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Five Day Lesson Plan

EDUC 236
John Hugunin
Class: Biology
Grade: 9th or 10th
Unit: Anatomy and Function
I.

Student Goals

1.

Students will demonstrate a deep & robust understanding of STEM content and apply that knowledge
wherever possible.
Students will be confident, curious and open-minded individuals.
Students will support their position by using factual evidence & make informed decisions.
Students will communicate and collaborate critically and effectively through written and verbal methods.
Students will think critically and use problem-solving skills.
Students will be active and respectful members of their communities.
Students will use technology appropriately.
Students will use creativity and imagination.
Students will demonstrate a strong understanding of the nature of STEM.
Students will be autonomous, self-motivated learners who will develop goals and utilize resources to seek
out information to become lifelong learners.

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4.
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8.
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10.

II.
1.
2.

Unit Logic Flow


Homeostasis must be maintained in order for an organism to appropriately function
Interacting systems within an organism create a process of multiple checks and balances of negative
and positive feedback mechanisms called homeostasis.
Feedback mechanisms within an organism are the result of stimulus by the addition or increase of
(positive feedback) or removal or decrease of (negative feedback) something within the system.
Systems within organisms are composed of role-specific cells and tissues which respond to environmental
stimuli in specific ways.
Roles of tissues and cells are determined largely by the forms they take.

3.
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5.
III.
1)
2)
3)
4)

1.

Objectives for Students and NGSS Standards


Objectives; Students will:
Evaluate the role of form and function in interacting systems within multicellular organisms
Develop an understanding of how form and function relationships are present throughout the natural
world
Apply developed understandings to create and conduct an experiment
Demonstrate connections between learned, concrete material and more abstract application
Successful students will be able to:
Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide
specific functions within multicellular organisms. (HS-LS1-2)

2.

1.
2.

Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms


maintain homeostasis. (HS-LS1-3)
NGSS Standards and Relevant Student Goal Objectives
HS-LS1-2: Goals 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8.
HS-LS1-3: Goals 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 10.
IV: General Teacher Behaviors and Strategies
To see that the goals of the unit are achieved, it is important that the unit plan rely more so on
small formative assessment checkpoints than on traditional written, summative experiences that can
discourage student creativity. To this, and to keep the flow of the unit moving, the teachers main tool in
both directing discussion and testing periodically for general understanding will rely heavily on thoughtprovoking short-answer questions, requests for students to clarify or elaborate their statements if unclear
instead of the teacher giving them ideas or trying to lead their thinking through clarifying their
statement (Did you mean to say this? is not appropriate, although tempting enough to necessitate a note
here against it) - this type of deep-answer, critical thinking question responses is based in Cognitive
Learning Theory.. Extended-answer questions will be reserved more for group settings, which allows for
peers to build off of and improve on each others understandings (more knowledgeable other(s) ), and is
firmly grounded in Social Learning Theory.
Pains have been taken to ensure that the lesson, in dealing with a highly complex phenomenon, is
taught in the most concrete way possible. This allows students to build upon past knowledge and more
easily assimilate previous understandings with new information. By taking a Constructivist Learning
Theory approach throughout the unit plan and sticking to the NGSS assessment boundaries, the
experience should be concrete enough to be well understood while being appropriate enough that students
can then take that concrete experience and understanding and begin applying it towards more abstract
ideas and situations towards the end of the unit and onward even after it. While students will be grouped
in various ways and groupings throughout the lesson the teacher will use various sources for determining
group placements in the unit - assessment data, knowledge of the individual childs strengths and
weaknesses (good at abstract, more mathematically inclined, etc), classroom interactions and
personalities, and formative assessment picked up as the unit progresses.

V: Five Day Lesson Plan

Day One: Sponges as Intro to Form & Function


Objectives:
1. Students will explore and observe sponges to come to the conclusion that a sponges physical
features affect its functions.
2. Students will begin to understand how structure relates to function of living organisms in the
natural world.

Materials:
1)
2)

Sponges
Water

Procedure:
1) Students gather in groups at tables. They will answer questions on the board as bell ringer
questions.
Questions:
1.
What do you think Structure relates to its function mean?
a.
Give examples of how this would be proven in real life
2.
Are there examples where structure relates to function?
2) Once they are shown to be done with bell work have the students discuss as a class their
opinions and examples. Make sure to see if the responses show in-depth thinking by asking
them about how their examples show that structure relates to its function. If students are shown
to be struggling with wanting to respond, work with more basic questions such as:
1.
Why do you think that structure fits with its function?
2.
What could be better as structures to fit for that function?
3.
Why doesnt that structure have that form then for that function?
3)
After discussion bring out the sponges, giving one to each student individually.
Ask them to analyze what functions a sponge might have as it relates to their function
(e.g., the students should make the connection that a sponge absorbs water because it
is porous). Students will be asked to compare the functions of the sponges material
when it is both wet and dry, with students recording what they see in the structures examples for the students would be focused on the texture when wet versus dry, as well
as size.
Questions:
i.What did you notice about the sponges form and function?
ai. How does this relate to what we discussed previously?
4)
After they have individually answered the questions. Have them discuss with their
peers about what they noticed and the common observations they noticed about the
objects.
a.
Okay we all notice the sponges absorbed water. How does the structure of
a sponge support its function?
5)
Bring up a picture of leaves with different features on laptop for everyone to see at
the board (or can have multiple picture of different sponges around them with different
features and ask them to find purpose in their structures).
a.
Why do leaves have differences in their structure? If the function of a leaf is
to hold and contain water, then the size should be a big factor in its structure.
6)
Have them discuss in their groups about the purpose behind the forms of structure
in leaves. Then make written observations on each leaves ask them to take notes on the

