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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

Engineering applications of discoveries and new knowledge that are


found by scientist to invent various machines/tools/techniques.
Science- a disipline that studies natural phenomena using human senses
and avaiable tools to make new discoveries.

Treatment for broken limb


1. Do not move the broken limb
2. Hang the broken limb with arm support
3. Get medical assistance

Definition of Mechanical Engineering : Is the technology that producing


design in manufacturing, production and maintenance of plant and
equipments in industries.

Treatment for scalds or burns


1. Do not touch scalded or burn area
2. Do not rub any medicine
3. Cover the scalded or burn area with clean gauze
4. Get medical assistant

Mechanical Engineering Fileds


a. Production and Industrial Engineering
b. Automotive Engineering
c. Aeronautical Engineering
d. Marine Engineering
e. Plant Engineering
Work scope : design, assembly, repair, maintenance.

Treatment for suffocation


1. Loosen the tie and belt on victims body
2. Move the victim to spacious area to get fresh air.
3. Calm the victim
4. Get medical assistant

Category
Profesional

Qualification Employment
Degree
Engineer

Work scope
Design, teach

Semi
Profesional

Diploma

Assistant
Engineer

Supervise skilled
worker

Skilled

Certificate

Fitter,welder
Machinist

Fitting, welding
Machining

CHAPTER 2 : SAFETY
Shifting and storage of inflammable/toxic materials
Kept in coverage container, away from source of fire, labelled, use trolly
when shifting.
Fire Extinguisher
Class
A
B
C
D

Catridge
Water
Foam
Carbon dioxide
Dry powder

Application
Paper, wood, cloth
Petrol, alcohol, varnish, paint
Electric equipment
Magnesium, sodium

Causes to electric shock


1. Wiring leakage
2. Wrong cable wiring
3. Wet areas
4. Defective electrical appliance
Treatment for electric shock
1. Cut off the main electric supply
2. Move the victim to a safer place
3. Aplly CPR if the victim breathing stop
4. Get medical assistance
Treatment for wound
1. Apply the antiseptic cream to the wound
2. Cover the wound with plaster
3. Add gauze, if bleeding
4. Get medical assistance

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

CHAPTER 3 : METROLOGY
Metrology is the science of measurement
Measuring instruments
Protractor
Depth gauge
Steel rule
Combination square
i. Steel rule
ii. Square head
iii. Protractor head
iv. Centre head

Usage
Mark, transfer, measure an angle
To test and measure the depth of a hole
Measure , mark straight line.

Have a slot to allow the component head to slide


Mark parallel line, 90,45 angles
To test and measure angle
To determine and mark the centre of round bar

Gauging
Definition : A measurement method used to determine that a product
meets the required standart or specification.
Importance : Save time and production cost.
Gauge type
Plug gauge
Snap gauge
Ring gauge
Taper plug gauge
Thread plug gauge

Usage
To test the diameter of a machined hole.
To test machine component
To test the concentricity of cylinder
To test tapering of machined component
To test the screw threat

Tolerance limits
Definition : a measurement range of a machine component to enable the
assmbley of two components.
Unilateral limit
Bilateral limit
Dimension

50.00

Nominal size : 50.00


Upper limit
: 50.00 + 0.20 = 50.20
Lower limit
: 50.00 0.30 = 49.70

Limit
: 50.20 49.70 = 0.50 (upper-lower)
Limit type
: Bilateral
Use of tolerance limits
1. Produce product with accurate dimensions.
2. Allows the concept of interchangeability.
3. Simplifies the components assembly process
Quality Control
Definition : process of inspection and testing of products using specific
techniques and activities to achieve and control the product quality.
Improtant of quality control
1. Achieve the standarts of the product
2. Control product quality
3. Fulfil customers satisfaction
4. Reduce manufacturing cost of product.

