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1. Which of the following is NOT a method of quantitative research?

A. Grounded Theory Research


B. Correlational Research
C. Quasi-Experimental Research
D. Experimental Research
Answer Key

2. The grounded theory approach was developed by


A. Heidegger
B. Glaser and Strauss
C. Husserl
D. Denzin
Answer Key

3. Deductive Reasoning is applied in:


A. Qualitative research
B. Quantitative research
C. Action research
D. Applied research
Answer Key

4. Which of the following is a qualitative research design where lived


experiences of individuals are examined in their "life-world"?
A. Ethnography
B. Ethology

C. Phenomenology
D. Grounded theory
Answer Key

5. Which of the following is a characteristic of qualitative research?


A. Deductive process
B. Control over the context
C. Fixed research design
D. Inductive process
Answer Key

6. Qualitative research design involves


A. Emergent design
B. Correlative design
C. Experimental design
D. Cohort design
Answer Key

7. Phenomenological study involves all the following features, EXCEPT


A. Bracket out
B. Intuition
C. Analysis
D. Description
E. Manipulation

Answer Key

8. Which of the following qualitative methods focuses on description


and interpretation of cultural behavior?
A. Phenomenology
B. Grounded theory
C. Ethnography
D. Symbolic interactionism
Answer Key

9. The area of inquiry in grounded theory approach is


A. Holistic view of culture
B. Lived experiences
C. Behaviour observed over time in natural context
D. Social structural processes with in social setting
Answer Key

10. The research design in which the area inquiry is the manner by
which people make sense of social interactions:
A. Grounded theory
B. Phenomenology
C. Symbolic interactionism
D. Ethnography
Answer Key

11. The term triangulation was coined by:


A. Denzin (1989)
B. Leininger (1985)
C. Glaser and Strauss (1967)
D. Heidegger
Answer Key

12. In qualitative research, a guiding principle in deciding sample


size is:
A. Effect size
B. Number of variables
C. Data saturation
D. Sub-group analysis
Answer Key

13. The term refers to the use of multiple referents to draw


conclusions about what constitutes the truth:
A. Item analysis
B. Factor analysis
C. Error measurement
D. Triangulation
Answer Key

14. Characteristics of qualitative research design are


A. Flexible and elastic design

B. Use of mixed methodologies


C. Ongoing analysis to formulate subsequent strategies
D. Researcher becomes the instrument
E. All of the above
Answer Key

15. The tendency in qualitative research to derive a complex array of


data from a variety of sources, using variety of methods is termed as:
A. Triangulation
B. Bricolage
C. Cross-tabulation
D. Confirmability

1. A

2. B

3. B

4. C

5. D

6. A

7. E

8. C

9. D

10. C

11. A

12. C

13. D

14. E

15. B

1. As a professional, a nurse can do research for varied reason except:


-For financial gains
2. Each nurse participants was asked to identify a problem. After the identification of the
research problem, which of the following should be done?
-Review of related literature
3. Which of the following communicate the results of the research to the readers? They
facilitate the description of the data.
-Tables and Graphs

4. In Quantitative date, which of the following is described as the distance in the scoring
unites of the variable from the highest to the lower?
-Range
5. This expresses the variability of the data in reference to the mean. It provides as with a
numerical estimate of how far, on the average the separate observation are from the mean:
-Standard deviation
6. According to the WHO statistics on the Homeless population around the world. Which of
the following groups of people in the world disproportionately represents the homeless
population?
-Asians
7. All but one of the following is not a measure of Central Tendency.
-Variance
8. In an array of: 88, 81, 89, 88, 90, 92, 90: What is the mean?
-88.3
9. In the value: 80, 80, 80, 82, 82, 90, 90,100, 90. What is the mode?
-85
10. In the value 80, 80, 10, 10, 25, 65, 100, 200: What is the median?
-72.5
11. Draw Lots, Lottery, Table of random numbers or a sampling that ensures that each
element of the population has an equal and independent chance of being chosen is called:
-Simple
12. A researcher wants to determine some of the problems that are experienced by diabetic
clients when using an Insulin pump. The investigation went into a clinic where he personally
knows several diabetic clients having problem with insulin pump. The type of sampling done
by the investigator is called:
-Purposive
13. If the researcher implemented a new structured counseling program with a randomized
group of subject and a routine counseling program with another randomized group of
subject, the research is utilizing which design?
-Experimental
14. Which of the following is not true about a Pure Experimental Research?

