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Dr J R Sonwane

978-81-925192-3-4
Teacher Education
Dr. Jagdip Sonwane
2013
First
www.edupublication.com
Dr. J. R. Sonwane
Department of Education
M. K. Bhavnagar University,
Bhavnagar
INDIA
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131
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Educational Technology
Subject
Language English
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Something
International Encyclopedia of Teaching and
Teacher Education (1987), says - Teacher
education
phases:

can

be

considered

Pre-service,

Induction

in
and

three
In-

Service. The three phases are considered as


parts of continuous process.
According to NCTE, Teacher Education
means a programme of education, research
and training of persons to teach from preprimary to higher education level. Teacher
education is a programme that is related
to the development of teacher proficiency
and

competence that would enable and

empower

the

teacher

to

meet

the

requirements of the profession and face the


challenges therein. This book discusses some
of above said points like - need, importance
and role of Teacher Education. The present
book covers few and basic points of Teacher
Education.
readers

We
to

invite
serve

suggestions
better

to

from
our

stakeholders.
-Dr J R Sonwane

Index
Sr

Content

Page

No
1.

Teacher Education At A Glance

2.

Need And Importance Of Teacher 11


Education

3.

Effective Teaching and Successful 18


Teachers

4.

Emerging Roles of Teacher Education 41


Organizations at the National Level

5.

Effective Teaching and Successful 69


Teachers

6.

In-Service

Teacher

Concept And Need

Education: 89

TEACHER EDUCATION

1.
Teacher Education at a
Glance

TEACHER EDUCATION

Teacher Education at a Glance


The present era is changing into new era very rapidly.
Telecommunication, computer and other kinds of
information technology have turned the whole world
into a global village. Information about each and every
event taking place in any part of country reaches other
parts of that country and the rest of the world in a short
time.
Scientific

and

technological

influences have

brought about many significant changes in the society as


well as in the world. Today, one must also think in
terms of changes in values, perception, political
interference in educational planning, changes in
educational needs, cultural changes, and changes in
teachers role expectation by the society. All these
changes require more and more knowledge to be
imparted effectively to more and more people in less
and less time. The sole responsibility lies on the
shoulders of teachers. It is only teachers who can mould
the character of society according to the societal needs
of the day.
2

TEACHER EDUCATION

In the view of the above, the teachers must have


desired

theoretical

knowledge,

skill

orientation,

linguistic ability, pedagogical skills, management skill,


accountability, impressive personality etc. For this,
teachers have to be trained and their preparation
depends on the teacher education curriculum.
Teacher education means programme of education,
research or training for human resources, equipping
them to teach at pre-primary, secondary, senior
secondary stages of school education, non-formal/adult
education

and

correspondence

education

through

distance mode. The educational objectives focused on


students behaviour to be developed through specific
learning

experiences.

The

curricula

for

teacher

education were designed by NCTE to observe these


changing objectives (Mangla, 2000). These teachers go
into the field and apply the given knowledge in their
real professional life. Moreover, there are changes in
society, its values, norms, etc. The Field of technology
is expanding day by day, secondly; a teacher can not be
a computer. Once a certain amount of knowledge is fed,
it will remain there in the mind of computer till it is
3

TEACHER EDUCATION

diminished. But after a period of time, a teacher forgets


whatever was taught to him during his training period.
It has been fairly established that education is a life-long
process. Life-long learning should be the motto of every
teacher. If a teacher stops learning, he degenerates into a
bad teacher. This realization is at variance with the
belief that education is a formal activity being
conducted in the four walls of classroom, and also
against the belief considering the end of education with
the termination of schooling. Education is very broad
and comprehensive activity commencing from the
moment the child comes in to the world and terminating
with his death (from cradle to grave). It is therefore, a
force which exerts continuous influence on the growth
of individuals.
Hence, there is a need for some sort of provision
which may make the teachers up to date with respect to
the knowledge of their subjects of teaching, methods
and techniques and innovative ideas in each sphere of
their academic lives. For this reason, the idea of inservice education has emerged.
4

