Background

The ASI was formed in 2002 through the merger of Australian Institute of Steel Construction

(AISC) and Steel Institute of Australia (SIA). The former AISC published a design manual giving

guidance on the design of structural connections in steelwork (Ref. 2).

ASI is updating Reference 2 by way of the Connection Series including design guides, dealing

with connection parts and individual connection types. The overall series of connections

publications will be known as the Connections Series.

The former AISC also published a manual containing standardised detailing for simple

connections, accompanied by load tables (Ref. 3).

Wherever possible each design guide for individual connection types contains standardised

detailing and design capacity tables for the connection type covered by that design guide

derived using the design models in that design guide.

The Connection Series is a specialist series devoted to the design of connections in structural

steel in accordance with current Australian Standard AS4100 (Ref 1.), reflecting the current

state of knowledge of connection behaviour from test results. In some instances, the test

evidence is sparse and in other instances the evidence is contradictory or clouded. Each design

guide in the Connection Series has been written by weighing the evidence to provide

recommended design procedures based in part on the design procedures used in equivalent

manuals and/or published papers.

Each design guide is intended to provide a design model which gives a reasonable estimate of

connection design capacity and effort has been expended in researching and developing design

models which can be justified on the basis of the available research and current design

practice. It is to be emphasised that for the connections model presented, the design model is

not the only possible model. It is therefore not intended to suggest that other models may

not result in adequate connection capacity and further reference is made to the

Disclaimer on page ii of this publication as to the required investigation and verification

by a competent professional person or persons in regards to the accuracy, suitability and

applicability of the materials provided in this Connections Series.

The connections dealt with are those presently in common use in Australia and reflect the types

of connections covered within the earlier AISC Standardized Structural Connections (Ref. 3).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.1

General considerations

(a)

the connection designer requires a realistic estimate of connection strength in order that a

connection will be economical (not over-designed) and safe (design capacity exceeds

design actions); and

(b)

the connection must be detailed in such a way that it is economic to fabricate and erect,

while recognising that the connection detailing may have an important impact on the

strength of the connection.

Any design model for assessing the strength of a connection must take account of the following

four elements:

(i)

(ii)

the strength of the connection components (plates, flat bars, angles, gusset plates);

(iii)

(iv)

Codes for the design of steel structures primarily deal with member design as a whole, rather

than specifically allowing for local effects, and provide only the basic information on fastener

design. No code specifies a detailed design procedure for any type of connection, leaving the

assessment of how a connection behaves and how its behaviour should be allowed for in design

to the individual designer. This presents the designer with a considerable task considering the

large number of different connection types that may be encountered, each requiring individual

research and assessment. A series such as this seeks to assist the designer by providing

guidance in order to reduce the task considerably.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.2

Forms of construction

AS 4100 allows for three forms of construction which relate to the behaviour of the connections.

It then requires that the design of the connections be such that the structure is capable of

resisting all design actions, calculated by assuming that the connections are appropriate to the

form of construction of the structure or structural part. The design of the connections required is

to be consistent with the form of construction assumed.

The three forms of construction are:

Rigid constructionFor rigid construction, the connections are assumed to have sufficient

rigidity to hold the original angles between the members unchanged. The joint

deformations must be such that they have no significant influence on the distribution of

the action effects nor on the overall deformation of the frame.

Semi-rigid constructionFor semi-rigid construction, the connections may not have sufficient

rigidity to hold the original angles between the members unchanged, but are required to

have the capacity to furnish dependable and known degree of flexural restraint. The

relationship between the degree of flexural restraint and the level of the load effects is

required to be established by methods based on test results.

Simple constructionFor simple construction, the connections at the ends of members are

assumed not to develop bending moments. Connections between members in simple

construction must be capable of deforming to provide the required rotation at the

connection and are required to not develop a level of restraining bending moment which

adversely affects any part of the structure. The rotation capacity of the connection must

be provided by the detailing of the connection and must have been demonstrated

experimentally. The connection is then required to be considered as subject to reaction

shear forces acting at an eccentricity appropriate to the connection detailing.

Examples of rigid connections include (Figure 1):

welded moment connection

bolted moment end plate

moment splice (bolted or welded)

moment transmitting base plate.

Examples of simple connections include (Figure 2):

angle seat

bearing pad

flexible end plate

angle cleat

web side plate or fin plate.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.3

Clause 9.1.3 of AS 4100 (Ref. 1) nominates the basic requirements that any design model must

have for the design of a steel connection if the design model is to be acceptable. These

requirements are as follows:

Each element in a connection shall be designed so that the structure is capable of

resisting all design actions. The design capacities of each element shall be not less than

the calculated design action effects.

Connections and the adjacent areas of members shall be designed by distributing the

design action effects so that they comply with the following requirements:

(a)

The distributed design action effects are in equilibrium with the design action effects

acting on the connection.

(b)

The deformations in the connection are within the deformation capacities of the

connection elements.

(c)

All of the connection elements and the adjacent areas of members are capable of

resisting the design action effects acting on them.

(d)

The connection elements shall remain stable under the design action effects and

deformations.

Residual actions due to the installation of bolts need not be considered.

The onus is placed on the structural steel designer to ensure that the actual behaviour of a

connection does not have a deleterious effect on the members of the steel frame and that the

connection conforms to the requirements specified in AS 4100 (Ref. 1).

AS 4100 attempts to correct for the difference between assumed and real behaviour only in the

case of simple construction. AS 4100 recognises that real simple connections will actually

transmit some bending moment as well as the shear force for which such connections are

designed (see Section 2.4).

These bending moments are conservatively neglected in proportioning the beams, since their

magnitudes are at present not reliably known, but they are accounted for in proportioning the

columns through the application of AS 4100 Clause 4.3.4, which requires the line of action of a

beam reaction to be taken at 100 mm from the face of the column towards the span, or at the

centre of bearing, whichever is the greater. Thus all building columns in practice become beamcolumns, being designed for at least this minimum level of bending moment from a connection.

Note that loss of rigidity in real rigid connections will cause a redistribution of bending

moments in a frame which may adversely affect some members (see Section 2.4).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

BACKGROUND DISCUSSION

2.4

Connection characteristics

Figure 3 illustrates typical moment-rotation characteristics for a variety of both simple and

rigid connections. It is clear from this figure that no connection is either fully rigid (vertical axis)

or truly pinned (horizontal axis) and it is also apparent that whether a connection is rigid or

simple may well depend on the rotation which is imposed on it by the supported member.

Although no connections are ideal pins, all of the typical simple connections would be suitable

for simple design within the meaning of Clause 4.2 of AS 4100. Connections connect a

member to a support. In the case of simple connections, supports may be considered to be

flexible or stiff, in the extreme. In practice, no support is purely flexible (i.e. all beam end

rotation is accommodated by movement of the support) nor purely stiff (i.e. all beam end

rotation is accommodated by deformation within the connection), but rather lies somewhere

between the two extremes.

In a true flexible support situation, the laws of statics demand that the bolt or weld groups and

the connection components must resist the full effect of the bending moment and shear at the

position of the connection.

The bending moment at the support is a function of the stiffness and strength of the support and

of the supported member, the detailing and strength of the bolt and weld groups, and the

stiffness and strength of the connection components. Significant rotation may take place in the

bolt group or in the connection components.

There are two extremes of design approach possible with a stiff support situation:

(a)

maintain a significant stiffness and strength throughout all elements of the connection;

(b)

arrange that some element of the connection is rotationally flexible (while not impairing

the load carrying capability of the connection).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

It is generally assumed that the angle seat, bearing pad, flexible end plate and the angle cleat

connections can be detailed into category (b). It is, however, necessary in dimensioning the

components for these connections to ensure that as much flexibility as possible is achieved.

Making the flexible component too stiff places unnecessary rotation requirements and bending

moments on the other components and the support.

The web side plate connection nominally seems to fit into category (a). The weld is stiff and

possesses little ductile rotational capacity. The plate may be capable of significant rotation if a

plastic hinge can form in it. The bolt group is also capable of significant rotation and tests

suggest that most of the rotation occurs in the bolt group. Obviously, where the rotation occurs

is a function of the relative stiffnesses and strengths of the components, and their interactions.

A further complication is that it is possible to have two extremes of behaviour with a simple

connection attached to a stiff support:

(a)

rotation capacity provided directly adjacent to the support (flexible end plate, flexible

angle cleat);

(b)

rotation capacity provided at a distance from the support (angle seat, web side plate).

Note that case (b) requires that the support and the components between the hinge and the

support always be subject to bending moment as well as shear force. Using the recommended

design models for simple connections in relevant Design Guides of this Manual, the possibility

of either a stiff or a flexible support is accounted for in the formulation of the design model.

Another observation also should be made. In determining the design model to be adopted for a

simple or rigid connection, the detailing practice, the effect of tolerances and the magnitude of

the design capacities of connection elements must all be considered. Connection detailing

practice differs between countries, as do the tolerances on the lengths of members, the

tolerances on the positioning of members and the design capacities in many of the connection

elements.

These factors may alter the significance of some aspects of any design model and consequently

different design models may be appropriate in different countries. These factors can also create

problems with the analysis of results from much of the research data, as the failure loads of the

connection are often compared with the relevant design capacities of the time rather than being

compared with the measured strength of the individual components within the connection.

It is very important to note that virtually all of the reported testing of simple connections has

been carried out in the stiff support situation. This is of some significance in assessing the

results and the reported connection behaviour, and is another reason why there is no distinction

in any of the Design Guides of this Manual between a stiff and a flexible support condition in the

recommended design models for any simple connection.

This Manual meets the requirements of AS 4100 by providing a rational and recognised design

model for a range of common steel connections, each design model reflecting engineering

principles and known connection behaviour from experimental data in each Design Guide. The

emphasis in this Manual is on practical design models whose assumptions are transparent to

the user. The model in each Design Guide is related to current codes of Standards Australia in

respect of member and fastener design, and member and fastener mechanical properties, which

are presented in this Design Guide.

The philosophy of the Manual is the same as that espoused in Reference 4, being as follows:

(i)

take into account overall connection behaviour, carry out an appropriate analysis in order

to determine a realistic distribution of forces within the connection;

(ii)

ensure that each component or fastener in each action path has sufficient capacity to

transmit the applied action;

(iii)

recognise that this procedure can only give a connection where equilibrium is capable of

being achieved but where compatibility is unlikely to be satisfied, and therefore ensure

that the connection elements are capable of ductile behaviour.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

Connections are considered in the Manual and in AS 4100 to consist of the following connection

elements:

(A)

(B)

(C)

supported members;

(D)

supporting members,

all of whose design capacities must be evaluated in order to estimate the design capacity of a

connection. This Guide deals with the design capacity of these elements as isolated elements

so that the formulae derived can be used in later Guides concerned with individual connections.

The design models contained within this Manual are considered to be applicable only to

connections which are essentially statically loaded. Connections subject to dynamic loads,

earthquake loads or fatigue applications may require additional considerations.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

3.1

categories

In Australia a standard bolting category identification system has been adopted in AS 4100 for

use by designers and detailers. This system is summarised in Table 1.

TABLE 1

BOLT CATEGORY IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM

Details of bolt used

Property

class

Min. bolt

tensile

strength

(MPa)

Min. bolt

yield

strength

(MPa)

4.6/S

4.6

400

240

Commercial

bolt

8.8/S

8.8

830

660

Structural

(Ref. 6)

Bolt

Snug tightened.

Now the most

common procedure

used in simple

connections in

Australia.

8.8/TF

8.8

830

660

8.8/TB

8.8

830

660

High

Strength

Structural

BoltFriction

type

AS/NZS 1252

connection

(Ref. 6)

High strength

Structural

Bolt

Bearing type

connection

In both applications,

bolts are fully

Tensioned to the

requirements of

AS 4100. Cost of

tensioning is an

important

consideration in the

use of these bolting

procedures.

Bolting

category

8.8/T

Bolt name

Australian

Standard

AS 1111.1

(Ref. 5)

Remarks

most commonly

available is Grade

4.6 bolt. Use Snug

tightened.

The use of the various bolting categories is discussed in Reference 7 while the appropriate

bolting category for each connection type is identified in the Design Guide for that connection

type.

Generally, bolting categories 4.6/S and 8.8/S are used in simple connections while category

8.8/TB is used in rigid connections and bolted splices. Category 8.8/TF is recommended only

for use in connections where a no-slip connection under serviceability loads is essential. 8.8/TF

is the only bolting category which requires consideration of the condition of the contact surfaces

in a bolted connection.

Design drawings and shop detail drawings should both contain notes summarising Table 1.

The dimensions of bolts conforming to AS 1111.1 may be found in Table 2, while the

dimensions of bolts conforming to AS/NZS 1252 may be found in Table 3. These dimensions

are required for checking clearances in connections.

Connections also require detailing so that there is sufficient clearance for wrenches used to

tighten the nut. Clearances for three common types of wrench are given in Table 4.

The mechanical properties of bolts specified in AS 1111.1 and AS/NZS 1252 are given in

Tables 5 and 6.

A more detailed discussion of bolting generally may be found in Design Guide 1 (Reference 7).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

10

3.2

Bolt dimensions

TABLE 2

DIMENSIONS OF COMMERCIAL BOLTS AND NUTS

AS 1111.1 Bolts (Ref. 5), AS 1112.3 Nuts (Ref. 33)

Bolt

Nut

nation pitch

dia. across across of head across

flats corners

flats

nom.

max.

min.

nom.

Width

across

corners

Washer

Height of Outside Nominal

normal

dia.

thickness

nuts

max.

min.

max.

max.

M12

1.75

12

18

20

18

20

12

24

2.5

M16

2.0

16

24

26

10

24

26

16

30

M20

2.5

20

30

33

13

30

33

19

37

M24

3.0

24

36

40

15

36

40

22

44

M30

3.5

30

46

51

19

46

51

26

56

M36

4.0

36

55

61

23

55

61

32

66

TABLE 3

DIMENSIONS OF HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS AND NUTS

AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)

Bolt

Nut

nation pitch

dia. across across of head across

flats corners

flats

nom.

max.

max.

max.

Width

across

corners

Washer

Height of Outside Nominal

normal

dia.

thickness

nuts

max.

max.

max.

max.

nom.

M16

2.0

16

27

31

11

27

31

17

34

M20*

2.5

20

34

39

13

32

39

21

42

M24

3.0

24

41

47

16

41

47

24

50

M30

3.5

30

50

58

20

50

58

31

60

M36

4.0

36

60

69

24

60

69

37

72

*NOTE: At the time of developing this design guide M20 high strength structural bolts and nuts are still

typically being supplied in Australia with dimensions complying to AS 12521983 despite this code being

superseded by the ISO aligned standard AS/NZS 1252:1996. The 1996 Standard specified a new across

flat (AF) dimension of 34 mm for M20 bolts compared to 32 mm specified in the 1983 Standard. The

dimensions listed in Table 3 are in accordance with the current 1996 standard. International

manufacturers have been reluctant to adopt the ISO AF sizes. Australian suppliers of structural bolts are

typically ordering the mechanical properties to AS/NZS 1252:1996.

Used in this guide to designate metric bolts with thread complying with AS 1275.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

11

3.3

installing bolts

TABLE 4

DIMENSIONS OF WRENCHES FOR DETERMINING ERECTION CLEARANCES

DIMENSIONS OF OPEN ENDED WRENCHES

ISO 3318 (Ref. 34)

CLEARANCES4.6/S CATEGORY

Nom. bolt

dia.

12

16

20

24

30

36

AF

Clearance

X max.

(mm)

(mm)

18

24

30

36

46

55

45

57

70

83

104

123

CLEARANCES8.8/S CATEGORY

AF

Clearance

X max.

(mm)

(mm)

27

34

41

50

60

64

78

93

112

133

Nom. bolt

dia.

16

20

24

30

36

ISO 2725-1 (Ref. 35)

CLEARANCES8.8/TF AND 8.8/TB CATEGORIES

Sockets*

20 mm drive

Clearance

C max.

(Normal)

C min.

(Long)

D max.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

60

85

40

25

20

65

85

48.3

30

24

70

85

57.1

35

Nom.

bolt dia.

a hand wrench.

Please Note: Australian rigging crews can interchange between metric, UNC and imperial sockets for

erection of steelwork. This factor combined with the numerous global manufacturers of erection

equipment of both high and low quality makes the task of locking in exact equipment dimensions from

suppliers virtually impossible. Dimensions for open ended wrench clearances and all sockets have been

tabulated from the nominated International Standards (ISO). All other equipment dimensions are supplied

as a guide only from supplier specifications. Sockets meeting M20 AS/NZS 1252:1996 may be in limited

supply in Australia and not available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

12

TABLE 4 (continued)

DIMENSIONS OF WRENCHES FOR DETERMINING ERECTION CLEARANCES

DIMENSIONS OF IMPACT WRENCHES

ISO 2725-2 (Ref. 36)

CLEARANCES8.8/TF AND 8.8/TB CATEGORIES

Impact wrench

type

Normal

wrenches

Heavy wrenches

B

(mm)

A

(mm)

to 370

some

to 600

55

65

Sockets

20 mm drive

Clearance

Nom.

bolt dia.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

54

48

30

20

57

58

35

24

58

61.1

35

Sockets

25 mm drive

Clearance

Nom.

bolt dia.

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

16

60

58

35

20

63

58

35

24

70

68

40

Please Note: Australian rigging crews can interchange between metric, UNC and imperial sockets for

erection of steelwork. This factor combined with the numerous global manufacturers of erection

equipment of both high and low quality makes the task of locking in exact equipment dimensions from

suppliers virtually impossible. Dimensions for open ended wrench clearances and all sockets have been

tabulated from the nominated International Standards (ISO). All other equipment dimensions are supplied

as a guide only from supplier specifications. Sockets meeting M20 AS/NZS 1252:1996 may be in limited

supply in Australia and not available across all ranges for reasons noted at Table 3.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

13

3.4

TABLE 5

METRIC HEXAGON COMMERCIAL BOLTS

STANDARD SPECIFICATION:

PROPERTY CLASS:

NORMAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURE:

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

TENSILE AND PROOF LOADS:

AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5)

4.6

Hot or cold forging (generally cold)

Tensile strength

400 MPa (nom. and min.)

Yield stress

240 MPa (min.)

Stress under proof load 225 MPa (min.)

M12, M16, M20, M24, M30, M36

Tensile

Minimum

Proof load

Designation stress area breaking load

(mm 2 )

(kN)

(kN)

M12

84.3

33.7

19.0

M16

157

62.8

35.3

M20

245

98.0

55.1

M24

353

141

79.4

M30

561

224

126

M36

817

327

184

NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 22% min.

Hardness = 114 HB min.

TABLE 6

HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS

STANDARD SPECIFICATION:

PROPERTY CLASS:

NORMAL METHOD OF MANUFACTURE:

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:

TENSILE AND PROOF LOADS:

8.8

Hot or cold forging, hardened and tempered

Tensile strength

800 MPa (nom.), 830 MPa (min.)

Stress at perm. set

640 MPa (nom.), 660 MPa (min.)

Stress under proof load 600 MPa

(M16), M20, M24, (M30), (M36)/ ( )available but rarely used

Tensile

Minimum

Proof load

Designation stress area breaking load

(mm 2 )

(kN)

(kN)

M16

157

130

94.5

M20

245

203

147

M24

353

293

212

M30

561

466

337

M36

817

678

490

NOTE: Elongation after fracture = 12% min.

Impact strength = 30 J min. Hardness = 242 HB min.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

14

3.5

AS 4100 is a design code written in limit state format, in which two limit states might require

consideration in the design of bolted connections:

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

connections which are required not to slip under

serviceability loads)

In any bolted connection, there are three modes of force transfer to be considered, these modes

being:

(a)

shear/bearing mode where the forces are perpendicular to the bolt axis and are

transferred by shear and bearing on the bolt and bearing on the ply material;

(b)

friction mode where the forces are perpendicular to the bolt axis but are transferred by

frictional resistance between the mating surfaces, the frictional resistance being improved

by applying an initial clamping force;

(c)

axial tension where the forces to be transferred are parallel to the bolt axis.

Most connections have bolts which transfer load in the shear/bearing mode, with the exception

of the bolted moment end plate and the column base plate in which the bolts can be subject to

both shear force and axial tension.

A bolt in shear/bearing mode (bolting categories 4.6/S, 8.8/S and 8.8/TB) bears against the

sides of the bolt holes and load is transferred by shear in the bolts and bearing on the

connected plies. The shear strength of the bolt is affected by the strength of the bolt material

and by the available bolt area across the shear plane. Consequently, the situation of whether

plain shank or thread intercepts the shear plane affects the strength of the connection, as

discussed in detail in Reference 7. In practice, it is very difficult to ensure that threads are

excluded from the shear plane in many practical connections for reasons discussed in

Reference 7, since the practice requires that the erector install a bolt of the correct minimum

length into the bolt hole and the practice often leads to bolts of excessive length. Most

connectionsespecially the simple connectionsare designed on the assumption that threads

will be included in the shear plane, as this assumption most accurately reflects the field

situation and is a conservative basis for design.

The failure in the connected plies may occur in one of two ways:

(i)

(ii)

Local bearing type failures involve a piling up of ply material in front of the hole around the bolt

shank, either the plain shank or threaded length.

End plate tear-out failure occurs in connections in which the end distance (ae1 or a e2 in Figure 4)

falls below 3.2 times the bolt diameter, the end distance representing the length of ply which

must fail in shear for failure of the connected ply to occur. The end distance is defined in

AS 4100 as the minimum distance from the edge of a hole to the edge of a ply in the direction

of the component of force plus half the bolt diameter. Plate tear-out type failures are observed

in joints subject to a force which acts towards a free edge.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

15

Defining

dh

= hole diameter = df + 2 mm

df

= bolt diameter

sp

= bolt pitch

ae

edge in the direction of a

component of force plus half the

hole diameter

Since the end distance is defined from the hole edge and the hole is usually 2 mm larger than the

bolt diameter then:

a e1 = (a e 1 mm)

a e2 = (sp 0.5d h 1 mm)

Note that an edge may not only mean the physical edge of a connection component or a beam

web or flange, but may also include the edge of an adjacent hole (see Figure 4), which reflects

the fact that plate tear-out is theoretically possible between holes, although in practice bolt

centres are such that it is normally not observed.

In many cases, the end tear-out mode is relatively straightforward, as in Figure 4 or Figures 5

and 6. However, in bolt groups components of force may act in many directions if the bolt group

is subject to an in-plane moment. It is to be remembered that end tear-out design requirements

apply to connection components, connected members and supporting members as appropriate,

each of which will have a different end distance and ply thickness.

