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SYSTEM ANAYLYSIS AND DESIGN (CT026-3-1)

GROUP ASSIGNMENT

Henley Driving School


INTAKE CODE

: UC1F1301IT

GROUP MEMBERS:

YUSRA NAJEEB (TP030163)


HANAN ZAHID (TP030640)
ARSALAN SAEED (TP028676)
ZAIN SHOAIB (TP030396)

LECTURER NAME: Mrs. PALVINDERJEET KAUR


DUE DATE

21ST OCT 2013


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Contents
ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................................4
Introduction to company Henley Driving School..................................................................5
1.0 Project Analysis.........................................................................................................................6
1.1 Problem solving....................................................................................................................6
1.2 Assumptions:.........................................................................................................................8
2.0 Feasibility study.........................................................................................................................9
2.1 Schedule Feasibility:...........................................................................................................10
Gantt chart:...........................................................................................................................10
Workload matrix:..................................................................................................................11
2.2 Operational Feasibility:.......................................................................................................13
Performance:........................................................................................................................14
Information:..........................................................................................................................15
ECONOMIC:........................................................................................................................15
CONTROL:..........................................................................................................................16
EFFICIENCY:......................................................................................................................17
SERVICES:..........................................................................................................................17
2.3 Technical Feasibility:..........................................................................................................19
Hardware..............................................................................................................................19
Dell PowerEdge M620 Server..............................................................................................21
Tracking device....................................................................................................................22
Bluetooth GPS Data Logger.................................................................................................23
Software................................................................................................................................24
2.4Economic Feasibility:..........................................................................................................26
Hardware Cost......................................................................................................................26
Software Cost.......................................................................................................................26
Development Cost................................................................................................................27
Operation Cost......................................................................................................................27
3.0 Methodology............................................................................................................................28
3.1 Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM)....................................28
MODULES/STAGES OF SSADM:.....................................................................................29
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3.2 Comparison of Methodologies............................................................................................30
3.3 Justification of selected methodology.................................................................................32
4.0 Well Defined Techniques.........................................................................................................33
4.1 Context diagram:.................................................................................................................33
4.2 Data Flow Diagram (DFD).................................................................................................34
4.2.1 DFD Level 0:...............................................................................................................35
4.2.2 DFD Level 1:...............................................................................................................43
4.3 ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram)...................................................................................44
4.4 ELH (ENTITY LIFE HISTORY).......................................................................................45
5.0 Survey......................................................................................................................................48
Questionnaire:...........................................................................................................................48
6.0 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................49
Individual Part...............................................................................................................................50
YUSRA NAJEEB.....................................................................................................................50
HANAN ZAHID.......................................................................................................................52
ARSLAN SAEED.....................................................................................................................54
ZAIN SHOAIB.........................................................................................................................55
Group meetings..............................................................................................................................56

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ABSTRACT

We have been given a project about a company called Henley Driving School. Currently the
company is facing many problems. In this project we have thoroughly analyze the system and
found out all the problems the company is facing and we have suggest all the possible solutions.
We have suggested a completely new version of the system which is more effective and efficient.
We have also mentioned some of the techniques for further elaboration.

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Introduction to company Henley Driving


School

he aim of this project is to analyze and design a system for a driving company that is
facing many problems in its current system. These problems are affecting companys
growth and creating confusions for the instructors. The problems have been drawn out

and solutions have been created in order to tackle the said problems.
Our team has been given a task to handle the companys problem. Our group consists of four
members in which everyone plays an important role. The project is headed by Yusra Najeeb and
assisted by Zain shoaib, hanan Zahid and Arsalan Saeed.
Henley driving school started as a small driving company. With the passage of time the company
grew bigger and because of this rapid growth there is an urgent need to improve their business
and system in order to provide better and efficient services to the instructors as well as students
and the people who are willing to join the school.
Our group was told that the company is facing many problems affecting many upcoming issues
and growth of the company and was requested to analyze and design an effective system for their
company.
This project is very challenging to our knowledge and experience. As an upcoming team of
analyzers and designers we decided to accept the challenge and to help the company in
developing the system.

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1.0 Project Analysis


Henley Driving School is a new company situated in Kuala Lumpur. The company teaches
people how to drive cars. The company has developed a manual paper based system to record
and organize bookings for driving lessons.
Students book one or more lessons by ringing up, a booking clerk answers the telephone and fills
in an appointment on the booking sheet. If it is a new student, their details are recorded onto a
record card and placed in an index file. Current students may book by telephone, or alternatively
at the end of a lesson, arrange their next lesson with the instructor.
Instructors have paper diaries in which to record lesson information. The instructors return to
base, and transfer these diary entries on to a paper booking sheet. This booking sheet covers all
lessons of the instructors. Any clashes will be resolved by telephoning the students to change the
appointments straight away.

The Henley Driving School currently has one PC running Windows


XP and Microsoft Word, Excel and Access.