Batch size [ N ]
Sample size taken for inspection [ n ]
Acceptence Quantity Limit [ P ]
Batch Rejected
> P units defective

2. Double sampling
Sampling used when :
a. Inspection cost for each product is too high
b. Large quantities of product to be inspection
CHAPTER 4 : WORKSHOP PRACTICE
Types of fastening
Bolts, nuts, screws, studs, washers
Function of washers prevent the surface being damage, to distribute
the force to larger surface area, to prevent nut from being loosen.
Pop riveting process
1. Mark the position of the hole
2. Hold the metal sheets close together
3. Select the correct rivet size
4. Drill the mark according to rivet size
5. Insert the rivet into the rivet gun
6. Place the rivet close to the hole until the rivet gun is
close to the surface of the component.
7. Complete the riveting work.
Soft-soldering
Principle : forming an alloy on a metal sheet surface
using a solder.
Material : Solder tip, tin, flux, brush
Brazing
Principle : forming an alloy on the surface of a base metal and a filler

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

Gas welding
Principle : Melting the base metal with the filler metal from the
combustion of oxygen and acetylene gas.
Equipment : Gas cylinders, pressure regulator, one-way valve, gas
hose, welding torch, special key, lighter.
Safety attire : goggles,gloves, apron
Safety measure :
1. Wear the safety equipment such as goggles, gloves, apron.
2. Ensure that the gas cylinder are in upright position.
3. Welding be done where the air circulation is good.
4. Welding away from inflammble material

Sampling
1. Single sampling

Batch Accepted
< P units defective

using oxygen and acetylene gas.


Material : Filler rod, torch, flux, pliers, wire brush, oxygen and acetylene
gas

Arc welding
Principle : Melting of base metal using electric arc.
Equipment : Welding machine, electrode holder, electrode, earthing,
electrode cable, cleaning tools.
Safety equipment : Face shield, leather glove, leather apron, safety
shoes.
Arc welding process
1. Clean the surface to be welded.
2. Position the plates close together.
3. Select the appropriate electrode.
4. Adjust the electric current according to the electrode size.
5. Scratch or knock the electrode to strike the arc and do a tack weld.
6. Weld along the joint
7. Switch off the welding machine
8. Remove the slag from welding bead
Safety measure
1. Wear the protective equipment
2. Ensure that the welding and earth cable are in good condition.
3. Perform welding away from inflammable materials
4. Perform welding where the air circulation is good.
Cutting by division
Principle : cutting by shearing on metallic materials.
Equipment : snippers, hand lever shearing machine, square shearing
machine.
Stages of cutting process by division
1. First stage metal goes through a deformation
2. Second stage structure change to plastic deformation
3. Third stage - the inner surface go through work hardening.
4. Fourth stage the metal separate into two.
Cutting by Chipping.
Principle : removal or reducing the thickness of the work piece that
produce metal flakes known as chips.
Hand tools : chisels, files, hacksaws
Machine : drilling, lathe, milling, grinding
Drilling procedure
1. Mark the centre of the hole.
2. Grip the work piece to the vice tightly
3. Adjust the drilling speed accordingly

4. Swtich on and start drilling by moving the spindle downwards.


5. Feed the drill bit on the work piece until it is completed.
6. Stop the machine and loosen the vice.
Safety measures when drilling
1. Worn gogles
2. Use coolant
3. Do not apply too much presure
4. Only one person operates the machine at one time.
5. Avoid continuous drilling
Fitting process
1. Measured and marked the plate to shapeHand tools
1. File
2. Mark part (A) with centre punch
2. Chisel
3. Drill the mark
3. Hacksaw
4. Hammar
4. Saw both sides with hacksaw
5. Chiselled part (A) to remove the metal
6. Sawing part (B)
7. File all parts to get good finishing and accuracy

Marking tools
1. Scriber
2. Centre punch

drilling
chiselling
sawing

A
B
Parts of Drilling machine
1. Head stock
2. Driving Motor
3. Column

4. Worktable
5. Base

Parts of Lathe machine


1. Headstock
2. Carriage
3. Lathe bed
4. Tailstock
Parts of Milling machine
1. Overarms
2. Column
3. Table
4. Knee
5. Base
Milling machine operations
1. Fabricating a dove tail
2. Fabricating an edge
3. Fabricating a slot
4. Fabricating a T-slot
Types of Advanced Machines
1. Computer Numerical Control (CNC)
- Increase the productivity and accuracy of product
- Decreased the operation cost
- Mistake can detected ealier using simulation method.
2. Electron Discharge Machine (EDM)
- Machining complex geometrical shape
- No stresses left in the workpiece

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

Produces good surface finishing


Perform high precision machining
Cut all types of metal only.