TEACHER EDUCATION

In-service education may be defined as continuing


education of teachers and other educators which
commences after initial, professional education is over,
and which leads to the improvement of professional
competence of educators all throughout their career. The
term in-service education is commonly used to denote
planned efforts to promote the professional growth and
development of teachers. In-service education includes
all those courses and activities in which a serving
teacher may participate for the purpose of extending his
professional knowledge, interest or skill. Teacher
education institutions can extend their services out side
their premises either through the visits of their staff for
consultations, lectures, or conducting courses, or
through lending of books and equipment. Such services
are also called as 'Extension Service', because these are
extended beyond the physical limits of an institution and
aim at promoting the professional growth of teachers by
adding to their repertoire of skill and knowledge. In the
present days the horizon of knowledge is expanding at a
tremendous pace and today's knowledge becomes
outdated tomorrow. If teacher fails to keep up with the
5

TEACHER EDUCATION

latest knowledge, teacher will be giving yesterday's


knowledge to tomorrow's citizens. Therefore, if the
teachers are to keep themselves up to date with the best
and latest in their subjects and teaching methods,
teachers have to learn throughout their professional
lives. The in-service education and training programmes
attempt precisely for the same.
The whole process of formal education begins with
primary education, so it forms an important part of the
entire educational system. Primary education extends
from standard I to VII, generally covering the age group
of 6 to 14 years. The education that child receives at this
stage forms the foundation of physical, mental,
emotional, intellectual and social development. Primary
education is very essential for the all round development
of an individual as well as that of a nation. So if one
wants to ensure better quality of education and the
progress of nation, one must strengthen its basis or
foundation and for that primary education should be
given highest priority and prime importance.
Recognizing the importance of primary education,
the constitution of India has stipulated free and
6

TEACHER EDUCATION

compulsory primary education for all citizens of the


country without any kind of discrimination on the basis
of caste, creed, sex, religion, etc. The GOI is committed
to the goal of UEE and continuous, determined efforts
have been made in that direction right from 1947, when
the country attained her independence. The Education
Commission (1964-66) has given a directive to state, to
provide free and compulsory education for all children
up to the age of 14 years. Infact, this was to be achieved
by 1960, but due to certain reasons, adequate progress
in primary education could not be made possible and the
constitutional directive remained unfulfilled.
Operation Black Board (OBB) came up as a follow
up of the NPE (1986) with a purpose to ensure provision
of minimum essential equipments and facilities to
schools. Minimum Levels of Learning (MLLs) was
another outcome of NPE 1986. Realizing that efforts
made so far to emphasize enrollment resulted in poor
quality of education, a committee was appointed by the
MHRD in 1990 and this committee laid down the
minimum levels of learning for primary stage. Here
MLLs refer to the competencies that a child is supposed
7

TEACHER EDUCATION

to achieve at the end of a particular stage. The revised


NPE (1992) gave a new scheme for achieving UEE with
financial support from international agencies i.e. the
District

Primary

Education

Programme

(DPEP),

launched in 1993.
Thus, it can be clearly envisaged that number of
commissions

and

committees

appointed

since

independence, aimed at the attainment of UEE but the


objectives of UEE was not achieved and final result was
postponed every time. In spite of the constitutional
directives and stringent measures taken during the last
four decades, it has not been possible to achieve the
target of UEE.
There has been a steady growth in primary
education especially in enrolment and retention. But the
quality of primary education remains a major concern
before the nation, especially the teacher education
programmes. In order to empower primary education at
the district level, the NPE (1986) envisaged the
establishment of DIET. Accordingly, the MHRD
resolved to start 453 DIETs in our country. As per the
8