-There is a careful selection of subjects in the experimental group


15. The researcher implemented a medication regimen using a new type of combination of
drugs to manic patients while another group of manic patient receives the routine drugs.
The researcher however handpicked the experimental group for they are the clients with
multiple episodes of bipolar disorder. The researcher utilized which research design?
-Quasi-experimental
16. You are interested to study the effects of medication and tactile stimulation on the pain
experienced by the cancer patients. What type of variable is pain?
-Dependent
17. You would like to compare the support system of patient with chronic illness to those
with acute illness. How will you best state your problem?
-A comparative analysis of the support system of patients with chronic illness and those with
acute illness
18. You would like to compare the support system of patients with chronic illness to those
with acute illness. Considering that the hypothesis was: Clients with chronic illness have
lesser support system than clients with acute illness. What type of research is this?
-Descriptive
19. In any research study where individual persons are involved, it is important that an
informed consent of the study is obtained. The following are essential information about the
consent that you should disclose to the prospective subject except:
-Consent to incomplete
20. In the hypothesis: The utilization of technology in teaching improves the retention and
attention of the nursing students. Which is the dependent variable?
-Nursing students
21. Which type of research inquiry investigates the issue of human complexity (e.g.
understanding the human expertise)?
-natural inquiry
22. Which of the following studies is based on quantitative research?
-A study measuring the effects of sleep deprivation on patients healing
23. Which of the following studies is based on the qualitative research?
-A study examining clients reaction to stress after open heart surgery

24. An 75 year old client in a nursing home tells a nurse, I signed the papers of that
research study because the doctor was so insistent and I want him to continue taking care
for me. Which client right is being violated?
-Right of self determination
25. A supposition or system of ideas that is proposed to explain a given phenomenon best
defines:
-A theory
26. A nursing student wants to know if the of time she will study for the board examination is
proportional to her board rating. During the June 2008 board examination. She studied for 6
months and gained 60%. On the next board exam, she studied for 6 months again for a total
of 1 year and gained 74%. On the third board exam, she studied for 6 months for a total of 1
and a half year and gained 82%. The research she used is:
-Experimental Study
27. Anton was always eating high fat diet. You want to determine if what will be the effect of
high cholesterol food to Anton in the next 10 years. You will use:
-Comparative
28.Barangay A was selected randomly as well as Barangay B, Nurse Edly conducted
teaching to Barangay A and assess if Barangay A will have a better status than Barangay B.
This is an example of:
-Experimental
29. Ana researched on the development of a new way to measure intelligence by creating a
100 item questionnaire that will assess the cognitive skills of an individual. The design best
suited for this study is:
-Methodological
30 . A nurse is conducting a research study on how mark, an AIDS client lives his life. A
design suited for this is:
-Phenomenological
31. A nurse researcher is to perform a study about how nurses perform surgical asepsis
during World War II. A design for this study is:
-Historica
32. Which among the following is the most important characteristic of a sample?
-Representativeness

33. A student nurse visited a tribe located somewhere in China. She studied the way of life,
tradition and the societal structure of these people. Which among the following is an
appropriate research design?
-Ethnographic
34. A nurse researched on TB. Its transmission, Causative agent and factors, treatment,
sign and symptoms as well as medication and all other in depth information about
tuberculosis. This study is best suited for which research design?
-Case Study
35. What does a sample group represent?