3. Electron Discharge Wire Cut (EDWC)


- Cutting across the workpiece process only.
- Machining complex geometrical shape
- Produces good surface finishing
4. Plasma Cutting Machines
- Cutting speed are very fast
- Good penetration cut
5. Laser Cutting Machine
- High speed cutting and on large workpiece
- Cutting complex geometry and tiny workpieces
- Produce smooth and fine finishing
- Able to cut metal and non-metal
Casting
Definition : melting a metal and ppouring it into a mould.
Sand Casting
Casting process using sand as mould material
Product : produce coarse finishing surface.
- gear blank, bench vice, square block.
Die Casting
The molten metal will be injected at high presure into the mould.
Product : strong, withstand high tensile force, surface is smooth and fine.
- spanner, connecting rod.
Die casting process
1. Metal heated to melt in furnace
2. The plunger moves down to inject the molten metal into the die
3. After the molten metal solidified the product pushed out of the die.
4. Finished cast product.
Wax Casting
The pattern made from wax.
To produce complex shape, high quality, smooth and fine surface.
- jewellery, toys and souvenier.
Wax casting process
1. Pattern is formed and placed in a container.
2. Silica sand and adhesive poured into the container.
3. The mould heated to 150 C. The wax melting down and leave empty
space.
4. The mould turn over and the molten metal poured into it.
5. Left it cool and solidified
6. Mould is broken and remove the cast product.
Press Work.
Definition : a process using impact or pressure applied onto the metal
plate in the die.
1. Blanking Process
Definition : a process to remove a part of a sheet metal using a set
punches and die.
Size of die
- acording to size of product.
Size of punches - smaller than size of product.

Blanking process flow.


1. Sheet metal is fed into punch and die set.
2. Punch is lowered and press to the metal sheet
3. The metal cut out and product drops down.
4. Punch moves back into original position.
(Scrap - on die set. Product - cut out )
2. Punching Process
Definition : a process to punch holes into a sheet metal using punch and
die set.
Size of die
- bigger than size of product
Size of punches - according to size of product
Punching process flow.
1. Sheet metal is fed into punch and die set.
2. Punch is lowered and press to the metal sheet
3. The metal cut out and scrap drops down.
4. Punch moves back into original position.
(Product - on die set. Scrap - cut out )

compression, impact and rolling force are applied to it.


3. Brittleness

The property of metals to crack or break easily.

4. Hardness

The ability of a materials to withstand shape change,


scratches and wear.

5. Elasticity

The ability of metals to return to its original shape


after a force or load is applied to it.

6. Toughness

The ability of metals to withstand the changes in


shape such as bending without cracking.

7. Plasticity

The ability of metals to change its shape permanently


witout breaking or cracking.
Iron and Steel Production Flowchart
Iron Ore

3. Bending Process
Definition : a process by forming sheet metal into a shapes..
Bending process flow
1. Sheet metal is fed into punch and die set.
2. Punch is lowered and press to the metal sheet
3. The metal is bent into the die shape.
4. Punch moves back into original position.
4. Drawing process
Definition : a process of forming a container from metal sheet.
Bending process flow
1. Sheet metal is fed into punch and die set.
2. Punch is lowered and press to the metal sheet
3. The metal is pressed down to take die shape.
4. Punch moves back into original position.

Blast Furnace
Pig Iron
Open Hearth Furnace

Bessemer Converter

Steel sheets, bar, rods

Low carbon steel

Electric Arc Furnace

High grade steel/alloy steel

Heat Treatment
Definition : a process of controlled heating and cooling product to ahieve
the right properties.
Non-uniform microstructures
heated
cooled
uniform microstructures.
Microstructure : ferrite, pearlite, cementite, austenite, martensite

CHAPTER 5 : ENGINEERING MATERIALS


Iron-carbon equilibrium phase diagram
Ferrous metal : materials with iron element
Exp : Steel, Cast iron, Wrought iron

Temperature
Upper critical temperature line

Non ferrous metal : Metals with out iron element.