TEACHER EDUCATION

DIET Guidelines (1989) twenty three DIETs were


established in the State of Gujarat.
Realizing the importance of such training to
primary teachers and other related personnel, the
Government of India has taken positive steps in this
regard by establishing DIETs. DIETs have been
established in all districts and union territories to
perform various functions, which ultimately help in
improving the quality of primary education.
Establishing an institute is not enough for
achieving the requisite results, but constant review of its
performance in various areas, and taking corrective
actions to achieve the desired goal is of prime
importance.
The new structure of teacher education was set up
in the light of the NPE (1986), in the country. New
institutions like the IASEs, CTEs and DIETs were
established under the centrally sponsored scheme of
Teacher Education. The SIEs/SCERTs and University
Departments

were

also

recommended

to

be

strengthened. But research component still continues to


be the weakest area of their operation.
9

TEACHER EDUCATION

Many research and evaluation studies on the


functioning and operationalisation, particularly on
DIETs, supported this view (NCERT 2000, NIEPA
2001, and Yadav 2000). Therefore, there is need to
develop the capacities of these institutions for
conducting more-researches with a view to providing
feedback for improving the quality of Education.

10

TEACHER EDUCATION

2.
NEED
AND
IMPORTANCE
OF
TEACHER EDUCATION

11

TEACHER EDUCATION

2. NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF TEACHER EDUCATION


Teachers in India are assuming new roles for which the
traditionally designed teacher training programmes
would not prepare them adequately. The expanded
function of education in India has to be directly linked
with national development. Therefore, it requires
broadening and deepening of the teachers knowledge
and understanding about themselves so that they
understand the nature of the Indian society, as it has
evolved from the past, as it is today and as it is likely to
develop in the future; the integral relationship between
education and society with specific reference to the
contemporary socio-cultural, political and economic
issues, and the multidimensional nature of teacher's role
as catalytic agent in the society. Therefore (a) The
teacher has to see himself not only as a prime source of
knowledge but as an organizer of learning and learning
experiences, (b) Teacher is a transmitter of culture,
builder of character and personality of the children, (c)
Conveyer of moral and ethical values, a guide and
counsellor, inspirer for social change and (d) An
architect of future of the nation.
12

TEACHER EDUCATION

To perform all these roles successfully, the teacher has


to possess following attributes (Mangla, 2000) :
1) Academic competence for teaching.
2) Ability to appreciate and understand the changing
needs of the society in this scientific age.
3) Understand the psychological basis of education
and the factors, which influence it.
4) Professionally he should acquire ability to evolve
and adapt methods and techniques suited to different
situations and to evaluate their effectiveness.
5) Develop positive attitude towards teaching as a
profession and create self confidence as a teacher.
6) Understand development needs of the children at
various stages of their growth.
7) Inculcate appropriate professional behaviour along
with knowledge of existing system of education and
education policy.
8) Above all the teacher has to develop patience
impartially.

Thus, validity of teacher education has led to some


innovations in its various aspects to work out strategies
13

TEACHER EDUCATION

for planning and implementing innovation programmes


by making themselves familiar with the areas for
innovations, process and skill of innovating new ways
and methods of teacher education. Some important
areas are:1) Improvement in students teaching through microteaching techniques, introduction of internship in
teaching

programmes,

organization

of

joint

supervision guidance and evaluation of student


teachers by subject specialists, education staff and
practicing classroom teachers.
2) Improvement in the methods of teaching used by
teacher education institutions through introduction of
novel approaches like team-teaching, workshop-inteaching, seminars and discussions, systematic
evaluation as an integral part of the teaching learning
process.
3) Introduction

of

alternative

programmes

of

education and training of teachers such as four years


integrated

teacher

education

programme,

correspondence courses, condensed courses and inservice programmes of teacher education.


14

TEACHER EDUCATION

4) Planning and organizing professional orientation of


teachers of higher education.
5) Planning and implementation of strategies in nonformal education by teacher educators.
6) Devising

programmes

of

staff

development

through continuing education of teacher educators.


