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# LESSON 6.

1
Vibrations and Waves

Amplitude
The _______________________________ of the objects
from their _______________ position.

Introduction
Period, T
A wave is produced by a source of vibration.
Mechanical waves need a material or medium for their
propagation.
Examples of mechanical waves include water waves
,sound waves, shock waves as in earthquakes and waves
in strings, springs and rods.
Electromagnetic waves do not need a material medium for
their propagation.
Examples of electromagnetic waves are radio waves ,
light waves , infra-red (IR) and ultra-violet ( UV).
As a wave travels through a medium, there is no transfer
of matter but only transfer of energy from a vibrating
source.

## The time taken for ____________________________

oscillation.
The S.I. unit is second (s)
T= t
n

t = time
n = number of oscillations

Frequency, f
The number of _______________________________ per
second.
The S.I. unit is Hertz (Hz)

Vibration

f= 1
T

## A periodic motion where the system performs a

___________ to-and-fro motion about an equilibrium
position.

Or

T= n
t

Graph displacement-time
Equilibrium position
The position of the object where is ____ resultant force
acts on the object.
One oscillation
To-and-fro motion from the equilibrium position.
Example 1
A pendulum makes 20 complete oscillations in 24.0 s.
Calculate
(a) the period
Solution

(b)

the frequency

Example 2

## Based on he graph above, determine the

(a) amplitude
(c) frequency

(b) period

Solution

Natural Frequency

## The frequency of the free oscillation of a system without

any external forces is exerted to the system.

## A phenomenon that occurs when the frequency of forced

vibrations on an object ______________ the objects
natural frequency and a dramatic increase in amplitude
results.

## Factors affecting the natural frequency of the

vibration systems.
Vibration system

Factors affecting

## Experiment to show a phenomenon of resonance

Formula

Oscillation of a
pendulum
Oscillation of a
spring hang with a
mass

## The pendulum B ( driver pendulum) is pulled well aside an

released so that it oscillates in plane perpendicular.
All the pendulums oscillate but with different amplitudes.
The pendulum D whose length equals that of the driver
(pendulum B) has the greatest amplitude because its
natural frequency of oscillation is the same as the
frequency of the driving pendulum.

Oscillation of a
with plasticine ball

## The picture showing the insides of the body was produced

using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Our bodies
contain a lot of hydrogen , mostly in water. The proton in a
hydrogen spins . A spinning charged particle has a
magnetic field, so the protons act like small magnets.
These are normally aligned in random directions. Placing
a patient in a strong magnetic fields keeps these mini
magnets almost in line. Their field axis just rotates , a bite
like a spinning top. This is called precessing.

## Examples of Resonance in Everyday Life

Example 1:
A car or a washing machine may vibrate quite violently at
particular speeds. In each case ,resonance occurs when
the frequency of a rotating part ( motor, wheel, drum etc.)
is equal to a natural frequency of vibration of the body of
the machine. Resonance can build up a vibration to a
large amplitude.

Damping
Damping is a word used to describe how movement and
vibrations are _____________ or ________________.
Damping is a process whereby oscillations die down due
to a loss of energy to friction forces.
When a system is damped , the amplitude of the of
oscillation decreases slowly until the system stops
oscillating.
Damping is usually caused by external frictional forces
such as air resistance . It can also be caused by internal
forces , where energy is lost from the system in form of
heat.

Example 2:
The story is told of an opera singer who could shatter a
glass by singing a note at its natural frequency.
Example 3:
The wind ,blowing in gusts, once caused a suspension
bridge to sway with increasing amplitude until it reached a
point where the structure was over-stressed and the
bridge collapsed.
Example 4:
Wind instruments such as flute, clarinet, trumpet etc.
depend on the idea of resonance. Longitudinal pressure
waves can be set up in the air inside the instrument. The
column of air has its own natural frequencies at which it
can vibrate. When we blow, we use the mouthpiece to
start some vibrations. Those which happen to match
exactly the natural frequencies of the instrument are
picked out and magnified.
Example 5 :
The another example of useful resonance is the tuning
the aerial and only the one which is required must be
picked out. This is done by having a capacitanceinductance combination which resonates to the frequency
of the required wave . The capacitance is variable; by
altering its value other frequencies can be obtained.

## In daily use ,e.g. shock absorbers in cars cause

oscillations to die down after a car has gone over a
For another example, damping is introduced
intentionally in measurement instruments such as
galvanometer , spring balance etc. to overcome the
problem of taking a reading from an oscillating
needle.

Example 6 :
Microwave ovens use resonance. The frequency of
microwaves almost equals the natural frequency of
vibration of a water molecule. This makes the water
molecules in food resonate . This means they take in
energy from the microwaves and so they get hotter. This
heat conducts and cooks the food.
Example 7 :

TUTORIAL 6.1
1

A
C
E

## The figure shows a bob of a simple pendulum is

swinging between point A and point C.
4

## One oscillation is counted when it oscillating from

A
B
C
D
2

A to B
A to C
A to C and back C to B
A to C and back C to A

2.0 s
6.0 s
10.0 s

B
D

4.0 s
8.0 s

## A child on a swing makes 20 complete swings in 30

seconds.
What is the frequency of the oscillation?
A

1 Hz
3

1 Hz
2

2 Hz
3

3
2

2 Hz

Hz

## The figure shows a bob of a simple pendulum is

swinging between point P and point Q. It takes 13.8
s to swing from P to Q and back to P twenty times
Base on the figure above, which distance represents
the amplitude?
6

time.

A
C
E
3

0.69 s
1.45 s
276 s

B
D

1.38 s
27.6 s

## The figure shows a pendulum is swinging. The

time taken from the rest position M to its
maximum displacement N is 2.0 s.

Amplitude/ m
A
B
C
D

0 .1
0.2
0.1
0.2

Period / s
0.50
0.50
0.25
0.50

Frequency / Hz
2
1
4
2

## The period of oscillations of a simple pendulum

increases when the ________________________
increases.
A
B
C
D

## length of the pendulum

mass of the bob of the pendulum
acceleration due to gravity
amplitude of the oscillations of the pendulum

A
B

## The figure shows P,Q,R and S are four pendulums of

different lengths and masses of the bob.

## The amplitude of oscillation is 20 cm

The period of oscillation is the taken to
move from A to C
The frequency of oscillation increases when
the length of pendulum decreases

11

## Which of the following arrangements of springs

produces the highest frequency?
[ All the springs are identical ]

12

## A spring is loaded with a weight of 40 g takes 0.6 s

to make a complete swing. What is the time of a

## Which pendulum swings the slowest?

A P
B Q
C R
D S
Pak Abu has a pendulum clock as shown in the
diagram below.

## Every day it was observed that the clock was slow

To correct the clock Pak Abu
A
B
C
D
10

## raised the position of the bob

lowest the position of the bob
increased the mass of the bob
decreased the mass of the bob

5

## complete swing of the spring , when the spring is

carried out to the surface of the Moon?

## A metal rod R is clamped at R to make OR = 20 cm.

( g earth = 1 g moon )
6
A
C
E
13

0.6 s
4.2 s

## the length of the jigsaw blade

the stiffness of the jigsaw blade
the mass of the plasticine ball
the acceleration due to gravity

## Which of the following is not true when the bob is

displaced and released ?
A
B

## What energy changes take place when a load hang

at the end of a spring is displaced downwards and
released to make vertical vibrations?
A
B
C
D

15

B
D

## The vibration frequency of a piece of jigsaw blade

with plasticine ball at its end is not depends on
A
B
C
D

14

0.1 s
3.6 s
10.0S

## Gravitational Potential Energy Kinetic

energy Elastic Potential Energy
Kinetic energy Gravitational Potential
Energy Elastic Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy Kinetic
energy Gravitational Potential Energy
Elastic Potential Energy Kinetic energy
Elastic Potential Energy

D
17

## At point B ,the bob has the highest velocity

The time taken to move from to A to B same as
from B to C.
The gravitational potential energy at A same as
at C
The gravitational potential energy at A same as
the kinetic energy at B

## The figure shows five pendulums that are hung from

th wire MN. The pendulum P is displaced and
released.

amplitude?
A
C

## At which point does the bob of the pendulum have

both of kinetic energy and gravitational potential
energy?
16

18

cm.