COMPONENTS

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

16

3.6

Strength limit state

The strength limit state design provisions which apply for static load applications are found in

Clause 9.3.2 of AS 4100. These provisions are summarised in Table 7.

TABLE 7

AS 4100 CLAUSE 9.3.2 PROVISIONS,

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE, STATIC LOADS

Limit state

Bolt in shear

AS 4100 Clause

9.3.2.1

Design requirement

Vf

V f

Vf

= 0.62 f uf k r A v

f uf

= 400 MPa Property Class 4.6 to AS 1111.1 (Ref. 5)

= 830 MPa Property Class 8.8 to AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6)

kr

other connections, k r = 1.0.

Av

For a single bolt with single shear plane, threads included,

A v = A c core area.

For a single bolt with single shear plane, threads

excluded, A v = A o shank area.

Bolt in tension

9.3.2.2

N tf* N tf

N tf* = design tension force

N tf

= A s f uf

As

tension

V f * 2 N tf* 2

1. 0

+

V f N tf

Ply in bearing

Vb* V b

Vb* = design bearing force on a ply

9.3.2.4

Vb

Vb

a e t p f up (tear-out failure)

df

= bolt diameter

tp

ae

ply in the direction of the component of force plus half the

bolt diameter

f up

NoteFiller plates: Where filler plates exceed 6 mm but are less than 20 mm in total thickness, the

nominal shear capacity Vf specified in Table 7 is required by Clause 9.3.2.5 of AS 4100 to be reduced by

15%. Filler plates greater than 20 mm in total thickness should not be used as no design guidance is

available in AS 4100.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

17

Bolted connections subject to shear may be either installed with the threads of the bolt crossing

the shear plane or with the plain shank of the bolt crossing the shear plane. The alternative

arrangements are discussed in Reference 7. In a joint with a number of shear planes, some

shear planes may cross the threaded part of the bolt while other shear planes may cross the

shank.

Clause 9.3.2.1 of AS 4100 recognises that the strength of the bolt across any shear plane is

dependent upon the available shear area of the bolt at that plane. It allows for all possible

combinations by defining the shear area as:

Av

= n n Ac + n x Ao

where:

Ac

nn

nx

Usually either:

n n = 1 and nx = 0 when there are two plies and threads intercept the shear plane (thus

giving Av = A c)

OR

n n = 0 and nx = 1 when there are two plies and the shank intercepts the shear plane (thus

giving Av = A o).

The core area and plain shank area for bolt diameters commonly used are given in Table 8.

Also given in Table 8 is the tensile stress area used when bolts are subject to tension.

TABLE 8

DESIGN AREAS OF BOLTS

Nom. dia.

(mm)

Areas (mm 2 )

Designation

A c core

df

76.2

A s tensile

stress

84.3

A o shank

12

M12

16

M16

144

157

201

20

M20

225

245

314

24

M24

324

353

452

30

M30

519

561

706

36

M36

759

817

1016

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

113

18

TABLE 9

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

COMMERCIAL BOLTS

4.6/S BOLTING CATEGORY

(f uf = 400 MPa, = 0.8)

Designation

Axial

tension

N tf

Threads included in

shear planeN

V fn

Threads excluded

from shear planeX

V fx

kN

kN

kN

M12

27.0

15.1

22.4

M16

50.2

28.6

39.9

M20

78.4

44.6

62.3

64.3

89.7

M24

113

M30

180

103

140

M36

261

151

202

= 0.8

= 0.8

4.6N/S

4.6X/S

of ply thickness, bolt diameter and end distance, the design capacity for a ply in

bearing (V b ) exceeds both V fn and V fx, and does not control design.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

19

TABLE 10

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS

8.8/S, 8.8/TB, 8.8/TF BOLTING CATEGORIES

(f uf = 830 MPa)

Desig- Axial

nation tension

Single shear

Plate tear-out in kN

Bearing in kN

Threads

Threads

included in excluded

from shear

shear

plane X

plane N

V b for t p

tp = 6

tp = 8

t p = 10

t p = 12

10

N tf

V fn

V fx

kN

kN

kN

M16

104

59.3

82.7

M20

163

92.6

129

78 89 100 103 118 133 129 148 166 155 177 199 142 189 236

M24

234

133

186

M30

373

214

291

35 40

45

35

40

45

35

40

45

35

40

45

= 0.8

= 0.8

8.8N/S

8.8X/S

= 0.9

= 0.9

f up =410 MPa

f up =410 MPa

NOTE: The above table lists the design capacity of a ply in bearing for Grade 250 (f up = 410 MPa) plate

only. For design capacities for ply failure in other grades of steel, multiply the above values by the ratio of

the actual f up to 410 MPa.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

20

For lap splice connections of the type shown in Figure 7 in which the bolts are in shear/bearing

mode, theoretical and experimental studies have shown that the measured strength of the

connection is affected by the length of the connection.

Conventional theories of bolted lap splice connection design assume that rigid plate theory

applies and that all bolts in the connection are equally loaded. However, studies show that the

longer the connection is, the less uniform is the load distribution among the bolts in the

connection while the behaviour is elastic. As a connection is loaded so that yielding of the plies

or bolts or both occur, plastic deformations permit a redistribution of load resulting in a more

uniform load distributionif the redistribution proceeds without premature failure of either bolts

or plies. Some connections may be so long that redistribution does not completely occur.

AS 4100 Clause 9.3.2.1 uses a reduction factor k r to account for this effect, and the expression

for k r is given in Table 11. The source of the expression used is explained in Reference 8.

Connections affected by the requirement for lap splice connections and for which k r may not be

taken as 1.0 without calculation using Table 11 are:

(a)

(b)

Values of k r for various bolt pitches and numbers of bolts in a line are given in Table 11.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

21

TABLE 11

REDUCTION FACTOR FOR LAP CONNECTIONS (k r)

Length

L j < 300

300 L j 1300

L j > 1300

1.0

1.075L j /4000

0.75

mm

kr

Pitch

Values of k r for n of

sp

65

1.0

1.0

0.994

0.978

0.961

0.945

70

1.0

1.0

0.988

0.970

0.953

0.935

75

1.0

1.0

0.981

0.963

0.944

0.925

80

1.0

0.995

0.975

0.955

0.935

0.915

85

1.0

0.990

0.969

0.948

0.926

0.905

90

1.0

0.985

0.963

0.940

0.918

0.895

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

22

3.7

Serviceability limit state

General

Under certain conditions, a bolted connection which does not slip under the serviceability shear

force may be specified. This type of connection is known as a friction-type joint and employs the

8.8/TF bolting category.

The no slip requirement applies for the serviceability limit stateit would be totally unrealistic to

have no slip for the strength limit statethough a separate check is also required by AS 4100

for the strength limit state, under the assumption that slip has occurred before this state is

reached.

The design requirements of AS 4100 for 8.8/TF bolting category are summarised in Table 12.

With the bolt hole clearances permitted by AS 4100, the maximum amount of slip that can occur

with a single bolt in a single hole is 23 mm. In actual connections, as the number of bolts in a

connection increases, so the potential for slip decreases since the normal inaccuracies in

fabrication and erection mean that some bolts in the connection are most likely to be in bearing

mode even before the connection is loaded in shear.

Slip under the applied shear force only needs to be restricted where such slip affects the

serviceability or behaviour of the structure. Such instances are rare and are mostly restricted to

cases of continually reversing loading or fatigue loading.

Design parameters

Initial bolt tension

There can be considerable variation in the level of bolt tension possible, unless control is

exercised over the bolt installation procedure. The procedures within Section 15 of AS 4100 for

bolt installation are intended to ensure that a reliable level of installed bolt tension is achieved

so that the design provisions against slip under the serviceability shear force are themselves

reliable.

Hole types

Different hole typesround, short slotted, long slotted and oversizeare permitted by Section

14 of AS 4100.

All of the hole types, except the standard round hole with 23 mm clearance, may cause a loss

of clamping force in the vicinity of the bolt because of loss of area due to the bigger hole. The

clamping force is highly localised around the hole and any loss of hole area has a significant

effect on the tension achieved, which in turn affects the slip resistance at the interface.

The factor for different hole types, k h, is intended to compensate for this effect, and varies from

0.70 to 1.00 according to hole type (see Table 12).

Contact surface condition

The value of the slip factor, , is highly dependent on the condition of the contact or faying

surfaces. This slip factor should be determined using a test procedure as laid down in

Appendix J of AS 4100. The slip factor used in AS 4100 for bare steel surfaces is 0.35.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

23

TABLE 12

AS 4100 CLAUSE 9.3.3 PROVISIONS

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATESTATIC LOADS

Limit state

Bolt in shear

AS 4100 Clause

9.3.3.1

Design requirement

Vsf*

*

sf

V sf

V sf

= n ei N ti k h

= slip factor

= 0.35 for clean as-rolled surfaces or as determined by

testing in accordance with Appendix J of AS 4100

n ei

N ti

kh

= 1.0 for standard holes

= 0.85 for oversize holes

= 0.85 for short slotted holes

permitted by AS 4100

Bolt in shear and

tension

9.3.3.3

Vsf* N tf*

+

1 .0

Vsf N tf

N tf* = design tension forceserviceability limit state

= N ti (see Table 13)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

24

TABLE 13

SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE

HIGH STRENGTH STRUCTURAL BOLTS

8.8/TF BOLTING CATEGORY

Slip factor, = 0.35

Number of effective interfaces, n ei = 1

Capacity factor, = 0.7for bolt serviceability limit state

Designation

N ti , bolt tension

at installation

N tf = N ti

kN

kN

M16

95

M20

145

M24

M30

66.5

kh = 1

k h = 0.85

k h = 0.7

Standard holes

Oversize holes

short slotted

holes

Long slotted

holes

23.3

19.8

16.3

101

35.5

30.2

24.9

210

147

51.5

43.7

36.0

335

234

82.1

69.8

57.5

k h = 1.0

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

25

3.8

Geometric requirements of

AS 4100 for bolted connections

Minimum edge distances from the centre of a bolt hole to the edge of a plate or the flange of a

rolled section are specified in AS 4100 as follows:

1.75 d f for sheared or hand flame cut edges

1.50 d f for machine flame cut, sawn or planed edges

1.25 d f for rolled edges or rolled sections

where d f is the nominal diameter of the fastener.

Table 14 lists these minimum edge distances for commonly used bolt diameters.

TABLE 14

MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCES

Nominal

diameter of

fastener d f

Sheared or

hand flame

cut edge

flame cut, sawn or

planed edge

Rolled edge

of a rolled

section

mm

mm

mm

mm

12

21

18

15

16

28

24

20

20

35

30

25

24

42

36

30

30

53

45

38

36

63

54

45

AS 4100 specifies the maximum edge distance from the centre of a bolt to the nearest edge.

This is limited to 12tp or 150 mm, whichever is the lesser, where tp is the thickness of the

thinner outer ply.

Minimum pitch of bolts

Minimum pitch of bolts is specified in AS 4100 to be 2.5 times the nominal diameter of the bolt.

However, if it is intended to tension bolts with a special tensioning tool, the minimum distance

between the centres of bolt holes shall be appropriate to the type of tool used (Table 4).

Maximum pitch of bolts

Maximum pitch of bolts is stipulated in AS 4100 to be the lesser of 15tp and 200 mm where tp

may be taken as the thickness of the thinner outside ply. However, in the following cases the

maximum distances are required to be:

(a)

For fasteners which are not required to carry design actions in regions not liable to

corrosion: the lesser of 32tp and 300 mm.

(b)

For an outside line of fasteners in the direction of the design force: the lesser of

4tp + 100 mm, and 200 mm.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

26

Bolt holes

The diameter of bolt holes in bolted connections is stipulated in AS 4100 to be larger than the

bolt diameter by either:

2 mm for M24 bolts or smaller

3 mm for bolts larger than M24

6 mm for holes in base plates

The large oversize holes permitted in base plates is to assist in column erection and is related

to the out-of-position tolerance for anchor bolts permitted in AS 4100.

In some applications, the use of slotted or oversize holes may be justified in order to ease

erection difficulties. AS 4100 makes provision for the use of short and long slotted holes and

oversize holes, and the detailed provisions for such holes are summarised in Table 15.

TABLE 15

AS 4100 PROVISIONS FOR SLOTTED AND OVERSIZED HOLES

(df = nominal bolt diameter)

Hole type

General

Short slotted

Long slotted

Oversize

Limitations

M20

M24

Width: d f + 2

22

26

Length: 1.33 d f

or d f + 10

(whichever is the

greater)

30

34

Width: d f + 2

22

26

Length: 2.5 d f

50

60

1.25 d f or d f + 8

(whichever is the

greater)

28

32

joints, slots may be used without regard to direction of

loading. In bearing-type joints, slots must be normal to

the direction of the load; bolts must bear uniformly;

joint cannot be eccentrically loaded. May be used in

any or all plies of both types provided hardened

washers or plate washers are used under bolt head

and nut.

May be used in shear connections, but only in

alternate plies. In friction-type joints, may be used

without regard to direction of loading. In bearing-type

joints, slots must be normal to the direction of the

load; bolts must bear uniformly and the joint cannot be

eccentrically loaded. Special washer or plate (8 mm

thick) to cover all exposed long slotted holes.

May be used in any or all plies of bearing-type and

friction-type connections provided hardened washers

or plate washers are installed over the oversize holes.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

27

3.9

AS 4100 Clause 9.4 specifies the assumptions which must be made when analysing any bolt

group so that the design actions on individual bolts in the group may be determined.

Clause 9.4.1 deals specifically with a bolt group subject to in-plane loading which generates

only shear force on the bolts in the group. This Clause specifies that the design method to be

used must comply with the following assumptions:

(a)

The connection plates are considered to be rigid and to rotate relative to each other about

a point known as the instantaneous centre of rotation of the bolt group.

(b)

In the case of a bolt group subject to a pure couple only, the instantaneous centre of

rotation coincides with the bolt group centroid.

In the case of a bolt group subject to an in-plane shear force applied at the group

centroid, the instantaneous centre of rotation is at infinity and the design shear force is

uniformly distributed throughout the group.

In all other cases, either the results of independent analyses for a pure couple alone and

for an in-plane shear force applied at the bolt group centroid shall be superposed, or a

recognised method of analysis shall be used.

(c)

The design shear force in each bolt shall be assumed to act at right angles to the radius

from the bolt to the instantaneous centre, and shall be taken as proportional to that

radius.

*

) is applied, Clause

For the situation shown in Figure 8 where only an in-plane torque (M bm

9.4.1(b) of AS 4100 nominates that the instantaneous centre of rotation coincides with the bolt

group centroid. Noting that for bolt 'n':

sin n =

yn

rn

cos n =

xn

rn

xn

=0

rn

(Eqn 3.9.1)

yn

=0

rn

(Eqn 3.9.2)

*

n

*

n

V r

*

n n

*

= +Mbm

(Eqn 3.9.3)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

28

For the situation shown in Figure 9 where both V *bv and V *bh act at the bolt group centroid,

Clause 9.4.1(b) of AS 4100 gives the result:

*

Vv* (= design shear force on a bolt due to action V bv

)=

Vbv*

nb

(Eqn 3.9.4)

*

Vh* (= design shear force on a bolt due to action V bh

)=

Vbh*

nb

(Eqn 3.9.5)

For the general case of a bolt group loaded by vertical shear, horizontal shear, and an in-plane

moment generated by the vertical shear force acting at an eccentricity (e) from the bolt group

centroid, as in Figure 10, three equations can be generated which satisfy force and moment

equilibrium.

V

V

V

*

n

cos n + Vbv* = 0

(Eqn 3.9.6)

*

n

sin n Vbh* = 0

(Eqn 3.9.7)

r + Vbv* (e x e ) + Vbh* y e = 0

(Eqn 3.9.8)

*

n n

In order to solve these equations for Vn* the design shear force on bolt n one further equation

is required and the form of this equation depends on the analysis method used.

Various methods of analysis have been proposed for bolt groups including the linear or elastic

method, the plastic and the force/displacement or elastic/plastic method. These can all be

developed from the centre of rotation concept which forms the basis of Clause 9.4.1 of

AS 4100.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

29

Traditionally, design has been done using the elastic method of analysis, which is readily

amenable to a closed-form solution and to hand calculations. Reference 8 notes that there is

little benefit arising from the use of other methods of analysis.

The relationship between the force on a bolt and the component displacement may be thought

of that as shown in Figure 11. The linear assumption assumes that the bolt force is linearly

related to the displacement and has the advantage that it leads to a closed form solution which

is not available with any other assumption. Typically, assumption (c) of Clause 9.4.1 of AS 4100

leads to a linear equation of the form F* (bolt force) = k r where k is a constant and r is the

distance from the centre of rotation to an individual bolt.

DISPLACEMENT

Historically, rivet and bolt groups have been designed using the linear (elastic) method and

tests have indicated that the method is generally conservative.

The plastic method of analysis assumes that all bolts not at the centre of rotation are deformed

sufficiently to become fully plastic and that all transmit the same force at the point of failure of

the group. The method requires an iterative solution by computer, since it is not possible to

solve Equations 3.9.6 to 3.9.8 explicitly.

Other methods available (Ref. 10) have attempted to measure the relationship between the

relative displacement of the connected components and the force developed on the bolt (this

method is often termed displacement-compatibility). They then use this relationship in solving

Equations 3.9.6 to 3.9.8. The method used to obtain a solution is again an iterative one,

generally requiring the use of a computer to provide a satisfactory solution. The relationship

between the relative displacement and the bolt force is dependent on a number of factors

including (Ref. 10):

(i)

(ii)

Because much of the deformation which occurs in realistic cases is due to bearing failure of the

connected material, a single definition of this relationship is really only suited to the application

for which it was derived by tests.

The AISC Manual (Ref. 9) now has design aids as well as rapid design methods available,

particularly for routine bolt group configurations.

*

The method for bolt groups loaded by in-plane design action set ( Vbv* , Vbh* , Mbm

) in this Guide

uses the linear method. The method was also used in Reference 2, and is used in a number of

equivalent Manuals as either the primary method of analysis or as an alternative method

(Reference 9). As Reference 9 notes, the load-deformation method is more accurate but

requires tabulated values or an iterative solution while the linear method is simplified but

conservative as it neglects the ductility of the bolt group and potential for load redistribution.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

30

Using the linear method, Clause 9.4.1 (c) of AS 4100 relates the design shear force on any bolt

*

) on the bolt furthest from the centre of rotation by the linear

( Vn* ) to the design shear force ( Vmb

relationship

Vn*

rn *

Vmb

rmax

(Eqn 3.9.9)

where:

r max

= maximum value of r n

*

mb

V is the value of interest for design being the design shear force on the extreme bolt which

can be found by substituting Eqn 3.9.9 into Eqn 3.9.3 giving

*

Vmb

rmax

2

n

*

= Mbm

or

*

Vmb

*

Mbm

rmax

rn2

letting

l bp

r

= (x

=

2

n

2

n

+ y n2

then

*

Vmb

*

Mbm

rmax

l bp

(Eqn 3.9.10)

*

*

*

Vmb

can be resolved into horizontal ( Vmh

) and vertical components ( Vmv

)as in Figure 12(a).

*

Vmh

y max

*

* y max

*

= M bm

= Vmb sin max = Vmb r

l bp

max

(Eqn 3.9.11)

*

Vmv

x max

*

* x max

*

= M bm

= Vmb cos max = Vmb r

l bp

max

(Eqn 3.9.12)

For the situation shown in Figure 10, where Vbv* is eccentric to the bolt group centroid by x = e

and is acting simultaneously with Vbh* (through the centroid), the principle of superposition may

be used (as permitted by Clause 9.4.1(b) of AS 4100). That is, the effects of a torque

(equivalent to Vbv* e in magnitude and direction) acting on the bolt group are summed with the

effects of Vbv* and Vbh* acting at the bolt group centroid so as to simulate the situation in

Figure 10. Using the principle of superposition, the maximum design force on the extreme bolt

in the group can be found by summation of the design shear forces from each design action

taken separately.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

31

*

Using vectorial addition to obtain the resultant design shear force ( Vres

) on the extreme boltas

in Figure 12(b)

*

Vres

(V

*

*

Vbv* Mbm

x max 2 Vbh* Mbm

y max 2

+

+

l bp

l bp

nb

nb

*

v

*

+ Vmv

) + (V

2

*

h

*

+ Vmh

(Eqn 3.9.13)

This equation can also be used to solve any general problem for a bolt group subject to in-plane

actions.

The design requirement considering only shear on the bolt becomes:

*

Vres

V f

For bolt groups subject to a combination of in-plane vertical shear, in-plane horizontal shear

and in-plane bending moment, general equations governing the design of such bolt groups can

be derived. A summary of the governing expressions is given herein, while a full derivation of

the expressions is given in Reference 2. The purpose of deriving such expressions is to have

simple expressions available for use with specific connections in other Design Guides.

Governing equations for common cases are given in Tables 16 and 18.

TABLE 16

SINGLE BOLT COLUMN

The governing interaction equation for a single column bolt group considering bolt shear

failure can be obtained as follows:

2

Vbh*

V*

M*

+ bm + bv 1.0

Vdh Mdm

Vdv

(Eqn 3.9.14)

(see Reference 2):

V dh = np( V f)

V dv = np( V f)

M dm =

npsp (np + 1)

6

(Vf )

for np 1

= 0

for np = 1

*

If V = 0 and M bm

= Vbv* e (e = eccentricity of Vbv* )

a common case in many simple connections

*

bh

requirement

(Eqn 3.9.15)

where

Zb is a function of e, s p and np

FIGURE 13 SINGLE BOLT

COLUMN LOADED IN-PLANE

np

Zb

=

for np 1

2

6e

1+

s p (n p + 1)

=0

(Eqn 3.9.16)

for np = 1

In the above expressions, Vf = nominal capacity of a single bolt in shear-strength limit state

= 0.8

as discussed in section 3.6.