In teaching learning process, a teacher has to perform
multiple

activities

like

teaching,

evaluating,

communicating, guiding and counseling the students,


organizing

co-curricular

activities,

participate

in

community programmes, diagnose and identify students


problems etc., together with activities which are
intrinsic to teaching and learning. This needs perfection
in academic and professional preparation of teachers
and teacher educator. So the need and importance of
teacher education is as follows:
1. To educate teachers in organizing learning
resources so that they can identify and design how
to use a variety of appropriate teaching learning
resources from the environment, community,
media, Audio Visual (A.V) aids and self learning
materials.
15

TEACHER EDUCATION

2. To accomplish them for effective curriculum


teaching strategies like developing episodes,
lessons plans, instructional units, sequences etc.,
through inquiry, discovery, problem solving,
projects, discussions, dialogue or lecture.
3. To qualify them to conduct effective interaction
during classroom teaching to promote individual
and group learning.
4. To educate them to evaluate the outcomes of
learning by planning and conducting a continuouscomprehensive evaluation of the teaching learning
process through appropriate tools and techniques.
5. To

make

them

sufficient

to

implement

compensatory education programmes for the


disadvantaged learner through organizing and
participating in remedial instruction, tutorials,
special coaching etc.
6. To make them competent to cater to the special
needs of disabled and gifted children.
7. To educate them to organize and guide a variety of
co-curricular activities designed to facilitate the all
round development of the learners.
16

TEACHER EDUCATION

8. To prepare them adequately to guide students in


solving their learning, occupational and personal
problems and also participate in other student
support activities.
9. To prepare them to participate in and contribute to
parallel and complementary educational service
systems like non-formal education, adult literacy,
workers education etc.
10.

To make them proficient to develop in

students, the qualities of democratic citizenship


like tolerance, concern for others, co-operation,
responsibility, commitment to social justice etc.
11.

To prepare them to promote environmental

consciousness, secular outlook, scientific temper


and cultural pursuits in the students and in the
community.
12.

To endow them the quality to organize and

participate in programmes of community service


and development.

17

TEACHER EDUCATION

3.
TEACHER
AND
TEACHER EDUCATION

18

TEACHER EDUCATION

3. TEACHER AND TEACHER EDUCATION


The role and responsibilities of teachers are inter-related
and interdependent. The teacher is required to play
different roles and even the same role changes over the
years. The teacher's role also differ from one stage of
education to another. To illustrate this, it may be said
that the role of teachers working in primary schools
cannot be equivalent with that of their counterparts in
higher education. Similarly, the teachers of the ancient
times were not playing the same rules as being done by
the teachers of today. Teachers' responsibility vary
through ages and teachers are required to perform
various

functions

according

to

the

needs

and

requirements at different stages of education. But the


teachers have to discharge a number of basic
responsibilities irrespective of times and stages of
education. These functions can be categorised as
follows:
(a) Teaching, (b) Class Management and Planning of
Lessons, (c) Evaluation of Students' Performance, (d)
Research Activities, and (e) Cocurricular and Extension
Activities.
19

TEACHER EDUCATION

(A) TEACHING
Teaching is the most fundamental responsibility of
teachers irrespective of their time and stage of
education. Especially at the stage of higher education, a
great quantum of knowledge is required to be imparted
and a vast area of topics need be covered by teachers.
As we know well, teaching is an intricate and
complication process involving artistic skills and
responsibility as well as scientific principles and
procedures. Teachers should not only acquire the
quantum of knowledge that is required for various
groups of learners but also use different methods and
techniques of teaching for which they have to master a
good number of skills. There are vital and general
principles of teaching, e.g. teaching from known to
unknown, from analysis to synthesis, from simple to
complex, from empirical to rational, about which
teachers should be made aware so that knowledge
accumulated over the years can be transmitted to
students effectively.
The quantum of knowledge is being multiplied so fast
and some of the theories and concepts are getting
20

TEACHER EDUCATION

outdated so quickly that there has been explosion of


knowledge and information in all subject areas. The vast
volume of content-knowledge is to be imparted to the
students, community. It has to be updated keeping
place

with

advancements.