Exp : Aluminium, Copper, Tin
Alloy : combination of two or more metals
Exp : Brass, Bronze
Non Metallic Materials : materials without metal elements.
Exp : Rubber, Ceramic

Austenite
940 C
723 C

Austenite + Cementite

F+A

Lower critical temperature line

Ferrite
Ferrite + Pearlite

Pearlite + Cementite

Composite materials : consists of two or more materials.


Exp : Plastic, Fibre glass
Mechanical properties
Definition
1. Ductility
The ability of materials to change its shape under
tension, without craking or breaking
2. Malleability

The ability of metals to change its shape when

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

0.2

0.4
0.8
Percentage of carbon content

1. Annealing
To relieve the internal stress, rearrange microstructures, enchange
mechanical properties.
Annealing process :
product heated to annealing temperature.
- kept in the furnace for certain peroid of time.
- cooled in the furnace.
2. Normalizing
To transform the coarse and non uniform microstructure into finer,
uniform grains and without internal stress.
Normalizing process :
- product heated to normalizing temperature.
- Kept in the furnace for certain period of time
- cooled outside the furnace.
Pearlite
austenite during heating
3. Hardening
To improve hardness, strength and scratch resistance of steel.
Hardening process :
- product heated to hardening temperature.
- Kept in the furnace for certain period of time
- cooled in water or oil
Tranformed microstructure for 0.9 % Carbon.
i. Heated under critical temperature line pearlite+ cementite
ii. Heated above critical temperature line austenite + cementite
iii. Cooled in water - martensite
Hardening process produces hard but brittle martensite.
4. Tempering
To reduced brittleness in steel after hardening process.
Tempering process :
- martensite steel heated to tempering temperature.
- Kept in the furnace for certain period of time
- cooled outside the furnace.
Tempering produces uniform and fine martensite microstructure
tempered martensite.

f = R
mg
Fy = 0
R mg = 0
R = mg
Fx = 0
Ff=0
F - R = 0
F = (mg)
The Law of Friction
1. The direction of friction force is opposite to the direction of a body
movement.
2. The surface area of two surfaces in contact does not contribute to the
friction force.
3. A friction force is a function of the normal reaction force.
4. The magnitude of a friction force depends on the shapes, type and
condition of the surface in contact.
Coefficient of Friction () is defined as the ratio between the friction force
(F) and the normal body reacting force (R)
f = R
Application of friction.
1. Belt and pulley system
2. Brake system
Stress
Definition : intensity of force distributed over a unit area.
= F N/m-2
A
Strain
Definition : the ratio of the changes in length compared to original
length.
= x
L
Modulus of Elasticity
Definition : the ratio of stress to strain within material elastic range.
E = stress =
strain

Stress
D
B

CHAPTER 6 : MECHANICS
Moment
Definition : the product of the magnitude of force acting on the
perpendicular distance from the force action( M = Fd)
Principle : when the body is in equilibrium, the sum of clockwise moment
is equal to the sum of anti-clockwise moment.
Friction
Principle :

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

C
E

Strain

Point
O-A
Proportional limit
A-B
Elastic limit
B Upper yield point
C Lower yield point
D Tensile strength
E Fracture point

Explanation

5. As a lubricant

Strain is proportional to stress


Body is elastic going back to its original length when load is
removed
Strain increase witout increase in stress
End point strain increase witout increase in stress
Ultimate strength that material can withstad
Maximum starin where a material breaks

Pulley
Functions :
1. lift load
2. to change the ratational direction
3. transmit power
NADA = NBDB
N = rotational speed (rpm)
D = pulleys diameter (mm)
Gears
Functions :
1. transmit power
2. change the direction
3. increase or decrease speed of shaft.
Types of Gears
1. Spur gears
2. Bevel gears
3. Helical gears
4. Rack and pinion gears
Gear chain
Simple gear chain
consists of two gears
Compound gear chain consists of more than two gears
Simple gear formula