structure and how it benefits for its function. Then have them pass their picture of
sponges to the next group clockwise until every group has seen every picture.
7)
Once every group has seen all the pictures go through each one as a class to talk
about what observations were made and what observations about the different features
work to the function of a sponge whether beneficial or deconstructive to the purpose of
the various leaves.
8) Homework for tomorrow is to find six examples of how the form of structures relates to
the purpose of its function. Be prepared to defend your examples with an explanation as
to why the structure supports its function.
Assessment: The main form of assessment for the class will be focused on students
responses to teacher questions (3Cs, 4s, and 11s according to the SATIC model), the second
part of the class will be assessed mostly on the next day on the homework based on the student
responses to the homework and their ability to defend their responses with accurate, logical
connections.

Day Two: Leaves, Stomata & Technique, Form/Function Bridge

Objectives:
1. Students will observe differences in multiple species of leaves, to come to the conclusion that
different structures provide different functions
2. Students should be able to articulate that although all specimens are leaves, the roles each of
these species leaves play and how they go about playing it differs greatly.

Materials:
1) Microscopes with tape and clear nail polish

Outline:
1) Bell-work: discuss examples from homework given from last class period.
a) Questions:
i)
What examples of structure relates to function could you find in real life?
ii)
Why would this be an example of how structure supports its function?
2) Students will begin to investigate the different leaves at their tables and categorize them by a
classification they decide as a group. Once groups are done discuss why they classified the
leaves in this method.
3) For the discussions focus on the premise that similar structures look to produce similar features
in leaves and different structures focus on bringing different functions to support the structure.
4) Allow students time to look at the plant specimens under microscopes, providing the materials
necessary for student to create slides with the stomata silhouettes (nail polish technique) for
viewing under a light microscope. (In front of the class, instructor will model techniques for
painting the leaves) Allow time in groups for students to sketch their observations and discuss
these before answering the following questions.

i)

a) Questions:
Which leaves do you feel would be better suited for environment [X]? (Desert, rainforest, Great
Plains, etc)
1) Why would you think this leaf would be better adapted to endure a specific environment?
5) Homework: Answer and defend the question What do you think is the most important part of
the leaf? Bring three pieces of evidence to support your response.
Assessment: The main focus of assessment will be observing the students to see that they
demonstrate an adequate level of confidence and understanding in Student Goals 3 on making
informed decisions and supporting decisions with evidence. As well as Student Goal 4 on
collaborating effectively through verbal and written communication.

Day Three: Interacting Plant Systems & Feedback Mechanisms


Objectives:
1. Students will identify interacting systems within a model plant
2. Students will articulate examples of feedback mechanisms
3. Students will discern differences between positive and negative feedback
Materials:
Four to five potted flowering plants (one per group)
Exit slips (one per person)

1.
2.

1)

2)

3)

4)
a)

b)
5)

Procedure:
Students should go to their seats and begin thinking about the question on the board related to
the previous days lesson, which will be titled What do you think is the most important function
of a leaf? Provide at least three pieces of evidence to back your claims.
Students will be asked to share their findings, with students encouraged to politely disagree or
agree with what their peers offer. After discussing, point out that most important is just an
opinion but point out the correct answers that were offered.
Teacher will guide students to the next stop by saying We now seem to have a pretty good
grasp of the function and structure of leaves, but what other systems can we find in the plant as
a whole? Students will be given a potted plant and asked to make a list of interacting systems
they find in the plant. Examples would include roots and leaves, stem and roots, flower and
stem.
Once students have identified a few of these, the teacher can then ask Of these systems
youve listed, which ones are dependent on some sort of outside factor to work?
If students struggle with this question being too open-ended, teacher can ask students to look at
the flowers on the plants and ask something to the effect of What would be the utility of plants
opening their flowers at night?
Students should arrive at the conclusion that something causes flowers to close at night. Other
answers will of course vary but should all focus on some sort of dependent system.
Teacher can then tell students What youve just discussed is called a feedback mechanism;
there are technically two types of feedback, called negative and positive. In your groups, can
you think of what the difference in these are? What might be some examples of the two?

a) Allow students to discuss what they think negative versus positive feedback mechanisms are.
Examples of negative feedback would be a flower closing once there is no longer any sunlight.
Examples of positive feedback would include a plant sprouting after being exposed to water.
6) As an exit slip, give students the task of deciding and defending whether or not stomata opening
and closing are based on positive or negative feedback. Make sure to tell them they are allowed
and encouraged to use their textbooks and the internet as a resource in defending their answer.
These can be checked the next day for understanding while also allowing the students the
independence in researching and defending their own conclusions.