This

calls

for

high

intellectual effort and preparedness on the part of


teachers. An actual teacher cannot just repeat the same
content over a number of years. He should dictate from
the motheaten notes prepared by him during his student
career or dictated by his teachers. It has to be
transmitted through a series of lessons transacted with a
particular method of technique. A lesson delivered
by the same teacher on a particular topic after a
year cannot be the same as before. A good lesson is an
artistic creation and a unique presentation of facts.

(B) CLASS MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING OF LESSONS


With a view to making the teaching activity very
affective, it is felt essential that teachers should know
and practise certain skills and techniques of class
management or school organisations, even planning of
lessons and preparing teacher's notes. These are
21

TEACHER EDUCATION

administrative,
programmes

organisational
/activities

which

and

management

help

teaching

programmes to be effective and useful. Before


proceeding with actual teaching work, the teachers
should plan the curriculum as a whole, the topics in the
subject he is required to teach and divide them into
monthly and weekly units. He should fit in his teaching
unit/lessons with the time table. He should think of the
questions to be asked for introducing, illustrating,
elucidating his teaching points and explaining and even
for assessing, the students' performance. He should plan
the audio visual aids and materials well in advance.
Class management contributes a lot to the success of
teaching and forms an integral part of the teachinglearning process. A class is an organization of students
brought together for achieving the desired objectives
efficiently.

The

proper

management

of

various

resources, disciplines, control, rapport and relations


immensely influence the learning outcomes or the
teaching objectives.
The teacher as the leader of the group exerts a great
impact of his personality on his teaching an interaction
22

TEACHER EDUCATION

on the achievement of students. He should ensure


democratic organisation and active participation of
students for optimum realization of the goals.
Authoritarian management of the classroom with
restrictions on freedom and interaction of student
adversely affect the students performance in the longrun.

(C) EVALUATION OF STUDENT'S PERFORMANCE


Conducting Examinations and Evaluations is an
important function of the teacher. But it is not meant in
a stereotyped mechanical and traditional manner but as
a creative, continuous and built-in mechanism in the
total teaching-learning process. It should not be used
only for grading or rejecting and passing of the "goods"
that are produced in the factories of educational
institutions. Rather it should be looked upon as a tool
for providing the quality of education. Student's
knowledge can be assessed and through recall,
recognition,

classification,

comparison

and

discrimination of data, detection of errors, identification


of relationship, elaboration and interpretation of facts.
23

TEACHER EDUCATION

Teachers should know the preparation and use of


various kinds of test items under the three main
categories of essays, short answers and objective types.
Besides knowledge and skill acquisition, teachers
should develop a positive and objective attitude and
interests in the evaluation system. If teachers will be
partial, superfluous and suspicious in nature and involve
themselves in malpractices or connive at the same, then
their very honesty and integrity will be questioned
which may lead to so many undesirable issues and
problems. On the whole, the very purpose of
examinations will be defeated and smooth conduct of
various tests is likely to be jeopardised in the colleges
and Post-Graduate Departments. It has been aptly
observed by Raza and Fornandes "Evaluation of
student's performance is an integral part of education
and calls for clear understanding of the educational
process, intellectual innovativeness of a high order,
deep appreciation of student responses and intensive
back breaking work spread over the whole year."

24

TEACHER EDUCATION

(D) RESEARCH ACTIVITIES


Research

Activities

of

teachers

are

of

crucial

importance not merely for getting promotion or any


other financial benefits, but for promoting their
professional growth. Research not only helps in
acquisition and generation of knowledge but also gives
scientific bent of mind and self-confidence in a
particular field. It also helps in accelerating the pace of
progress, sociological, scientific, political, literary,
technological and so on. Teachers of higher education
are engaged in research activities usually before or after
the commencement of their career. But they work as
apprentices, so to say, "learning the trade from a master
craftsmen and working generally as a member of the
group. It may be noted that a doctoral degree only
provides the necessary training for research pursuits and
may be considered to be the starting and not the
culminating point of a research career." Subsequently
the teacher of any university or college gains experience
and expertise in the field and goes for his own postdoctoral work or for supervision of the research work of
the young faculty members or research scholars.
25