Tables of values of Zb can be developed to allow rapid design (Table 17).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

32

The governing interaction equation for end plate tear-out/bearing failure for a single

column bolt group can be obtained as follows:

It is also necessary in bolted connections to check the components of forces acting towards the

edge of a component or supported member to ensure that end plate tear-out or bearing failure

will not occur. The derivation of expressions to cover this situation may be found in

Reference 2. The equations derived may be summarized as follows for the case of:

*

Vbh* = 0 and M bm

= V bv* e

(V ) + (V )

*

Vres

=

* 2

v

* 2

mb

Vbv* ( V ev) n p

(vertical tear-out)

(horizontal tear-out)

where:

Vv*

Vbv*

np

*

*

Vmb

= Vbv

np 1

6e

np sp (np + 1)

np = 1

np 1

= 0

Ze

sp (np + 1)

np = 1

6e

= 0

(Section 3.6)

V bf = 3.2 d f tp fup

(Section 3.6)

V ev = a ev t p fup

(Section 3.6)

V eh = a eh t p fup

fup

tp

= thickness of ply

(Figure 14)

(Figure 14)

= 0.9

df

= bolt diameter

np

FORCES AND EDGE DISTANCES FOR

END PLATE TEAR-OUT FAILURE OR

BEARING FAILURE

Tables of values of Ze can be developed to speed up the design process (Table 17).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

33

TABLE 17

BOLT GROUP DESIGN FACTORS FOR SINGLE COLUMN OF BOLTS

s p = 70 mm

np

V dh /V f

V dv/V f

M dm /V f

0.070

0.140

0.233

0.350

0.490

0.653

0.840

1.05

l bp 10

2.45

9.80

24.5

49.0

85.75

137

206

294

s p = 70 mm

e

Values of Z b for n p =

mm

0

10

20

30

40

50

2.00

1.92

1.74

1.52

1.32

1.15

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

3.00

2.93

2.76

2.52

2.28

2.05

4.00

3.94

3.78

3.56

3.30

3.04

5.00

4.95

4.81

4.60

4.34

4.07

6.00

5.96

5.83

5.63

5.39

5.12

7.00

6.96

6.84

6.66

6.43

6.17

8.00

7.96

7.86

7.69

7.48

7.22

9.00

8.97

8.87

8.72

8.51

8.27

1.01

0.894

0.802

0.725

0.661

1.84

1.66

1.51

1.38

1.27

2.79

2.56

2.36

2.18

2.02

3.80

3.54

3.29

3.07

2.87

4.84

4.56

4.29

4.03

3.80

5.89

5.60

5.31

5.04

4.78

6.95

6.66

6.36

6.07

5.79

8.00

7.72

7.42

7.13

6.83

0.606

0.560

0.520

0.485

0.454

1.17

1.09

1.01

0.949

0.891

1.87

1.75

1.64

1.54

1.45

2.68

2.52

2.37

2.24

2.11

3.58

3.38

3.19

3.02

2.87

4.53

4.30

4.08

3.88

3.70

5.52

5.27

5.03

4.80

4.59

6.55

6.27

6.01

5.76

5.53

s p = 70 mm

e

mm

Values of Z e for n p =

2

10

20

30

40

50

3.50

1.75

1.17

0.875

0.700

4.67

2.33

1.56

1.17

0.933

5.83

2.92

1.94

1.46

1.17

7.00

3.50

2.33

1.75

1.40

8.17

4.08

2.72

2.04

1.63

9.33

4.67

3.11

2.33

1.87

10.5

5.25

3.50

2.63

2.10

11.67

5.83

3.89

2.92

2.33

60

70

80

90

100

0.583

0.500

0.438

0.389

0.350

0.778

0.667

0.583

0.519

0.467

0.972

0.833

0.729

0.648

0.583

1.17

1.00

0.875

0.778

0.700

1.36

1.17

1.02

0.907

0.817

1.56

1.33

1.17

1.04

0.933

1.75

1.50

1.31

1.17

1.05

1.94

1.67

1.46

1.30

1.17

110

120

130

140

150

0.318

0.292

0.269

0.250

0.233

0.424

0.389

0.359

0.333

0.311

0.530

0.486

0.449

0.417

0.389

0.636

0.583

0.538

0.500

0.467

0.742

0.681

0.628

0.583

0.544

0.848

0.778

0.718

0.667

0.622

0.955

0.875

0.808

0.750

0.700

1.06

0.972

0.897

0.833

0.778

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

34

TABLE 18

DOUBLE BOLT COLUMN

The governing interaction equation for a double bolt

column bolt group considering bolt shear failure can

be obtained as follows:

2

Vbv*

Vdv

2s pg

+

2

1 + s pg

2

2

1 + s pg

Vbv*

Vdv

*

*

M bm

M bm

M dm M dm

*

Vbh* M bm

Vbh*

V dh M dm Vdh

1 .0

(Eqn 3.9.17)

follows (see Reference 2):

V dv

2n p (V f)

V dh

2n p (V f)

M dm =

=

s pg

LOADED IN-PLANE

)

)

npsp (Vf )

s g (Vf)

(n

Vf

) (

(

1 2

np 1 + sg / sp

3

(np 1)2+ sg / sp

for np 1

for np = 1

sg

1)sp

0.8

*

If Vbh* = 0 and M bm

= V bv* e (e = eccentricity of Vbv* ) a common case in many simple

connections

(Eqn 3.9.18)

where

Zb is a function of e, s p, np, s g and s pg

The formula for Zb is derived in Reference 2 as follows:

Zb

2n p

e

s

s

2e / s g

2

/

pg

g

2

1 +

2

+

+

1

2

2

1 np + 1 1

1 np + 1 1

1+

1+

3 n p 1 s pg

3 n p 1 s pg

2n p

[1 + Z 1 ] 2 + [Z 1 / s pg ] 2

for n p 1

(Eqn 3.9.19)

where

Z1

2e / s g

1 np + 1 1

3 n p 1 s pg

2

1 + 2e / sg

1+

Zb

for n p = 1

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

35

The governing interaction equation for end plate tear-out/bearing failure for a double

column bolt group can be obtained as follows:

It is also necessary in bolted connections to check the components of forces acting towards the

edge of a component or supported member to ensure that end plate tear-out or bearing failure

will not occur. The derivation of expressions to cover this situation may be found in

Reference 2. The equations derived may be summarized as follows for the case of:

*

Vbh* = 0 and Mbm

= Vbv* e

(V

*

Vres

=

*

v

*

+ Vmv

) + (V )

2

* 2

mh

Vbv*

Zev(Vev) 2n p

(vertical tear-out)

Vbv*

Zeh (Veh) 2n p

(horiz. tear-out)

where

Vv*

Vbv*

2np

*

*

Vmv

= Vbv

*

*

Vmh

= Vbv

lbp

Zev =

Zeh =

es g

2lbp

e(np 1)sp

2lbp

np sp2

6

1+

[(n 1) + 3(s

2

p

1

npes g

/ sp

np 1

lbp

l bp

COLUMNFORCES AND EDGE

DISTANCES FOR END PLATE TEAROUT FAILURE OR BEARING FAILURE

np 1

e(np 1)sp np

sg

Zev =

sg + 2e

np = 1

Zeh = 0

np = 1

V bf = 3.2 d f tp fup

(Section 3.6)

V ev = a ev t p fup

(Section 3.6)

V eh = a eh t p fup

(Section 3.6)

fup

tp

= thickness of ply

aev

(Figure 16)

(Figure 16)

= 0.9

df

= bolt diameter

np

Tables of values of Zex and Zeh can be developed to expedite the design process (Table 19).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

36

TABLE 19

BOLT GROUP FACTORS FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS

s g = 70 mm

s p = 70 mm

np

V dh /V f

V dv/V f

M dm /V f

2

2

0.070

4

4

0.198

6

6

0.344

8

8

0.531

10

10

0.764

12

12

1.04

14

14

1.37

16

16

1.74

18

18

2.16

2

2 / 1 + spg

1.41

1.79

1.90

1.94

1.96

1.97

1.98

1.98

2

2spg / 1 + spg

2.00

1.41

0.894

0.632

0.485

0.392

0.329

0.283

0.248

I bp 103

2.45

9.80

26.95

s p = 70 mm

s g = 70 mm

e

Values of Z b for n p =

mm

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

1

2.00

1.56

1.27

1.08

0.933

0.824

0.737

0.667

0.609

0.560

0.519

0.483

0.452

0.424

0.400

0.378

2

4.00

3.47

3.04

2.68

2.39

2.15

1.96

1.79

1.65

1.53

1.42

1.33

1.25

1.17

1.11

1.05

3

6.00

5.51

5.01

4.55

4.13

3.77

3.45

3.17

2.93

2.72

2.54

2.37

2.23

2.10

1.99

1.88

4

8.00

7.57

7.07

6.55

6.06

5.60

5.18

4.80

4.46

4.16

3.89

3.65

3.44

3.25

3.07

2.92

5

10.0

9.62

9.15

8.62

8.09

7.57

7.08

6.62

6.20

5.81

5.47

5.15

4.86

4.60

4.37

4.15

6

12.0

11.7

11.2

10.7

10.2

9.62

9.08

8.56

8.08

7.62

7.20

6.82

6.46

6.14

5.84

5.56

7

14.0

13.7

13.3

12.8

12.3

11.7

11.1

10.6

10.1

9.55

9.07

8.63

8.21

7.82

7.46

7.13

8

16.0

15.7

15.4

14.9

14.4

13.8

13.2

12.7

12.1

11.6

11.0

10.5

10.1

9.63

9.21

8.83

9

18.0

17.8

17.4

17.0

16.5

15.9

15.4

14.8

14.2

13.6

13.1

12.5

12.0

11.5

11.1

10.6

s p = 70 mm

s g = 70 mm

e

mm

Values of Z ev for n p =

1

.778

.636

.538

.467

.411

.368

.333

.304

.280

.259

.241

.225

.212

.200

.189

2

.875

.778

.700

.636

.583

.538

.500

.467

.437

.412

.389

.368

.350

.333

.318

3

.928

.865

.811

.762

.720

.681

.647

.616

.588

.562

.538

.517

.497

.478

.461

4

.955

.913

.875

.840

.808

.778

.750

.724

.700

.677

.656

.636

.618

.600

.583

5

.969

.940

.913

.887

.863

.840

.818

.797

.778

.759

.741

.724

.708

.692

.677

6

.978

.957

.937

.917

.899

.881

.864

.847

.831

.816

.801

.787

.773

.760

.747

7

.983

.967

.952

.937

.922

.908

.895

.881

.869

.856

.844

.832

.821

.810

.799

Values of Z eh for n p =

8

.987

.975

.963

.951

.939

.928

.917

.906

.895

.885

.875

.865

.856

.846

.837

9

.990

.980

.970

.960

.951

.942

.933

.924

.915

.906

.898

.890

.882

.874

.866

2

7.00

3.50

2.33

1.75

1.40

1.17

1.00

.875

.778

.700

.636

.583

.538

.500

.467

3

6.42

3.21

2.14

1.60

1.28

1.07

.917

.802

.713

.642

.583

.535

.494

.458

.428

4

7.00

3.50

2.33

1.75

1.40

1.17

1.00

.875

.778

.700

.636

.583

.538

.500

.467

5

7.88

3.94

2.63

1.97

1.58

1.31

1.13

.984

.875

.788

.716

.656

.606

.563

.525

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

6

8.87

4.43

2.98

2.22

1.77

1.48

1.27

1.11

.985

.887

.806

.739

.682

.633

.591

7

9.92

4.96

3.31

2.48

1.98

1.65

1.42

1.24

1.10

.992

.902

.826

.763

.708

.661

8

11.0

5.50

3.67

2.75

2.20

1.83

1.57

1.38

1.22

1.10

1.00

.917

.846

.786

.733

9

12.1

6.05

4.04

3.03

2.42

2.02

1.73

1.51

1.35

1.21

1.10

1.01

.931

.865

.807

37

TABLE 20

BOLT GROUP FACTORS FOR DOUBLE COLUMN OF BOLTS

s g = 90 mm

s p = 70 mm

np

V dh /V f

V dv/V f

M dm /V f

2

2

0.090

4

4

0.228

6

6

0.382

10

10

0.804

2

2 / 1 + spg

1.23

1.68

8

8

0.571

1.84

1.90

12

12

1.08

1.94

14

14

1.41

1.96

16

16

1.78

1.97

18

18

2.20

1.97

2

2spg / 1 + spg

2.00

1.58

1.08

0.788

0.612

0.498 0.419

0.361

0.317

I bp 10

4.05

13.0

31.75

s p = 70 mm

s g = 90 mm

e

Values of Z b for n p =

mm

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

110

120

130

140

150

1

2.00

1.64

1.38

1.20

1.06

0.947

0.857

0.783

0.720

0.667

0.621

0.581

0.545

0.514

0.486

0.462

2

4.00

3.50

3.09

2.76

2.48

2.25

2.06

1.90

1.76

1.64

1.53

1.44

1.35

1.28

1.21

1.15

3

6.00

5.49

5.00

4.56

4.16

3.82

3.52

3.25

3.02

2.82

2.64

2.48

2.34

2.21

2.09

1.99

4

8.00

7.53

7.02

6.51

6.04

5.60

5.20

4.84

4.51

4.23

3.97

3.73

3.52

3.33

3.16

3.01

5

10.0

9.57

9.08

8.55

8.03

7.52

7.05

6.61

6.20

5.83

5.50

5.19

4.91

4.66

4.43

4.22

6

12.0

11.6

11.1

10.6

10.1

9.54

9.01

8.51

8.04

7.61

7.20

6.83

6.48

6.16

5.87

5.60

7

14.0

13.7

13.2

12.7

12.2

11.6

11.1

10.5

9.99

9.50

9.03

8.60

8.19

7.82

7.47

7.14

8

16.0

15.7

15.3

14.8

14.3

13.7

13.1

12.6

12.0

11.5

11.0

10.5

10.0

9.59

9.19

8.81

9

18.0

17.7

17.3

16.9

16.4

15.8

15.2

14.7

14.1

13.5

13.0

12.4

11.9

11.5

11.0

10.6

s p = 70 mm

s g = 90 mm

e

mm

Values of Z ev for n p =

1

.818

.692

.600

.529

.474

.429

.391

.360

.333

.310

.290

.273

.257

.243

.231

2

.903

.823

.756

.699

.650

.607

.570

.537

.508

.481

.458

.436

.417

.399

.382

3

.938

.883

.834

.791

.751

.716

.684

.654

.627

.602

.579

.558

.538

.519

.502

4

.959

.921

.886

.853

.823

.795

.769

.744

.721

.700

.679

.660

.642

.625

.608

5

.971

.944

.918

.894

.871

.849

.828

.809

.790

.772

.754

.738

.722

.707

.693

6

.979

.959

.940

.921

.903

.886

.869

.854

.838

.823

.809

.795

.782

.769

.757

7

.984

.969

.954

.939

.925

.911

.898

.885

.873

.861

.849

.837

.826

.815

.805

Values of Z eh for n p =

8

.988

.975

.964

.952

.941

.930

.919

.908

.989

.888

.878

.869

.859

.850

.841

9

.990

.980

.971

.961

.952

.943

.934

.925

.917

.908

.900

.892

.884

.876

.869

2

9.29

4.64

3.10

2.32

1.86

1.55

1.33

1.16

1.03

.929

.844

.774

.714

.663

.619

3

7.56

3.78

2.52

1.89

1.51

1.26

1.08

.945

.840

.756

.687

.630

.582

.540

.504

4

7.76

3.88

2.59

1.94

1.55

1.29

1.11

.970

.862

.776

.706

.647

.597

.554

.517

5

8.45

4.22

2.82

2.11

1.69

1.41

1.21

1.06

.938

.845

.768

.704

.650

.603

.563

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

6

9.32

4.66

3.11

2.33

1.87

1.55

1.33

1.17

1.04

.932

.848

.777

.717

.668

.622

7

10.30

5.15

3.43

2.57

2.06

1.72

1.47

1.29

1.14

1.03

.936

.858

.792

.736

.687

8

11.33

5.66

3.78

2.83

2.26

1.89

1.62

1.42

1.26

1.13

1.03

.944

.871

.809

.755

9

12.39

6.20

4.13

3.10

2.48

2.07

1.77

1.55

1.38

1.24

1.13

1.03

.953

.885

.826

38

Design of bolts in lap splice

connection

Check a bolted splice in a 180 20 plate in the following configuration to ensure that it can

transmit the design tension capacity of the plate being spliced.

Plates:

Spliced plate:

20 mm thick

fy = 250 MPa

Ag

= 180 20 = 3600 mm 2

An

Nt

fu = 410 MPa

0.85 1.0 2720 410/10 3 = 948 kN

Design capacity:

transmit this design capacity

Splice plates:

2 No 10 mm thick

fy = 260 MPa

Ag

= 2 180 10 = 3600 mm

An

Nt

Nt

Design capacity:

Bolts:

grip = 40 mm

fu = 410 MPa

bolt length = 70 mm

SATISFACTORY

(Ref. 7)

(Ref. 7)

Hence, threads intercept one shear plane, plain shank intercepts the other shear planebolts

subject to shear on two planes.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

39

Design capacity of bolts in shear = Vfn + V fx = 92.6 + 129 = 221.6 kN (Table 10)

Plate crushing and tear-out:

From Table 7

Vb

M20 bolts

a e1 = 39 mm

d f = 20 mm

fup = 410 MPa

tp = 20 mm

3

39 20 410/10 3 = 320 kN

Splice plates:

From Table 7

a e1 = 34 mm

tp = 10 mm

Vb

3

34 10 410/10 3 = 139 kN

V b = 0.9 139 kN > 92.6 kN threads included

= 125.5 < 129 kN threads excluded

DOES CONTROL

Design capacity on two shear planes per bolt reduces to = 92.6 + 125.5 = 218 kN.

Total design capacity of 4 bolts each side of splice location = 4 218 = 872 kN

> 810 kN SATISFACTORY

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

40

Design of bolt group loaded inplane

If the bolts in the connection shown in Figure 18 are M20 bolts in 8.8/S bolting category,

determine the maximum design vertical force that the bolts in the bolt group can sustain.

Design actions at bolt group centroid:

Vbv*

= V* kN

*

Mbm

= 0.5 V* kNm

nb

= 8

Ibp

(x

2

n

+ y n2

r max

45 2 + 105 2 = 114.2 mm

= 8 45 2 + 4 105 2 + 4 35 2

= 65200 mm2

Vv*

Vbv*

nb

= 0.125V*

Vh*

Vbh*

nb

=0

*

M bm

r max

I bp

*

Vmb

=

= 0.876V*

65200

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

41

*

Vmh

=

*

M bm

y max

I bp

*

Vmv

=

*

M bm

x max

Ibp

= 0.805V*

65200

0.5V * 1000 45

= 0.345V*

65200

(V ) + (V )

2

*

mv

2

*

mh

*

Note that Vmb

=

= 0.876V* as before

(V

*

=

Vres

*

v

*

+ Vmv

) + (V

2

*

h

*

+ Vmh

= 0.932V*

Vf

Bolt design capacity: M20 bolts 8.8/S bolting category

grip = 15.4 + 8 = 23.4 mm From Reference 7, 55 mm long bolt is shortest possible bolt

55 mm long bolt has minimum plain shank of 10 mm (<15.4) threads intercept shear plane

Vdf = V fn = 92.6 kN (Table 10)

Crushing on 8 mm ply, Vb = 3.2 20 8 410/10 3 = 210 kN

*

Vres

= 0.932 V* 92.6 kN

V* 99.4 kN

Design capacity of bolt group based on end plate tear-out considerations:

Now vertical end plate tear-out is not likely in either column or bracket, while horizontal end

plate tear-out will occur in the 8 mm web of the channel member before occurring in column

flange. Hence,

tp = 8 mm,

= 0.9

a eh 1 = 50 1 mm = 49 mm

*

Vmh

on top bolt = 0.805V* V b = a e tpfup

V*

0.9 49 8 410

= 180 kN

0.805 10 3

Bolt group design parameters (Table 18):

s p = 70 mm

2

1+ s

Z1 =

Zb =

s g = 90 mm

np = 4

2spg

= 0.788

= 1.84

2

1 + spg

2

pg

spg =

90

= 0.4286 e = 500 mm s g/s p = 1.2857

3 70

1 2

2

3 np 1 + s g / s p

n p s p = 570.7

(n p 1) 2 + s g / s p 2

) (

(

)

)

2 500 / 90

= 2.761

1 5

1

1+

3 3 0.4286 2

2 4

3.761 + (2.761 / 0.4286 ) 2

2

= 1.072

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

42

Using Eqn 3.9.17, Method (b) using interaction equation: Vbh* = 0

V dv = 8 92.6 = 740.8 kN

M dm = 571 92.6 = 52847 kNmm = 52.8 kNm

2

V* 2

V * 0.5V * 0.5V *

740.8 + 0.788 740.8 52.8 + 52.8 1.0

Solving,

4 70 2

2

15 + 3 (90 / 70 ) = 65200 mm3

6

Now, vertical end plate tear-out is not likely in either column or bracket, while horizontal end

plate tear-out will occur in the 8 mm web of the channel member before occurring in column

flange. Hence,

tp

= 8 mm,

= 0.9

f up = 410 MPa

a eh 1 = 50 1 mm = 49 mm

3

Then using Table 18, with Vbv* = 99.4 kN (maximum capacity controlled by bolt shear)

Vv*

99.4

= 12.4 kN

2 4

*

Vmh

99.4 500 3 70

= 80.0 kN Veh = 145 kN

2 65200

*

Vmv

99.4 500 90

= 34.3 kN

2 65200

*

Vres

SATISFACTORY

SATISFACTORY

CONCLUSION: Plate tear-out does not control the design capacity of the connection.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

AS BEFORE

43

AS 4100 Clause 9.4.2 specifies that for a bolt group loaded such that it is subject to out-ofplane loading, the design actions shall be determined in accordance with Clause 9.1.3.

Clause 9.1.3 of AS 4100 nominates the basic requirements that any design model must have for

the design of a steel connection if the design model is to be acceptable. These requirements

are as follows:

Each element in a connection shall be designed so that the structure is capable of

resisting all design actions. The design capacities of each element shall be not less than

the calculated design action effects.

Connections and the adjacent areas of members shall be designed by distributing the

design action effects so that they comply with the following requirements:

(a)

The distributed design action effects are in equilibrium with the design action effects

acting on the connection.

(b)

The deformations in the connection are within the deformation capacities of the

connection elements.

(c)

All of the connection elements and the adjacent areas of members are capable of

resisting the design action effects acting on them.

(d)

The connection elements shall remain stable under the design action effects and

deformations.

Residual actions due to the installation of bolts need not be considered.

A bolt group loaded out-of-plane can be subject to a bending moment applied normal to the

mating surface (M*) and a coincident vertical shear force (V*) and horizontal tension force N t* .

If n b = number of bolts in the connection, then V* and N t* can be assumed to be equally

distributed among the bolts, giving:

Vv* = design shear force per bolt due to vertical shear V* =

V*

nb

N tn* = design tension force per bolt due to horizontal axial tension N t* =

N t*

nb

The method used in this Design Guide to determine the design tension force in the bolts due to

the design action M* is based on the following assumptions:

(1)

the neutral axis is at the centroid of the bolt group (Figure 19);

(2)

the bolts above the neutral axis are all in tension and the bolts below the neutral axis are

assumed to be notionally in compression;

(3)

a plastic distribution of bolt force is assumed on both sides of the neutral axis.