Pendulum W
Pendulum Y

B
D

Pendulum X
Pendulum Z

## Which of the following physical quantities has a

maximum value when resonance occurs?

19

A frequency
B period
C amplitude
D acceleration
A spring vibrates at a natural frequency 50 Hz.
Resonance occurs when the frequency of forced
vibrations on the spring is

A
C
24

A
C
20

0 Hz
50 Hz

B
D

25 Hz
100 Hz

A
B
C

B
C
D

the spring ?

## the pendulums are oscillated with a maximum

speed
the iron rod is replaced by a string
increase the mass of the bobs

## The violent vibrations of a washing machine at

some spin speeds
The tuning circuits in TV and radio sets work at
the frequency of the station you select
The wind instruments produce sound by forcing
the air inside the tube
The shock absorbers in cars cause oscillations
to die down after a car has gone over a bump

## A system is oscillating at its natural frequency

without damping.
What happens to the total energy of the oscillating
system?
A
B
C

23

frequency
number of
oscillations

## The figure shows a mass hanging from a spring is

immersed in water.

resonance ?
A

22

B
D

## The figure shows the arrangement of the apparatus

to show the phenomenon of resonance but the
resonance not occurs.

## To improve the experiment ,

21

period
energy

It remains constant
It decreases
It increases

## As the amplitude decreases the ______________

decrease.

24

Longitudinal waves

## Waves in which the direction of vibration of the particles is

____________ to the direction of wave propagation
called a longitudinal wave.

Introduction
Oscillations can produce waves. Waves transfer energy
from one place to another without permanently displacing
the medium through which they travel.
When we drop a stone into a pond, the kinetic energy of
the stone makes the water surface move up and down
near where the stone lands; ripples spread out outwards
and if an floating object on the water some distance
away will start to bob up and down. It is becaused the
original energy of the moving stone has been transferred
to the object by the wave motion on the water surface.
When we are at the seaside, we can see large as well as
small waves reaching the shore. These waves arise
because of the strong winds in the middle of the sea.The
energy of the winds is carried by the waves to the shore.
The water from the middle of the sea does not reach the
shore.
The wave motion is regular and repetitive (i.e. periodic
motion)
There are two main types mechanical waves such as
sound waves and electromagnetic waves.

## An example of transerve waves is sound waves..

Wave terminology
Amplitude:
The maximum displacement of the medium particles
from the _________________ position.

Transverse waves

Period , T:
The ________ for one complete oscillations of each
particle in the wave.

## Waves in which the direction of vibration of the partticles is

__________________ to the direction of wave
propagation called a transverse wave.

Frequency, f :
The number of oscillations of each particle in the wave in
_______ second.
f=1
T
Wavelength ,
The distance between two _________________ points
which are vibrating in phase.
Or
The distance from one wave crest to the next.
Or
The distance from one wave trough to the next.

## The examples of transerve waves are water waves and

electromagnetic waves (radio waves ,microwaves , infrared (IR) light waves, ultra-violet ( UV), X-rays and gamma
rays.

Or
8

Compression
Region along a longitudinal wave where the pressure and
density of particles are higher than when no wave is
passing.
Wavespeed , v
The distance moved by a wave in one second.
The wavespeed depends only the medium the waves are
traveling through.

Rarefaction
Region along a longitudinal wave where the pressure and
density of particles are lower than when no wave is
passing

Wavefront
The locus of points which vibrates in phase.

## The wave equation

Wavespeed = frequency x
wavelength
v = f

## For water waves there are two types of wavefront i.e

circular wavefront and plane wavefront.

Example 1
A student moves the end of a long spring from side to side
4 times persecond. The wavelength of the wave on the
spring is 0.6 m. With what speed do the waves moves
along the spring?
Solution

circular wavefron
Example 2
Radio waves travel at a speed 3 x 108 ms-1. What is the
plane wavefront

Solution

Crest
The point where a wave causes
_____________________
__________________displacement of the medium.
Trough
The point where a wave causes ____________________
_________________displacement of the medium.

Example 3

## A long rope is stretched out on the floor. One end of the

rope is then shaken. The graph shows the rope at a
particular moment in time. The rope vibrated at a
frequency 8 Hz.

## (b) What is the frequency of the sound if the speed of

sound is 330 ms-1.
Solution

Determine
(a) the amplitude
(b) the wavelength
(c) the speed

Solution

## In laboratory, to produce water wave we use a ripple tank.

A shallow tray of clear plastic holds the water, and a light
above the water surface projects the wave patterns on a
sheet of white paper on the bench below the tank.
The bright and dark bands of the wave pattern formed
on the screen because the surface of water acts as
lenses.
The ________ of water waves similar with convex lens
and the ________of water waves similar with concave
lens.

Example 4
The figure shows the sound waves produced by a tuning
fork.

## (a) Base on the figure determine,

(i) the amplitude
(ii) the wave length
10

T UTORIAL 6. 2
1

## Which of the following is the transverse wave

different from the longitudinal wave?
A
B
C
D

## Plane waves are produced by a straight bar which hangs

by two elastic bands from supports near one end of the
tank.
Circular waves are produced by using dippers fixed to
the bar.

## When a continuous stream of waves is used , it is

sometimes easier to see by using a mechanical
stroboscope to freeze the wave pattern. When the
frequency of the waves same as the frequency of the
stroboscope the pattern will appear stationary.

speed
period
amplitude
direction of vibration of the particles and
direction of wave propagation

the wave passes?

## Stroboscope frequency = number of slits x rotation

frequency of stroboscope
or
f = np
Example 5
A mechanical stroboscope has 8 slits and rotates at a
frequency 5 Hz. The stroboscope is used to observe water
waves. The observer notes there are 6 successive bright
bands at a distance 12 cm. Calculate the speed of the
water waves.

## The figure shows a slinky spring is moved

backwards and downwards to produce a model of a
wave.

Solution

11

Type of wave

## direction of the wave

propagation compare
with the spring
vibration

A
B
C

Parallel
Perpendicular
Parallel

Longitudinal
Longitudinal
Transverse

D Transverse
Perpendicular
In which of the following pairs is the first wave motion
transverse and the second wave motion
longitudinal?
Transverse
A
B
C
D

Light
Infra-red
X-ray
Micro

Longitudinal
Ultra-violet
Sound
Ripples

A
C
E
9

A
C
6

P and R
Q and T

B
D

10

15 cm
45 cm
75 cm

B
D

11

30 cm
60 cm

A
D

8 cm s-1
18 cm s-1

0.5 m
80 m
180000 m

B
D

2.0 m
5000 m

## A dolphin emits an ultrasonic wave with a

wavelength of 0.01 m. The speed of ultrasonic wave
in water is 1 500 ms-1.
What is the frequency of the ultrasound?
A
C
E

2 cm s-1
12 cm s-1
36 cm s-1

## The speed of a sound wave is 300 m s -1 vibrates

with a frequency 0.6 kHz . What is the wavelength of
the sound?
A
C
E

Q and S
P and T

A
C
E

## The figure shows a wavefront pattern produced by a

dipper vibrating at a frequency of 12 Hz in a ripple
tank.

6.7x 10-6 Hz
3.0 x 101 Hz
3.0 x 105 Hz

B
D

1.5 x 101 Hz
1.5 x 105 Hz

## The figure shows a transverse wave is produced a

long rope by a student. The students hand make
The makes 10 complete up and down movements in
1.0 s

true?
A
B
C
D

Amplitude
6 cm
6 cm
3 cm
3 cm

Wavelength
8 cm
11 cm
8 cm
11 cm

A
C
E

12

0.5 ms-1
4.0 ms-1
20 ms-1

B
D

2.0 ms-1
10 ms-1

12

## 11 successive bright bands at a distance 20 cm is

formed on the screen in an experiment by using a
ripple tank. The vibrator vibrates at 8 vibrations per
second.
What is the velocity of the water wave in the ripple
tank?
A
C
E

40 cms-1
16 cms-1
4 cms-1

B
D

## 16 A dipper moving up and down makes waves in a

ripple tank.
What will happen when the dipper frequency is
decreased?
A
B
C

20 cms-1
8 cms-1
17

13

## The diagram shows the straight lines represent the

positions , at one instant , of successive crests of
plane waves traveling on water. The waves travel at
distance 45.0 cm in 3.0 s.