Functions of components in Hydraulic system


Component
Function
Tank
To store the hydraulic fluid
Pump
To send high pressure hydraulic fluid through the circuit
Filter
To block unwanted material from getting into system
Check valve To control back flow of fluid and prevent the pump from
over pressure.
Relief valve
To limit the pressure in system
Directional
To control the direction of the fluid-flow
control valve
Flow control
To control the velocity of the fluid-flow
valve
Actuator
To do work
cylinder
Circuit analysis in Hydraulic System. ( Piston Moving Outward )
1. The pump force the hydraulic fluid from the tank to the system
2. The relief valve is adjusted to the required pressure
3. The hydraulic fluid flow through the check valve in one direction.
4. The fluid enter the directional control valve at outward position.
5. The fluid passing through control valve before entering the cylinder.
6. The pressure of fluid back portion push the piston moving outward.
7. Fluid from the front portion of the piston forced through the directional
control valve to tank.
Problems in hydraulic circuit :
Problems
Source/Caused by
No presure
a. pump failure
(Actuator cylinder
b. Valve installed
did not function)
wrongly.

Pressure drop in the


system

NBTB = NATA
Compound gear chain
ND = TA X TC
NA
TB
TD
N = rotational speed of gear (rpm)
T = number of teeth of gear

c. Pipe leaks
a. hose leaks
b. hose connection to
component is not
proper
c. component leaks

Failed to achieve
the required
pressure

a. relief valve is
adjusted low
b. pump failure

Piston move in
wrong direction

a. wrong connection

Remedy
a. repair pump
b. check valve is
correctly installed
to its direction of
flow.
c. repair leak
a. replace with new
hose
b. tighten the
connection
c. repair/replace faulty
component
a. readjust the relief
valve.
b. repair pump
a. check hose is
correctly connection

CHAPTER 7 : SYSTEMS
1. Hydraulic System
Definition : the control and transfer of power by using high-pressure fluid

2. Pneumatic System
Definition : the control and transfer of power by using compressed air.

Used in the industries involving work with heavy load.

Used in light machineries- grinding machines, drilling machines, impact


socket spanners.

Characteristics of Hydraulic Fluid


1. Not easily compressed
2. Does not absorb air
3. Non-flammale
4. Rust resistant

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

Functions of components in Pneumatic system


Component
Function
Air compressor
To compress air to high pressure.
Receiver
To store and stabilise the compressed air

Dryer
Air filter
Pressure regulator
Pressure gauge
Lubricator
Directional control
valve
Flow control valve
Cylinder
Silencer

To absorb moisture from compressed air


To filter the substances from entering system
To regulate and balance the pressure
To indicate the operating pressure
To spraying lubricant into compressed air
To control flow path
To control the rate of air flow
To do work
To reduce the noise

System cleaness

Clean

Dirty

3. Robotic System
Definition : a mechanical unit that is designed to perform task through
programmeed instructions.
Used in manufacturing industries welding, spray painting, assembling
components.
Elements of robotic system
a. Power element
b. Control element
c. Movement element
d. Sensor element

Circuit analysis in Pneumatic System.( Piston moving outward )


1. The air compressor compress air to high pressure
2. The receiver store and stabilise the compressed air
3. The compressed air through dryer and air filter.
4. The compressed air enter the directional control valve at outward
position.
5. The compressed air passing through control valve before entering the
cylinder.
6. The pressure of compressed air back portion push the piston moving
outward.
7. Air from the front portion of the piston forced through the directional
control valve to silencer.
Problems on pneumatic system:
Problems
Source
Failure to reach
a. low capacity
required pressure
compressor
b. faulty compressor
System failure
(piston does not
move)
Piston moves in
wrong direction

a. components
blockage
b. hose leakage
a. wrong connection
between components

Frequent damage of
components.

a. no lubricant
b. leakage or blockage
of filter
c. moisture presents in
the system
a. faulty silencer

System is noisy

Remedy
a. select suitable
compressor
b. repair the
compressor
a. tighten the joints of
components
b. change hose
a.make sure
connection to
suitable port.
a. add lubricant
b. replace with new
filter
c. install dryer to the
system.
a. replace with new
silencer

Differences between pneumatic and hydraulic system


Differences
Pneumatic
Hydraulic
Medium
Compressed air
Hydraulic fluid
Work capacity
Ligh work
Heavy work
Movements
Fast but not smooth
Slow but smooth
Noise
Noisy
Silent
Operational
High temperature
Low temperature
temperature