1.1 Problem solving

Henley Driving School is currently using a very traditional method that is everything is done
manually. This includes booking, scheduling, students attendance and creating invoices and
reports. Since they dont have modern computerized system which means online system does not
exist in current Henley Driving School, hence all bookings are carried out through telephones.
After carefully analyzing the current situation we have acknowledged that there are many
problems the existing situation is facing which may affect the growth of the company. The
problems found during investigation are:

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1. Manual database:
The company is currently using a manual paper based system to record and save the important
details of the company. Instructors have been using paper diaries to record lesson information. In
case of a new student their records are held onto a record card and are placed in an index file.
Solution:
The solution to this problem is to introduce a computerized database which will allow the user to
search effectively and efficiently. A computerized database is much faster and less prone to
mistakes.
2. Manual booking:
The company has developed a manual paper based system to record and organize bookings for
driving lessons. Students book one or more lessons by ringing up, a booking clerk answers the
telephone and fills in an appointment on the booking sheet. Current students may book by
telephone, or alternatively at the end of a lesson, arrange their next lesson with the instructor.
The current system leads to a lot of problems, for example students booking times with the
instructor that the booking clerk has already allocated to another students. Instructors accidently
fill out the wrong time in their diary for a booking, or the details are transferred incorrectly onto
the booking sheet which leads to instructors turning up for lessons at the wrong place and the
wrong time.

Solution:
Introduce a web based system for booking that will help the users to book more efficiently. In
this way clashes can be avoided.
3. Manual attendance system:

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Currently the company has a manual system for the attendance. Instructors have paper diaries to
record the information. An entry in the instructors diary is made at the end of each lesson that
shows whether the student has attended and the time of the next lesson, if arranged. At the end of
the day, the instructors return to base, and transfer these diary entries on to a paper booking
sheet. This booking sheet covers all lessons of the instructors. Because of the rapid growth of the
company the manual system is not efficient enough. There can be many errors or confusions,
data can be lost and it is very hard to manage excessive amount of data.
Solution:
Introduce a smart phone based application system. When the student enters the class or enter the
lesson, the lecturer can mark the attendance. This system would be much reliable and convenient
for the instructor.
4. Manual Scheduling:
The instructors are given a paper based schedule of their lessons for the following day. Booking
sheets and Instructors schedules are kept for one year and then destroyed. The scheduling system
should be improved so that students can also contact their instructors.
Solution:
An online system should be introduced that allows the instructors to view their schedule online
according to the booking system. This system also notifies the student or instructor whenever
there is a change in the schedule.
Finally there should be a manual system for creating invoices. Whenever a student books a
lesson the introduced system automatically creates the invoices. Also introduce an automatic
report system that produces the daily report at the end of the day and a monthly report at the end
of the month.

1.2 Assumptions:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Existing system is manual and is not computerized.


Handwriting is used for booking.
Since the beginning of the company no customization has done.
Bill calculation is done manually
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v)
vi)

They dont have proper registration system for students.


The current system relies on telephone as compared to internet.

2.0 Feasibility study

SCHEDULE FEASIBILTY
OPERATIONAL FEASIBILITY
TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY

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2.1 Schedule Feasibility:
Schedule feasibility means that a project can be implemented in an acceptable time frame.
When assessing schedule feasibility, a system analyst must consider the interaction between time
and cost. (Gary B. Shelly, Thomas J. Cashman, Harry J. Rosenblatt, (2006), Pg. 61).
Gantt chart:
Gantt Charts were developed many years ago by Henry L. Gantt as a production control
technique and still are in common use. A Gantt Chart is a horizontal bar chart that represents a
series of tasks. (Gary B. Shelly, Thomas J. Cashman, Harry J. Rosenblatt, (2006), Pg. 584 ).

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Workload matrix:
Task

YUSRA

ABSTRACT
INTRODUCTION
PROBLEM SOLVING
ASSUMPTIONS

100%

SCHEDULE

100%

HANAN

ARSALAN

ZAIN

100%
100%
100%

FEASIBILITY
OPERATIONAL

50%

FEASIBILITY
TECHNICAL
ECONOMIC

50%
100%
100%

FEASIBILITY
METHODOLOGY

50%

50%

SSADM
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COMPARISON
JUSTIFICATION

50%
50%

CONTEXT DIAGRAM
DFD LEVEL 0
DATA DICTIONARY

50%

50%
100%

100%

PROCESS
SPECIFICATION
DFD LEVEL 1
ERD
ELH

100%
100%
100%

QUESTIONAIRE
STUDENT REG FORM/

50%
50%

50%

25%

25%

50%

INSTRUCTOR
REGISTRATION FORM/
APPOINTMENT

50%

FORM/CHECK
APPOINTMENT FORM
CHECK APPOINTMENT

100%

QUERIES
MONTHLY REPORT

50%

QUERIES
TEACHER TIMETABLE

50%
50%

50%

QUERIES
CHECK APPOINTMENT

50%

25%

25%

REPORT
MONTHLY REPORT
TEACHERS

25%
25%

50%
25%

25%
25%

25%

TIMETABLE REPORT
MAKE APPOINTMENT

25%

25%

25%

25%

TABLE/REGISTRATION
TABLE/INSTRUCTOR
REG. TABLE

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2.2 Operational Feasibility:

The Operational Feasibility is the process of assessing the quantity to which a future system
solves business problems or take benefit of business opportunities (Hoofer et al., 1999).
Operational feasibility refers to an evaluation which defines how well a system can operates.
Operational feasibility also defines how well the new system is received by workers. It is also
important to analyze how any new changes or plans will fit into the existing systemic framework.
. To help measure the degree of which the proposed systems can help the business, a PIECES
framework is performed. Through the PIECES framework, the urgency of a problem or the
effectiveness of a solution can be analyzed as well (Whitten et al., 2000). The letters in PIECES
represent one of six categories:
P Performance
I Information
E Economy
C Control
E Efficiency
S Service

Each of these letters represents a framework as explained below.