A
B
C
D
E
18

A 30 Hz
B 15 Hz
C 7.5 Hz
D 2.5 Hz
E 0.5 Hz
14

15

## The waves will be far apart each other

The waves will be closer together
The wave peaks will be higher and the troughs
lower
D The wave peaks will be lower and the troughs
higher
A vibrator produces a water wave vibrates 20
vibrations per second. When the frequency of the
vibrator is increased by 2 times , what happen to
the wavelength of the water wave?

## A mechanical stroboscope has 12 slits and rotates at

a frequency 5 Hz. The stroboscope is used to
observe water waves. The observer notes there are
6 successive bright bands at a distance 20 cm.
Calculate the speed of the water waves.
A 60 cms-1
B 100 cms-1
-1
C 120 cms
D 180 cms-1
E 240 cms-1

## A water wave of wavelength 6 cm travels with a

speed 12 cm s-1 from deep water to shallow water.
At the shallow water the speed of the wave is 20 cm
s-1. What is the wavelength of the wave at shallow
water?
A
C
E

19

## of its initial wavelength

of its initial wavelength
same as its initial wavelength
2 times of its initial wavelength
4 times of its initial wavelength

8 cm
12 cm
40 cm

B
D

10 cm
16 cm

## The figure shows a loudspeaker produces a sound

with a frequency 300 Hz

## Which graph shows the relationship between

frequency,f and wavelength, of a wave?
Which of the following is true?
A
B
C
D

## The transverse wave is produced

X is a rarefaction region
The wavelength is 1.2 m
The speed of the sound is 250 ms-1

19

LESSON 6.3
Analysing reflection of waves
13

Hypothesis:
The angle of reflection increases as the angle of incidence
increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the angle of
incidence and the angle of reflection.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence
Responding variable: Angle of reflection
Fixed variable: depth of water in ripple tank
List of apparatus and materials:
Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply
white paper , protractor ,plane reflector and mechanical
stroboscope.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

Reflection of waves
Reflection of a wave occurs when a wave strikes an
obstacle such as barrier, plane reflector , mirror and wall.
The reflection of waves obeys the law of reflection :
(a) The angle of incidence is ___________ to the
angle of reflection.
(b) The incident wave, the reflected wave and the
normal lie in the ____________ plane.
When the reflection of a wave happened, the
___________, the _____________ and the
____________ do not change but the
_________________________________ of the wave
changes.
Reflection of water waves
To investigate the reflection of water waves a metallic
plane reflector is placed at the centre of a ripple tank. The
motor with a wooden bar attached is switched on to
produce plane waves which propagate towards the
reflector. The reflector repositioned to produce different
angles of incidence.
The following figure shows two examples pattern of the
reflection of the water waves.
(a)

## The procedure of the experiment which include the

method of controlling the manipulated variable and
the method of measuring the responding variable.
The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves
which propagate towards the reflector.
The incident waves and the reflected waves are freeze by
a mechanical stroboscope.
The waves are sketched on the screen.
By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured
= i and the angle of reflection = r
The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of
incidence.

(b)

## Tabulate the data:

i
r
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph r against i
The experiment to investigate the relationship
between the angle of incidence and the angle of
reflection of a water wave.
Reflection of light waves

14

## The procedure of the experiment which include the

method of controlling the manipulated variable and
the method of measuring the responding variable.
A normal line ,ON is drawn on the white paper.
A ray of light from the ray box is directed to the plane
mirror.
By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured
= i and the angle of reflection = r
The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of
incidence.
Tabulate the data:
i
r
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph r against i

When rays of light strike any surface the rays are reflected
, unless the surface is black, when they are absorbed.
The reflection depends on how smooth the surfaces are.
Good mirrors reflect well over 90% of the light that
reaches them, with only a small amount being absorbed.
A plane mirror is a flat smooth surface which reflects
regularly most of the light falling on it.
The phenomenon of reflection of light obeys the law
of reflection.
(a) The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
reflection.
(b) The incident wave, the reflected wave and the
normal lie in the same plane.
It also can be seen that
(a) The size of the image ___________ the size of
the object
(b) The distance of the image ___________ the
distance of the object

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the angle of incidence and the angle of
reflection of a light wave.

## The sound wave is reflected by walls and ceilings of

buildings, unborn baby or sea bed.
Echo is a phenomenon when a sound wave has been
reflected of a surface, and is heard after the original
sound.

Hypothesis:
The angle of reflection increases as the angle of incidence
increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the angle of
incidence and the angle of reflection.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence
Responding variable: Angle of reflection
Fixed variable: position of the plane mirror
List of apparatus and materials:
Ray box, plane mirror, plasticine, protractor and white
paper

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the angle of incidence and the angle of
reflection of a sound wave.
Hypothesis:
The angle of reflection increases as the angle of incidence
increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the angle of
incidence and the angle of reflection.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence
Responding variable: Angle of reflection
Fixed variable: the position of stop watch from the smooth
wall.
List of apparatus and materials:
Cardboard tube, soft wood , stop watch, protractor and
smooth wall.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

15

TUTORIAL 6.3
1

## The figure shows a set of a plane waves arriving at a

plane reflector placed in a ripple tank.

## The procedure of the experiment which include the

method of controlling the manipulated variable and
the method of measuring the responding variable.
By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is measured
=i
The stopwatch is started.
The cardboard tube B is moved around until the watch can
be heard most clearly.
By using the protractor , the angle of reflection is
measured = r
The experiment is repeated 5 times for the other angles of
incidence.
Tabulate the data:
i
r
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph r against i

16

## Which diagram shows how water waves would be

reflected by a plane barrier?

water waves?

## The diagram shows a mirror is titled at an angle of

50o to the bench. A ray of light is directed so that it
hits the mirror at an angle of 20o to the surface of
the mirror.

A
C
E
7
4

## The figure shows a set of a plane waves arriving at a

plane reflector placed in a ripple tank.

20o
50o
100o

B
D

40o
700

## The figure shows two mirrors X and Y inclined to

each other at 900 . A ray of light falls upon miror X.

A
C
5

wavelength
wave direction

B
D

speed of wave
frequency of
wave

A
C
E

## The diagram shows a single ray of light being

directed at a plane mirror.

15o
45o
90o

B
D

30o
600

mirror Y ?
8

## The figure shows a light ray being incident to the

surface of plane mirror PQ. The mirror is then
rotated anti-clock wise through an angle 15o.

## What are the angles of incidence and reflection?

A
B
C
D

Angle of
incidence
35o
55o
35o
55o

Angle of
reflection
55o
35o
35o
55o
What is the new angle of reflection of the light ray?
A
17

00

150

C
9

300

600

11

## The figure shows two plane mirrors JK and

LM which have been placed at a right angle to each
other.

A
B
C
D

12

## the refraction of sound waves

the reflection of sound waves
the diffraction of sound waves
the polarization of sound waves

brick wall.

has

## Which of the ray diagram is true to show the

path of ray until it emerges from the both the
mirrors.

A
B
C
D

a greater amplitude
a shorter wavelength
the same speed
the same velocity

14
10

## The figure shows the apparatus is used to

investigate the reflection of sound waves. At what
position of the cardboard tube is adjusted until a
loud ticking sound of the stopwatch is heard?

18

(b)

LESSON 6.4
Analysing refraction of waves
Refraction of waves
Refraction of a wave occurs when the wave moves from
one medium to another which causes to travel at different
speed.
The refraction occur when a water wave moves from
deeper water to shallower water, a light wave moves from
air to water , and a sound moves from air to carbon
dioxide gas.

(c)

## When the refraction of a wave happened , the frequency, f

does not change but the wavelength ,, the speed , v and
the direction of propagation of the wave change.
Refraction of water waves

(d)

## The refraction of water waves occur when the water

waves move into different depth of water.
Medium
v
f

Shallow
decrease
decrease
constant
water
Deep
increase
increase
constant
water
If the waves meet the boundary between deep and
shallow water at an angle , then the direction of the waves
changes.
The plane wavefronts will change to the curved
wavefronts if the waves move into the curved boundary.