-Study subjects
36. Random sampling ensures that each subject has:

An equal chance of selection


37. Which of the following methods allows the use of any group of research subject?

-Convenience
38. You decided to include 5 barangays in your municipality and chose a sampling method
that would get representative samples from each barangay. What should be the
appropriate method ofor you to use in this care?
-Cluster sampling
39. Which of the following might prevent the conduct of a research study?
-in order to gather data for the research, excessive risk to subject is required
40. Every year we discover new methods or gadgets to improve mans life. The research
typed used of this nature is:
-applied

41. As experimental research designs have their strengths, so does non-experimental


researches. Which of the following statements is NOT one of the strengths of nonexperimental designs?
-useful for predictive purposes
42. A research on Surgical Instrument Availability will help the surgical team:

streamline instrument inventory


43. A patient is participating in a cardiac study in which his physician is directly involved.
Which statement by the patientindicates a lack of understanding about his rights as a
research study participant?

Ill have to find a new physician if I dont complete this study


44. The nurse researcher mutually agreed with the research subjects that all personal data
of the subjects shall be kept confidential. To safeguard anonymity of data after the report is
written, the nurse researcher should:
burn or shred the papers
45. The information that an investigator collects from the subjects or participants in a
research study is usually called:
Data
46. Which of the following usually refers to the independent variables in doing research?
-Cause
47. The recipients of experimental treatment are an experimental design or the individuals
to be observed in a non-experimental design are called:

Subjects
48. The device or techniques an investigator employs to collect data is called?

Instrument
49. The use of another persons ideas or wordings giving appropriate credit results from
inaccurate attribution of materials to its sources. Which of the following is referred to when
another persons idea is inappropriate credited as ones own?
Plagiarism
50. A nurse researcher wants to do a study on this topic: Effects of massage and
meditation on stress and pain. The type of research that best suits this topic is:
Applied research
51. The type of research design that does not manipulate the independent variable is:
Non-experimental design
52. This research topic has the potential to contribute to nursing because it seeks to
enhance client care
53. A researcher does review of related literature for the purpose of

gathering data about what is already known or unknown about the problem
54. Clients rights should be protected when doing research using human subjects. These
rights below are correct EXCEPT:
right to compensation
55. In both quantitative and qualitative research, the used of a frame of reference is
required. Which of the following items serves as the purpose of a framework?

Organizes the development of study and links the findings to nursings body of knowledge
56. Mikee needs to review relevant literature and studies. The following processes are
undertaken in reviewing literature EXCEPT:
clarifying a research topic
57. The primary purpose for reviewing literature is to:

generate broad background and understanding of information related to the research


problem of interest
58. SITUATION: Myrna, a researcher, proposes a study on the relationship between health
values and the health promotion activities of staff nurses in a selected college of nursing.
In formulating the research hypotheses, researcher Myrna should state the research
question as:
What is the response of the staff nurses to the health values?
-Is there a significant relationship between health values and health promotion
activities of the staff nurses?
59. Evidence-based care started in medicine as a way to:
Integrate individual experience with clinical research
60. Who is the first nurse researcher?
Florence Nightingale

1. Nursing Research can be classified according to the time frame the research study
has been made. As a nurse, you know that the study entitled Knowledge and
practice of Staff Nurses in preventing needle prick injuries in a private hospital in
Manila is classified as:
Descriptive Research
2. Nursing Research has a lot of purposes. Which of the following category do the
study about sociodemographic profile of nursing students and their risk for
depression belong?
Exploration
3. In an experimental research, as a nurse there must be an essential activity
wherein the participants of the study will be able to understand the whole
experimental design. This term is called:
Debriefing

4. Ethics in Nursing Research has always been an issue when it comes to the identity
of the respondents. When the topics of research are very sensitive, which of the
following rights of individual participants must be ensured when the researcher
cannot link the information given by the respondent from the source of the
information?
Anonymity
5. In starting a focused group discussion, Nurse Dina wants to stress out the
confidentiality of the topics that they will be discussing. Which of the following
instruction convey confidentiality?
This discussion should only be confined within this group of people. Any
information discussed should not be told publicly.
6. No. 6 10. Situation No.1 Knowledge and practice of prevention of needle prick
injuries of Staff Nurses in a certain private hospital in Metro ManilaBased on the
research title which of the following will be the general objective?
-This study aims to determine the level of knowledge and practice of prevention of
needle prick injuries of Staff Nurses in a certain private hospital