Performance:
In operational feasibility the performance category is divided into two parts, Throughput and
Response time.
Throughput is defined as the amount of work performed over a period of time. In computer
technology, throughput is the amount of work that a computer can do in a given time period.
Currently the Henley Driving School is using manual system that is hand based in which
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Instructors have paper diaries to record lesson information. The instructors are given a paper
based schedule of their lessons for the following day. Any clashes are resolved by telephoning
the students to change the appointments straight away. This procedure can be speed up with the
help of a new system which enables the user to receive notification whenever there is a change in
the schedule.
According to the IBM Dictionary of Computing (which cites International Organization for
Standardization Information Technology Vocabulary as the source), response time is:
The elapsed time between the end of an inquiry or demand on a computer system and the
beginning of a response; for example, the length of the time between an indication of the end of
an inquiry and the display of the first character of the response at a user terminal.
Response time can be defined as the speed of the operator to respond to changes as soon as
possible to avoid time wastage. In the current system the details are recorded onto a record card
and placed in an index file. When the information of the student is required the user spends a lot
of time in searching for the particular record. This process can be hastened in the new system.
The user has to only type in the students name and all the details will be displayed according to
date and time. This feature not only saves time but also reduces inaccuracy and increases
reliability.
Information:
Does current mode provide end users and managers with timely, pertinent, accurate and usefully
formatted information? If the company uses a manual system it should be beneficial and easy for
them ,the data Yields are Absence of any data should not be implemented, Should contain
essential data important data should not be absent, A lot of data - "data over-burden" , Data that
has to be an in advantageous form . Data should be correct .Data that should not be challenging
to prepare. Data is convenient to its resulting utilization the disadvantages are Information is not
caught properly. Information is not caught in opportunity to be functional. Information is not
precisely caught - holds slips .The information is troublesome to catch. Information is caught
repetitively - same information caught more than once. An excess of information is caught.
Unlawful information is caught

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Archived information by using a computer system
Information can be archived in numerous documents or databases, it will contain Saved
information. Information is or not secure to mischance or vandalism. Information is overall
ordered. If Information is access it can be stored and maintain.

ECONOMIC:
The companies Economy depends quality and the quantitative sources, The company can
improve its economy by using and making diversity of softwares and publish them in the
websites, although they can place ads so by advertising they can more traffics will occurs and
more revenue will they gain .students can quickly use and register themselves and hence students
can pay quickly and easily. If the company uses manual ways it will not be as quick process as
the computer system does hence more time and high cost and sometimes the costs are unknown
and untraceable to source.

CONTROL:
-Does current mode of operation offer effective controls to protect against fraud and to guarantee
accuracy and security of data and information?. Yet there are some problems faced in manual
system
Too small security or control

Input information is not satisfactorily altered. Unlawful acts are (or could be) conferred against
information. Misrepresentation of the hand written script can lead to Misappropriation of the
script pages. Morals are broken on information or data - alludes to information or Data getting to
unapproved individuals. Needlessly archived information is conflicting in diverse documents or
databases. Information protection regulations or guidelines are constantly (or could be) defiled.
Transforming failures are happening (either by individuals, machines, or programming. Choice making errors are happening. Here is a risk of using outdated operating system in computer; it
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will cause an excessive amount of control or security. Bureaucratic formality abates the
framework. Controls impairment clients or workers and the last, Unreasonable controls reason
preparing defers.
Although there are advantages of using pc framework:
PC frameworks react more rapidly than people. A workstation framework can take readings from
sensors and turn mechanisms on and off numerous many times each second. When the
introductory buy cost has been paid, control frameworks are as a rule sensibly modest to run.
Generally PC control frameworks have easier working expenses than comparable frameworks
which are manned by people. PC control frameworks are exceptionally solid. Unlike a human a
control framework won't lose focus. Machine frameworks can press on to work dependably
twenty four hours a day. They can also use new software of anti-theft like Avast, Avira and create
SSL (Secure socket layer) Webpages and they should use Microsofts latest Windows hardware
quality lab security updates in their windows XP to keep their low profile.

EFFICIENCY:
Does current mode of operation make maximum use of available resources, including people,
time, and flow of forms? The use of manual registering system effects on the efficiency of the
companies work, Information is needlessly include or replicated. Information is needlessly
transformed .The data is needlessly produced. Individuals, machines, or workstations squander
materials and supplies. Exertion needed for assignments is unnecessary and lastly Materials
needed for assignments is unnecessary.