(e)

## To investigate the refraction of water waves a perspex

plat is placed on the bottom of a ripple tank to make a
shallow region of the water on the perspex plat.
The following figure shows two examples pattern of the
refraction of the water waves.
(f)

(a)

19

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the depth of water and the wavelength of a
water wave.

(cm)
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph against d

Hypothesis:
The depth of water increases as the wavelength of water
waves increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the depth of water
and the wavelength of water waves.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: depth of water
Responding variable: wavelength
Fixed variable: frequency
List of apparatus and materials:
Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply
white paper , protractor ,plane reflector , perspex plate ,
metre rule and mechanical stroboscope.

## When the water waves propagated from the sea to the

beach , the water waves follow the shape of the beach.
It is because the water waves propagate from the deep
water to the shallow water. The speed and wavelength
decrease as the waves approach the beach and hence
the water wave is refracted towards the normal.
The water in the bay stationary compared to the water at
the cape.
It is because the depth of water varies slowly across the
area of the bay and the energy of the water wave spreads
to a wider area compared to the region near the cape. The
amplitude of the water wave near the bay is low and
hence the water at the bay is comparatively still.

## The procedure of the experiment

The method of controlling the manipulated variable
The depth of water on a perspex is measured by using a
metre rule, depth is 5 cm
The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves
which propagate onto the perspex plate .
The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope.
The waves are sketched on the screen.

## Refraction of light waves

Refraction of light waves is a phenomenon where the
___________ and __________ of light are changed
( change in velocity) when it crosses the boundary
between two materials of different optical densities
When a light waves travels from optically less dense
medium to optically denser medium , the ray is bent
_____________ the normal.
After entering the denser medium the speed of light
_________________.

## The method of measuring the responding variable.

The distance between 11 successive bright bands is
measured by the metre rule = x
The wavelength is calculated i.e. = x
10
The experiment is repeated by 4 cm, 3 cm, 2 cm and 1
cm depth the water.
Tabulate the data:
d(cm)

20

## When a light wave travels from optically denser

medium to optically less dense medium , the ray is bent
_____________ from the normal.
After entering the less dense medium the speed of light
__________________.

## By using a protractor , the angle of incidence is

measured , i is 10.
The glass block is replaced again on its outline on the
paper.
A ray of light from the ray box is directed along incidence
line.
The ray emerging from the side CD is drawn as line PQ.
The glass block is removed again.
The point O and P is joined and is drawn as line OP. The
method of measuring the responding variable:
The angle of refraction r is measured by using protractor.
The experiment is repeated by 20,30,40 and 50
angles of incidence.
Tabulate the data:
i()
r()
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph r against i

## Experiment to investigate the relationship between

the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction.
Hypothesis:
The angle of refraction increases as the angle of incidence
increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the angle of
incidence and the angle of refraction.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: Angle of incidence
Responding variable: Angle of refraction
Fixed variable: Refractive index
List of apparatus and materials:
Glass block, ray box, white paper , protractor, power
supply .
Arrangement of the apparatus:

## Refraction of sound waves

Refraction of sound waves occurs when the sound passes
through layers of air at different densities or temperatures.
Sound waves can be refracted by a balloon filled with
carbon dioxide.

## When the stopwatch is started , the listener can detects at

a point only beyond the balloon where the sound wave is
strongest.
It is because a balloon of carbon dioxide( denser than air)
acts like a convex lens ,focusing the sound wave.
The procedure of the experiment which include and.
The glass block is placed on a white paper.
The outline of the sides of the glass block are traced on
the white paper and labeled as ABCD.
The glass block is removed.
The normal ON is drawn.
The method of controlling the manipulated variable:

21

## Distant sounds often appear louder and clearer at night.

At night the air near the ground is often cooler than the air
higher up, because it is close to the cold ground. The
sound waves travel faster through the warmer , less dense
layers of air , and this refracts the sound wave back
toward the ground.

increases?
A
B
C

TUTORIAL 6.4
1

speed
amplitude
frequency

## The figure shows a plane water waves pass from

deep water into shallow water.

## Which figure shows water waves travelling on the

surface of the water in a ripple tank?

A
B
C
D
5

to region Q.

## When water waves pass from deep water into

shallow water, how do the speed, wavelength and
frequency change?
A
B
C
D

## The direction of the wave propagation

unchanged
The frequency of the waves unchanged
The wavelength of the waves increases
The speed of the waves increases

Speed
Increases
Decreases
Increases
Decreases

Wavelength
Decreases
Increases
Increases
Decreases

Frequency
No change
Decreases
No change
No change

A
B

## The figure shows a water waves in a ripple tank

with a sloping base.

22

## The density of water in P greater than in Q

The depth of water in P greater than in Q

C
D
6

## The speed of water waves in Q greater than in

P
The amplitude of water waves in Q greater than
in P

## The figure shows a plane wave are made in a

ripple tank with a sloping base to make the depth of
water at X and Y is different.

## Which of the following shows the pattern of the wave

when it reaches at P?
8

## The figure shows the arrangement of apparatus to

shows a wave phenomenon.

7

A
C

## The figure shows a stone is thrown by a boy in a

pond with a sloping base.
9

## Which of the following figure shows the pattern

of water waves after the stone is thrown?

23

reflection
diffraction

B
D

refraction
interference

## A set straight water ripples in a ripple tank travels

over a thick, triangular perspex sheet.
Which figure shows the wave pattern?

10

## The figure shows water waves pass from deep

water into shallow water. The distance PQ = 5 cm ,
RS = 3 cm and the speed of the water waves in deep
water is 4 cm s-1 .

13

Figure (a)
Figure (b)
The observer can see the coin in Figure (b) due to
A the total internal reflection of light
B the refraction of light
C the reflection of light
D the diffraction of light

A

water is 8 Hz

is 8 cm s-1

is 5 s

## An observer cannot see the coin in an empty glass

as shown in Figure(a). However , he can see the
coin when the glass is filled with water as shown in
Figure(b).

14

## A light ray travels from medium P to medium Q.

Which of the following diagrams correctly shows the
path of the light ?[ Medium P denser medium and
Medium Q less dense ]

15

## The sound of a moving train at a distant is clearer at

night than that in the day time.
This is due to the effects of the
________________ of sound waves.

11

## When the water waves propagated from the sea to

the beach , the water waves follow the shape of the
beach. The phenomenon involved is
A
C

12

reflection
diffraction

B
D

refraction
interference

## A ray of light passes from water to air.

Which labeled arrow shows the direction of the ray in
air?

A
C
16

24

Reflection
Interference

B
D

Refraction
Diffraction

## Which of the following figure shows the refraction of

the sound waves at night?

## Figure 2 shows a water waves propagated from the

sea to the beach.

Figure 1

Figure 2

## (a) Based on Figure 1 and Figure 2

(i) state the change in wavelength of the
water waves from A to B.(1m)
..
17

waves.

..
(ii)

## compare the depth of water between A

and B.(1m)
...

..
(iii) name a physical quantity is unchanged .
(1m)
..
deduce a wave phenomenon.(1m)

A
C
18

B
D

Interference
Reflection

(c)

B
C
D

..

## Which one of the following is true regarding the

refraction of the sound waves?
A

19

Diffraction
Refraction

## When watching a hockey game , we often hear

the stick hitting the ball after w actually see the
hit
Clicking sound is heard clearly when two rocks
is clicked together under water
A pilot wears noise- canceling earphones to
reduce the noise effects.
At night sound can be heard over considerably
longer distances

23

## Figure 1 shows a water waves in a ripple tank

travels over a perspex plate.

25

## LESSON 6.5 Analysing

diffraction of waves

(c)

Edge of a obstacle

(d)

Small obstacle

Diffraction of waves
The spreading or bending of waves as they pass through
an aperture or round the edge of a barrier.
The amount the wave bends depends on the _________
of the aperture or barrier. The smaller the aperture by
comparison , the more wave bends.
When the diffraction of a wave happened , the
______________ ,the ______________ and the
_____________ do not change but the _____________ of
the waves decrease.
The ____________________ and the ____________of
the wave change.
Diffraction of water waves
To investigate the diffraction of water waves an obstacle
is placed at the centre of a ripple tank..
The following figure shows two examples pattern of the
diffraction of the water waves.