The method is one suggested in Reference 9, Case II (neutral axis at centre of gravity).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

44

*

Using these assumptions, the design axial tension in the bolts on the tension side ( N tm

) is given

by:

*

= design force per bolt in tension due to design bending moment M*

N tm

M*

nt y m

(Eqn 3.12.1)

nt

ym

= lever arm between resultant tensile force and resultant compression force

n b = 2n p = number of bolts in connection

when n p = odd number (3,5,7, etc.)

n t = (np 1)

ym =

(n

+ 1) s p

2

(Eqn 3.12.2)

nt = np

ym =

np sp

2

(Eqn 3.12.3)

GEOMETRY

Reference 9 also offers an alternative formulationCase I (neutral axis not at centre of gravity),

which is a direct but less conservative method.

Governing bolt interaction equations for a double column bolt group:

The bolts above the neutral axis are subject to shear force and tension force and must satisfy

the interaction equation of Table 7.

*

2

Vv* 2 N tn* + N tm

1 .0

V

N

tf

f

(Eqn 3.12.4)

The bolts below the neutral axis have a notional compression force due to the design bending

moment M*. This would normally be ignored, so that the bolts below the neutral axis would

normally only need to satisfy

Vv* 2 N tn* 2

1 .0

+

Vf N tf

(Eqn 3.12.5)

The bolts may be subject to Prying Action under the design action N t* and under design action

M* for bolts on the tension side. Prying action may increase the design tension force in the bolts

above the values calculated using this Section. Prying action is discussed in Section 3.13.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

45

Bolt groups subject to out-of-plane moment or direct tension may be subject to an additional

tensile force due to the flexural behaviour of the plate which the bolts connect to a support. This

phenomenon is known as prying action and is illustrated in Figure 21. Any increase in tension

force in the bolt due to prying should be taken into account in the design of the bolts and the

connected plate.

The mechanism of prying can be understood by reference to Figure 21. Considering a T-stub

under tensile load, the contact pressure between the T-stub flange and the base will be reduced

and additional prying forces develop in the general region of the flange tip, thus increasing the

tensile force in the bolts, as the flange of the T-stub deforms.

A review of the literature relating to prying may be found in References 2 and 10. This Section

is based primarily on Reference 10, which suggests that the level of prying force is influenced

by a number of items, including:

(a)

(b)

(c)

the magnitude of the clamping forces induced into the bolts at installation;

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

the dimensions of the bolt position relative to the edge of the connected plate and the

point of application of the force.

If the connected plate is sufficiently stiff (thick plate), the flexural deformations of the plate will

be small compared to the elongation of the bolts and very little prying force will be developed

(refer to Figure 22). The connected plate will bend in single curvature.

If the connected plate is sufficiently flexible (thin plate), the flexural deformations of the plate

will be large and prying force will develop (refer to Figure 23). Bending of the plate develops a

prying force acting between the bolt line and the edge of the plate, which may continue up until

bolt failure. The connected plate may bend in either single or double curvature.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

46

The test results plotted in Reference 10 show that experimentally measured levels of prying

force may vary between 0% and 40% depending on the exact test arrangement. Precise

evaluation by calculation is difficult despite the various studies on the subject reported in

References 2 and 10.

FIGURE 22 GRAPHICAL

RELATIONSHIPBOLT

LOAD/APPLIED LOAD FOR A STIFF

T-STUB FLANGE

BOLT LOAD/APPLIED LOAD FOR A FLEXIBLE

T-STUB FLANGE

A further complication is that if there are more than one line of bolts either side of the point of

application of the design action, tests have shown that the outer line of bolts is not very

effective in carrying the applied design action unless the connected plate is thick or stiffened

(Ref. 10). The assessment of prying force for such arrangements is little studied and is not

further developed in this Guide.

A simple approach is as follows:

(i)

for thick connected plates to a rigid supportuse an allowance for prying of 0% to 10% by

increasing the calculated tension force in a bolt by the selected percentage.

(ii)

for thin connected platesuse an allowance for prying of 20% to 40% by increasing the

calculated tension force in a bolt by the selected percentage.

What constitutes a plate that is sufficiently thick so as to reduce prying is discussed later.

If an analytical approach is desired to be used, the following method taken from Reference 10 is

suggested. It is an approach also used in References 9 and 11. In using this analytical

approach, it needs to be recognised that a lot of the experimental research is based on tee

stubs bolted to supports and subject to tension. Some T-stub research has the T-stubs also

bolted to the flanges of an I-section. Few realistic connections in Australia where prying is of

interest involve a genuine T-stub detail as most involve plates bolted to I -section supports.

Figure 24(a) shows a tee stub connection and identifies two critical dimensions (a e and a f).

Figure 24(b) shows the same T-stub in a deformed condition when subject to a tension force

N t* . If the T-stub deforms as shown, it presses against the support (assumed to be rigid) at the

ends of the T-stub and generates a reactionit is this reaction which is the prying force ( Nq* ).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

47

If the flange part of the T-stub is very stiff, then the bolt force versus applied tension force

relationship will be like that in Figure 22. If the flange part of the T-stub is very flexible, then the

bolt force versus applied tension force relationship will be like that in Figure 23.

The relevant parameters for an analytical method are given in Figure 25.

Equilibrium of forces gives:

N t* + 2N q* = 2N tf*

(Eqn 3.13.1)

M l* + M 2* = 0.5N t* af

(Eqn 3.13.2)

where

M 2*

design bending moment acting on the net cross-section of the flange of the

T-stub, through the bolt centreline

Ml*

design bending moment acting on the gross cross-section of the flange of the

T-stub, at the face of the T-stub stem

letting

gross cross - section area at face of stem

and

M 1* (1 + ) = 0.5N t* af

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

(Eqn 3.13.4)

48

M 1*

0.5N t* a f

N t* a f

=

(1 + ) 2(1 + )

(Eqn 3.13.4)

M 1*

Methods of determining Ms for connection components (such as the T-stub flange) are

discussed in Section 5 of this Guide.

In order to determine the design tension force in the bolt, it is to be noted that:

M 2*

N q* a e = M 1*

N t* a f

M 1*

=

ae

2(1 + ) a e

(Eqn 3.13.5)

Hence,

Nq*

(Eqn 3.13.6)

The total design force in the bolt ( N tf* ) is then given by:

N tf*

a

0.5Nt* + Nq* = Nt* 0.5 + f

ae 2(1 + )

(Eqn 3.13.7)

The behaviour of the flange of the T-stub as observed experimentally suggests that flange

deformation is such that modified values of a e and a f should be used, as follows:

ae

a e + 0.5d h

af

a f 0.5d h

dh

where

Using these modified parameters, the equations of interest become the following

equations:

a

N tf* = N t* 0.5 + f

a e 2(1 + )

M 1* =

N t* a f

2(1 + )

(Eqn 3.13.8)

(Eqn 3.13.9)

The structural connection designer has a multitude of solutions to choose from by varying as

Thornton illustrates in Reference 12these being

Option 1

Choose = 0, single curvature bending in the T-stub flange. There is zero prying,

so Ntf* = 0.5Nt* , but a thicker plate is required that satisfies

M 1* = 0.5N t* a f M s

Option 2

and 3.13.9 apply directly and M1* Ms, N tf* N tf

Option 3

showing how the prying force values vary with values of .

Equations 3.13.8 and 3.13.9 are a consistent set of equations which relate plate thickness and

bolt force.

The foregoing is a general treatment which is adapted in other Design Guides for individual

connections as requirednotably the Bolted Moment End Plate and Column Base Plate subject

to bending moment.

The AISC Manual (Ref. 9) contains an alternative formulation which is claimed to provide better

correlation with available test data

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

49

Design of bolt group loaded

out-of-plane

If the bolts in the connection shown in Figure 26 are M20 bolts in 8.8/S bolting category,

determine if they are satisfactory under the design action shown.

Bolt design capacities:

V fx = 129 kN

N tf = 163 kN

V b > Vfx

nb = 8

s p = 70 mm

nt = np = 4

ym =

np sp

2

n p = 4 (even numbering)

= 140 mm

Design actions:

250

= 31.3 kN

8

250 250

M*

=

= 111.6 kN

N tf* =

nt y m

4 140

Vv* =

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

50

(A)

31.3 2 111 .6 2

Bolt interaction equation (Section 3.12)

+

= 0.53 < 1.0

129 163

SATISFACTORY

Checking plate thickness using Sections 5.3 and 3.13: treating area around top two bolts

as a T-stub as in Figure 27:

Section 3.13

a f = 50 mm

a f = 50 11 = 39 mm

d h = 22 mm

N t* = 2 111.6 kN = 223.2 kN

For =0,

(Section 5.3)

M s =

0.9 250 25 2 70

4 10 3

= 2460 kNmm

< M1*

NOT SATISFACTORY

since the plate is thin, prying will occur and the design tension force on the bolts must be

reassessed.

(B)

Assume = 1

=

70 22

= 0.685

70

af = 39 mm

ae = 40 + 11 = 51 mm

a f

39 1 0.685

=

a e 2(1 + ) 51 2 (1.685 )

N tf* = N t* [0.5 + 0.155 ] = 223.2 0.655 = 146 kN

31.3 2 146 2

Bolt Interaction Equation (Section 3.12)

+

= 0.86 1.0

129 163

M1* =

223 39

2 1.685

= 2580 kNm

SATISFACTORY

SATISFACTORY

CONCLUSIONS

(1)

(2)

25 mm thick plate is just satisfactory, will bend in double curvature and 31% prying force

will be involved. The plate is not thick enough for no prying to occur. For no prying to

occur, a plate thickness of 36 mm is required for which:

M s =

0.9 250 36 2 70

4 10 3

= 5130 kNm

>4352 kNm = M1*

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

51

4.1

Weld types

Complete penetration butt welda weld where fusion exists between weld metal and the

parent metal throughout the entire depth of the joint. A butt weld is one in which the weld lies

substantially within the extension of the planes of the surfaces of one or more of the parts

joined.

Incomplete penetration butt welda butt weld where, by design, fusion does not extend

throughout the full depth of the joint.

Fillet welda weld of approximately triangular cross-section which is formed in the corner

between the surfaces of two components.

Plug welda weld made by completely or partially filling a circular hole in one component with

filler metal, with the filler metal fusing to the contiguous component exposed through the hole.

Slot welda weld made by depositing a fillet weld around the periphery of an elongated hole in

one component so as to join it to the surface of a contiguous component exposed through the

hole.

Compound welda weld comprising a fillet weld superimposed on a butt weld.

AS 4100 restricts the use of plug and slot welds to applications where these welds either

transmit shear in lap joints or where they prevent buckling of lapped parts or where they join

component parts of built-up members.

The design and detailing of the six types of weld included in AS 4100 are extensively dealt with

in AS 4100 (Ref. 1) and its associated commentary (Ref. 8) as well as in AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14)

and Design Guide 2.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

52

4.1

NOTES:

1. The letters CP in the tail of the arrow indicate a complete penetration butt weld.

2. The tail should be omitted if no reference T is required.

3. The size of a fillet weld shall be to the left of the symbol.

4. For an incomplete penetration butt weld, the design throat thickness shall be to the left of the symbol.

Where no design throat thickness is shown, a complete penetration butt weld is assumed required.

5. Arrow side and other side welds are made the same size unless otherwise dimensioned.

6. Symbols only apply between abrupt changes in direction of welding unless governed by the weld all

round symbol or otherwise dimensioned.

(from AS 1101.3, Ref. 13)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

53

4.2

Selection of prequalified

welding consumables

TABLE 21

PREQUALIFIED WELDING CONSUMABLES

Steel grade in

AS/NZS 3678

(Ref. 27)

AS/NZS 3679.1

(Ref. 29)

Steel

type

Manual metal-arc AS 1553.1

(Ref. 15)

(Ref. 16)

Classification

Grade

Gas metal arcAS/NZS 2717.1

(Ref. 18)

E41XX, E48XX

0 and 1

W40X, W50X

250L0

E41XX, E48XX

W402, W502

250L15, 300L15

E41XX, E48XX

W403, W503

E48XX, E41XX

0 and 1

W50X, W40X

350L0, WR350L0

E48XX, E41XX

W502, W402

350L15, 400L15

E48XX, E41XX

W503, W403

TABLE 22

STRENGTH OF WELD METAL

Weld metal designation

f uw (MPa)

E41XX, W40X

410

E48XX, W50X

480

metal used for design.

As required by AS 4100, all welding must comply with AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).

Table 21 is based on Table 4.5.1 of AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14) and matches weld metal strength and

ductility to base metal strength and ductility, when using any of the welding procedures

complying with AS 1554.1. In Tables 21 and 22, X or XX indicates any number(s) representing a

variety of different electrode compositions may be used.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

54

4.3

Weld categories

SPstructural purpose

GPgeneral purpose

The difference between these weld categories lies in the level of permissible imperfections

allowed by AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14). SP weld category has smaller permitted imperfectionsand is

accordingly more reliablethan category GP. Once the permitted level of imperfections is

exceeded the imperfections are classed as defects. Each category of weld cannot be accepted

under AS 1554.1 if the level of permitted imperfections for that category is exceeded, unless it

can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics assessment that the defects will not be injurious

to the performance of the structure (refer to Design Guide 3 for a more detailed explanation).

The selection of weld category is at the discretion of the designer but it is expected that most

welds will be weld category SP in practice.

Capacity factors for each weld category are as follows:

Complete penetration butt welds

GP (general purpose)

Category GP may be selected where the weld is essentially statically loaded and is not loaded

above 66.7% of the design capacity of a SP weld.

SP (structural purpose)

The cut-off value of 66.7% for the two weld types is due to the ratio of GP to SP capacity factors

(), i.e.:

0.6/0.9 100 = 66.7%

Fillet weld/Incomplete penetration butt weld/Plug or slot weld/Weld group

GP (general purpose)

Category GP may be selected where the weld is essentially statically loaded and is not loaded

above 75% of the design capacity of a SP weld.

SP (structural purpose)

The cut-off value of 75% for the two weld types is due to the ratio of GP to SP capacity factors

(), i.e.:

0.6/0.8 100 = 75%

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

55

4.4

limit state

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.2.7 requires that the design capacity is taken as equal to the nominal

capacity of the weaker part of the parts joined multiplied by the capacity factor () of:

0.90weld category SP

0.60weld category GP

provided that the weld procedure is qualified in accordance with AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).

To specify this type of weld on a drawing, the term complete penetration butt weld or the

appropriate symbol from AS 1101.3 is sufficient (Fig. 29). The design throat thickness is then

the size of the weld which is the minimum depth which the weld extends from its face into a

jointthat is the thickness of the thinner part.

Incomplete penetration butt weld

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.2.7 requires that the design capacity shall be calculated as for a fillet weld

using a design throat thickness determined using Clause 9.7.2.3(b) of AS 4100.

The size of an incomplete penetration butt weld is a function of:

(a)

(b)

(c)

and rather than specifying the size of such a weld on the drawings it is usual to specify the

required design throat thickness. This then allows the fabricator to produce the required weld by

selecting the most advantageous combination of welding process, weld preparation and welding

position. The whole procedure must be qualified in terms of AS 1554.1 before fabrication

commences.

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.2.3 specifies the design throat thickness of a butt weld as follows:

(a)

Complete penetration butt weldThe design throat thickness for a complete penetration

butt weld shall be the size of the weld.

(b)

penetration butt weld shall be as follows:

(i)

(iii), as specified in AS 1554.1 (Ref. 14).

(ii)

provided in (iii)

(A)

where < 60

[(d 3 + d 4) 6] mm, for double V weld

(B)

where >60

(d 3 + d 4) mm, for double V weld

where

d

= depth of preparation (d 3 and d 4 are the values of d for each side of the

weld)

= angle of preparation.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

56

(iii)

For an incomplete penetration butt weld made by an automatic arc welding process

for which it can be demonstrated by means of a macro test on a production weld

that the required penetration has been achieved, an increase in design throat

thickness up to the depth of preparation may be allowed. If the macro test shows

penetration beyond the depth of preparation, an increase in design throat thickness

up to that shown in Figure 9.7.3.4 (of AS 4100) may be allowed.

For fully-automatic arc welding processes, Clause 9.7.2.3(b)(iii) permits advantage to be taken

of the penetration achievable with such processes to reduce the size of the weld deposited,

provided a macro test demonstrates the viability of the procedure (see Figure 30).

other than a fully automatic process

fully automatic process

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

57

4.5

limit state

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.10 specifies that a fillet weld subject to a design force per unit length

v w* (kN/mm) shall satisfy:

v w* v w

where:

= 0.60 GP category fillet weld

vw

= nominal capacity of fillet weld per unit length (kN/mm)see Tables 23, 24

= 0.6 fuw tt k r

tt

kr

= 1.0 for most connections except long lap splices

The design throat thickness is the smallest dimension from the root of the weld to the

hypotenuse of the triangular weld profile, drawn perpendicular to the hypotenuse (see

Figure 31).

Advantage may be taken of the increased penetration achievable with a fully automatic welding

process, in order to reduce the size (but not the design throat thickness) of a fillet weld85% of

the penetration being considered as part of the design throat thickness (see Figure 31(c)). The

viability of the increased penetration must be demonstrated by means of a macro test.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

58

1)

2)

3)

for tw = 1012 mm: Not recommended for all casescannot be guaranteed as single pass

welds. Check with fabricator before specifying.

TABLE 23

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

DESIGN CAPACITIES OF EQUAL LEG FILLET WELDS PER UNIT LENGTH

Category SP, = 0.8, k r = 1.0

Weld size

of weld, v w

(mm)

(kN/mm)

Leg: tw

Throat: t t

E41XX/W40X

E48XX/W50X

2.12

0.417

0.489

2.83

0.557

0.652

3.54

0.696

0.815

4.24

0.835

0.978

5.66

1.11

1.30

10

7.07

1.39

1.63

12

8.49

1.67

1.96

f uw = 410 MPa

f uw = 480 MPa

t t = t w/ 2

(Table 22)

TABLE 24

STRENGTH LIMIT STATE

DESIGN CAPACITIES OF EQUAL LEG FILLET WELDS PER UNIT LENGTH

Category GP, = 0.6, k r = 1.0

Weld size

of weld, v w

(mm)

(kN/mm)

Leg: tw

Throat: t t

E41XX/W40X

E48XX/W50X

2.12

0.313

0.367

2.83

0.417

0.489

3.54

0.522

0.611

4.24

0.626

0.733

5.66

0.835

0.978

10

7.07

1.04

1.22

12

8.49

1.25

1.47

t t = t w/ 2

f uw = 410 MPa

f uw = 480 MPa

(Table 22)

Theoretical and experimental work indicates that longitudinally loaded fillet welds provide lower

strength but higher ductility than transversely loaded fillet welds (Refs. 19, 20). This is not

reflected in the nominal capacity expression of AS 4100 but the lower bound longitudinally

loaded strength is used together with an average capacity factor, to give the design capacity.

The increase in strength for transversely loaded fillet welds is variously estimated at 13%

(Ref. 19) to 44% (Ref. 20) but the decrease in ductility is a factor of 4 (Ref. 20).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

59

AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.10 specifies that the design force per unit length on a fillet weld shall be

determined as the vectorial sum of the design forces per unit length on the effective area of the

weld. The effective area is taken as the product of the effective length and the design throat

thickness (AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.6).

For the design of a fillet weld, AS 4100 Clause 9.7.3.10 specifies that the nominal capacity be

based on a failure stress of 0.6fuw in shear on the design weld throat (tt) which is assumed to be

the failure plane (see Figure 32). Considering the design actions in terms of force per unit

length ( v n* , v vt* , v vl* )on the fillet weld throat in Figure 32, a general form of a failure criterion may

be written as (Ref. 21):

k wv w

where

kv

v n*

= design force per unit length of weld normal to the plane of the fillet weld throat

v vl*

= design force per unit length of weld longitudinal to the plane of the fillet weld

throat

v vt* = design force per unit length of weld transverse to the plane of the fillet weld throat

= capacity factor

kw

= a factor to account for the failure criteria of a single weld element determined from

test data

For Clause 9.7.3.10 of AS 4100, values of k v = 1.0 and k w = 1.0 were adopted based on the

studies reported in Reference 21. Accordingly, AS 4100 requires that the design force per unit

length be the vectorial sum of all design forces per unit length acting on the effective area of the

fillet weld.

Hence, if the design forces per unit length are resolved into three mutually orthogonal

components relative to the throat of the fillet weldas in Figure 32then:

*

= vectorial sum of the three components, resultant design force per unit length

v res

(v ) + (v ) + (v )

* 2

n

*

vt

*

vl

v w

*

The design requirement then becomes: v res

v w, where values of v w are given in Tables 23

and 24.

The design method of AS 4100 involving the calculation of fillet weld force per unit length using

linear methods combined with vectorial addition of component forces is conservative, but the

chosen value of the capacity factor () reflects this conservatism (Ref. 21). Any other

combination of design criteria would involve the use of a smaller capacity factor to arrive at

essentially the same result.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

60

In many actual fillet welds, it is more convenient to define a fillet weld orientation with respect to

three mutually orthogonal axes, usually arranged so that the fillet weld lies in the x-y planeas

in Figure 33.

WELD GROUP AXES (x, y, z)

Using this approach, three mutually orthogonal components of design force per unit length exist,

being:

one parallel to the fillet weld x-axis ( v x* )

one parallel to the fillet weld y-axis ( v y* )

one parallel to the fillet weld z-axis ( v z* )

*

=

so that v res

v w

Specifically, for a fillet weld subject only to longitudinal shear forceas in Figure 34(a)the

design capacity per unit length of fillet weld is given by:

v w = f uw tt

and

*

v res

= v z* since v n* = v vt* = 0, v vl* = v z*

TRANSVERSE SHEAR FORCES

For a fillet weld subject only to transverse shear forceas in Figure 34(b)the design capacity

per unit length of fillet weld is also:

v w = f uw tt

In this case, using components resolved with respect to the throat (as Figure 32):

v n* = v y* / 2

*

v res

=

(v

*

y

/ 2

v vt* = v y* / 2

) + (v

2

*

y

/ 2

= v y* v w

v vl* = 0

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

61

4.6

AS 4100 Clause 9.8 specifies the assumptions which must be made in analysing fillet weld

groups. No mention is made of a butt weld group because most usual connections involving a

weld group are made using fillet welds.