7. All of these are specific objectives except:


This study is for nursing researchers in the future

8. s a nurse, you know the appropriate data gathering tool, this is?
Questionnaire

9. As a nurse, these are the following topics in the scope and limitations except:
Limited to the hospital personnel of a private hospital;

10. Which of the following is not a null hypothesis?


-There is a significant relationship between the knowledge and sociodemographic
profile of staff nurses
11. Which of the following would correspond to Intervene in Nursing Process?
-Implement planned study
12. Which of the following would correspond to Plan in Nursing Process?
-Select design plan

13. When it comes to steps in Problem Solving, which of the following would be similar
in research where in you implement the planned study?
-Gather, analyse relevant information
14. Using the Research perspective, when is the time that a nurse makes inferences?
-Formulate a problem, define variables
15. Which of the following is does not belong to the group?
-Plan: Theorize
16. In selecting a problem, these are the following consideration except:
Talents
17. These are the purpose of Review of Related Literature except:
-Reveal what is the problem
18. As a nurse, you know the following a functions of theoretical framework, except:
-Give a graphic view of the data
19. Which of the following would not be Qualitative Research?
-A Review on the Performance in Related Learning Experience of student nurses
20. Using statistics in nursing research is a very vital tool in presenting the data. As a
nurse you know the definition of sampling as:
-Process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population
21. In gathering information, as a nurse these are the reliable sources except:
-Grapevine
22. As a nurse educator, you want to know the reasons behind the leave of absences
of student nurses. These tool can be used except?
-Pre-Test & Post-Test
23. Upon gathering the data, which of the following can describe the most number of
reasons of leave of absence?
-Mode
24. If you want to know the average age of the nursing students who has the most
number of leave of absence you will need:
-Mean
25. After all the data presented, what part of descriptive statistics will you use in order

to place a systematic arrangement of numerical values from lowest to highest?


-Frequency Distribution

A.
B.
C.
D.

1. A nurse who reads research articles and incorporates research


findings into nursing practice would demonstrate which of the
following research roles?
Consumer
Primary investigator
Collaborator
Producer

A.
B.
C.
D.

2. Florence Nightingale is most noted for which of the following


contributions to nursing research?
Case study approach to research
Data collection and analysis
Framework and model development
Quasi-experimental study design

3. Which of the following historical events had a major impact on the


funding for nursing research?
A Development of local, national, and international nursing research
. conferences by Sigma Theta Tau
B. Initiation of the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research
C. Formation of the National Institute for Nursing Research
D Development of a Nursing Research Council as part of the American
. Nurses Association
4.
An example of inductive reasoning is:
A reasoning from all chronically ill patients to a single chronically
. ill patient
B.reasoning from a single diabetic patient to all diabetic patients
C.using a standard nursing care plan to care for a specific patient
D using a computerized nursing care plan to care for insulin-dependent
. diabetic patients.
5. Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly
useful in nursing because they:
A.
are easy to implement.
B.
require few resources.
C.
are both process oriented.
D balance each other by generating different types of nursing
. knowledge.
6. Which of the following types of research involve at least some
control by the researcher to implement the study treatment?