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the size of aperture and the angle of bent
Hypothesis:
The angle of bent increases as the size of aperture
decreases
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the angle of bent
and the size of aperture
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: size of aperture
Responding variable: angle of bent
Fixed variable: frequency of vibrator
List of apparatus and materials:
Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply
white paper , two pieces metal bar ,metre rule protractor
and mechanical stroboscope.
Arrangement of apparatus:

26

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the size of slit and the wide of the middle
bright fringe
Hypothesis:
The wide of the middle bright fringe increases as the size
of slit decreases
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationshipbetween the wide of the
middle bright fringe and the size of slit .
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: size of slit
Responding variable: the wide of the middle bright fringe
Fixed variable: the monochromatic light (one wavelength
only)
List of apparatus and materials:
Monochromatic light source, single slit plate, metre rule
Arrangement of the apparatus:

## The procedure of the experiment

The method of controlling the manipulated variable:
By using a metre rule , the width of the slit is measured, a
is 1mm.
The power supply is switched on to produce plane waves
which propagate towards the aperture.
The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope.
The waves are sketched on the screen.
the method of measuring the responding variable.
The angle of bent = is measured by using protractor.
The experiment is repeated by 2mm, 3mm,4mm, and
5mm for with different widths of slit.
Tabulate the data:
a(mm)
()
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph against a

## Diffraction of light waves

The diffraction of light waves occur when the light waves
pass through a small slit or small pin hole.
Diffraction occurs at all edges where waves can ________
round into the shadow region. Thus a narrow object like a
fine wire or a human hair can show the diffraction fringes
at its edges similar to those produced by a small single
slit.
The diagram shows the diffraction fringes.

The procedure :
Method of controlling the manipulated variable:
The width of the slit is recorded, a is 1 mm
The light beam from the source is directed towards the
slit..
method of measuring the responding variable.
The wide of the middle bright fringe = x is measured by
using a metre rule.
The experiment is repeated by 2mm, 3mm,4mm, and
5mm for different widths of slit.
Tabulate the data:
a(mm)
x(mm)
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph x against a

## The wider middle bright fringe shows that the light

waves diffracted after pass through a small slit.

27

## Diffraction of sound waves

Sound diffracts very readily. This is why we can hear
sound round a corner , or behind an obstacle. The reason
is the sound waves have long wavelengths in air, ranging
from a few centimetres up to several metres. As we have
than those with short wavelengths.
To investigate the diffraction of sound waves the following
experiment can be done:
2

## How do the frequency and wavelength change when

waves in a ripple tank pass through a narrow gap in
a barrier?
A
B
C

## A listener is requested to stand on the other side of the

corner of the wall so that the radio is beyond his vision.
The listener is able to hear the sound of the radio although
it is behind the wall.
corner of the wall due to diffraction of sound.

Frequency
increase
decrease
unchanged

Wavelength
increase
decrease
unchanged

## The figure shows plane water waves approaching a

slit between two obstacles.

TUTORIAL 6.5
1

## Which of the following figure is true to show the

diffraction of a water wave?

A
B
C
4

## A driver is able to hear the sound of another car

although the car beyond his vision . The
phenomenon involved is
A
C

28

## the size of slit increases

the frequency of the wave increases
the wavelength of the wave increases

Refraction
Diffraction

B
D

Interference
Reflection

## The figure show a listener a student is requested to

stand the other side of the corner of the wall of high
building.
The student is able to hear the sound of the radio.

A
C
6

Refraction
Diffraction

B
D

Interference
Reflection

## The figure shows an observation that occur when a

razor blade illuminated by a point source of
monochromatic light.

## Which of the following diagram shows the patterns of

diffraction of light waves when a monochoromatic
light source is passed through a small pin hole.

10

## Sound waves are more easily diffracted in

comparison to the light waves because

A
C
7

B
D

Interference
Reflection

## The effect of diffraction of a light waves passes

through a slit is very obvious when
A
B
C
D

Refraction
Diffraction

## the distance between the source of light and

the slit is increased
the distance between the source of light and
the slit is decreased
the size of slit is increased
the size of slit is decreased

B
C
11

## The figure shows the pattern of formed on a screen

when a monochromatic light is passed through a slit.

## Which of the following diagram occurs when the size

of the slit is decreased?

29

## the amplitude of sound wave is much bigger

than the amplitude of light wave
the frequency of sound wave is much higher
than the frequency of light waves
the wavelength of sound wave is much bigger
than the wavelength of light waves

## The figure shows the bright and dark bands of the

wave patterns formed on the screen when plane
waves pass through narrow and wide slits.

## Observe the figure. Compare the wave patterns and

the wavelengths of the waves before and after they
pass through the slits.
Relate the size of slits, the wave patterns and the
wavelengths to deduce a relevant physics concept.
Name the wave phenomenon shown in the figure.

## (a) Superposition of two crests

( 5 marks)

.. interference
.................................. is a point at which
...interference occurs.

16

## LESSON 6.6 Analysing

interference of wave

## (b) Superposition of two troughs

Interference of waves
When two or more travel in the same or different
directions in a given space, variations in the size of the
resulting disturbance occur at points where the meet or
overlap.
Interference is the __________________ of two waves
originating from two coherent sources.
Two waves are in coherent if they are of the _________
frequency, same amplitude and in phase (_______ phase)
There are two types of interference :
(a) Constructive interference occurs when the
__________ or troughs of both waves coincide
to produce a wave with maximum amplitude.
(b) Destructive interference occurs when the crests
of one wave coincide with the trough of the other
waves to produce a wave with _________
amplitude.
Interference of the waves is a result or obeys the
principle of _________________.

.. interference
.................................. is a point at which
...interference occurs.
(c)

Principle of superposition
Principle of superposition state that When two waves
move simultaneously and coincide at a point the
_________ of the displacements at that point is equal to
the sum of the displacements of the individual waves by
vector method.

30

## Superposition of a crest and a trough

.. interference
.................................. is a point at which
...interference occurs
Interference of water waves
To produce the interference pattern of the water waves in
a ripple tank we can use:
(a) Two dippers operated from the same motor,

## The figure shows the interference pattern produced by

two sources of water P and Q.
To analyse the interference pattern of water waves ,please
1. Mark with a cross (x) in the figure the points where
the crests coincide crests .
2. Mark with a star (*) in the figure the points where
the troughs coincide troughs .
The points (x) and (*) is called as
_____________.

Or
(b) A plane water waves passing through two slits.

3.

4.
5.
6.

31

## _______________ is a point where the total

displacement is ______________or
______________.
At the points ______________interference occurs.
Mark with a circle () in the figure the points where
a crest coincide with a trough.
The points () is called as _____________.
_______________ is a point where the total
displacement is ______________.
At the points ______________ interference occurs.
Connect the points (x) and (*) to produce several
lines that we call as _____________________ lines
Connect the points () to produce several lines that
we call as _____________________ lines
Draw a straight line parallel to sources. We can the
line as ____________________line

7.

## Measure the distance between the two sources, a

= ................................ cm
8. Measure the distance between the sources and the
detector line,D =................................cm.
9. Measure the distance between two successive node
lines, x =................................cm
10. Calculate the value of a x = .................cm
D
11. Measure the wavelength of the water waves,
=..............................
12. Compare the value of with a x
D
Hence

As a increases , x decreases
The experiment to investigate the relationship
between the distance between to coherent sources
and the distance between two consecutive node lines

Where , =
a=

Hypothesis:
The longer distance between two consecutive node lines
the shorter distance between to coherent sources .
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the distance
between to coherent sources and the distance between
two consecutive node lines
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: the distance between to coherent
sources
Responding variable: the distance between two
consecutive node lines
Fixed variable: frequency of vibrator or the wavelength
List of apparatus and materials:
Ripple tank, lamp, motor ,wooden bar , power supply
,white paper , spherical dippers ,metre rule and
mechanical stroboscope.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

x=
D=
How to change the pattern of interference of waves?
The pattern of interference depends on the distances
between two consecutive nodes or antinode lines , x.
How to change x ?
From the formula = a x
D
Hence x = D
a
Conclusion : As increases , x increases (a, D fix)
As D increases , x increases (a, fix)
As a increases , x decreases (D, fix)

As increases , x increases
The procedure:
Method of controlling the manipulated variable
By using a metre rule , the distance between two dippers
is measured , a is 1 mm.
32

## The power supply is switched on to produce two circular

waves from the dippers
The waves are freeze by a mechanical stroboscope.
The waves are sketched on the screen.
Method of measuring the responding variable.
The distance between two consecutive node lines, x is
measured by using meter rule.
The experiment is repeated by using a is 2mm, 3mm,
4mm and 5 mm for different distances between two
dippers
Tabulate the data:
a(mm)
x(mm)
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph x against a

## Interference and the dark fringes to be formed by

______________ interference.

Example 1

## In an experiment to investigate the pattern interference of

a water waves, the distance between two spherical
dippers is 2.5 cm and the distance between two
consecutive antinode lines is 5.0 cm. What is the
wavelength of the water waves if when the distance from
two dippers to the point of measurement is 10 cm.