AS 4100 Clause 9.8 deals with three types of fillet weld groups, as follows:

weld group subject to in-plane loading (Clause 9.8.1)

weld group subject to out-of-plane loading (Clause 9.8.2)

weld group subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane loading (Clause 9.8.3)

For each type of fillet weld group, both a general and an alternative method of analysis are

permitted. It is convenient to use the general method for most connections but the alternative

method for others. The above three sub-clauses nominate the assumptions which must be

made for the analysis of a fillet weld group in order to determine the design force per unit length

at any point in the fillet weld group. Once this design value is determined, the fillet weld must

satisfy the requirements of Clause 9.7.3.10 at all points in the group.

In the general method of analysis, the nominal capacity of a welded connection with a constant

size weld is assessed by treating that connection as a weld group of unit thickness in isolation

from the attached elements or members.

The alternative method of analysis for all three types of loading on fillet weld groups states that

the design force per unit length in the fillet weld group shall be determined by considering the

fillet weld group to be an extension of the member connected by the fillet weld group and by

proportioning the design force per unit length to satisfy equilibrium between the fillet weld group

and the elements of the connected member. That is, an assumption is made about the

distribution of forces so that equilibrium is satisfied at the weld/member interface. This method

is specific to each connection type and will be demonstrated in Example No. 5 and when used

in a relevant Design Guide.

Fillet weld group loaded in-plane

Clause 9.8.1.1 of AS 4100 deals specifically with a fillet weld group subject to in-plane loading

which generates in-plane shear forces on the fillet weld group. The Clause restricts the design

method to be used to the following assumptions:

(a)

The connection plates shall be considered to be rigid and to rotate relative to each other

about a point known as the instantaneous centre of rotation of the weld group.

(b)

In the case of a weld group subject to a pure couple only, the instantaneous centre of

rotation coincides with the weld group centroid.

In the case of a weld group subject to an in-plane shear force applied at the group

centroid, the instantaneous centre of the rotation is at infinity and the design force per unit

length ( v w* ) is uniformly distributed throughout the group.

In all other cases, either the results of independent analyses for a pure couple alone and

for an in-plane shear force applied at the weld group centroid shall be superposed, or a

recognised method of analysis shall be used.

(c)

The design force per unit length ( v w* ) at any point in the fillet weld group shall be

assumed to act at right angles to the radius from that point to the instantaneous centre,

and shall be taken as proportional to that radius.

Note that the Clause permits the use of superposition under (b) and this method will be used

extensively in this Section. Also note the similarity in wording to that for bolt groups loaded inplaneessentially the method for fillet weld groups is identical to that for such bolt groups and

the development in this Section will reflect this.

If a connection at the end of a member is viewed as a weld group in isolation from that member

then the nominal capacity of the weld group may be determined by either an elastic or an

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

62

ultimate strength approach. Both methods are based upon assumptions (a) and (b) of Clause

9.8.1.1, that is the rotation being assumed about an instantaneous centre.

The elastic or linear method is the traditional approach to the assessment of the load capacity

of a weld group. The design force per unit length of weld is considered to be proportional to the

distance from the instantaneous centre, as in assumption (c) of Clause 9.8.1.1, quoted above.

This method has been adopted in AS 4100 because reliability studies reported in Reference 21

have indicated that the method is sufficiently reliable, while having the virtue of being simpler to

apply than the alternative methods and being amenable to hand calculation.

Applying the provisions of Clause 9.8.1.1 of AS 4100 to the general fillet weld group of Figure

35 the analysis proceeds as follows:

Letting

Lw

ds

= length of weld

= unit length of weld at point (x s, y s)

v s*

Fy* =

(v

(v

M z* =

[v

Fx* =

(Eqn 4.7.1)

(Eqn 4.7.2)

*

s

d s sin s

*

s

d s cos s

*

s

d s sin s (y s y p ) +

] [v

*

s

d s cos s (x s x p )

(Eqn 4.7.3)

proportionality (in units of force per unit length) and r s = radius from the instantaneous centre of

rotation to length d s, and further noting that:

coss = (x s x e)/r s

Fx* = k w

(y

y e )d s

(Eqn 4.7.4)

Fy* = k w

(x

x e )d s

(Eqn 4.7.5)

M z* = k w

(y

y e ) (y s y p )d s + k w

x e ) (x s x p )d s

(Eqn 4.7.6)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

63

(x

x d

s

ds = 0

2

s

y d

2

s

= lwy

x d +y d

2

s

x d

2

s

= lwx

= l wy + l wx = l wp

where lwx, l wy, and l wp are second moments of area of a weld group of unit throat thickness

calculated about weld group centroid, for the x -axis, y -axis and polar axis respectively.

Using these substitutions, the three equations of equilibrium may be re-written as:

Fx* = k wLwy e

(Eqn 4.7.7)

Fy* = k wLwx e

(Eqn 4.7.8)

(Eqn 4.7.9)

Rearranging these equations gives explicit solutions for the three unknowns ( x e, y e, k w):

xe

ye

kw

Fy*

(Eqn 4.7.10)

k w Lw

Fx*

k w Lw

(Eqn 4.7.11)

M z* + Fx* y p + Fy* xp

(Eqn 4.7.12)

l wp

Hence, the design force per unit length ( v w* ) at any point ( x s, y s) is given by:

v w* = k wr s

where r s =

(xs xe ) 2 + (y s y e ) 2

(Eqn 4.7.13)

v w* must be less than v w (design capacity per unit length), given in Tables 22 and 23.

Clause 9.8.1.1(b). For the weld group of Figure 35, the applied design actions may be

*

transferred to the weld group centroid to give a design action set ( Fx* , Fy* , M zo

) where:

*

*

*

*

M zo

= M z + Fx y p Fy x p

(Eqn 4.7.14)

From Clause 9.8.1.1(b) of AS 4100, in-plane shear forces are uniformly distributed so that:

v x*

= Fx* / Lw

v y*

*

= force per unit length in y -axis direction due to Fy

*

= Fy / Lw

*

) applied at the weld group centroid,

For the pure couple ( M zo

xe

= ye = 0

then

kw

with

v m* = k wr s

and

*

M zo

and rs =

l wp

Fy* = Fx* = 0

x s2 + y s2

*

*

Taking components of v m* parallel to the x ( v mx

) and y ( v my

) axes gives (see Figure 36)

*

*

*

v mx

= v m sin s = v m

*

*

*

v my

= + v m cos s = + v m

ys

M* y

= zo s

rs

l wp

(Eqn 4.7.15)

xs

M* x

= + zo s

rs

l wp

(Eqn 4.7.16)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

64

AT A POINT IN A WELD GROUP

Superposition of the components due to each design action gives:

v x*

v y*

*

ys

Fx* M zo

Lw

l wp

Fy*

Lw

*

M zo

xs

l wp

(Eqn 4.7.17)

(Eqn 4.7.18)

with the resultant force per unit length being given as:

*

v res

=

(v ) + (v )

* 2

x

* 2

y

(Eqn 4.7.19)

Equations 4.7.13 and 4.7.19 are alternative design requirementseither may be used as

desiredeach of which complies with the requirements of AS 4100.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

65

4.7

Clause 9.8.2.1 of AS 4100 deals specifically with a fillet weld group subject to out-of-plane

loading which generates out-of-plane shear forces on the fillet weld group. The Clause restricts

the design method to be used to the following assumptions:

(a)

The fillet weld group shall be considered in isolation from the connected element; and

(b)

The design force per unit length in the fillet weld resulting from a design bending moment

shall be considered to vary linearly with the distance from the relevant centroidal axes.

The design force per unit length in the fillet weld group resulting from any shear force or

axial force shall be considered to be uniformly distributed over the length of the fillet weld

group.

Clause 9.8.2.1 of AS 4100 does not specifically mention that superposition is permitted but the

Commentary (Ref. 8) states that the same comments as were made about Clause 9.8.1.1 apply.

Superposition is thus assumed to be permitted for out-of-plane loading in this Guide.

As with the analysis for in-plane loading, the weld group loaded out-of-plane is analysed by

treating it as a weld group of unit thickness and is considered in isolation from the member

(Figure 37). Once again, the nominal capacity could be determined by either a linear or an

ultimate strength approach. However, Clause 9.8.2.1(b) of AS 4100 specifically mentions a

linear relationship for determining the design force per unit length in the fillet weld resulting from

the design bending moment. The same comments made earlier about the reasons for AS 4100

using the linear method in relation to in-plane loading also apply for out-of-plane loading.

For out-of-plane loading, AS 4100 Clause 9.8.2.1(b) is quite specific in stating that for a fillet

weld group subject to moment the design force per unit length is related to distance from the

weld group centroid. Accordingly, for the weld group of Figure 37, analogous equations to Eqns

in Section 4.7 can be written as follows:

v

or

*

x

Fx*

=

Lw

(Eqn 4.8.1)

Fy*

v y*

v z*

Fz* M x* y

for moment M x* about x-axis as in Figure 37

+

Lw

l wx

(Eqn 4.8.3)

v z*

*

Fz* M y x

for moment M y* about y-axis (not shown in Figure 37)

+

Lw

l wy

(Eqn 4.8.4)

(Eqn 4.8.2)

Lw

*

v res

=

(v ) + (v ) + (v )

* 2

x

* 2

y

* 2

z

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

66

4.8

set of design actions

Page 1 of 2

For a fillet weld group subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane loading simultaneously,

Clause 9.8.3.1 of AS 4100 states that the design action shall be obtained using the previous

methods for in-plane and out-of-plane loading separately such that Clause 9.7.3.10 of AS 4100

is satisfied at all points, and the design shear forces per unit length in different directions being

combined using vectorial addition.

Hence, for the general fillet weld group of Figure 38, subject to both in-plane and out-of-plane

loading:

the general design expressions becomeby combining Eqns 4.7.17, 4.7.18, 4.8.1, 4.8.2, 4.8.3

and 4.8.4

v x*

v y*

v z*

Fx* M z* y

Lw

l wp

Fy*

Lw

M z* x

l wp

*

Fz* M x* y M y x

+

Lw

l wx

l wy

(Eqn 4.9.1)

(Eqn 4.9.2)

(Eqn 4.9.3)

where

v x* , v y* and v z* are the design forces per unit length in the x , y , z directions respectively on an

elemental length of weld. The x and y -axes are the principal axes of the weld group and the

z -axis is perpendicular to the weld group and through the centroid.

Fx* , Fy* and Fz* are the design forces applied to the weld group along the x , y , z axes

respectively.

M x* , M y* and M z* are the design bending moments applied to the weld group about the

respective x , y , z-axes, with M z* moments due to in-plane forces being determined relative to

weld centroid location.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

67

lwx and lwy are the second moment of areas of the weld group for a unit thickness of weld about

the x and y-axes respectively. l wp(= lwx + l wy) is the polar moment of inertia about the z -axis, and

L w is the total length of weld.

It is also legitimate for the above expressions to be slightly modified in order to allow them to

reflect realistic distributions of the force set ( Fx* , Fy* and Fz* ) between components of the total

weld group, as follows:

v x*

v y*

*

z

Fx* M z* y

Lwx

l wp

Fy*

Lwy

(Eqn 4.9.4)

M z* x

l wp

(Eqn 4.9.5)

*

Fz* M x* y M y x

+

=

Lwz

l wx

l wy

(Eqn 4.9.6)

where

L wx, L wy , L wz = the lengths of weld assumed to receive the component forces along the individual

x , y and z -axes respectively;

The resultant design force per unit length is:

*

v res

=

(v ) + (v ) + (v )

* 2

x

* 2

y

* 2

z

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

68

4.9

weld groups

TABLE 25

PROPERTIES OF COMMON FILLET WELD GROUPS TREATED AS LINE ELEMENTS

Type of fillet weld

group

lwx

lwy

lwp

d

2

d3

12

d3

12

d3

+

6

b 2d a 3

+

+

2

3

2

a(b a )

ad 2 +

ad 2 +

b

2

d

2

b

2

d

2

For a = 0

For a = b

(2b + d )

2ab + b

2a + 2b + d

2

For a = 0

2

b

(2b + d )

(2a + d )d

2(a + b + d )

For a = b

d

2

d

2

For a = 0

d

2

For a = 0

d3

6

b 2d

2

bd 2 a 3

+

+

2

3

2

a(d a )

b3

+ ab 2

6

For a = 0

bd

2

a2 + b2

2(a + b + d )

b 2d a 3

2

+

+ a(b a )

2

3

d3

6

d 3 b 2d

+

6

2

bd 2 a 3

+

+

2

3

b3

2

a(d a ) +

+ ab 2

6

For a = 0

For a = 0

b3

6

a d y 2+

For a = 0

a3

a

+ a x 2 +

12

2

3

2

b

dx +

+

12

b

b x 2

2

d

+

12

2

d

d y 2 + by

2

For a = b

d2

(6b + d )

12

a 3 a(d a ) 2

+

6

2

bd 2 d 3

+

+

2

12

For a = 0

d2

(6b + d )

12

bd 2 b 3

+

2

6

l wx + l wy

For a = b

b 3 (b + 2d )

3 (2b + d )

2a b x 2 + d x

+

2b 3

b

+ 2b x 2

12

2

For a = 0

l wx + l wy

b 3 (b + 2d )

3 (2b + d )

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

69

TABLE 25 ( continued)

PROPERTIES OF COMMON FILLET WELD GROUPS TREATED AS LINE ELEMENTS

Type of fillet weld

group

lwx

lwy

b

2

d

2

d

bd

+

6

2

b

2

d

2

bd 2 +

d

2

d

2

d 3

8

d3

6

b

db

+

6

2

b3

3

d 3

8

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

lwp

d 3 bd 2

+

6

2

3

b

db 2

+

+

6

2

bd 2 +

d 3 b3

+

6

3

I wx + I wy

70

Critical points

Many fillet weld groups comprise lines of welds parallel to the x and y axes. For such relatively

regular fillet weld groups, the identification of possible critical points is correspondingly more

straightforward.

PARTICULAR FILLET WELD GROUP

The possible critical points for a fillet weld group consisting of lines of weld parallel to the x and

y axes only are shown numbered 1 to 8, in Figure 39.

Governing design equation

*

v res

=

(v ) + (v ) + (v )

* 2

x

* 2

y

* 2

z

v w = (0.6 fuw t t )

(Section 4.9)

Design procedure

The design of any general fillet weld group subject to a general design action set ( Fx* , Fy* , Fz* ,

M x* , M y* , M z* ) may be obtained by evaluating the design action set ( v x* , v y* , v z* ) using the

equations given in Section 4.9, using the property set ( L wx, L wy , L wz , I wx , I wY, I wp ,) from Table 24,

and checking that the governing inequality given above is satisfied, at each of the critical points

(1-8).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

71

For a fillet weld group loaded in-plane by a

common design action set of forces ( Fx* , Fy* )

and design moment ( M z* ), the design force

equations reduce to the expressions:

Fx* M z* y

v x* =

Lwx

I wp

v y*

v

*

z

Fy*

Lwy

M z* x

I wp

= 0

a common design action set of forces ( Fy* , Fz* )

and design moment ( M x* ), the design force

equations reduce to the expressions:

v x*

= 0

v y*

v z*

Fy*

L wy

Fz*

M*y

+ x

L wz

I wx

LOADED IN- AND OUT-OF-PLANE

Examining two types of weld groups common to a number of connections in order to obtain

simple closed-form solutions for subsequent use in other Design Guides gives the following:

(a)

Consider the fillet weld group shown in Figure 41

which is loaded by an out-of-plane moment ( M x* )

and design vertical ( Fy* ) and horizontal ( Fz* ) shear

forces acting at the weld group centroid.

Weld group properties are:

L wx = L wy = L wz =2 L w

I wx

(L )

w

Lw

2

(Table 24)

at points 3, 4, 7, 8 (+ve at 3, 8,

Design forces per unit length using the above

equations 4.9.4 to 4.9.6 and the above weld group

properties are:

v x*

= 0

v y*

*

= Fy / (2Lw )

v z*

Fz*

M *L / 2

+ x w3

at points 3, 8 (top)

2Lw

(Lw ) / 6

Fz*

M *L / 2

at points 4, 7 (bottom)

x w3

(Lw ) / 6

2Lw

VERTICAL WELDS LOADED

OUT-OF-PLANE

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

72

(v ) + (v )

* 2

y

* 2

z

v w

Substitution of the appropriate design forces per unit length ( v y* , v z* ) into this equation enables

the fillet weld group to be rapidly designed for any action set ( Fy* , Fz* , M x* ).

For Fz* = 0, M x* = 0

since v y* = Fy* /(2 L w) then Fy* 2 L w ( v w)

Hence, v dv = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to vertical shear only = 2 L w( v w)

since v y* = 0, the design requirement reduces to v z* v w

For Fy* = 0, M x* = 0

since v z*

Hence, v dh = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to horizontal shear only = 2 L w( v w)

For Fy* = 0, Fz* = 0

since v y*

*

= 0 and v z

3M x*

L2w

M z*

Hence, Mdm

1 2

Lw (v w )

3

= design capacity of fillet weld group subject only to moment applied at the weld

group centroid

=

1 2

Lw (v w )

3

v y* =

Fy*

2Lw

v z* =

3M x*

L2w

3Fy* e

L2w

Fy*

2L w

then Fy*

2 3Fy* e 2

+ 2 (v w ) 2

L w

2Lw (v w )

(the design capacity of a fillet weld group subject to a vertical shear force

6e 2

1 +

Lw

only at an eccentricity of e).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

73

(b)

42 which is loaded out-of-plane by a moment

( M x* ) and design vertical ( Fy* ) and horizontal

( Fz* ) shear forces acting at the weld group

centroid.

Weld group properties are:

L wx

= L wy = L wz = 2L w

I wx

Lw t 2

(Table 24)

2

Design forces per unit length using previous

equations and the above weld group properties

are:

v x*

= 0

v y*

= Fy* / (2Lw )

v z*

Fz*

M * (t / 2)

+ x 2

2Lw

Lw t / 2

Fz*

M*

+ x at points 1, 2 in Figure 42

2Lw Lw t

Fz*

M * (t / 2)

x 2

2Lw Lw t / 2

Fz*

M*

x at points 5, 6 in Figure 42

2Lw Lw t

FIGURE 42

For Fz* = 0, M z* = 0

(v ) + (v )

*

y

*

z

v w

*

since v z* = 0, the design requirement reduces to v y v w

Hence, v dv = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to vertical shear only = 2 L w( v w)

For Fy* = 0, M x* = 0

since v z* = Fz* /(2 L w) then Fz* 2 L w ( v w)

Hence, v dh = design capacity of fillet weld group subject to horizontal shear only = 2 L w( v w)

For Fy* = 0, Fz* = 0

M x*

then M x* L wt( v w)

Lw t

since v z* =

Hence, Mdm

v z* v w (as above)

since v y* = 0

= design capacity of fillet weld group subject only to moment applied at the weld

group centroid

= L wt( v w)

v y* =

Fy*

2Lw

v z* =

Fy e

M x*

(at points 1, 2, 5, 6)

=

Lw t

Lw t

Fy* 2 Fy*e 2

2

(v w )

+

2Lw Lw t

2Lw

(the design capacity of a fillet weld group subject to a vertical shear

then Fy* (v w )

1 + 4(e / t ) 2

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

74

Design of fillet weld group

loaded in-plane

a = b = 275 mm; d = 300 mm

Weld centroid:

b2

2b + d

= 89.0 mm

Design actions: F = 0 Fy* = 180 kN

(Figure 40a)

M z* = 180 (275 + 175 89.0)

*

x

= 64980 kNmm

LOADED IN-PLANE

Weld group properties:

L wx

I wp

= L wy = L wz = L w = 850 mm (total weld length resists shear force)

= I wx + I wy

I wp

Lw

assume

+

(Table 25)

12

3(2 275 + 300 )

= 21.8 10 6 mm3

at points 1, 6:

x

y

at points 2, 3, 4, 5: x

= 300/2 = 150

y = 150

= 89.0

v x*

M z* y

64980 150

=

I wp

21.8 10 6

= 0.447 at points 4, 5, 6 ( y = 150)

v y*

Fy*

L wy

=

+

850

I wp

21.8 10 6

= 0.767 at points 1, 6

=

(critical)

+

850

21.8 106

(not critical)

*

v res

=

( 0.447 ) +( 0.767 )

2

= 0.888 kN/mm

From Table 25SP weld category

6 mm E48XX fillet weld

*

v w = 0.978 kN/mm > v res

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

SATISFACTORY

75

Design of fillet weld group

loaded out-of-plane

Design actions:

Fy* = 450 kN

M x*

Fz* = 0

= 90 kNm

= 90000 kNmm

L w = 2(300 + 200) = 1000 mm (Table 25)

Use AS 4100 Clause 9.8.2.2 Alternative analysis due to the connection type.

It can be assumed that the vertical shear is primarily taken by the webs of the box section. If so

this vertical shear must be assumed to be transferred through the vertical fillet weld only.

Hence,

L wy = 2 300 = 600 mm

For weld group,

= 300 mm

d

= 200 mm

b

I wx =

at points 1, 2, 3, 8 y

at points 4, 5, 6, 7 y

d 3 bd 2

+

(Table 25, type no. 6 weld group)

6

2

= 150 mm

= 150 mm

v x* = 0

v y*

=

=

v z*

=

=

=

450

= 0.75

at points 3, 4, 7, 8

600

0

at points 1, 2, 5, 6

90000 ( 150 )

13.5 10 6

+1.00 at points 1, 2, 3, 8 ( y = +150)

1.00 at points 4, 5, 6, 7 ( y = 150)

*

v res

=

( 0.75) 2 +( 1.00 ) 2

= 1.25 kN/mm

From Table 23SP weld category

8 mm E48XX fillet weld

*

v w = 1.30 kN/mm > v res

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

SATISFACTORY

76

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.1

Angle components

NOTES:

1

(Ref. 29).