A.
B.
C.
D.

A.
B.
C.
D.

Correlational
Descriptive
Quasi-experimental
Experimental
7. In which type of research is there high researcher control, random
sampling, and laboratory setting?
Descriptive
Correlational
Quasiexperimental
Experimental

8. Benner (1984) emphasizes the importance of acquiring clinical


knowledge and expertise through:
A.
Professional experience
B.
Personal experience
C.
Academic experience

A.
B.
C.
D.

9. What category of research is suggested by the following research


question?"Does telephone follow-up by nurses improve patients'
compliance with their medication regimens?"
Applied research
Basic research
descriptive research
phenomenological research

A.
B.
C.
D.

10. A researcher investigates the effect of frequency of position


change on healing of decubitus ulcers. The study would be
described as:
applied research
basic research
descriptive research
phenomenological research

A.
B.
C.
D.

11. Applied research seeks to solve a clinical problem in which


setting?
Controlled
Laboratory
Natural
Simulated

A.
B.
C.
D.

12. A researcher designs a study that uses a random sampling method to


decrease the likelihood of bias in the study sample. This strategy
was used to implement:
manipulation
control
data collection
experimental research

13. Which of the following definitions best describes rigor in


quantitative research?
A. Time frame in which the research takes place

B. Degree of aggressiveness used in acquiring the data


C. Amount of control and precision exerted by the methodology
D.Process used to synthesize findings to form conclusions from a study

A.
B.
C.
D.

14. A researcher is interested in studying stress and coping in


caregivers of elderly stroke victims. The researcher designs a
study where data collection takes place in the caregiver's home.
This would be an example of which type of research setting?
Natural, field
Highly controlled, field
Partially controlled, laboratory
Highly controlled, laboratory

A.
B.
C.
D.

15. Problem identification in the research process would be equivalent


to which step in the nursing process?
Goal identification
Data interpretation
Identifying solutions
Nursing diagnosis

A.
B.
C.
D.

16. The plan in the problem-solving process is equivalent to which


step in the research process?
Outcomes
Design
Implementation
Goal identification

A.
B.
C.
D.

17. The research process differs from the nursing process on which of
the following?
Identifies new information
involves abstract, critical thinking
has a broader focus
utilizes complex thinking

A.
B.
C.
D.

18. Which of the following would identify the specific aim or goal of
the study based on the identified problem?
Purpose
Literature review
Methodology
Assumptions

19. Research subjects in a study of quality of life (QOL) in liver


transplant recipients were asked to complete a questionnaire about
their experiences following transplantation. Which of the
following would be a likely assumption the researcher made in
relation to this study?
A. Subjects will complete every item on the questionnaire.
B. Subjects are able to identify a personal awareness of QOL.
C All liver transplant recipients invited to participate in the study
. will complete a questionnaire
D. QOL is an important issue to liver transplant recipients.

A.
B.
C.
D.

20. Before implementing a large, multisite research investigation, a


researcher conducts a smaller study of the planned study to
identify any problematic areas. This smaller study is known as
a(n):
abstract
exploratory design
pilot study
proposal

A.
B.
C.
D.

21. The researcher uses which portion of the research report to


capture the reader's attention?
- Abstract
22. The sentence "The purpose of this study was to examine the
relationship between health beliefs and breast self-examination"
would most likely be found in which section of a research report?
- Abstract
23. The initial and one of the most significant steps in conducting
the research process is:
defining the research variables.
identifying the research problem.
stating the research purpose.
determining the feasibility of the study.

A.
B.
C.
D.

24. The purpose statement should identify the study variable(s) and
what other key aspect of the study?
Design
measurement tools
population
statistics

A.
B.
C.
D.

25. One important source for identification of a research problem


would be:
nursing practice
research textbook
nursing code of ethics
practice guidelines

A.
B.
C.
D.

26. In the literature report of a study on quality of life, the


researcher describes two previous investigations suggesting that
spirituality is related to quality of life. This information
suggests the current study is significant because it:
influences theology.
builds on previous research.
challenges existing theory.
addresses multidisciplinary concerns.

A.
B.
C.

27. Feasibility is determined by examining which of the following?


Researcher's credibility
Significance of research problem
Availability of subjects

D.