## For all practical purposes, monochromatic light is

used.
Monochromatic light which is light of only one colour

Solution

or one wavelength.
The formula for interference of light waves is,

= ax
D

## When light from the same source passes through two

Where,
= wavelength of light waves
a = slit separation
x = distance between two successive bright or
dark fringes
D = distance between double slit and screen.

## narrow ________ which are close together the effect

known as interference can be seen as the bright and
dark fringes.
The ___________ fringes to be formed by constructive

33

## Source of light, colour filter, screen, single slit, double slit

and metre rule.
Arrangement of the apparatus:
Example 2
In a double-slit interference experiment with blue
light the distance between the screen and double slit
is 1.2 m and slit separation is 2 x 10-4 m . Six
successive bright fringes at a distance 1.2 x 10 -2 m is
formed on the screen. Calculate the wavelength of the
blue light.
Solution

The procedure :
Method of controlling the manipulated variable
A yellow filter is placed between the light source and the
slits.
The source of light is switched on.
The interference pattern formed on the screen is
observed and drawn.
Method of measuring the responding variable.
By using a metre rule the distance across 6 consecutive
bright fringes is measured.
The distance between two consecutive bright fringes is
calculated , x = L
5
The experiment is repeated by using green, blue, indigo
and violet for different wavelength of light.
Tabulate the data:
(mm)
x(mm)
Analysis the data: Plot the graph x against

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the wavelength of the light waves distance
and the distance between two consecutive bright
fringes
Hypothesis:
The longer the distance between two consecutive bright
fringes , the longer the wavelength of light waves.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the wavelength of
the light waves distance and the distance between two
consecutive bright fringes
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: The wavelength of the light waves (
colour of light)
Responding variable: the distance between two
consecutive bright fringes
Fixed variable: slit separation and the distance between
double slit and screen.
List of apparatus and materials:

## The arrangement of colour of light in order of

wavelength
Interference of sound waves
Like other types of waves ,sound waves can also give
interference effects. Interference of sound waves produce
regions of _________ sound by constructive interference
and regions quiet by destructive interference.

34

## When two similar loudspeakers are connected to the

same audio-frequency generator they will produce
interference effects.

## The longer the distance between two successive loud

regions ,the longer distance between the listener from the
loudspeaker .
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between distance between
the listener from the loudspeaker and the distance
between two successive loud regions
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: Responding variable: distance
between the listener from the loudspeaker
Responding variable: the distance between two
successive loud regions
Fixed variable: the wavelength of sound waves , distance
between two loudspeakers
List of apparatus and materials:
Two loudspeakers, audio-frequency generator
,connection wires and metre rule.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

## The formula for interference of sound waves is,

= ax
D

Where,
= wavelength of sound waves
a = distance between two loudspeakers
x = distance between two successive loud
regions or quiet region.
D = distance between the listener from the
loudspeaker.
Example 3

## In an experiment on the interference of sound wave a

listener at distance 5.0 from the loudspeaker. The
distance between two loudspeakers is 2.0 m. The
loudspeakers are connected to an audio-frequency
generator to produce sound waves at a frequency of 0.8
kHz.
Calculate
(a) the wavelength of sound waves when the speed of
sound is 320 ms-1
(b) the distance between two successive loud regions

The procedure :
Method of controlling the manipulated variable
By using a metre rule the distance between the listener
from the loudspeaker is measured, D is 2m
The audio-frequency generator is switched on.
Method of measuring the responding variable
The listener is requested to walk in a straight path and the
distance between two successive loud regions,x is
measured by using a metre rule.
The experiment is repeated by using 3m, 4m,5m and 6m
for different distances between the listener from the
loudspeaker

Solution:

## Tabulate the data:

D(m)
x(mm)
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph x against D

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between distance of the listener from the loudspeaker
and the distance between two successive loud
regions
Hypothesis:

35

TUTORIAL 6.6
1

## The figure shows two impulse waves traveling

towards each other along the length of a rope.
Which of the following figure shows the pattern of the
impulse waves after passed through point O.
Which of the following shows the pattern of the
impulse waves after 1 s?

## Which of the following figure shows the pattern of the

impulse waves after passed through point O.

each other.
4

## The figure shows an interference pattern of two

coherent water waves of sources, P and Q.

## Which of the following figure shows when both

waves meet at the point P?

## Which of the positions A,B,C or D, does the

amplitude of the water waves is zero.
5
3

## The figure shows two impulse waves travelling

towards each other with a speed 2 cms-1
respectively.

36

## The figure shows the wave pattern formed by waves

from two coherent sources.

C
9

## The figure shows the fringe pattern obtained in a

double slit experiment when a monochromatic light is
used. The slits are 3 x 10-4 m apart and the screen is
3.0 m away from the slits.

## Antinode points are

A
C
6

W and X
Y and Z

B
D

X and Z
W and Y
What is the length of the monochromatic light ?

## The figure shows plane water waves approaching

two slits between three obstacles.

A
C
E
10

## The phenomena involved are

A refraction and reflection
B reflection and diffraction
C refraction and interference
D diffraction and interference
7

________
11
A
C
8

phase
amplitude

B
D

colour
intensity

12

A
B

## two bright bands

a spectrum of light

37

5x10-7 m
7.5x10-6 m

2.4 x 10 - 7 m
5.0 x 10 - 7 m
4.0 x 10 - 7 m

B
D

4.2 x 10 - 7 m
6.0 x 10 - 7 m

## In an experiment of light interference , the distance

two successive bright or dark fringes depends on
A
B
C

## The figure shows a monochromatic light is passed

through a double slit.

B
D

## In an experiment of light interference using green

light of wavelength 5 x 10 - 7 m , two consecutive
bright fringes formed on the screen are 0.4 mm
apart.
When the experiment is repeated using
monochromatic light , L , two consecutive bright
fringes formed 0.48 mm are apart.
What is the wavelength of light L ?
A
C

## Monochromatic light which is light of only one -

1x 10-7 m
2.5 x10-6 m
5 x 10 - 8 m

width of slit
colour of light is used
intensity of the source of light is used

## The figure shows the arrangement of apparatus in

Youngs double slit experiment.

increases when
A
B
C
D
13

## slit separation increases

the width of slit increases
the distance between the screen and the
double-slit plat decreases
the green filter is replaced by a red filter.

## The figure shows are the patterns of interference by

using red filter, green filter and blue filter which are
not arranged in order.
15

## In experiment of the interference of waves, two

loudspeakers are placed at a distance of 1.5 m from
each other. The distance between two consecutive
soft sounds is 6.0 m and the listener at a distance
4.5 m from the loudspeakers.
What is the wavelength of the sound waves is used?
A
C
E

16

1.25 m
2.00 m
4.50 m

B
D

1.50 m
3.00 m

## The figure shows the arrangement of apparatus the

interference of sound waves experiment.