TABLE 26

EQUAL ANGLES

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Designation

Leg size

Rationd

thickness

b1 b1

mm mm

200200

150150

125125

100100

90 90

75 75

mm

26EA

20EA

18EA

16EA

13EA

19EA

16EA

12EA

10EA

16EA

12EA

10EA

8EA

12EA

10EA

8EA

6EA

10EA

8EA

6EA

10EA

8EA

6EA

5EA

Mass

per m

kg/m

76.8

60.1

54.4

48.7

40.0

42.1

35.4

27.3

21.9

29.1

22.5

18.0

14.9

17.7

14.2

11.8

9.2

12.7

10.6

8.22

10.5

8.73

6.81

5.27

Dimensions

Actual

thickness

t

r1

mm

mm

26.0

18

20.0

18

18.0

18

16.0

18

13.0

18

19.0

13

15.8

13

12.0

13

9.5

13

15.8

10

12.0

10

9.5

10

7.8

10

12.0

8

9.5

8

7.8

8

6.0

8

9.5

8

7.8

8

6.0

8

9.5

8

7.8

8

6.0

8

4.6

8

Centre

of area

r2

mm

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

pB = nL

mm

59

57

56

55

54

44

43

42

41

37

35

34

34

29

28

28

27

26

25

24

22

21

21

20

Designation

Leg size

Rationd

thickness

b1 b1

mm mm

6565

5555

5050

mm

10EA

8EA

6EA

5EA

6EA

5EA

8EA

6EA

5EA

3EA

Mass

per m

kg/m

9.02

7.51

5.87

4.56

4.93

3.84

5.68

4.46

3.48

2.91

Dimensions

Actual

thickness

r2

t

r1

mm

mm mm

9.5

6

3

7.8

6

3

6.0

6

3

4.6

6

3

6.0

6

3

4.6

6

3

7.8

6

3

6.0

6

3

4.6

6

3

3.0

6

3

Centre

of area

pB = nL

mm

20

19

18

18

16

15

15

15

14

13

TABLE 27

UNEQUAL ANGLES

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Designation

Leg size

b1 b2

Rationd

thickness

mm mm

150100

mm

12UA

10UA

16UA

12UA

10UA

8UA

12UA

10UA

8UA

6UA

10UA

8UA

6UA

150 90

125 75

100 75

Mass

per m

kg/m

22.5

18.0

27.9

21.6

17.3

14.3

17.7

14.2

11.8

9.16

12.4

10.3

7.98

Dimensions

Actual

thickness

r2

t

r1

mm

mm mm

12.0

10

5

9.5

10

5

15.8

10

5

12.0

10

5

9.5

10

5

7.8

10

5

12.0

8

5

9.5

8

5

7.8

8

5

6.0

8

5

9.5

8

5

7.8

8

5

6.0

8

5

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

Centre of area

pB

mm

49

48

52

51

50

49

43

42

42

41

32

31

30

nL

mm

24

23

23

21

20

20

18

17

17

16

19

19

18

77

TABLE 28

GAUGE LINES FOR ANGLES

Nominal

leg length

s g1

s g2

s g3

Bolt

Nominal

leg length

s g3

Bolt

200

75

75

120

M24

100

55

M20

150

55

55

90

M20

90

55

M20

125

45

50

75

M20

75

45

M20

65

35

M16

55

35

M16

50

30

M16

NOTES:

1

The gauges given are suitable for general use in member detailing. When angles are used as

components in connections, gauge lines may be varied from the values given above in order

to suit a particular connection.

The bolt diameters listed are the maximum that can be accommodated on the thickest angles

of each leg length, using either:

(a)

high strength structural bolts with washers to AS/NZS 1252 (Ref. 6); or

(b)

For thinner legs and commercial bolts with normal series washers, it may be possible to

accommodate a larger bolt diameter.

TABLE 29

STRENGTHS OF ANGLES TO AS/NZS 3679.1 (Ref. 29) GRADE 300

Thickness of angle

Yield stress

Tensile strength

mm

MPa

MPa

<11

320

440

11, 17

300

440

>17

280

440

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

78

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.2

NOTES:

1

fabrication. Check manufacturer or steel merchant catalogues for current

availability.

TABLE 30

FLATS

Width thickness

Width thickness

mm mm

50 5

50 6

50 8

50 10

50 12

50 16

50 20

50 25

Mass

per

metre

kg/m

1.96

2.36

3.14

3.92

4.71

6.28

7.85

9.81

mm mm

110 6

110 8

110 10

110 12

130 5

130 6

130 8

130 10

Mass

per

metre

kg/m

5.18

6.91

8.64

10.4

5.1

6.12

8.16

10.2

65 5

65 6

65 8

65 10

65 12

2.55

3.06

4.08

5.10

6.12

130 12

130 16

130 20

130 25

150 5

12.2

16.3

20.4

25.5

5.89

65 16

65 20

75 5

8.16

10.2

2.94

150 6

150 8

150 10

7.06

9.42

11.8

Thickness

of bar

mm

Yield

stress

MPa

Tensile

strength

MPa

75 6

75 8

75 10

3.53

4.71

5.89

150 12

150 16

150 20

14.1

18.8

23.5

<11

11, 17

>17

320

300

280

440

440

440

75 12

75 16

75 20

75 25

75 40

90 6

90 8

90 10

90 12

100 5

100 6

100 8

100 10

7.06

9.42

11.8

14.7

23.6

4.24

5.65

7.06

8.48

3.92

4.71

6.28

7.85

150 25

150 50

180 6

180 10

180 12

180 20

200 6

200 8

200 10

200 12

200 16

200 20

200 25

29.4

58.9

8.48

14.1

17.0

28.3

9.42

12.6

15.7

18.8

25.1

31.4

39.2

9.42

12.6

15.7

19.6

39.2

100

100

100

100

100

12

16

20

25

50

Width thickness

mm mm

250 6

250 8

250 10

250 12

300 6

300 8

300 10

300 12

Mass

per

metre

kg/m

11.8

15.7

19.6

23.5

14.1

18.8

23.5

28.3

AS/NZS 3679.1 (Ref. 29)

Grade 300

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

79

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.3

Plate components

Standard thicknesses of plate available in Grade 250 to AS/NZS 3678 (Ref. 27) are as follows:

5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 28, 32, 36, 40, 45, 50 mm

Typical applications for connection components cut from plate are:

end plates (flexible, rigid)

column base plates

fin plates

gusset plates

stiffeners

splice plates

TABLE 31

STRENGTH OF PLATE TO AS/NZS 3678 (Ref. 27)

GRADE 250

Thickness of

plate

mm

8

> 8, 12

>12, 50

>50, 80

>80, 150

Yield stress

MPa

280

260

250

240

230

Tensile

strength

MPa

410

410

410

410

410

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

80

CONNECTION COMPONENTS

5.4

Design capacities

General

Connection components (cleats, gusset plates, brackets) must have their strength assessed in

order to determine the strength of a connection as a whole. AS 4100 Clause 9.1.9 specifies that

connection components shall have their capacities assessed using the provisions of Sections 5,

6, 7 or 8 of AS 4100 as applicable. AS 4100 Table 3.4 specifies a capacity factor of 0.90 for

connection components.

A connection component is typically of rectangular cross-section (d i ti ) as shown in Figure 45,

with or without a single line of holes of diameter d h (as in Figure 45) or multiple lines of holes.

Design shear capacity of rectangular component

Since the shear distribution in a rectangular cross-section is non-uniform, Clause 5.11.3 of

AS 4100 is applicable. This specifies the nominal shear capacity (Vv) as:

2Vu

f*

0.9 + vm*

f va

Vv

Vu

where

Vu

= the nominal shear capacity of a web with a uniform shear stress distribution

determined in accordance with Clause 5.11.2 of AS 4100

*

fvm

, fva* = the maximum and average design shear stress respectively in the web

Vu = Vw = 0.60 fyi d i ti

*

fvm

V *Q

= Ib

fva*

Hence, fvm*

Vv

t id i

12

Q=

V*

=

d it i

t id i

8

b = ti

1 .5

f*

therefore vm* = 1.5

= V *

f va

d it i

2Vu

= 0.833 Vu = 0.50 fyi d i ti on substitution of Vu = 0.60 fyi d i ti

0 .9 + 1 .5

= 0.9 Vv

= 0.45 fyi d i ti

V*, the design shear force

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

81

The rectangular component when bent about its major axis (Figure 46)

would be considered compact in most connections. Thus Clause 5.2.1 of

AS 4100 specifies the nominal moment capacity as:

Ms = fyZ e

Clause 5.2.3 gives: Ze = lesser of S (=ti d i 2/4) and 1.5 Z (= 1.5 ti d i 2/6)

Hence, Ms =

f yit i d i

0.90 f yit id i

4

FIGURE 46

= 0.225 fyi ti d i 2

M*, design bending moment

Local buckling in flexure is not normally a problem with connection components. Table 5.2 of

AS 4100 does not provide a plasticity slenderness limit for elements with compression at one

edge and tension at the other but both edges unsupported, which is the way most components

are used. Usually attachment to a member prevents local buckling of the component.

Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100 only specifies an allowance for holes be made in flanges, which a

rectangular component does not possess (Fig. 46).

Design moment capacityMinor axis for rectangular component

FIGURE 47

The rectangular component when bent about its minor axis would be considered compact. Thus

Clause 5.21 of AS 4100 specifies the nominal moment capacity as:

Ms = f yi Z e

Ze = lesser of S = d i ti 2/4

where:

Hence, Ms = fyi d i ti 2/4

M s = 0.9 fyi d i ti 2/4 = 0.225 fyi d i ti 2 M* design bending moment

Design capacity in axial compression for rectangular component

Usually, connection components are so short that only gross section yielding can occur without

any local or member buckling. Any exceptions for an individual connection will be covered in the

relevant Design Guide. Accordingly, Section 6 of AS 4100 specifies the nominal capacity in

axial compression as the nominal section capacity given by Clause 6.2.1, which results in:

N s = k f An f yi

where

kf

An = the net area of the cross-section, except that for sections with penetrations or

unfilled holes that reduce the section area by less than 100 {1[fy/(0.85fu )]}%, the

gross area may be used. Deductions for fastener holes shall be made in

accordance with Clause 9.1.10 of AS 4100.

In the absence of local buckling, k f may be taken as 1.0 while:

An = Ag for all holes filled with bolts (which is the usual case) = d i ti

= (d i ti n pd h) if holes are not filled and unfilled holes reduce gross area by more than

100 {1[fy/(0.85fu)]}%

Then, N s = design capacity in axial compression

= 0.9 Anf yi N*, the design axial compression force

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

82

Clause 7.2 of AS 4100 specifies the nominal section capacity in tension as the lesser of:

Nt

= Ag f yi

Nt

= 0.85 k t An fui

and

where

Ag = the gross area of the cross-section

fyi

kt

Clause 7.3

An = the net area of the cross-section, obtained by deducting from the gross area the

sectional area of all penetrations and holes, including fastener holes. The

deduction for all fastener holes shall be made in accordance with Clause 9.1.10 of

AS 4100

fui

For components in connections, a uniform force distribution usually applies for which k t = 1.0.

Now Ag = d i ti and An = d i ti n p d h ti (Figure 48)

so

Nt

fyi d i ti and

0.85 fui (d i ti n p d h ti )

0.765 fui (d i ti n p d h ti )

and

IN AXIAL TENSION

Design capacity against rupture due to block shear failure for rectangular component

A connection component may fail when a block of material ruptures as illustrated in Figure 49.

Figure 49(a) shows block shear failure of a gusset plate subject to tension while Figure 49(b)

shows block shear failure of a cleat component subject to a shear force.

AS 4100 does not address the failure mechanism of rupture due to block shear. The AISC

Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J4.3 contains provisions which apply to plates, gussets, angles

and brackets for block shear strength.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

83

The following explanation of block shear failure is based on Reference 11. Block shear failure

involves both shear and tensile failure, a fact which is evident in the connections shown in

Figure 49.

If the region subject to direct tension fractures, it will be through the bolt holes. Regions subject

to shear are more difficult to assess because it is unclear whether the assessment should be on

the basis of net section through the holes or gross section along a plane parallel to the applied

load. Tests of gusset plates show that when the net section fractures in tension, shear action is

one of yield acting on planes generally parallel to the direction of load but not through the bolt

holes. Tests also show that fracture at the net tension section is reached before shear fracture

takes place on the other surfaces.

Clause J4.3 of the AISC Specification (Ref. 22) provides a design provision in which the design

capacity is determined by the sum of the shear strength along the parallel failure surface and

tensile strength on the perpendicular failure surface. The design capacity is then given by the

following expression in Clause J4.3 of Ref. 22:

V bs = [0.6 f u Anv + fu Ant U bs ] [0.6f y Agv + fu Ant U bs ]

where

= 0.75

fu

fy

Agt = gross area subject to tension

Anv = net area subject to shear

Ant = net area subject to tension

U bs = 1 when tension stress is uniform

= 0.5 when tension stress is non-uniform

Reference 11 argues that separate equations for design capacity are required for:

(a)

(b)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

84

The design capacity recommended by Kulak at Reference 11 and this Design Guide for

connection components such as gusset plates, angle cleats, web cleats is as follows:

V bs = [Ant f ui + 0.6fyi Agv)

where terms are as defined above.

The AISC Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J4.3 gives the same expression as above for the upper

bound using U bs = 1 which the Commentary implies applies for other than multiple row shear

connections in coped beam webs. The application to connection components subject to shear

force is not specifically addressed in the Commentary.

Relevant areas Ant and Agv are defined as shown in Figure 50.

SHEAR FORCE

TENSION FORCE

A nt = ( l t 0.5dh ) t i

A nt

A gv = l vt i

A gv = l vt i

A gv = l vt i

dh

= hole diameter

ti

= thickness of component

= ( l t 1.5dh ) t i

A nt = ( l t ( nh 1) dh ) t i

The Steel Construction Institute publication (Ref. 24) contains provisions for the assessment of

block shear in connection components which appears to be based on shear yielding rather than

rupture.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

85

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.1

General

For the design of some connections, an assessment is required of the design capacity of the

supported member in bending, shear, bearing, etc. (in particular for flexible connections) while

for other connections it is useful to know the design capacity in shear or bending because the

connection may be designed for a selected proportion of the member capacity (such as rigid

connections or splices). Sections 6.2 to 6.4 are intended to give a summary of the relevant

design capacities in bending and shear for:

uncoped sections

Section 6.2

Section 6.3

for use in other Design Guides when assessing connected member strength locally at a

connection.

Since the concern is the member strength locally at a connection, only section capacity is

considered, not member capacity, which is separately assessed as part of the design of the

member.

For coped and uncoped sections the relevant design capacities are moment and shear (yield

and buckling). The nominal capacities are derived using in Clauses 5.2, 5.11, 5.12 and 5.13 of

AS 4100.

So that the design capacities of coped beams do not control the design capacity of the

connection it is important that the length and depth of the cope must be kept as small as

practical. AS 4100 requires that the re-entrant corner at the cope be radiused to at least 10 mm

(Clause 14.3.3).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

86

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.2

Uncoped sections

Moment capacity

The nominal section moment capacity (Ms) is calculated as follows:

Ms = fyZe

where

Ze = effective section modulus

= Zc

sy s

(Z c Z )

sy sp

= Z +

if s sp

(Clause 5.2.3)

if sp < s sy

(Clause 5.2.4)

S = plastic section modulus

Zc = effective section modulus for a compact section = [S; 1.5Z]min

Clause 5.2.2 specifies that for a section with flat compression plate elements, the section

slenderness ( s) shall be taken as the value of the plate element slenderness ( e) for the

element of the cross-section which has the greatest value of e/ ey

where

b f

e =

t 250

ey = the plate element yield slenderness limit (see Table 5.2 of AS 4100, Ref. 1)

b = the clear width of the element outstand from the face of the supporting plate element

or the clear width of the element between the faces of supporting plate elements

t

The section plasticity and yield slenderness limits ( sp) and (sy) respectively shall be taken as

the values of the element slenderness limits ( ep) and ( ey) respectively given in Table 5.2 of

AS 4100 for the element of the cross-section which has the greatest value of e/ ey .

Rolled sections (HR)

ep = 9 for a flange outstand

= 82 for a web

ey = 16 for a flange outstand

= 115 for a web

ep = 8 for a flange outstand

= 82 for a web

ey = 15 for a flange outstand

= 115 for a web

In terms of Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100, for sections without holes, or for sections with holes that

reduce either of the flange areas by not more than 100 {1 [f y/(0.85fu)]}%, the elastic and

plastic section moduli may be calculated using the gross section. If the holes reduce either of

the flange areas by more than this, Z and S shall be calculated using either:

(a)

(An/Ag) times the value for the gross section, in which An is the sum of the net areas of the

flanges and the gross area of the web, and Ag the gross area of the section; or

(b)

The design section moment capacity (Ms) is calculated from the nominal section moment

capacity (Ms) and the capacity factor ( = 0.9), so that:

M s = fy Z e

Tables of Ze and Ms for rolled and welded I sections are contained in Reference 25 while

tables of Ms for hollow sections are contained in Reference 26.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

87

Where the area of bolt holes in the flanges are such that the limit in AS 4100 is exceeded, the

following formulae for Z and S may be used to determine Ze.

Using the approach based on method (b) above:

SECTION WITH HOLES IN BOTH FLANGES

Defining:

A = area of unholed section (gross area)

Ix = second moment of area about x-axis of

unholed section

Sx = plastic section modulus about x-axis of

unholed section

n h holes d h diameter each flange

tf = flange thickness

BOTH FLANGES

A holed section = A 2n h d h tf = An

I x holed section = Ix 2n h d h tf d t f 2

2

I holed section

Z x holed section = x

d/2

Sx holed section = Sx 2n h d h tf d t f

2

Z e = min of [1.5 Z x , Sx ] for compact sections or use formula in Clause 5.2.4 of AS 4100

(Page 1 of this Section) for non-compact sections

Defining

A = area of unholed section

Ix = second moment of area about x-axis of

unholed section

n h holes d h diameter bottom flange

tf = flange thickness

FIGURE 52 SECTION WITH HOLES IN

ONE FLANGE

y bh =

A d 2 nh d h t f t f 2

A nh d h t f

y th = d y bh

I x

holed section

Z x

Z x

y bh d/2

nhd ht f3

n h d h tf d t f 2 [A n h d h t f ] y 2

2

12

I x holed section

=

y th

= Ix

I x holed section

y bh

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

88

For plastic section modulus, equating areas above/below plastic section neutral axis:

bf t f + (d 1 y bp )t w = bf t f nh d h t f + y bp t w

solving gives y bp =

(Figure 53)

d1t w + nhd ht f

2t w

Sx holed section = bf t f (d1 y bp + t f / 2) + (d1 y bp ) 2t w / 2 +

Z e

2

y bp

tw

+ (bf nhd h )t f (y bp + t f / 2)

(page 1 of this Section) for non-compact sections

= 0.9fy Ze

M sx

An

Z

Z x =

A

An

S

S x =

A

which is a lot simpler but less exact than using method (b).

The AS 4100 limits for rolled sections above which holes must be accounted for are as follows:

for Grade 300 rolled sections, fu = 440 MPa

fy = 280 MPa, limit is 25.1%

= 300 MPa, limit is 19.8%

= 320 MPa, limit is 14.4%

If the deduction for holes is below these values, then the Z and S of the gross section may be

used.

for Grade 300 welded plate sections, fu = 430 MPa

fy = 280 MPa, limit is 23.4%

= 300 MPa, limit is 17.9%

= 310 MPa, limit is 15.2%

If the deduction for holes is below these values, then the Z and S of the gross section may be

used.

Note that Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100 only requires deductions be made for holes in flangesno

deduction need be made for holes in webs.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

89

Shear capacity

The shear stress distribution of H and channel shaped sections can be assumed to be

approximately uniform, in terms of Clauses 5.11.1 and 5.11.2 of AS 4100.

Hence, provided the maximum web panel depth to thickness ratio (dp/t w) of the section

satisfies

dp

tw

82

fy

250

where

dp = depth of web panel = d 2tf

d

= depth of a section

tf

= thickness of flange

the nominal shear capacity of the web (Vv) is determined as:

Vv = Vw, the nominal shear yield capacity of the web

= 0.6 fyA w

where

Aw = gross sectional area of the web

= dptw (for welded sections)

= dtw (for hot-rolled sections)

If the above dp/t w inequality is not satisfied, then for an unstiffened web:

Vv = Vb

= vV w

where v =

dp

t w

82

2 1 .0

fy

250

The design shear capacity of a web (V v) is calculated from the nominal shear capacity of the

web (Vv) and the capacity factor ( = 0.9).

Therefore, for an uncoped section:

Vvo = 0.54fy Aw

where Aw is as defined above. AS 4100 does not have any requirement to adjust V vo for the

presence of bolt holes in the web of a connection presumably because such holes are usually

filled with bolts.

When a cross-section is subject to both shear force and bending moment simultaneously,

AS 4100 Clause 5.12.3 provides that the nominal web shear capacity in the presence of

bending moment be given by:

for M* 0.75M s; and

Vvm = Vv

1.6M *

= Vv 2.2 M

for 0.75Ms M* Ms

where

Vv

= the nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone = Vvo (noted above)

the design capacity being given by Vvm , where = 0.9.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

90

TABLE 32A

UNIVERSAL BEAMS

GRADE 300

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND WEB CAPACITIES

Holed one Holed two Holed/

flanges Unholed NOTES:

flange

M sx

M sx

V v

M sx

calculated for two

diameter

holes in one flange

kNm

kNm

kN

sx

M

calculated

for two

927*

927*

1180

diameter

holes

in

both

flanges

829*

829*

1100

Unholed

Designation

M sx

kNm

610UB 125

113

101

927

829

782

530UB 92.4

82.0

782*

782*

1100

640

558

578

504

544

478

939

876

460UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

496

449

399

443

401

356

412

372

333

788

719

667

410UB 59.7

53.7

324

304

286

269

264

251

548

529

360UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

273

242

222

239

212

196

219

195

180

496

449

420

310UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

197

182

134

170

157

115

155

144

105

356

320

283

250UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

140

114

92.0

118

96.9

74.0

106

87.5

67.5

283

265

214

200UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

90.0

74.6

65.3

51.8

75.2

62.1

55.0

67.0

55.4

48.1

225

204

174

154

180UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

56.2

45.2

39.8

186

151

135

150UB 18.0

14.0

38.9

29.3

161

130

22 mm

22 mm

AS 4100 limit, so gross section value

may be used.

M20 bolts will not fit.