SERVICES:
Does current mode of operation provide reliable service? Is it flexible and expandable? And does
the manual system gives a reliable service? The use of manual system could become risky, the
framework produces wrong results. The framework produces conflicting comes about. The
framework is not simple to utilize. The framework is cumbersome to utilize. The framework is
rigid to new or uncommon scenarios. The framework is incongruent with different frameworks.
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The framework is not composed with different frameworks. And when referring to electronic
system it will improve their business there are many ways, One result is for IT to apply the force
of business process administration to their client administration instruments. IT can help
administration administrators make repeatable business courses of action utilizing visual
displaying apparatuses adapted to the business clients. Operators are headed through a situated of
screens, every one showing the data that they require at a specific indicate complete a procedure
in a reproducible- -and generally productive -way.

An exceptional information system is one of the foundational components for a great


administration experience. A Web self-administration vicinity is an absolute necessity, since
numerous enlightening demands are best addressed utilizing a straightforward "regularly asked
inquiries" page. Likewise, verifying executor information is the same crosswise over
correspondence channels ensures steady and exact replies.
There are some points to be remember about the acceptability of potential solutions about
operational feasibility is that
how do end-clients and administrators feel about the issue (result)? it's not just significant to
assess if a framework can work additionally assess if a framework will work. A workable result
may fall flat due to end-client or administration safety. Does administration uphold the
undertaking? How do the closure clients feel about their part in the new framework? What
closure clients or directors might oppose or not utilize the framework? Individuals have a
tendency to oppose change. Will this issue be succeeding? Assuming this is the case, how? How
will the working environment of the close clients change? Can or will close clients and
administration adjust to the change.

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2.3 Technical Feasibility:
Technical feasibility is the process of determining the technology resources needed by the new
system to operate. The assessment is based on the outline design of system requirement in terms
of output, input, programs, and procedures.(rewrite this)
Hardware

Specifications:
Processor: Intel Pentium G2020 Processor (3M Cache, 2.90GHz w/HD Graphics)
Operating system: Windows 7 Home Premium, No Media, 32-bit, English
Harddisk Size:
Display:
Recommended use:
Data Link Protocol:

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Printer

The LaserJet Pro is finished in a cool white, and is ideal for compact spaces, thanks to its
rounded-edge space-saving design. The 600x600dpi resolution ensures that your prints come out
with great quality.
It offers excellent productivity with impressive printing speeds of up to 18ppm, and quiet
operation. This printer can also handle various types of media including plain paper, envelopes,
labels, cardstock, transparencies and postcards.
The HP LaserJet Pro P1102 Monochrome Laser Printer is a compact yet efficient printer that
can help you economies on time, energy and space!

Price: USD $179(RM590)

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Dell PowerEdge M620 Server


Server acts a central location for sharing and administering information, devices, and
applications on a network. The most common client-server network arrangement involves a
central; hub or switch that directs traffic between client workstations and the server.

Easily deploy concentrated computing power with uncompromising enterprise-class features.


The PowerEdge M620 blade server delivers exceptional memory density and broad network
flexibility for large and small data centers.
Processor: Intel Xeon processor E5-2600 product family
Memory: Up to 768GB (24 DIMM slots) 2GB/4GB/8GB/16GB/32GB DDR3 up to 1600MT/s
Video Card: Integrated Matrox G200

Dell Price: USD $1739(RM 5721.31)

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Tracking device

The Live Trac PT-10 GPS Tracker Is Simply Amazing! Unlike other GPS trackers that update
in minutes, the PT-10 UPDATES Every 10 seconds when travelling over 10 mph - or every 20
feet when walking!

Unlimited Access to monitoring and reporting features


Logs and stores all position for playback
Multiple Geo Fences set by street address and Radius
Automatic Alerts by e-mail or Cell phone Text
Locations on demand at the click of a mouse

Price: USD $219(RM 717)

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Bluetooth GPS Data Logger

The Bluetooth GPS Data Logger is a unique, user friendly Wireless interface for vehicle tracking
device. Bluetooth GPS Data Logger uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) to record vehicle
movement, speed, route and duration of stops, which allows users to view activity in precise
details.
Record your travels
Manage trip expense
Represent one's driving behavior
Geo-photo support

Price: USD $149(RM 490.21)


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Software
Windows Server 2012

Price: $500 (1645RM)

Microsoft Office 2013 Professional Plus

Price: $399 (1312.71RM)

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Bitdefender Small Business pack

Price: $149.95
(493.94RM)

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2.4Economic Feasibility:

Hardware Cost
NO
.
1
2
3
4
5

ITEMS

Quantity

Desktop Dell CPU


Printer
Server
Tracking Device
Bluetooth GPS Data logger
Total

4
1
1
1
1

Unit Price
RM
RM1,149
RM590
RM5,721
RM717
RM490

Total price
RM
RM4,596
RM590
RM5,721
RM717
RM490
RM

Software Cost
NO
.
1
2
3

ITEMS

Quantity

Microsoft Windows Server 2012


Microsoft Office 2013
Bitdenfender Small Business Pack
Total

1
1
1

25

Unit Price
RM
RM1,645
RM1,312
RM493

Total price
RM
RM1,645
RM1,312
RM493
RM3,450

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Development Cost
No.
1
2
3
4