## Which of the following is the correct filter for

respective patterns of interference?
P
A
B
C
D
14

red
blue
green
green

blue
red
blue
red

green
green
red
blue

## In an experiment of light interference the distance

between two consecutive bright fringes ,x varies with
distance between double slit and screen, D.
Which of the following graphs shows the correct
relationship between x and D?

increases as
A
B
C
D

38

## the diameter of the loudspeaker increases

the frequency of the audio-frequency generator
increases
the distance between two loudspeakers
increases
the distance between the loudspeaker and the
line XY increases

17

## The figure shows the arrangement of apparatus the

interference of sound waves experiment

Producing sounds
Sound waves are ____________l waves that are
transmitted through almost any substance i.e solid , liquid
or gas.
The waves are produced by any mechanism which
produces compressional _____________ of the
surrounding medium. Some examples are the vibrating
string of a guitar, exploding gas in firecracker and the
vibrating diaphragm of a loudspeaker.
Vibrations in a vacuum
Sound ____________ travel through a vacuum because
in a vacuum there is no material to transmit the
compressions. A common demonstration of this to show
that is a ringing bell cannot be heard if the bell is in a
vacuum chamber. The bell is vibrating , but there is no
surrounding material to carry the vibration to our ears.
Similarly we cannot hear the nuclear explosions on the
sun because there is no medium in space. Astronauts
cannot speak to each other on the moon without using
radio waves, because there is no air on the moon through
which sound waves can travel.

## Which of the following is true?

A Point Z is an antinode point
B Loud sound is produced at point X
C Constructive interference occur at point Y
D The amplitude of the sound waves is zero at
point X, Y and Z.

17

## Sound waves are longitudinal waves. The sound waves

from a loudspeaker produce _______________ and
rarefactions of the air molecules. When molecules pushed
forwards (to the right) meet molecules bouncing
backwards(to the left) , after collisions with other
molecules in front, a region of compression is produced
where the air pressure is higher. In between the
compressions are rarefactions where the number of
molecules is reduced and air pressure is lower.
Thus we may describe a progressive wave sound in air
as a travelling pressure wave in which regions of
increased air pressure travel along where the air

sound waves

39

## molecules are compressed together separated by regions

of reduced air pressure at the rarefactions.
Speed of sound
Sounds travels quickly, but not nearly as fast as light. The
speed of sound waves depends on the medium. Sound
travels _____________ in solids, and slowest in gases.
Sound travels more quickly through medium in which the
atoms are strongly bound together. If you imagine that in a
solid all the atoms are joined together by springs then the
stronger the springs the faster the sound travels. The
strong binding between atoms in solids means that sound
will travel much more quickly through solids than through
gases.
The speed of sound waves in gases increase when the
_____________ of the gases decrease. When the density
of the gases decrease ,the frequency of the vibrations
increase ,so the speed of the sounds increase ( v = f)
The speed of the sound waves also increase as the
__________________ the gases increase. It is because
when the temperature of the gases increase the density of
the gases decrease.
The speed of sound waves in a gas not affected by
changes of pressure.

## Below about 20 Hz the vibrations are felt rather than heard

e.g. earth quakes and are called subsonic.
We are able to hear sounds with frequencies from around
20 Hz to almost 20 000Hz.
Sounds above the upper hearing limit are called
ultrasound.
Dogs, bats and dolphins are all known to be able to hear
sounds whose frequency is well above the limits of human
hearing.
Loudness and Pitch of sound
The loudness of a sound depends on the
______________ of vibrations. As the amplitude of
vibrations increase, the loudness of a sound increases.

## Typical values for speed of sound are given in the

following table.
Medium
Speed of sound waves/ ms-1
o
Air (0 C)
331
Oxygen (0oC)
316
Helium (0oC)
965
Hydrogen (0oC)
1284
Water (0oC)
1402
Water (20oC)
1482
Water (50oC)
1543
o
Aluminium (0 C)
5100
Copper (0oC)
3560
Iron (0oC)
5130

## The pitch of a sound depends on the ________________

of vibrations. As the frequency of vibrations increase , the
pitch of a sound increases.

## The frequency spectrum of sound waves

If a signal generator is connected to a loudspeaker , not all
the frequencies of the sound wave is produced ca be
heard by the human hear.
The human hear is capable of hearing sounds with
frequencies in the range of 20 Hz to 20 000 Hz.
The following figure shows the frequency spectrum of
sound waves:

## Quality or timbre of sound

The quality of sound depends on the wave form.
Different musical instruments of the same pitch are
distinguished from each other by their quality.

40

## are checked for hidden cracks which might

prove dangerous later.
(2) A goldsmith uses high frequency sound waves
to dislodge dirt particles adhering to jewellery
and precious stones.
(3) Ships use echo-sounding equipment to find how
deep the water is. The time interval is measured
between a pulse of sound and its echo from the
sea bed.
If the echo-sounders measures an interval of
time ,t , and the speed of sound wave in water
is v, the depth , d can be calculated as follows;

2d= v x t

## Our ear can also tell the difference between musical

sounds and noises. The waveforms produced by musical
instruments are ____________, whilst those produced by
noises are jagged and irregular.

d=vxt
2
(4) In modern fishing trawlers, echo -sounding
Produces SONAR ( Sound Navigation and
Ranging) is used to detect shoals of fish. The
equipment can detect the reflected pulse from
the shoal, and work out its position and depth
(5) Geologists also use echo sounding methods
to locate boundaries between rock layers far
below the surface. This is useful, for example in
finding places where it might worth drilling for
oil. A small explosion on the surface sends a
sound wave downwards into the Earth , and
some of the sound is reflected from the
boundaries between rock layers. The detector
measures the time interval between the sound
and the echoes. From this, the depth of the
rock layers can be measured.

## Application of Sound Waves

Medicine
(1) Ultrasonic scanning in medicine involves
sending ultrasound waves into the patients
body and detecting the echoes which come
back. This can be used , for example, to see
the position of an unborn baby inside its
mothers womb. The whole process is
completely painless and much safer than using
X-rays.
(2) Sound waves of high energy are directed to the
kidney stones to destroy them in the cavity of
the kidney. The disintegrated particles are
removed during urination by the patient.
(3) Dentist use ultrasonic waves to remove plaque
from the teeth.
(4) Ultrasound spectacles help blind persons to
estimate the distance away of something in
front of them.
Industry

Example 1
A Sonar signal sent vertically downwards from a ship is
reflected from the ocean floor and detected by a
microphone on the keel 0.8 s after transmission . If speed
of sound in water is 1 500 ms-1, what is the depth of the
ocean?
Solution

## (1) Ultrasonic scanning is used to detect cracks in

metal structures . This is how aircrafts parts
41

Example 2

you to hear the approach of a train long before you
can hear it in the air?

## A man stands in front of a fairly large flat wall at a distance

50 m. He claps his hands and the time for 20 intervals
between claps is 12 s. What is the speed of the sound ?

## The speed of sound waves travel in air greater

than in the steel
The speed of sound waves travel in steel
greater than in air
Sound cannot travel through air
Sound cannot travel through steel

B
Solution
C
D
6

A
B
C
D

TUTORIAL 6.7
1

## Which of the following is not true about the sound

waves ?
A
B
C
D

Is a longitudinal waves
Is a mechanical waves
Can travel through a vacuum
Produce from the compressions and
rarefactions of the air molecules

## The speeds of sound in air, in steel and in water are

different.
Which of the following gives the speeds in increasing
order?

## Explosions cannot occur in space

Sound cannot travel through a vacuum
Sound is reflected from the space-ship
Sound travel too quickly through space to affect
the ear drum

B
D

Water
Water
Air
Steel

Fastest
Steel
Air
Steel
Air

## The table shows how the speed of sound varies

with substances of different densities.

Air
Oxygen
Aluminium
Iron

## through a balloon filled with helium

from one spaceship to another one nearby
from a surface ship to a submarine
along a railway line

Vacuum
Steel

Slowest
Air
Steel
Water
Water

Substance

Speed of
sound
waves/ ms-1
330
320
5 100
5 000
1 200

Density of
substance / kg m-3
1.29
1.43
2 710
7 870
11 300

## Which conclusion about the speed of sound can be

drawn from this information?