TABLE 32B

PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS

GRADE 300

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND WEB CAPACITIES

Designation

Mass

per metre

Unholed

M sx

V v

kg/m

kNm

kN

380PFC

55.2

238

657

300PFC

40.1

152

415

250PFC

35.5

114

346

230PFC

25.1

73.3

258

200PFC

22.9

59.7

207

180PFC

20.9

49.0

187

150PFC

17.7

37.0

156

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

91

TABLE 32C

WELDED BEAMS

GRADE 300

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND WEB CAPACITIES

Unholed Holed one Holed two Unholed/

flange

flanges

Holed

Designation

NOTES:

M sx

M sx

M sx

V v

M sx

kNm

kNm

kNm

kN

1200WB 455

423

392

342

317

278

249

7110

6510

5910

4980

4500

3790

3250

7110*

6510*

5910*

4980*

4500*

3790*

3250*

7110*

6510*

5910*

4980*

4500*

3790*

3250*

2900

2900

2900

2900

2900

2900

2900

M sx

calculated for two 24 mm

diameter holes in both flanges

1000WB322

296

258

215

4130

3720

3100

2580

4130*

3720*

3100*

2580*

4130*

3720*

3100*

2580*

2490

2490

2490

2490

900WB282

257

218

175

3440

3070

2510

2020

3440*

3070*

2510*

2020*

3440*

3070*

2510*

2020*

1730

1730

1730

1730

800WB192

168

146

122

2030

1720

1540

1220

2030*

1720*

1430

1140

2030*

1720*

1330

1050

1190

1190

1190

1190

700WB173

150

130

115

1610

1350

1210

1020

1610*

1350*

1110

944

1610*

1350*

1020

868

1100

1100

1100

1100

AS 4100 limit, so gross section value

may be used.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

92

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.3

UB unholed and holed moment

and shear capacity

Determine the unholed and holed moment and shear capacity of a 250UB31.4 universal beam,

Grade 300, Yield stress, f y = 320 MPa.

Moment capacity

Flange slenderness

ef =

bf t w

2t f

Web slenderness

ew =

d1

tw

fy

250

fy

250

= 8.13

= 38.4

320

= 9.19

250

320

= 43.4

250

To calculate Zex the plate element slenderness values are compared with the plate element

slenderness limits in Table 5.2 of AS 4100.

Bending about the x-axis puts the flange in uniform compression. Hence

ef = 9.19

ep = 9

ey = 16

ef / ey = 0.574

Bending about the x-axis places one edge of the web in tension and the other in compression.

Hence

ep = 82

ew = 43.4

ey = 115

ew / ey = 0.377

The flange has the higher value of e / ey and hence is the critical element in the section. From

Clause 5.2.2 of AS 4100 the section slenderness and slenderness limits are the flange values,

i.e.

sp = 9

sy = 16

s = 9.19

Now sp < s sy.

3

Zx

= 354 10 mm3

Zc

(

(

sy s

=Z+

sy sp

Z ex

)

) (Z

Z )

(16 9.19 )

(397 354 ) 10 3

= 354 10 3 +

(16 9 )

= 395 10 3 mm 3

M sx = 0.9 320 395 103 /106 = 114 kNm (refer Table 32A)

Moment capacity with 2 22 mm dia. holes on one flange

nh = 2

dh = 22 mm

area of holes

area of flange

ratio of areas

AS 4100 limit

=

=

=

=

t f = 8.6 mm

A = 4010 mm2

146 8.6

= 1256 mm2

0.30

[1 320/0.85 440] = 0.144

y bh =

= 138.7 mm

4010 2 22 8.6

I x

= 44.5 106

2 22 8.63

252 8.6

2

2 22 8.6

[4010 2 22 8.6] 12.7

2

12

= 38.3 106 mm 4

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

93

min Z x =

38.3 10 6

= 276 10 3

138.7

d1 = 234 mm

y bp =

t w = 6.1 mm

bf = 146 mm

= 148.0 mm

2 6.1

+ (146 2 22) 8.6 (148.0 + 3.05 )

Z e = min of [1.5 276, 336] 10 3

3

6

M x =0.9 320 336 10 /10

Shear capacity

dp

= d1 = 234 mm

dp

tw

234

= 38.4

6. 1

82

320

250

= 72.5

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

94

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.4

Design moment capacity

The formulae quoted in Section 6.2 also apply for determining the nominal section moment

capacity of a single web coped section, except that for a SWC section (which is a tee section in

cross section (Fig. 54)):

ep = 9, for a flange outstand or web subject to either uniform compression or maximum

compression at unsupported edge and tension at supported edge

ey = 16, for flange outstand subject to uniform compression

= 25, for a web subject to maximum compression at unsupported edge and tension at

supported edge

The assumption made for single coped sections is that local buckling of the web, which is in

compression due to the bending moment induced by the end reaction, does not occur. This

assumption is made on the basis that the cope length involved is small (usually of the order of

100150 mm) and that the stiffening effect of the connection itself inhibits local buckling.

Reference 9 also contains a similar assumption.

Where individual connections require additional assessment for local bucking of the supported

member, a method that may be used is presented later in this Section (following the plastic

modulus formulation).

Assuming the full tee section as effective locally at the connection,

Ze = [Ss; 1.5 Zs]min

where the plastic modulus ( Ss) and the elastic modulus (Zs) of a single web coped section are

given by the expressions following. Notation used is shown in Figure 55.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

95

Zs = min of:

Ix

;

(

+

d

w tf yc )

Ix

yc

SHOWING ELASTIC NEUTRAL AXIS

where

Ix =

bf t f3

t d3

+ bf t f (y c 0.5t f ) 2 + 0.0152r 4 + 0.4292r 2 (y c t f 0.223r ) 2 + w w + t w d w (t f + 0.5d w y c ) 2

12

12

yc =

bf t f + 0.4292r 2 + d w t w

Plastic Modulus Ss

(a)

(b)

(a)

b ftf + 0.4292 r 2 + (y s tf) tw = (d w + tf y s) tw for equal areas either side of neutral axis.

y s

d w t w + 2t f t w bf t f 0.4292r 2

2t w

tf + r

Ss

= b f t f (y s t f / 2) + 0.4292r 2 (y s t f 0.223r )

+ t w (y s t f )

(y s t f )

2

+ (d w + t f y s ) t w

(d w

+ tf ys )

2

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

96

(b)

bfys

y s

Ss

= bf y s

bf t f + 0.4292r 2 + d w t w

tf

2bf

(t y s ) + 0.4292r 2 (t y + 0.223r ) + d t (t + d / 2 y )

ys

+ bf (t f y s ) f

f

s

w w f

w

s

2

2

M ss = 0.9f yZ e

f y = [f yf ,f yw] min

Where local buckling is desired to be assessed for a SWC beam, Reference 9 contains in Part 9

a design moment capacity which is based on work by Cheng et al. This assessment can be

summarised as follows:

M ss = 0.9 fcr Zs

where

fcr

E

tw

tf

dw

d

Lc

2E

=

12 1 2

tw

dw + tf

f k f y

= 200 10 3 MPa

= poissons ratio = 0.3

= plate buckling model adjustment factor

= 2L c/d

when L c/d 1.0

1+ L c/d

when L c/d > 1.0

d +t

= 2.2 w f

Lc

1.65

when

2.2(d w + t f )

Lc

=

=

=

=

=

web thickness

flange thickness

web depth (Figure 55)

uncoped section depth (Figure 55)

length of cope (Figure 55)

when

Lc

(d w + t f )

1. 0

Lc

> 1. 0

(d w + t f )

Note that if there are holes in the flange of the tee section at the SWC, then a deduction for

holes must be made in accordance with Clause 5.2.6 of AS 4100, in the same manner as

illustrated in Section 6.2. Coped sections rarely have holes in the remaining flange at simple

connections.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

97

A tee shaped section such as a single web coped section will have a non-uniform shear stress

distribution. Using AS 4100 Clauses 5.11.1 and 5.11.3, the nominal shear capacity (Vv) is given

by:

Vv

2Vu

f *

0.9 + vm

*

f va

Vu

where

Vu

*

fvm

, fva*

= the nominal shear capacity of a web with a uniform shear stress distribution

determined in accordance with Clause 5.11.2

= the maximum and average design shear stresses respectively in the web

determined by a rational elastic analysis.

Now since dw /d w

82

fy / 250

for all rolled sections to AS/NZS 3679.1, and using Clause 5.11.4 of

AS 4100:

Vu = Vw = 0.6 f y A w = 0.6 f y d w t w

Now fva*

and

*

=

fvm

V*

dwtw

V * Qc

Qd

f*

= c w

so that vm

Ix

Ixtw

fva*

Qc

=

y dA

Second Moment of Area I xas defined earlier in this Section.

The design capacity is hence:

V ws = 0.9 Vv =

1.08 f y d w t w

0.54 f y d w t w where fy = f y of web

Qc d w

0 .9 +

Ix

When a cross-section is subject to both shear force and bending moment simultaneously,

AS 4100 Clause 5.12.3 provides that the nominal web shear capacity in the presence of

bending moment be given by:

for M* 0.75M s; and

Vvm = Vv

1.6M *

= Vv 2.2

M s

for 0.75Ms M* Ms

where

Vv

the design capacity being given by Vvm , where = 0.9.

AS 4100 does not have a requirement to adjust V ws for the presence of bolt holes in the web at

a SWC connection presumably because such holes are usually filled with bolts.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

98

TABLE 33A

SINGLE WEB COPED UNIVERSAL BEAMS

GRADE 300

COPE DEPTH = 65 mm

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES

M ss

V ws

kNm

kN

610UB125

113

101

342

315

310

919

860

863

530UB 92.4

82.0

231

210

720

673

460UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

161

146

134

586

536

499

Designation

410UB 59.7

53.7

96.4

97.2

399

387

360UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

74.1

66.4

64.6

350

318

298

310UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

43.2

41.0

34.5

239

216

192

250UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

27.4

24.8

19.5

179

169

136

200UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

15.0

13.0

11.2

9.3

130

117

101

88

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

99

For a PFC, the following equations apply in lieu of those derived for a universal section given

above.

b t3

t d3

2

Ix = f f + bf t f (y c 0.5t f ) 2 + 0.0076r 4 + 0.2146r 2 (y c t f 0.223r ) + w w + t w d w (t f + 0.5d w y c ) 2

12

12

2

2

0.5bf t f + 0.2146r (t f + 0.223r ) + d w t w (t f + 0.5d w )

yc =

bf t f + 0.2146r 2 + d w t w

Qc = b ftf(y c 0.5tf) + 0.2146 r 2 (y c tf 0.223r) + tw(y c tf) 2/2

Plastic Neutral Axis in Web

d w t w + 2t f t w bf t f 0.2146r 2

tf + r

2t w

ys

Ss

(y s t f ) + (d + t y )t (d w + t f y s )

+ tw(y s tf)

w

f

s w

2

2

b t + 0.2146r 2 + d w t w

tf

ys = f f

2bf

Ss

= bf y s

(t y s ) + 0.2146r 2 (t y + 0.223r ) + d t (t + d 2 y )

ys

+ bf (t f y s ) f

f

s

w w f

w

s

2

2

TABLE 33B

SINGLE WEB COPED PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS

GRADE 300

COPE DEPTH = 65 mm

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES

Designation

M ss

V ws

kNm

kN

380PFC

89.9

467

300PFC

44.6

276

250PFC

28.0

215

230PFC

18.0

157

200PFC

11.4

117

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

100

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.5

UB single web coped moment

and shear capacity

Determine the design moment and shear capacity of a single web coped 410UB53.7 universal

beam, Grade 300.

bf

dw

Ix

yc

Qc

ys

Ze

Ss

1.5Z

Ze

M ss

Qc d w

Ix

V ws

= 178 mm

= 403 65 10.9 = 327 mm

6

tf = 10.9 mm

t wb = 7.6 mm

= 53.7 10 mm

= 99.2 mm

on substitution into the expressions given earlier

= 216 10 3 mm3

= 43.1 mm

on substitution into the expression given in Section 6.4

hence, plastic neutral axis is in member web, i.e. y s > tf + r

= [Ss; 1.5Z]min

= 409 10 3 mm3 on substitution into the expression given in Section 6.4

= 1.5 53.7 10 6/(327 + 10.9 99.2) = 338 10 3 mm3

= [409 10 3; 338 10 3]min = 338 10 3 mm

= 0.9 320 338 10 3/106 = 97.2 kNm

(as in Table 33A)

216 10 3 327

= 1.313

=

53.7 10 6

0.9 1.2 320 327 7.6

=

= 387 kN

10 3 (0.9 + 1.313 )

3

< 0.9 0.6 320 327 7.6/10 = 429 kN

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

101

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.6

Design moment capacity

In this case, both edges are unsupported and AS 4100 contains no provisions for local buckling

of such a section. The assumption is usually made that local buckling of the web in triangular

compression above the neutral axis does not occur locally at connection. Reference 9 contains

a similar assumption.

For a rectangular section,

(d w t wFigure 60)

Z x = t w d w2 6

S = t w d w2 4

Z e = [1.5Z x , Sx ]min

= t w d w2 4

Where local buckling is desired to be assessed for a DWC beam, Reference 9 contains in Part 9

a design moment capacity which is based on the work of Cheng et al. This assessment can be

summarised as follows using the notation in Figure 60.

M sd = 0.9 fcr Zx

where

= 0.62E

fd

fcr

= fyfe

= 1.0

fe

= (1.34 0.486)

= (1.30/ 2)

d cb 0.2d

t w2

fd

Lc d w

fcr

fy 1 d w

438 K 2t w

d cb > 0.2d

for 0.7

for 0.7 < 1.41

for > 1.41

and K is a function of (2Lc/d w) as set out below

(interpolate for intermediate values)

2L c/d w

0.25

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.75

1.5

16

13

10

4.5

2.5

1.3

0.8

0.6

0.5

0.425

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

102

A double web coped section leaves a rectangular cross-section of web dw t w. In Section 5.4,

the design shear capacity for a rectangular cross-section of a component was derived and using

that result design shear capacity of a DWC section is V wd = 0.45 fy t w d w.

When a cross-section is subject to both shear force and bending moment simultaneously,

AS 4100 Clause 5.12.3 provides that the nominal web shear capacity in the presence of

bending moment be given by:

Vvm = Vv

for M* 0.75 Ms; and

1.6M *

= Vv 2.2

M s

for 0.75 Ms M* M s

where

Vv = the nominal shear capacity of a web in shear alone = Vwd above

Ms = the nominal section moment capacity = Msd above

the design capacity being given by Vvm , where = 0.9.

Holes in DWC sections:

AS 4100 only requires that deductions for holes be made in flanges (Clause 5.2.6) when

calculating section moment capacity. Since a DWC section has no flanges, no deduction for

holes in the web need be made when calculating section moment capacity.

AS 4100 does not require an adjustment to V wd for the presence of bolt holes in the web at a

connection presumably because such holes are usually filled with bolts.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

103

TABLE 34A

DOUBLE WEB COPED UNIVERSAL BEAMS

GRADE 300

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES

d

d ct

d cb

dw

tw

M sd

V wd

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

kNm

kN

610UB125

113

101

612

607

602

65

65

65

52

52

52

495

490

485

11.9

11.2

10.6

197

182

180

795

741

740

530UB 92.4

82.0

533

528

65

65

53

53

415

410

10.2

9.6

126

116

610

567

460UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

460

457

454

65

65

65

50

52

54

345

340

335

9.9

9.1

8.5

84.8

75.7

68.7

492

446

410

410UB 59.7

53.7

406

403

65

65

51

53

290

285

7.8

7.6

47.2

44.4

326

312

360UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

359

356

352

65

65

65

49

51

52

245

240

235

8.0

7.3

6.9

34.6

30.3

27.4

282

252

233

310UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

307

304

298

65

65

65

52

54

53

190

185

180

6.7

6.1

5.5

17.4

15.0

12.8

183

163

143

250UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

256

252

248

65

65

65

51

52

53

140

135

130

6.4

6.1

5.0

9.0

8.0

6.1

129

119

93.6

Designation

TABLE 34B

DOUBLE WEB COPED PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS

GRADE 300

DESIGN SECTION MOMENT AND SHEAR CAPACITIES

d

d ct

d cb

dw

tw

M sd

V wd

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

kNm

kN

380PFC

380

65

50

265

10.0

50.6

382

300PFC

300

65

50

185

8.0

19.7

213

250PFC

250

65

50

135

8.0

10.5

156

230PFC

230

65

50

115

6.5

6.2

108

Designation

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

104

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.7

UB double web coped moment

and shear capacity

Determine the design moment and shear capacity of a double web coped 410UB53.7 universal

beam, Grade 300.

d

Ze

M sd

= 403 mm

d w = 285 mm

t w = 7.6 mm

2

3

3

= 7.6 285 /4 = 154.3 10 mm

= 44.4 kNm

(as Table 34A)

= 0.9 320 154.3 10 3/106

= 312 kN

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

105

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.8

Connection components and coped sections are generally so short that lateral torsional

buckling of neither the connection elements nor of the coped section will occur.

Coping of beam ends may reduce the elastic critical buckling moment of a laterally unsupported

flexural member, particularly if exceptionally long copes are involved.

In AS 4100, no specific guidance is given about the effect of web coping on the buckling

capacity of a laterally unrestrained beam, but it would be prudent to either perform a buckling

analysis using Reference 28 (permitted by Clause 5.6.4) or assume only partial restraint at the

coped end when calculating the twist restraint factor (k t) and the lateral restraint factor (k r ) in

terms of Clause 5.6.3. A k r value of 1.0 should always be used for supported members

connected by angle cleats or web plates only, whether the members are coped or uncoped due

to the lack of restraint to the top flange.

Guidance on the restraint provided by specific connections where the supported members are

either uncoped or coped may be found in Reference 30. Guidance on the lateral torsional

buckling analysis of I -section beams with copes at the support may be found in References 28

and 31, while testing is reported in Reference 32. In References 28 and 31, the situation is

analysed as an interaction problem involving buckling of the uncoped length and coped length

separately, and then combining the effects of each.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

106

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

6.9

sections

Page 1 of 2

A coped member may fail when a block of web material pulls out as illustrated in Figure 63.

AS 4100 does not address the failure mechanism of rupture due to block shear. The AISC

Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J5 contains provisions which apply to plates, gussets, angles and

brackets by reference to Clause J4.3 of the Specification.

The following explanation of block shear failure is based on Reference 11. Block shear failure

involves both shear and tensile failure, a fact which is evident in the supported beam web

shown in Figure 63. Failure by block shear was discussed in Section 5.4 for connection

components and gusset plates in particular.

The mode of failure by block shear is different in coped beams than for gusset plates. Because

the shear resistance is present on only one surface in a coped beam compared to two with a

gusset plate (see Figure 49(a)), the block of failing material must rotate (Figure 63). Although

tensile failure is observed on the horizontal plane through the net section in tests on coped

sections, the distribution of tensile stress is not uniform, with higher tensile stress toward the

end of the web. There are relatively few test results for block shear failure in coped beams

(Ref. 11). A coverage of earlier work on block shear failure in coped beams is contained in

Reference 2.

Clause J4.3 of the AISC Specification (Ref. 22) provides a design provision in which the design

capacity is determined by the sum of the shear strength along the parallel failure surface and

tensile strength on the perpendicular failure surface. The design capacity is then given by the

following expressions in Clause J4.3 of Ref. 22:

V bs = [0.6f u Anv+fu Ant U bs ] [0.6f y Agv + fu A nt U bs ]

where

fu

fy

Agv

Agt

Anv

Ant

U bs

= 0.75

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

=

specified minimum yield stress of component

gross area subject to shear

gross area subject to tension

net area subject to shear

net area subject to tension

1 when tension stress is uniform

0.5 when tension stress is non-uniform

Reference 11 argues that separate equations for design capacity are required for:

(a)

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

107

(b)

The design capacity recommended by Kulak at Reference 11 and this Design Guide for coped

beam webs is as follows:

V bs = [0.5Ant fui + 0.6fyi Agv]

where terms are as defined above.

The AISC Specification (Ref. 22) Clause J4.3 gives the following expressions for the upper

bound based on guidance given in the Commentary to the Specification:

V bs = [A nt fui + 0.6fyi Agv]

= [0.5Ant fui + 0.6fyi A gv]

double column of bolts to beam web

Relevant areas Ant and Agv are defined as shown in Figure 64.

For both SWC and DWC, Ant = ltt w 0.5d htw (single column of bolts)

Agv = l vt w

where

lt

lv

dh

= hole diameter

tw

= thickness of web

FIGURE 64 BLOCK SHEAR AREAS IN SWC AND DWC MEMBERS

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

108

SUPPORTED MEMBERS

supported members

When the strength of a coped beam is inadequate, either a different beam can be selected to

eliminate the need for reinforcement, or reinforcement can be provided to increase the strength.

In spite of the increase in material cost, the former solution may be the most economical option

due to the appreciable labour cost associated with adding stiffeners and/or doubler plates.

When the latter solution is required, some typical reinforcing details are illustrated in Figure 65.

The doubler plate illustrated in Figure 65(a) and the longitudinal stiffening illustrated in Figure

65(b) are used with rolled sections where d w/t w 60. When a doubler plate is used, the required

doubler-plate thickness td req is determined by substituting the quantity (tw + td req) for tw in the

calculations of the design capacities for coped sections given earlier. To prevent local crippling

of the beam web, the doubler plate must be extended at least a distance d c (depth of cope)

beyond the cope as illustrated in Figure 65(a). When longitudinal stiffening is used, the

stiffening elements must be proportioned to meet the width-thickness ratios specified in

AS 4100. The stiffened cross-section must then be checked for moment capacity but local web

buckling need not be checked. To prevent local buckling of the beam web, the longitudinal

stiffening must be extended a distance d c beyond the cope as illustrated in Figure 65(b).

The combination of longitudinal and transverse stiffeners shown in Figure 63(c) may be required

for thin-web plate-girders, where d w/t w > 60. When longitudinal and transverse stiffening is used,

the stiffening elements must be proportioned to meet the width-thickness ratios specified in

AS 4100. The stiffened cross-section must then be checked for moment capacity, but local web

buckling need not be checked. To prevent local buckling of the beam web, longitudinal stiffeners

must be extended a distance L c/3 beyond the cope as illustrated in Figure 65(c).