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

a. Power element
- to produce robot movement
- electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic power.
b. Control element
i. Remote teaching programme
- control panel used to operate the movement of robotic arm to the
position or location required.
- the movement sequences are recorded in memory unit of robot.
- the recorded movement will used by robot to move and perform
its work process.
ii. Lead through programme
- operator moves a devices manually to recorded the movement
- the recorded path will used by robot during the work operation
iii. Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
- robotic programmer enter the programme into PLC unit using
logical command.
- the command translated into input and output command.
- robot will perform its task according to input programme.
c. Movement element
i. Cylinderical movement
ii. Polar movement
iii. SCARA movement
iv. Rectangular movement
v. Revolute movement
d. Sensor element
i. Electronic feedback sensor
- electronic device uses infra-red light to detect objects
- object passes through or blocked the infra-red light
- the light will reflected back to the emitter.
- the signal sent to robotic control unit
- robot perform movement to required task.
ii. Touch sensor
- object that come into contact with touch sensor will send an
electric signal to the control unit.
- control unit will sending command to robot

iii. Vision sensor


- vision sensor used to identify an object by using computerised
camera system.
- computerised camera will enable the robot to identify the
similarity of the object that store in the robot memory.
- robot will do the work as programme if the object similar to the
one in memory

3. Mechanical Desktop sofware


BAB 9 : DESIGN
Concepts of design

Problem solving

Understanding the customer needs

Understanding the customer needs requirements accurately

Understanding the main objective of product.


Objective of design.
To invent new product
To modify an existing product
To fulfils consumer need.

CHAPTER 8 : COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING


Advantages of CAD
1. Easy to make copy and changes
2. Able to clearly illustrate objects in 2D and 3 D
3. Objects can be animated
4. Drawings can be printed or plotted fast.
Disadvantages of CAD
1. The cost of equipment is high
2. Only trained operators are able to produce good results.
3. Requires a certain type of paper to plot the drawing.
Command
Fillet
Trim
Array
Copy
Move
Offset
Mirror
Extend
Hatch

Function
Construct a part of a curve and chamfer an angle of object
To make cuts on drawn objects
To copy the same object in large number
To duplicate drawing entity at different location
To shift an entity from one position to new position
To construct new entity at new position parallel to initial
To have mirror image
To lengthen entity to target entity.
To show cross sectional area

Mod OSNAP
MIDpoint
ENDpoint
CENter
INTersection
TANgent
QUADrant
PERpendicular

Description
Lines, curves, polylines midpoint
Lines, curves, polylines endpoint
Circles, curves or ellipse centre point
Linion pointes, circles curves intersect
Point or lines or circle that tangentially meet
Quadrant points on circles or curves
Lines that lies perpendicular to the referred point

Draw line using Absolute coordinates (x, y) = (10,50)


Draw line using Polar coordinate - @Distance<angle = @100<30
Other CAD softwares
1. Visio software
2. IntelliCAD software

PKM SMTS SPM 2010

Design Elements
1. Design process
2. The application of technology
3. Structure
4. Economics of design
5. Material selection
6. Design compatibility
1. Design process
a. Problem identification
b. Investigation
c. Preliminary idea
d. Idea analysis
e. Refining
f . Decision making
g. Implementation
2. The application of technology
a. Gear
- heavy duty work
- transmits constant motion
- speed without slippage
- minimum space area movement
b. Belts and pulleys
c. Joint
- to transmit force and change motion
d. Wheels
- easy the movement of object.
3. Structure
a. Sturdiness of designed product
- focus on structural strengths to withstand force such
as tension, compression, shear, bending , twist.
b. Size of design product
c. Assembly and maintenance
- product easy to assembly and dismantle
d. Safety
- stability of product
- Avoid all sharp corners and edges
- Select non- flammable and non- toxic materials
e. Construction Process
- Cutting and joining process

4. Economics of design
a. Materials
- ability to withstand force
- easy to obtain
- easy to form or shape
b. Construction process
- consider for cost, time and energy saving.
5. Material selection
Appropriate and able to withstand any condition
Easy to process
Easily obtained and cost saving.
6. Design compatibility
a. Aesthetic refers to characteristics such as beauty,
tradition, art and finishing
- colour, texture, finishing, pattern, shape
b. Ergonomics scientific study related to physical and
psychological characteristics of consumers

PKM SMTS SPM 2010