Assessment: By having students defend their opinion on the most important function, not only
should the students be a bit more engaged (Social Learning Theory), but this should also give
the teacher the ability to formatively assess if students are appropriately understanding the
material by the answers they give (or dont give). Additionally, the exit slip in procedure six will
give the teacher concrete examples from every single student to gauge their understanding - by
requiring students to defend their answers, it is hoped the teacher can avoid copy/paste
plagiarism and just ask Google situations.

Day Four: Homeostasis and Experiment Planning

1.
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3.

1)

2)

3)
4)
a)

Objectives:
Students will understand and provide further examples of homeostasis
Students will articulate how interacting systems in a model plant factor into homeostasis
Students will construct an experiment to test for homeostatic processes under specified
environmental conditions.
Procedure:
Begin the day by asking students to share what theyve learned about whether stomata respond
due to a negative or positive feedback loop. The feedback loops are kept shallow in
understanding (assessment boundary for the NGSS explicitly states not to teach the
biochemistry).
Teacher can then ask Is there a purpose in having these feedback mechanisms in an
organism? This should lead students to discuss in their groups about how these feedback
mechanisms help keep the plant alive, or healthy, or something to that effect.
We call this give-and-take in feedback mechanisms homeostasis, which came from Greek and
means to keep same.
What are some ways we could test homeostasis using our knowledge of stomata and the plants
we have?
Students are given the remainder of the period to plan an experiment, given a list of materials to
work form from the teacher (while limiting them to a list might not necessarily be ideal for
creativity, it is the only realistic way to guide their thinking in the right direction while also making
sure the supplies are available that make it possible to conduct the experiments while still
allowing their creativity to flourish). What they dont finish in class will be considered homework
due the next day, for when they actually set up and conduct their experiments.

Desired outcome of giving the students a narrow list of materials is that students
will independently create and develop an experiment that tests for the number of open versus
closed stomata in their test plants under wet versus dry conditions.

I.
II.
III.

b) List (Given Materials):


Two potted plant seedlings
Heat lamp and mister
Two large tupperwares with holes in the top
Assessment: While the first part of the class will largely be assessed by teacher interactions
moving group to group and asking questions (3Cs, 4s, and 11s according to the SATIC model),
the second part of the class will be assessed mostly on the next day to see whether or not
students have a sufficient grasp of the underlying material to construct and conduct an
experiment that appropriately and accurately gathers the data needed to determine homeostatic
responses in the plants.

Day Five: Experiment Conduction and Discussion

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3.

a.
b.
c.

d.

Objectives
Collect data and interpret it in a relevant way
Discuss results of their experiment and articulate how they tie back to their hypothesis
(validated/invalidated)
Analyze further opportunities to improve upon or change their experiments for the future
(Discuss how these changes would give them a more detailed understanding)
Procedure:
Students will begin to actually construct, or build, their experiment that was discussed the
previous day. This could take at least half of the class period.
While students are designing their experiments, it is important to keep them focused on the goal
of their experiment. To do so, asking questions such as why are you including that in your
experiment? or, how will this help you come to a conclusion?
After students have designed their experiment a discussion on how setting up their experiment
was similar to what scientists do when they are trying to figure something out. Guide students
thinking to understand how when scientists are trying to come to a conclusion, they often design
an experiment to test their thinking. Questions that could be asked include:
How was the experiment you just designed similar to one that a scientist would design?
What limitations did you have when designing this experiment? How are these similar to
limitations scientists run into when designing an experiment?
What questions did you and your partners have to ask yourself while designing and carrying out
this experiments? Scientists often ask themselves similar questions. How did you answer
these questions in such a way that scientists would?
I see that many groups designed their experiments differently to get to the same outcome. This
could potentially yield different results. Scientists often design experiments that differ from one
another. How can these experiments reinforce or refute one another? Is this good or bad for
science as a whole?

Assessment: While students will be asked clarifying questions over their projects (as outlined
in the procedures), the main assessment will come in the following days (see Next week and
the rest of the unit section) during presentations.

Next week and the rest of the unit:


Over the course of the next week the students will continue collecting data over their
experiments, and will eventually present these in a science-fair-styled setting where they will be
encouraged to make connections between their findings and tie them to real-world implications.

VI.

Rationale for the Unit


While traditionally cell biology and its implied basis in genetics is a rather abstract topic,
it is also a topic that offers a multitude of spring board opportunities. If the material in this unit
can be learned well at an early stage in the curriculum, more complex topics can be covered at
a deeper level with better understanding from all involved students at a more sufficient rate. By
tackling intellectually taxing themes within a concrete framework, students are set up to be more
confident in themselves and future content. When care is taken to encourage students to share
their ideas without judgement early on, the students are more likely to take risks and operate as
independent learners in the long run. Coupled with opportunities to invent and conduct their own
experiments, the students not only gain hands-on experience in developing experiments (and
seeing and discussing the connections between what they do and realizing that they, too, are
scientists) but also have first-hand, tangible experiences with the material that will help them
make connections in a meaningful and lasting way.