Development cost
Total hardware cost
Total software cost
Service charge of the analyst
Technician for hardware installation
Total

COST
RM
RM3,450
RM30,000
RM1,000
RM

Operation Cost
NO
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Purpose

Monthly
Cost
RM2,000
RM180
RM200
RM700
RM300
RM800

Employees salary (2 employees)


Internet connection 10mb
Telephone service
A part time (on call) IT specialist
Stationary
Electricity
Total

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Annual Cost
RM
RM48,000
RM2,160
RM2,400
RM8,400
RM3,600
RM9,600
RM74,160

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3.0 Methodology
Methodology is defined as a set of methods or rules which are widely used to solve
problems or to develop new system. It is a collection of agreed processes, methods or tools to
help the system developers to successfully accomplish an objective. It is like a road map for
managing projects. Choosing the right and appropriate methodology will help to get the best
planning, management and control the system project. Methodologies provide strategies with
strong concentration on gathering information, planning and design element.
Objectives:

To reduce the risk of failure.


To find out the requirements for an information system.
To provide an effective method of development.
To adjust the time and cost.
To provide a well-documented and easy to maintain system
To indicate the changes that are need to be made.
To develop a system that is liked by people affected by that system.

3.1 Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM)


Structured Systems Analysis and Design Methodology (SSADM) is a methodology which is a
system of ways of doing things especially regular and orderly procedures, used in the analysis
and design stages of systems development. (Unknown Author [b], 2007). SSADM was
developed by Lear Mouth and Burchett with the Civil Service in 1980s.
SSADM covers the early phases of the systems development life cycle, concentrating on the
feasibility study and systems analysis, with some coverage of systems design. Within this part of
the life cycle, the method is organized into seven stages within five modules.

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The stages define the activities that must be carried out to apply the method.
MODULES/STAGES OF SSADM:
Feasibility study:
The feasibility study consists of one single stage. It is a high level analysis of
a business area to determine whether the current or new system can cost effectively support the
business requirement. It includes schedule, operational, technical and economic feasibility.
Requirement analysis:
The requirement analysis consists of two stages: investigation of the current
environment, Business systems options. In this stage the current business environment is
modeled in terms of the processes carried out and the data structures involved. DFD created to
provide and show a detailed logical model of the system. Requirement Analysis is an important
stage of SSADM where the project is transiting from the logical models of the current system to
the logical models of the required system.
Requirements specification:
Requirements specification is the further development of the requirement
analysis. In this stage some new techniques are introduced and detailed functional and nonfunctional requirements are identified to define the required processing and data structures.

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Logical system specification:
Determines management to select the Technical System Option which is more
likely to meet the requirements and be cost effective.
Physical design:
The Physical Design consists of a single stage in which the technical system
specification and logical system specification are used to create a physical database design and a
set of program specifications.

3.2 Comparison of Methodologies

METHODOLOGIE

SSADM

RAD

OOAD

S
An object oriented
Structure Systems

Rapid Application

Analysis and Design Development (RAD)


DEFINITION

situated system is
made out of items.

Methodology

is another, quite

(SSADM) is a

intuitive frameworks

Conduct of the

combined situated

advancement

framework is

of Standards and

approach .RAD is a

attained through

directs for the

thought that items

joint effort between

investigation and

might be created

these items

plan of workstation

quicker and of higher

frameworks.

quality.

State of the
framework is the
consolidated state of
every last one of
items in it.

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Coordinated effort
between articles
includes those
sending messages to
one another.

Feasibility

Investigati

Requireme

nt Planning

on of the

systems

design
Constructi

n
-

on

specialization

Definition
of

requirements
Technical

-Whole parts

Implement

-Association

ation

Define

system

attributes

options

-Complete static
object diagram

Logical

-incomplete

design

generalizatio

options

Identify
structures

Business

User

environment

objects

current

STEPS

Identify

object dictionary

Physical
design

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TIME

LONG

LONG

31

VARIES

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3.3 Justification of selected methodology
We chose Structures System Analysis and Design as the most suitable methodology because:
SSADM operates from the beginning as step by step. During this process each step is
done in a proper way so the work discipline is better.
SSADM does take longer time to complete but once it is complete the accuracy of work
done is a lot better and effective as compared to Rapid Application Development (RAD)
where some of the parts are neglected which were necessary for our system.
Throughout the whole process, SSADM might be costly and requires a lot of research
and documentation if compared to RAD and Object Oriented Analysis and Design
(OOAD) but in the end due to lack of resources RAD and OOAD might cost more.
A breakdown of SSADM into several parts is very beneficial for system analysts. In this
way they can work better and distribute jobs easily to few teams. System analysts are also
able to manage and control the whole development process very well. So, SSADM has a
better guiding principle for system analyst to success the work.

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4.0 Well Defined Techniques


4.1 Context diagram:
A context diagram is a data flow diagram, with only one massive central process that includes
everything inside the scope of the system. It shows how the system will send or receive data
flows to the external entities involved. The Context Diagram shows the system under
consideration as a single high-level process and then shows the relationship that the
system has with other external entities.