Previous studies

A.
B.
C.
D.

28. In a research proposal, the investigator notes that written


permission has been obtained from three local hospitals to access
patients for the proposed study. This is an example of what aspect
of a study?
Reliability
Methodology
Ethics
Feasibility

A.
B.
C.
D.

29.
A research hypothesis:
predicts the expected results or outcomes of the study
defines the theoretical framework for the study
identifies the source of the problem under study
clarifies the concepts used in the study

A.
B.
C.
D.

30. The statement "This study explores the experience of caregiving by


adult daughters of parents with Alzheimer disease" is an example
of which of the following?
Objective
Question
Simple hypothesis
Complex hypothesis

A.
B.
C.
D.

31. What type of hypothesis is the following? "Normal saline flush


with heparin is more effective than normal saline flush alone in
maintaining patency of an intermittent intravenous site."
Simple, research
Complex, nondirectional
Complex, causal
Simple, directional

A.
B.
C.
D.

32. What type of hypothesis is the following?"Cancer patients who


receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require
less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music
therapy."
Complex, directional hypothesis
Simple, associative hypothesis
Simple, nondirectional hypothesis
Complex, null hypothesis

A.
B.
C.
D.

33. What type of hypothesis is the following? "Low-fat diet is related


to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density
lipoprotein)."
Complex, directional, causal
Complex, directional, associative
Simple, nondirectional, research
Simple, directional, causal

34.
The dependent variable is:
A. a stimulus or activity that is varied by the researcher.

B.the quality, property, or characteristic identified in the problem


C a characteristic or element of the human subjects involved in the
. study
D. the response or outcome that the researcher wants to understand

A.
B.
C.
D.

35. Identify the independent variable in the following


hypothesis:"Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain
less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than
cancer patients not receiving music therapy."
Relaxation therapy
Complaints of pain
Pain medication use
Music therapy

A.
B.
C.
D.

36. Hypotheses: "Structured preoperative support is more effective in


reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support." Question:
"Request for analgesics" is the:
independent variable.
dependent variable.
attribute variable
extraneous variable

A.
B.
C.
D.

37. Hypotheses: "Structured preoperative support is more effective in


reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support." Question:
"Perception of pain" is the:
independent variable.
dependent variable.
attribute variable.
extraneous variable

A.
B.
C.
D.

38. Hypotheses: "Structured preoperative support is more effective in


reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support." Question: "Type
of support" is
independent variable.
dependent variable
attribute variable
extraneous variable

A.
B.
C.
D.

39. Hypotheses: "Structured preoperative support is more effective in


reducing surgical patients' perception of pain and request for
analgesics than structured postoperative support." This hypothesis
is
simple, directional, research
complex, nondirectional, null
complex, directional, research
simple, nondirectional, statistical
40. The statement below is an example of which of the following? "In
this study, pain is reflected as a score between 0 and 10 on the

A.
B.
C.
D.

Post-operative Pain Rating Scale."


Problem statement
Conceptual definition
Associative hypothesis
Operational definition

A.
B.
C.
D.

41. In which section of the research report might the problem


statement be located?
Literature review
Methods
Results
Implications

A.
B.
C.
D.

42. The literature review section of a research report might include a


summary of which of the following?
Empirical literature
Funding sources
Proposed methods and design
Description of study sample

43. Which
A.A thesaurus
B The results
. interest
C. A report of
D.A published

of the following represents a primary source?


that identifies key words to use in a computer search
of a computer search related to the primary topic of
a study written by the researcher who did the study
summary of the relevant research in a primary care area

A.
B.
C.
D.

44. At what point is the literature review conducted in a qualitative


investigation?
Prior to study implementation
During study implementation
After study completion
Depends on the type of study

A.
B.
C.
D.

45. Which of the following types of information is consistently


covered in a quantitative literature review?
Descriptions of effective clinical outcomes
Anecdotal opinions of expert researchers
Approaches used to investigate similar problems
Clinical impressions of related phenomena

46. The primary purpose for reviewing relevant literature is to:


A.
select the research design.
B. delineate the existing knowledge base of an identified problem
C. interpret previous research findings
D. develop conceptual and operational definitions of variables
47. A crucial resource for researchers conducting a literature review
would be:
A.
a secondary source.
B.
an academic library.
C.
lay literature

D.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

a research mentor
48.