## Which of the following medium gives the highest

speeds of sound waves?
A
C

## sound produces echoes

light travels in a straight line
light travels faster than sound
surrounding temperature affects the speed of
sound

A
B
C
D

A
B
C
D

## Astronauts are in a space-ship orbiting the moon.

They see an explosion on the surface of the Moon.
Why can the not hear the explosion?
A
B
C
D

## A timekeeper for a sprint event starts the stopwatch

as he sees the smoke from the pistol instead of
hearing the shot.This action is taken because

Water
Air

B
C
D
42

## The speed increases as the density of the

substances increases
The speed is greater in less dense substances
The speed is greater in metals than in gases
The speed is greatest in the densest metal

10

wave depend?
Pitch
Loudness
A
Amplitude
Frequency
B
Frequency
Amplitude
C
Frequency
Speed
D
Speed
Amplitude

## The quality of the note Q is better than note P

Note Q is played on a guitar and note P is
played on a violin
The loudness of note Q is higher than note P
The pitch of note Q is higher than note P

C
D

## higher in amplitude and lower in frequency

higher in both amplitude in frequency
lower in amplitude and higher in frequency
lower in both amplitude and frequency

14

## What would a drummer do to make the sound of a

drum give a note of lower pitch?
A
B
C
D

12

A
B

## Two notes are played on a guitar. The second is

louder and has a higher pitch. The second note is
A
B
C
D

11

## What is the approximate range of audible

frequencies for a young person?
A
B
C
D

## Hit the drum skin with a larger force

Hit the drum skin with a smaller force
Hit the drum skin nearer the edge
Loosen the drum skin

15

## Which of the following corresponds to the highest

pitch of sound?

1 Hz - 20 Hz
20 Hz - 20 kHz
20 kHz - 200 kHz
1 000 kHz 20 000 kHz

## Which line on the figure best represents the range of

frequencies of sound that can be heard by a healthy
human car?
Frequency / Hz
0.1 1 10

100x10
A
B
C
D
16

13

Q.

43

1x103

10x103

## Ahmad shouts in front of a high wall. He hears the

echo of his voice 1.2 seconds later.
The velocity of sound in air is 340 m s-1.
What is the distance between Ahmad and the wall?
A
C
E

17

100

204 m
340 m
816 m

B
D

283 m
408 m

## The figure shows an ultrasonic waves transmitted

from a boat to the seabed to determine the depth, D,
of the sea. The speed of the ultrasonic waves in
water is 1 500 m s-1. The echo of the waves is
received 2.0 m after the transmission.

## LESSON 6.8 - Analysing

electromagnetic waves
Introduction
Electromagnetic waves are __________________ waves
,consisting of oscillating electric fields and
________________ fields .
Energy resulting from the acceleration of electric charge
and the associated electric fields and magnetic fields .The
energy can be regarded through space involving
oscillating electric fields and magnetic fields at right angle
to each other to the direction of propagation. In a vacuum
the waves travel with a constant speed i.e.speed of light, 3
x 108 m s-1.

A
C
E
18

375 m
1 500 m
6 000 m

B
D

750 m
3 000 m

## During a thunderstorm, an observer sees a lightning

flash 6 seconds later he hears the thunder. The
speed of sound is 330 m s-1.
How far away is the observer from the lightening?
A
C
E

330 m
990 m
3 960 m

B
D

660 m
1 980 m

## The electromagnetic spectrum

The electromagnetic spectrum is a continuous spectrum ,
with _____ gaps in it and no frequencies anywhere in the
range which do not exist. Like the spectrum of light, the
another as their properties gradually change. So, there is
no sharp boundary between one type of radiation and the
next. There is often a large overlap at the boundaries.
The following diagram shows all the members of the
electromagnetic family of waves.

18

44

## 1. They all transfer ______________ from one

place to another.
2. They all transverse, electromagnetic waves
3. They all can travel through a
________________.
4. They all travel at a speed of approximately
3 x 108 m s-1
5. They all show the wave properties :
reflection, refraction, diffraction and
interference
6. The all obey the wave equation v = f
7. They all carry no charge
8. They all can be emitted and absorbed by
matter

Sources

Detector :
Special
Properties :

Uses

(1) Gamma rays
Sources

Detector :

cosmic rays

## the sun, very hot objects , arcs

and sparks mercury vapour lamps,
discharge tube
photographic film, photo cells,
fluorescent chemicals
absorbed by glass ,
cause many chemical reactions,
damages and kills living cells,
causes sun burn,
causes blindness
treatment of skin complaints,
killing bacteria,
fluorescent lighting
burglar alarms
automatic counting in industry
washing powders
to identify counterfeit notes
Production of vitamin D in the
skin

## photographic film, Geiger-Muller

Tube
(4) Visible light

Special
Properties :
Uses

Sources

very penetrating
very dangerous causes cancer and
mutation
to kill cancerous growth
to find flaws in metal castings
to sterilise equipment
to control pest in agriculture

Detector :
Special
Properties :

(2) X-ray
Uses
Sources

Detector :
Special
Properties :
Uses

X-ray tubes
photographic film, Fluorescent
screen
very penetrating
very dangerous , damage to cells
to take X-ray picture;
to treat skin disorders
to study crystal structures
to scan baggage
to scan cracks in building structures
to detect art forgeries

## the sun, hot objects ,

lamps, lasers , lightening, flames
photographic film, eye , photo cells
refracted by glass and focused
by the eye
increased rates of premature skin
aging and skin cancer
observation of visible world,
essential for photosynthesis and
plant growth
laser and optical fibres
flame test to identify elements in
chemistry
flash in camera

Sources

Detector :
Special
Properties :

45

## the sun, warm and hot objects

such as fires and people,
special photographic film, thermopile
, photo transistor eye , photo cells
causes heating when

Uses

## absorbed, makes skin feel warm,

skin burns
night vision
thermal imaging and physiotherapy
photocopiers(thermal)
cooking
heating
remote control for TV / VCR
photography through haze and fog
computer and hand phone to
connect

B
C
D
2

microwave transmitter ,
microwave ovens
4

Detector :
Special
Properties :
Uses

## wave guide tube

by diffraction
internal heating of body tissues
cooking
(size ,form and position)
satellite transmissions

Sources

Detector :
Special
Properties :
Uses

## electrical oscillating circuit

aerials connected to TV or radio

## harm body cells, prevalence of

telecommunications (telephone)
communication in aircrafts, ships
and missiles

## Which of the following is not an electromagnetic

waves?
A

Infra red rafiation
Microwave

## The letter I,U,R,X and V represents the

electromagnetic waves .
Letter

Electromagnetic wave

I
U
R
X
V

X-ray
Light wave

## Which of the following arrangement of the

electromagnetic waves in ascending order of
frequency?

TUTORIAL 6.8
1

## They all have the same wavelength

They all have the same frequency
They all have the same speed in vacuum

## Which of the following has a wavelength shorter

than the wavelength of light wave ??
A
B
C
D

White light
Sub-sonic wave

## Which of the following is the common properties of

the electromagnetic waves?
A
B
C

X-ray
Ultrasonic wave

A
B
C
D

(6) Microwave
Sources

A
B
C
D

Sound wave
Light wave

A
C

Microwave

46

X,V,R,U,I
V,R,I,U,X

B
D

R,U,I,X,V
R,I,V,U,X

A
B
C
D
9

Red light
Transverse wave

## Which of the following equipment does not use

heating element to operate?
A
B
C
D

Low speed
Long wavelength
Cannot travels
through vacuum

14

light?
A
B
C

10

X-ray
Longitudinal
wave
High speed
Short wavelength
Can travels
through vacuum

13

baggage scanner.

Beta ray
Alpha ray

## The figure shows different regions of the

electromagnetic spectrum.

A
B
C
D

A
C
11

Microwaves
B

15
Sound waves
X-ray

X-ray
gamma rays
ultraviolet rays
infrared rays

## The figure shows a signal is transmitted to determine

the position of an aero plane .

## X and Y are different wave motions. In air, X travels

much faster than Y but has a much shorter
wavelength.
Which types of wave motion could X and Y be?

A
B
C
D
12

Bulb
Toaster
Hair drier
Microwave oven

Microwave
Red light
Sound

Red light
Infra-red
Sound
Ultra-violet

A
B
C
D

## One of the following devices does not make use of

electromagnetic waves in its operation.
Which one is it?
A
B
C
D

16

A loudspeaker
A television set
A camera
A hand phone

easily?
A
B
C
D

47

Microwave
Light wave
Sound wave

Infra-red
Light
Ultra-violet

17

A
B
C
D
18