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4.2 Data Flow Diagram (DFD)
DFD shows the flow of information/data into and out of the system from the external entities.
DFD can be spread out into different levels; each level is varied by degree of details involved.
The higher the level, the more detailed it is. DFD also shows the overall activity of the system.

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4.2.1 DFD Level 0:

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Data Dictionary:

External Entity a:
Name
Description
Input data flow
Output data flow

Student.
Applying for driving lessons.
Confirmation e-mail, invoice details.
Application form, Payment.

External Entity b:
Name
Description
Input data flow
Output data flow

Instructor
Receives lesson info to instruct the lesson and provides reports.
Lesson details, payment.
Daily/monthly report, Attendance details.

Data Store 1:
Name
Description

Student Database.
Stores students information and provide students details for

Input data flow


Output data flow
Data Structure

processes.
Student Details, Attendance details.
--------Students ID, name, address etc.

Data Store 2:
Name
Description
Input data flow
Output data flow

Timetable
Stores schools schedule and provides available classes
---------Available lesson
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Data Structure
Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure
Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Weekly schedule, monthly schedule etc.


Application Form
To allow the student to send necessary details
External entity a. student.
Process 1.0 Register student
Name, e-mail, age, agreed terms and conditions etc.
Student ID
It sends student ID to confirm students lesson
Process 1.0 Register student
Process 2.0 Check available lesson
TP030163, TP026167 etc.

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Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Confirmation e-mail.
Confirms the student about the lesson.
Process 3.0 book lesson
External Entity a. Student.
Note, e-mail.

Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Schedule Details
Contains data about daily or weekly schedule.
Process 2.0 check available lesson.
Process 3.0 book lesson.
Available days, dates, Monday 10:30 to 12:30 etc.

Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Lesson Details
Contains lesson information
Process 3.0 book lesson
External Entity b. instructor.
Monday lessons to class A students etc.

Data Flow
Name
Description

Daily/Monthly report.
Contains information about students attendance, behavior and
performance.
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Origin
Destination
Data Structure

External Entity b instructor.


Process 4.0 create invoices.
Attendance: 80%
Grade: passed.

Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Invoice details.
Contains information about invoices
Process 4.0 create invoices
External Entity a Student
Lesson 1: amount = 100.
Lesson 2: amount = 100.

Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Payment.
Payment from the student for the lessons.
External Entity a. Student.
Process 5.0 Manage payments.

Student details.
Students information.
Process 1.0 Register student
Data Store 1. Database
Name, address, picture , nationality etc.

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Data Flow
Name
Description
Origin
Destination
Data Structure

Available lesson.
Date and time of available lesson.
Data store 2. Timetable
Process 2.0 check available lesson.
Monday 11:00 to 12:00.

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Process Specification:

Process
Name
Description

Process 1.0 Register Student


It collects the application and registers the student after checking

Input data flow


Output data flow
Process specification

the eligibility.
Application form.
Student details, Student ID.
ACCEPT application form from Student entity. READ the details.
REGISTER the student. STORE student details in Student
database. SEND student ID to Process 2.0

Process
Name
Description

Process 2.0 Check Available Lesson.


It checks the weekly/monthly schedule to search the available

Input data flow


Output data flow
Process specification

dates for the lesson.


Student ID, Available lesson
Schedule details.
GET Student ID. CHECK available lesson. IF available send
details to process 3.0 ELSE return the ID.

Process
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Name
Description

Process 3.0 Book Lesson


It books the available lesson and send confirmation to students

Input data flow


Output data flow
Process specification

and instructor.
Schedule details.
Confirmation e-mail, Lesson details.
GET schedule details. READ details. BOOK lesson. SEND
confirmation e-mail to Student Entity and lesson information to
Instructor Entity.

Process
Name
Description

Process 4.0 Create Invoices.


It examines the students reports to create invoices then send the

Input data flow


Output data flow
Process specification

details to the student for payment.


Daily/Monthly Report.
Invoice Details.
Read daily/monthly report. CREATE invoices. SEND it to
Student Entity.

Process
Name
Description
Input data flow
Output data flow
Process specification

Process 5.0 Manage payments.


It manages payment for the instructor.
Lesson fee
Salary
GET lesson fee from the student. Manage Payments. SEND
salary to instructor.

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4.2.2 DFD Level 1:

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4.3 ERD (Entity Relationship Diagram)

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4.4 ELH (ENTITY LIFE HISTORY)
A major purpose behind building computer based data frameworks is to give up to date and exact
data. Information is continually changing or advancing, for instances the amount of bunks
accessible in a doctor's facility, the cost of petrol, and individuals' names and addresses. A data
framework must have the capacity to stay informed concerning these progressions.
Element Life Histories (ELH) models the framework from the perspective of how the
entities/information in a framework develops over the long haul. What the ELH show is the full
situated of progressions that can conceivably strike the entities/information inside the
framework, together with the connection of every change.
At first, every element inside a framework is analyzed in disengagement as this is a reasonable
unit of data to model. It is the boosts of the progressions that are demonstrated instead of the
element, a composite picture is structured, in the end tagging the full set of progressions that will
happen inside the framework.
An ELH is a diagrammatic representation of the life of a solitary element, from its creation to its
erasure. The life is communicated as the allowed arrangement of occasions that can make the
element change. An occasion may be considered whatever carries a methodology without
hesitation to change elements, so despite the fact that it is a procedure that changes the substance,
it is the occasion that is the explanation for the change.
Creation of Entity Life Histories
The important requirements for the improvement of life histories are learning of the
accompanying three ELH segments:
* The framework substances and their properties.
*The occasions which influence one or a greater amount of the framework substances throughout
their lifetime in the framework
*A fundamental documentation for depicting graphically the sequential arrangement in which
the occasions and occasion sub structures might happen.
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5.0 Survey
Questionnaire:

1. How satisfied are you with the current system?


not satisfied average satisfied very satisfied
2. Is the current systems user friendly?
Yes No
3. With the current system, does the booking process take time to process?
Yes No
4. Is it easy to find students information?
Yes No
5. If the booking time is allocated to a student clashed with another student, what should
happen?
automatically re-allocate the time for both students with first come first serve
order.
Let the instructor teaches both of them at the same time.
6. Do you want to replace this manual paper-based system with a new computerized
system?
Yes No
7. In case of error in the new computerized system, do you need a technical support team
that helps you to overcome the error?
Yes No
8. Which is more suitable for the new system?
larger database that can save millions of details and information.
Normal database where the saved file will automatically renewed after several
months.
9. Do you like the future computerized system?
Yes No
10. Based on the information of the new computerized system, is all the functions of the new
computerized system are useful to the user?
Yes No
11. What improvements should be made in your opinion?
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______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

6.0 Conclusion.
As a conclusion, the whole system is now computerized. The new system will now work much
faster. It will be much more efficient and effective as compared to the manual system. Driving
slots can be sorted and store more systematically through the database that proposed to the
service. Booking and scheduling will be much more accurate. The new system is very user
friendly and well order and it meets all the requirements that are necessary for the growing
business of the company.

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Individual Part
YUSRA NAJEEB
I personally think System Analysis and Design is a great subject. I really liked working on this
assignment. It gave us the idea on how to build a system effectively and efficiently. I learned all
the steps that are necessary to build the foundation of a successful project. Initially, I found this
subject somewhat difficult because it was completely new for me. I had never learned this kind
of subject before. As time passed, I started getting the idea of this subject then I found this
subject to be very interesting. I personally love to manage and organize things and put my
maximum effort as long as it gives benefits to other people. At the very first time I thought I
could not do this. I found it very hard and confusing but now I think it would be a total loss if
you dont learn this subject. I am very thankful to our lecturer Mrs. Palvinderjit Kaur who
patiently taught us about all the topics covered in this subject and help whenever we faced any
obstacle in the accomplishment of this project.

This subject taught us the fundamentals of managing and developing a


system. I learnt about some of the methodologies that are required for a successful project. We
had the detailed study of different kind of methodologies. Each methodology has its own
advantages and disadvantages. We also learnt about feasibility report and its different types. I
learned about Data Flow Diagrams. They are very crucial to many systems analysis methods
because a lot of the other techniques depend on them. DFDs allow the system to be modeled at a
logical rather than a physical level. That is, we want to see the logic of the system without the
physical detail getting in the way. I also learned the different levels of DFDs. I also learnt how
to record data in the data dictionary and how to model blocks of data (entities) and the
relationship between them using entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) also called data modeling.

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My group was assigned by a task to create an automatic system for a driving
school called Henley Driving School System. To create the system we divided our work into
different parts. I covered the topics about introduction, problems and their solutions, Schedule
feasibility, level 0 DFD, level1 DFD, data dictionary, process specification, forms and
conclusion. I have done a lot of reading and research. When I first started reading the case study,
a lot of questions came in my mind. What should I do if I am the project manager? I did the
detailed analysis of the problems the system was facing and provided the company with all the
possible solutions. In schedule feasibility part I suggested how much time a task should need to
be done perfectly. On this basis I drew a Gantt chart for my group members so that they can
understand more easily and get the idea of the system. Drawing the DFD diagrams was very
challenging for me. These diagrams were the most important part of the project so I had to be
very careful about them. For the reference I read many books, asked help from my lecturer and
senior students. I have also provided data dictionary and process specification to clearly explain
the diagrams. Overall this project was a great experience for me.

I was the group leader in my group and I worked really to satisfy my group
members by developing a system that look different and better than others. I tried my best to help
my members as much as possible and I am very thankful to my group members Hanan Zahid,
Arsalan Saeed and Zain shoaib that they have been really helpful. My group members are very
positive and helped each other so much to get the job done. This project was very interesting for
me as it tested my leadership skills. I never left anything on my partners and I tried to lead them
from the front to show them the right way. We all wanted a perfect system so we all co-operated
and remind each other about their responsibilities.
To develop a system with perfection is a very hard job nearly impossible. I faced some problems
as well to develop this project. Some of my members were acting lazy, did not attend the
meetings properly so I had to make other arrangements. As a girl it was quite difficult to handle
if they were not taking the work seriously but eventually they realized their responsibilities. I
faced many difficulties during the project. I spent sleepless nights to handle those difficulties but

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in the end I realized that those difficulties were not as difficult as I thought. I have gained more
knowledge about developing an IT system which will be helpful for me in the future.