Which numbers are even

2
3
4
6
7

A.
B.
C.
D.

49. Which of the following indexes would provide the largest number of
relevant nursing sources?
International Nursing Index
Nursing Studies Index
Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature
Index Medicus

A.
B.
C.
D.

50. A critical aspect of beginning a database search for relevant


literature on a topic of interest involves identifying:
reference management software
electronic journals
keywords
existing knowledge

A.
B.
C.
D.

51. In the following APA formatted reference, what does the 21 refer
to? Harris, R. M., Bausell, R. B., Scott, D. E.,Hetherington, S.
E., & Kavanagh, K. H. (1998). An intervention for changing highrisk HIV behaviors of African American drug-dependent women.
Research in Nursing and Health, 21(3), pp. 239-250.
volume number
issue number
chapter number
bibliographic reference
52. What is the arrow pointing to?

A.
B.
C.
D.

Aorta
Scalene muscles
Diaphraghm
Left lung

53. One advantage of an integrative review of research is that:


A. previous research findings have been synthesized.
B. multidisciplinary literature has been filtered out.
C. emphasis is placed on what is not known.
D. statistical analyses of the summarized research are conducted.
A.
B.
C.
D.

54.
A study framework reflects the:
blueprint for the study
specific plan for data collection
data analysis strategy
researcher's "theory" or idea about the study

A.
B.
C.
D.

55. A researcher theorizes that walking three times per week will
minimize the likelihood of premature labor in at-risk pregnant
women. The researcher initiates a research program to test this
theory. This research study is attempting to validate what aspect
of theory?
Development
Explanation
Prediction
Strategies for controlling outcomes

56. Which of the following is true about theoretical frameworks used


in research?
A. Theories offer precise guidance in all situations.
B. Theories prove how concepts are related to one another.
C.Theories represent ultimate truth and are congruent with reality.
D. Theories are constructed by people and are tentative in nature.
A.
B.
C.
D.

57.
"Abstract" is defined in research as:
particular and realistic
not well-defined and general
well-defined and precise
concrete and specific

58. Which of the following is true about the relationship between a


study framework and the hypotheses?
A. The framework and hypotheses must be congruent with each other.
B.The hypotheses are not meant to be testable, but the framework is.
C If the hypotheses are stated, the researcher does not need to have a
. framework.
D.Hypotheses are inductively identified within the stated framework.
59.
The framework and conceptual map for a study:
A. are always included in the study report.
B. are usually clearly identified in the report.
C.often must be inferred by the reader from the text of the report.
D. should be referred to only at the end of the study.
A.
B.
C.
D.

60. Which of the following represents the most concrete term?


Variable
Concept
Framework
Construct

61.
Conceptual definitions are important because:
A.the meanings of terms may differ depending on the study framework.
B. they tell others how the concept will be measured in the study.
C they provide a dictionary definition that can be understood by
. everyone
D. they suggest how to precisely measure the variables of interest
A.
B.
C.
D.

62. In the research report, a theoretical statement:


will always be clearly identified
should only be discussed in the framework section
may be implied
can be omitted if variables are not yet well defined

63. Which relationship diagram below best represents the following


hypothesis?"Conventional gauze dressings cause fewerskin changes
in wound sites than dohydrocolloid or hydroactive dressings."
A. Gauze dressing ----------> skin changes
B. Type of dressing ---------> skin changes

C.
D.

Type of dressing wound site


Gauze dressing

64. Which of the following responses best describes the relational


statement that is diagrammed below? Pain perception <------- (+)
--------> Anxiety
A. Increased perception of pain causes anxiety.
B. Anxiety causes increased pain perception.
C.Pain perception and anxiety are positively related to one another
D. Pain perception and anxiety are inversely related.