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

109

SUPPORTING MEMBERS

7.1

Rationalised dimensions

TABLE 35

UNIVERSAL BEAMS

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Flange

Depth of

section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

Designation

kg/m

Web

thickness

tw

Dimensions

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

610UB 125

113

101

612

607

602

229

228

228

20

17

15

12

11

11

6

6

5

109

108

109

544

544

544

34

31

29

653

648

644

14

14

14

530UB 92.4

82.0

533

528

209

209

16

13

10

10

5

5

99

100

474

474

30

27

573

568

14

14

460UB 82.1

74.6

67.1

460

457

454

191

190

190

16

15

13

10

9

9

5

5

4

91

90

91

406

406

406

27

26

24

498

495

492

11

11

11

410UB 59.7

53.7

406

403

178

178

13

11

8

8

4

4

85

85

358

358

24

22

444

440

11

11

360UB 56.7

50.7

44.7

359

356

352

172

171

171

13

12

10

8

7

7

4

4

3

82

82

82

310

310

310

24

23

21

398

395

391

11

11

11

310UB 46.2

40.4

32.0

307

304

298

166

165

149

12

10

8

7

6

6

3

3

3

80

79

72

261

261

256

23

22

21

349

346

333

11

11

13

250UB 37.3

31.4

25.7

256

252

248

146

146

124

11

9

8

6

6

5

3

3

3

70

70

60

217

217

208

20

18

20

295

291

277

9

9

12

200UB 29.8

25.4

22.3

18.2

207

203

202

198

134

133

133

99

10

8

7

7

6

6

5

5

3

3

3

2

64

64

64

47

170

170

170

162

19

17

16

18

247

243

242

221

9

9

9

11

180UB 22.2

18.1

16.1

179

175

173

90

90

90

10

8

7

6

5

5

3

3

2

42

43

43

141

141

141

19

17

16

201

197

195

9

9

9

150UB 18.0

14.0

155

150

75

75

10

7

6

5

3

3

35

35

120

120

18

15

172

168

8

8

TABLE 36

UNIVERSAL COLUMNS

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Flange

Depth of

section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

mm

Designation

Web

thickness

tw

Dimensions

kg/m

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

310UC 158

137

118

96.8

327

321

315

308

311

309

307

305

25

22

19

15

16

14

12

10

8

7

6

5

148

148

148

148

244

244

244

244

42

38

35

32

451

445

440

433

17

17

17

17

250UC 89.5

72.9

260

254

256

254

17

14

11

9

5

4

123

123

197

197

31

28

365

359

14

14

200UC 59.5

52.2

46.2

210

206

203

205

204

203

14

13

11

9

8

7

5

4

4

98

98

98

159

159

159

26

24

22

293

290

287

11

11

11

150UC 37.2

30.0

23.4

162

158

152

154

153

152

12

9

7

8

7

6

4

3

3

73

73

73

121

121

121

20

18

16

223

220

215

9

9

9

100UC 14.8

97

99

47

63

17

139

10

NOTE: Dimensions in Tables 35 and 36 may not add correctly due to rounding.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

110

TABLE 37

WELDED BEAMS

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Flange

Depth of

section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

Designation

kg/m

Web

thickness

tw

Dimensions

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

1200WB 455

423

392

342

317

278

249

1200

1192

1184

1184

1176

1170

1170

500

500

500

400

400

350

275

40

36

32

32

28

25

25

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

8

8

8

8

8

8

8

242

242

242

192

192

167

130

1104

1104

1104

1104

1104

1104

1104

48

44

40

40

36

33

33

1300

1293

1285

1250

1242

1221

1202

1000WB 322

296

258

215

1024

1016

1010

1000

400

400

350

300

32

28

25

20

16

16

16

16

8

8

8

8

192

192

167

142

944

944

944

944

40

36

33

28

1099

1092

1069

1044

900WB 282

257

218

175

924

916

910

900

400

400

350

300

32

28

25

20

12

12

12

12

6

6

6

6

194

194

169

144

848

848

848

848

38

34

31

26

1007

1000

975

949

800WB 192

168

146

122

816

810

800

792

300

275

275

250

28

25

20

16

10

10

10

10

5

5

5

5

145

133

133

120

748

748

748

748

34

31

26

22

869

855

846

831

700WB 173

150

130

115

716

710

700

692

275

250

250

250

28

25

20

16

10

10

10

10

5

5

5

5

133

120

120

120

648

648

648

648

34

31

26

22

767

753

743

736

TABLE 38

WELDED COLUMNS

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Flange

Depth of

section

Width

Thickness

bf

tf

tw

Designation

kg/m

Web

thickness

tw

Dimensions

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

500WC 440

414

383

340

290

267

228

480

480

472

514

506

500

490

500

500

500

500

500

500

500

40

40

36

32

28

25

20

40

32

32

25

20

20

20

20

16

16

13

10

10

10

230

234

234

238

240

240

240

384

384

384

434

434

434

434

48

48

44

40

36

33

28

693

693

688

717

711

707

700

400WC 361

328

303

270

212

181

144

430

430

422

414

400

390

382

400

400

400

400

400

400

400

40

40

36

32

25

20

16

40

28

28

25

20

20

16

20

14

14

13

10

10

8

180

186

186

188

190

190

192

334

334

334

334

334

334

334

48

48

44

40

33

28

24

587

587

581

576

566

559

553

350WC 280

258

230

197

355

347

339

331

350

350

350

350

40

36

32

28

28

28

25

20

14

14

13

10

161

161

163

165

259

259

259

259

48

44

40

36

499

493

487

482

NOTE: Dimensions in Tables 37 and 38 may not add correctly due to rounding.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

111

TABLE 39

PARALLEL FLANGE CHANNELS

RATIONALISED DIMENSIONS FOR DETAILING

Depth of

Mass section

Designation

per m

kg/m

Flange

Width

Thickness

Web

thickness

bf

tf

mm

mm

mm

tw

mm

Dimensions

a

mm

mm

mm

mm

380PFC

55.2

380

100

18

10

90

317

32

14

300PFC

40.1

300

90

16

82

240

30

14

250PFC

35.5

250

90

15

82

196

27

12

230PFC

25.1

230

75

12

89

182

24

12

200PFC

22.9

200

75

12

69

152

24

12

180PFC

20.9

180

75

11

69

134

23

12

150PFC

17.7

150

75

10

69

111

20

10

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

112

SUPPORTING MEMBERS

7.2

Gauge lines

TABLE 40

GAUGE LINES FOR UNIVERSAL SECTIONS

Section

Flange s gf

M20

Web s gw

M24

M20

M24

Universal beams

610UB

530UB

140

140

90

90

140

140

460UB

410UB

360UB,310UB

310UB32.0

90

90

90

70

140

70

70

90

90

90

250UB

250UB25.7*

200UB

200UB18.2*

180UB

150UB

70

70

70

50

b

b

90

140

140

140

90

60

90

90

90

70

140

140

140

90

b

90

90

140

140

90

90

70

70

140

140

90

90

70

70

90

90

90

90

70

70

70

70

140

140

140

140

90

90

90

90

70

70

70

70

140

140

140

140

70

70

70

70

70

70

90

90

90

90

90

140

140

70

70

70

70

70

70

90

90

90

90

90

140

140

90

90

90

90

90

90

70

c

70

70

70

140

140

90

90

90

70

c

70

70

70

140

140

Universal columns

310UC

250UC

200UC

150UC

100UC

Preference

NOTES:

*Gauge listed for 250UB25.7 and 200UB18.2 are for M16 bolts.

bIndicates that the flange will not accommodate this size of bolt.

cIndicates that the web will not accommodate two lines of bolts with a gauge of 50 mm or more.

All dimensions are in mm.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

113

TABLE 41

GAUGE LINES FOR WELDED SECTION

FLANGES

M20

Section

M24

s gf2

s gf1

s gf1

s gf2

Welded beams

1200WB455-392

140

90

280

1200WB342-278

140

90

280

1200WB249

140

90

1000WB322-258

140

90

1000WB215

420

280

140

90

280

140

90

280

140

90

140

90

140

90

140

90

140

90

900WB282,218

140

90

900WB175

140

90

140

90

800WB

140

90

140

90

700WB

140

90

140

90

280

280

280

Welded columns

500WC

140

280

400WC

140

280

350WC

140

Preference

420

140

280

140

280

140

2

TABLE 42

GAUGE LINES FOR WELDED SECTION

WEBS

Web s gw

Section

M24

M20

Welded beams

1200WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

1000WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

900WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

800WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

700WB

140

90

70

140

90

70

500WC

140

90

70

140

90

70

400WC

140

90

70

140

90

70

350WC

140

90

70

140

90

70

Welded columns

Preference

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

114

TABLE 43

GAUGE LINES FOR PARALLEL FLANGE

CHANNELS

Section

Flange s gf

Web s gw

M16

M20

M24

M16

M20

M24

380100

55

55

55

140

90

70

140

90

70

140

90

70

300 90

55

55

140

90

70

140

90

70

140

90

70

250 90

55

55

140

90

70

140

90

70

140

90

70

230 75

45

45

140

90

70

90

70

90

70

200 75

45

45

90

70

90

70

90

70

180 75

45

45

70

90

70

90

70

150 75

45

45

70

Preference

65

2

55

2

NOTES:

bIndicates that the flange will not accommodate this size of bolt.

cIndicates that the web will not accommodate two lines of bolts with a gauge of 50 mm or more.

All dimensions are in mm.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

115

CONNECTIONS

8.1

AS 4100 Requirements

AS 4100 Clause 9.1.4 provides that connections shall be designed at the strength limit state for

the greater of:

(a)

(b)

the minimum design action effects expressed either as the value or the factor times the

member design capacity for the minimum size of member required by the strength limit

state, specified in items (i) to (vii) below:

(i)

design moment capacity.

(ii)

0.15 member design shear capacity, whichever is the lesser.

(iii)

the member design capacity, except that for the threaded rod acting as a bracing

member with turnbuckles, the minimum tension force shall be equal to the member

design capacity.

(iv)

Splices in members subject to axial tensiona force of 0.3 times the member

design capacity in tension.

(v)

Splices in members subject to axial compressionfor ends prepared for full contact

in accordance with Clause 14.4.4.2 of AS 4100, it shall be permissible to carry

compressive actions by bearing on contact surfaces. When members are prepared

for full contact to bear at splices, there shall be sufficient fasteners to hold all parts

securely in place. The fasteners shall be sufficient to transmit a force of 0.15 times

the member design capacity in axial compression.

In addition, splices located between points of effective lateral support shall be

designed for the design axial force (N*) plus a design bending moment not less than

the design bending moment (M*) where

M* =

N * Ls

1000

Clause 4.4 of AS 4100

When members are not prepared for full contact, the splice material and its

fasteners shall be arranged to hold all parts in line and shall be designed to transmit

a force of 0.3 times the member design capacity in axial compression.

(vi)

Splices in flexural membersa bending moment of 0.3 times the member design

capacity in bending. This provision shall not apply to splices designed to transmit

shear force only.

A splice subjected to a shear force only shall be designed to transmit the design

shear force together with any bending moment resulting from the eccentricity of the

force with respect to the centroid of the connector group.

(vii)

combination of design axial tension or design axial compression and design

bending moment shall satisfy (iv), (v) and (vi) simultaneously.

The action to be designed for is the greater of the calculated design actions or the minimum

specified in (i) to (vii), as appropriate.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

116

The minimum is generally expressed as a factor times the design capacity (R u ) for the

minimum size of member required by the strength limit state. Hence, if a member is increased in

size above the minimum size for whatever reason (rationalisation of member sizes, slenderness

or serviceability considerations), it is only necessary to use the design capacity of the minimum

size required by the strength limit state for the purpose of determining the minimum design

action. For example, columns which may be subject to large compressive forces and only minor

tensile forces, any splice has to be designed for both the specified value for the minimum

member size required to resist the compression, and for the specified value for the minimum

member size required to resist the tension.

Minimum design actions for an individual connection are discussed in detail in the Design Guide

relevant for that connection.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

117

REFERENCES

connections, 4th edition, Authors Hogan, T.J. and Thomas, I.R., Editor Syam, A.A., 1994.

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF

connections, 3rd edition, 1985.

Owens, G.W. and Cheal, B.D. Structural steelwork connections, Butterworths, London,

1989.

Product Grade C, Part 1: Bolts.

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND, AS/NZS 1252:1996 Highstrength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for structural engineering.

connections, Author Hogan, T.J., Contributing author and editor Munter, S.A., 2007.

STANDARDS

Commentary.

edition, 2005.

10

Kulak, G.L., Fisher, J.W. and Struik, J.H.A. Guide to design criteria for bolted and riveted

joints, 2 nd edition (2001 -Published by American Institute of Steel Construction).

11

Kulak, G. High strength boltsA Primer for structural engineers, American Institute of

Steel Construction, Steel Design Guide 17, 2002.

12

Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 22, No. 2, 1985, pp 67-75.

13

Part 3: Welding and non-destructive examination.

14

STANDARDS

AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS

NEW

ZEALAND,

Structural steel welding, Part 1: Welding of steel structures.

15

electrodes for welding, Part 1: Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding

of carbon and carbon-manganese steels.

16

welding, Part 1: Carbon steel and carbon-manganese steels.

17

Part 1: Ferritic steel electrodes.

18

STANDARDS

AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS

NEW

ZEALAND,

AS/NZS 2717.1:1996

WeldingElectrodesGas metal arc, Part 1: Ferritic steel electrodes.

19

Lay, M.G. Fillet weld design stresses in AS 1250, Proceedings, 23rd National Conference

of the Australian Welding Institute, Hobart, Sept., 1975, pp. 8792.

20

Butler, L.J. and Kulak, G.L. Strength of fillet welds as a function of direction of load,

Welding Journal, Welding Research Council, Vol. 36, No. 5, May 1971, pp. 231s234s.

21

Pham, L. and Bennetts, I.D. Reliability study of fillet weld design, Civil Engineering

Transactions, Institution of Engineers Australia, Vol. CE26, No. 2, May 1984, pp. 119

124.

22

buildings, March 2005.

AUSTRALIA,

STEEL

AS 4100

CONSTRUCTION,

Supplement

Cored

Standardized

11999

Steel

structures

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

electrodes

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

structural

for

arc-welding,

118

23

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA, AS 1237.22002 Plain washers for metric bolts, screws and

nuts for general purposes, Part 2: Tolerances.

24

ASSOCIATION, Joints in steel construction: Simple connections, Publication P212,

2002.

25

structural steel, Vol 1: Open sections, 3 rd edition, 1999.

26

AUSTRALIAN STEEL INSTITUTE, Design capacity tables for structural steel, Vol 2:

Hollow sections, 2 nd edition, 2004.

27

steelHot rolled plates, floor-plates and slabs.

28

Cheng, J.R., Yura, J.A. and Johnson, C.P. Lateral buckling of coped steel beams,

Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No .1, Jan 1988, pp. 115.

29

Structural steel, Part 1: Hot rolled bars and sections and AS/NZS 3679.2:1996, Part 2:

Welded I sections.

30

Trahair, N.S., Hogan, T.J. and Syam, A.A. Design of unbraced beams, Steel

Construction, Australian Institute of Steel Construction, Vol. 27, No. 1, Feb 1993.

31

Gupta, A.K. Buckling of coped steel beams, Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE,

Vol. 110, No. ST9, Sept 1984, pp. 19771987.

32

Cheng, J.R. and Yura, J.A., Lateral buckling tests on coped steel beams, Journal of

Structural Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 114, No. ST1, Jan 1988, pp. 1630.

33

grade C.

34

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO 33181990 Assembly tools for screws and nuts

Double-headed open-ended wrenches, double-headed ring wrenches and combination

wrenchesMaximum widths of heads.

35

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO 2725-11996 Assembly tools for screws and nuts

Square drive sockets, Part 1: Hand-operated socketsDimensions.

36

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD, ISO 2725-21996 Assembly tools for screws and nuts

Square drive sockets, Part 2: Machine-operated sockets (impact)Dimensions.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

119

A1

Introduction

A1.1 General

This Appendix contains the output from the Limcon computer program for two of the examples

for which detailed hand calculations are included in the Design Guide. Limcon undertakes all

DESIGN CHECKS set out in the ASI design model and lists the capacity and capacity ratio for

each limit state. A detail diagram is included at the beginning of the Limcon output. A virtual

reality image of the connection can be displayed on the computer screen to facilitate checking.

Note: To express the result of each limit state check Limcon uses the capacity ratio. This is the ratio of

the design capacity to the design action effect and the minimum capacity ratio for all limit states must

not be less than 1.0.

In Appendix A2 Design example No. 2Design of bolt group loaded in-plane, as calculated by

hand in Section 3.11, is assessed using Limcon.

Limcon checks bearing and tearing by determining the force on each bolt and comparing this

with computed capacities. Bolts in the outside rows and columns are checked for external

tearing where a force component is directed towards an edge. Internal tearing checks are

performed on each bolt in the direction of the force components. Each result is displayed for the

critical bolt only.

Limcon uses the specified horizontal and vertical edge distances to compute external tearing

capacity. It is assumed that the horizontal edge distance applies to both sides of the bolt group

but clearly, in this example, only the edge distance on the left is of interest. A large value has

been entered for the top and bottom edge distance, as tearing checks are not relevant owing to

the presence of the beam flanges rather than free edges. In this example, tearing is checked

only for the beam web because it is clear that tear-out is not going to occur in the column

flange. Thus, plate thickness and grade are entered for the beam web. If it were not clear which

part of the connection was critical, it would be necessary to consider bolt groups in web and

flange separately.

A1.3 Weld groupLimcon design example

In Appendix A3 Design example No. 5Design of fillet weld group loaded out-of-plane, as

calculated by hand in Section 4.13, is assessed using Limcon.

The weld group is assessed according to the alternative analysis permitted by AS 4100 Clause

9.8.2.2, which treats the weld group as an extension of the connected member for determining

the distribution of shear forces. This is more conservative and, in this case, more realistic than

the assumption in Clause 9.8.1.1(b) that the shear force is uniformly distributed throughout the

group.

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

120

APPENDIX A

A2

No. 2Design of bolt group

loaded in-plane

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

121

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

122

APPENDIX A

A3

Limcon outputDesign

example No. 5Design of fillet

weld group loaded out-of-plane

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

123

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

124

comment form

ATTENTION:

Australian Steel Institute

Level 13, 99 Mount Street,

North Sydney NSW 2060

Telephone: (02) 9931 6666

Notice: This facsimile message and any attached files may hold confidential information. If you are not

the intended recipient any use, disclosure, forwarding or copying of this facsimile is unauthorised. If

you have received this facsimile in error please notify the sender immediately by reply facsimile or

telephone. Thank you for your co-operation on this.

Name:

Date:

Company:

Address:

Tel:

Mobile:

Email:

Comment:

handbook 1

design of structural steel connections, first edition

125

- A Teaching Guide for Structural Steel ConnectionsЗагружено:v
- ASI - Design Model for Light Bracing Cleat ConnectionsЗагружено:ccbserialk
- ASI Design Guide - Wind Actions on Steel Sheds and GaragesЗагружено:reynolds534
- Wind Loading HandbookЗагружено:Bintarjo Agus Priyadi
- Moment Connections Seismic ApplicationsЗагружено:shak543
- General Connection in Steel StructuresЗагружено:Irfan Vadtala
- Australian Steel Detailers HandbookЗагружено:Daniel Phillips
- Economical Structural Steel WorkЗагружено:c_arkell
- Steel ConnectionsЗагружено:Tejas Patel
- Design of Portal Frame Buildings by S.T.woolcock, S.kitipornchai, M.a.bradford 3rd Ed 1999Загружено:Anh Do Vo
- AISC-Worked Examples for Steel StructuresЗагружено:baska14
- Design capacity tables for structural steel_sc_v27_n4Загружено:Heowtiam Ng
- ASI Connection Design Guide 6 - Seated ConnectionsЗагружено:Rada Ioan
- ASI Connection Design Guide 3 - Web Side Plate ConnectionsЗагружено:Rada Ioan
- Design Guide 2009Загружено:johncolalancia
- Pinned base platesЗагружено:Homero Silva
- ASI Connection Design Guide 1 BoltingЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme
- AS4100 UNSW Design of Steel membersЗагружено:has960
- Economical Structural Steel Work 1Загружено:James Sabmeethavorn
- ASI Connection Design Guide 2 - WeldingЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme
- Australian Steel Detailers HandbookЗагружено:Jay-ar Cabus
- ASI Connection Design Guide 5 - Angle Cleat ConnectionsЗагружено:Rada Ioan
- ASI Connection Design Guide 4 - Flexible End Plate ConnectionsЗагружено:Rada Ioan
- ASI Angle Cleat Design Guide 5.pdfЗагружено:lyeshiun
- Handbook of Structural Steel Connection Design and Detail_Akbar R TamboliЗагружено:amrsaleh999
- Reinforced Concrete Design Handbook AS3600.pdfЗагружено:Ferdie Tolosa
- AISC - Design of Structural Connections 4th ED-1994Загружено:construcciontotal
- Structural Steel Det Train ManualЗагружено:superpiojo
- ASI Design Capacity Table To AS 4100 (Open Section).pdfЗагружено:Amanda Miller
- Design Capacity Tables for Structural Steel - Open SectionsЗагружено:pinkypacho

- ASI Connection Design Guide 1 BoltingЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme
- ASI Connection Design Guide 2 - WeldingЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme
- Sdi ManualЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme
- Doc 010Загружено:Emad Elhussieny
- Wind Moment Design of Low Rise FramesЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme
- 7 Flat SlabsЗагружено:Sandro Ledermann-Türme

- Voyager 2 Neptune Encounter Press KitxЗагружено:Bob Andrepont
- MUDABIRЗагружено:faraz_005
- Chapter 23 Terrestrial EcosystemsЗагружено:Karmina Santos
- Stahl Service Manual Sf35226423 - Google SearchЗагружено:Alvaro
- 253262014-A-Study-on-Customer-Satisfaction-Towards-Amway-Products-in-Coimbatore-City.docxЗагружено:LOVE CHAWLA
- Bismillah Dapus 1-1.docxЗагружено:halimfathonii
- Steampunk Mafia RPG-1.1.pdfЗагружено:Chad Hill
- 07884956Загружено:Joginder Yadav
- Review Sa2000 Amp 1Загружено:Gary Caire
- Kursus Pegawai-Pegawai PDRMЗагружено:bakaipkkedah
- 0848Загружено:taxcrunch
- graphic design syllabusЗагружено:api-262030613
- Application for Certification as a Welding Inspector Form 450EЗагружено:Joshnewfound
- wcms_185863Загружено:viethuong96
- Zanussi_ZWF_2105_W.pdfЗагружено:Zigund
- Chemistry Question Based on Transformation of SubstanceЗагружено:proodoot
- 09 Catalogue KEUHAUPSЗагружено:ar2925
- Mcp 2561Загружено:lucamiravalle
- Automatizacion SpaЗагружено:Victor J. Ore
- WhirL HRЗагружено:joy001
- MIS Report for HRЗагружено:welcomeumesh
- Launch the Roadmap to Pm Success Product 2018Загружено:CallumBarker
- Lesson Plan IupacЗагружено:PentyCahyaArhinna
- W1 ManualЗагружено:akestecz
- wireless-networks.pdfЗагружено:Pako Mogotsi
- DIPS -mu-Aurangabad.pdfЗагружено:prakharmathur14
- tugas mendeley tabelЗагружено:api-355769262
- Qrh Atr 72-Pec (m116 v13).PDFЗагружено:bouillard
- Turbines Paper Ray BeebeЗагружено:aliscribd46
- BackgroundЗагружено:Neeraj

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.