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HANAN ZAHID
Introduction:
My individual part included work breakdown structure, making tables, making forms, adding
reports, relationships of the tables, navigation and all that was has been done in the access to
make the system for Henley Driving School. My entire group members divided their parts and
helped each other if anyone had any problem related his/her part. Most of my research was at
making the system for Henley Driving School.
Problems Faced:
This was the first time ever for me using Microsoft Access and to make tables and forms and
queries and relating all of them up was very difficult. Also our group meetings were mostly done
at university classes timing. As we lived far from each other so it was difficult to keep in touch
with each other. Furthermore it was not easy finding information related to this assignment over
the internet usually one problem leading to another and before you know it you are lost. Many
times because of very little problems I had to start over all of my hard work.
Solutions:
Most of the help was from my group members we didnt anyones spirit down and kept on trying
hard. We all attended each of our meetings and in those meeting asked questions and showed our
work to each other got feedback and accordingly work harder. For creating the system at access I
had a lot of help from YouTube and lots and lots of online research and most help came from a
friend who was familiar with access. Late night works with him and as I was really new to this I
had to work hard and finally was able to do it. Lastly after working really hard and cooperating
with each other we solved most of our problems and completed our assignment.
Lessons Learnt:
This was the first time for me using Microsoft Access so I learnt a lot about using it, I leant how
to make tables, forms, queries and reports. I learnt how to add relationships to tables and learnt a
lot of rule of using access. Also I learnt methodology, level 0 and level 1 diagram, context
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diagram I had help from my teacher and friends and read some articles online saw some pictures
and got a lot of idea how could I have done them. All of this I didnt knew before doing this
assignment and Im pleased with what I have learnt.
Conclusion:
It was not easy to complete this project and I faced a lot of problems but in the end I was able to
solve all of them and learnt a lot new things. Together with my group members made a huge
system which works perfectly and I enjoyed doing all that because I learnt many things.

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ARSLAN SAEED
INTRODUCTION:
My individual part includes introduction Feasibility, ELH (Entity Life history) and forms and
report. All the work that has been done in the Microsoft word to make the system for Henley
Driving School. My group members divided their parts and helped each other if anyone needs
help regarding his/her part. Most of my research was at making reports and diagrams for Henley
Driving School.

PROBLEM FACED:
Since this was the first time ever for me to use Microsoft word and Microsoft Visio for SAAD
diagrams and forms and queries and relating all of them up was very difficult, although I am not
an expert only a beginner. Also our group meetings were mostly held at university timing. As we
lived so far from each other so it was difficult to keep in touch with each other. Furthermore it
was difficult finding information related to this assignment over the internet usually one problem
leading to another and before you know it you are lost. Many times because of very little
problems I had to start over all of my hard work.

CONCLUSION
The work that I culminated after a very long hard work, I found many mistakes and problems
that I faced but somehow managed them with the online websites, from YouTube tutorials and
special regards to my group leader who guided me and from these mistakes I have learnt so
much. Although its not perfect but I will perform much better in the upcoming tasks and
challenges.

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ZAIN SHOAIB

When I was first given the case study I found it impossible to do it. Since I never had experience
about any kind of project management I thought it would be something I wont be able to do. But
as time passes, I concentrated more and more on lectures given by our teacher. I attended all the
classes with great interest. I asked help from my friends and classmates. I searched online and
read some books about it. Now I consider it as one of my favorite subject. In my opinion, having
knowledge of this subject is very necessary in future.
The case study given to us is very interesting. It is about a driving school which is facing many
problems because of their manual systems. Our team has been given a project to entirely change
the system and develop a completely new project which is computerized. In this process my team
members thoroughly analyzed the system and presented solutions and assumptions for the
system.
So, the tasks given to me includes technical feasibility, economic feasibility, methodology, ERD
and forms. I did the detailed study of the system and estimated the amount of technological and
economical requirements that are necessary for the new computerized system. I read about many
different types of methodologies and suggested the most suitable methodology for the system.
During the case study I did not face many problems because my group leader was very kind and
helpful. I am very thankful to my group members who helped me and keep reminded me of my
responsibilities.
As a conclusion I have learnt all the basic needs necessary to manage and develop a project.

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Group meetings
First meeting:
This was our first meeting so we all just read the assignment and distributed the
tasks upon each other. There was some heat up moments as nobody wanted to take
difficult tasks but then we sorted everything.
Second meeting:
This was actually just a wakeup call for everyone to start doing their tasks. But
there were somehow work down as well.
Third meeting:
Now we were comparing our works and checking with each other if anyone needed
any help and helped that member of ours and decided what to be done for the next
meeting.
Fourth Meeting:
By this time all of us have been done with our assignments and we were just
compiling our assignments and checking if any improvements were needed
Fifth meeting:
Now all the improvements were done and everything was added up. So we
compiled everything and congratulated each other for completing the assignment
before the time.

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References:
http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/~prawling/ssadm.htm
http://www.eis.mdx.ac.uk/staffpages/geetha/bis2030/DFD.html
The essence of structured system analysis techniques by Gary Griffiths

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