TEACHER EDUCATION

Having acquired an adequate degree of proficiency in


research work and competence in the areas of his
special interest and expertise, he can take up research
studies big or small sponsored by various organisations,
at the regional, national and international level. At
present UGC, NCERT, NCSS, etc. have been providing
funds for research programmes. He can even work as a
leader of the group engaged in research activities or
problem-solving studies and experiments. It is not
always necessary that the research studiesshould be
large scale calling for huge funds and sophisticated
instrumentation. Small scale projects of problemsolving nature seeking solutions to the local, regional or
even classroom problems are rather more useful and
meaningful.

(E) CO-CURRICUIAR ACTIVITIES


Co-curricular activities are not considered equally
useful for students development. Previously these were
considered extra curricular and teachers excepting a few
were not given any responsibility. There were also
26

TEACHER EDUCATION

occasionally

and

haphazardly

organised

by

the

Educational Institutions. But now the physiological,


ethical, academic, social civic, aesthetic, cultural and
recreational values of co-curricular activities have been
emphasized and due attention has been given on their
effective organization and management. A large number
of deficiencies and constraints as existing today are
reducing the desired values of the programmes. Lack of
proper planning, paucity of various facilities, lack of
proper qualified staff, overemphasis on academic
programmes, are some of these problems which need be
sorted out for ensuring success of these activities.
It is therefore essential that proper attention should be
given to the organisation and management of the cocurricular activities. Selection of these activities should
be judicious and according to the physical and human
resources available. The number of activities should be
as varied as possible to suit the students needs and
capabilities. Teachers should be held responsible for
organisation of these activities according to their
interests and experience.

27

TEACHER EDUCATION

(F) EXTENSION ACTIVITIES


Teaching and Research were so far considered only two
important functions of the teacher, particularly at the
stage of higher education. Colleges and universities
were regarded as "Ivory Towers" kept aloof from the
society and its life. Teaching was mostly theoretical not
directly related with the life, needs and aspirations of
the people. But gradually it is being realised that
teachers of higher education cannot do justice to their
role and responsibilities if they are not adequately
involved in the day-to-day social problems.
Extension activities have therefore been taken as an
important

dimension

to

the

teachers'

role

and

responsibilities. No educational institution should


remain isolated from the society and no teacher should
keep himself aloof from the current social issues.
Various extension activities should be taken up not only
from sociological point of view, but also pedagogical
considerations. These activities enable the teachers and
students to be involved in the community problems and
make teaching as well as research more meaningful and
relevant. But participating in the developmental of the
28

TEACHER EDUCATION

national goals and come closer to their social


commitments.
The role and responsibilities of teachers have been
multifarious, multidisciplinary and multidimensional.
Gone are the days when teaching was the only
responsibility of teachers. As discussed earlier, teachers
have to teach no doubt, but they should also to manage
the class properly and plan lessons adequately for
ensuring effectiveness of teaching. They are required to
evaluate

students'

performance

and

achievement

objectively and comprehensively for properly guiding


their teaching-leaming process. They need to conduct
studies ranging from action research to sophisticated
doctoral and post-doctoral research for solving flit
classroom and schnol problems and for improving
teaching methodology, teaching, skills, management of
media class and school organisation, conduct and
implementation of co-curricular programmes.
The modem teachers are also required to organise
different co-curricular activities like sports and games,
debates and discussions, publications and literary
activities, cultural and recreational activities, aesthetic
29

TEACHER EDUCATION

and social activities in and outside the school campus


for promoting all-round development of students'
personalities. Last but not the least is the

importance

of community and extension activities of teachers who


can no longer afford to keep themselves aloof from the
society in which they work and from which their
students in the problems of the community, viz. literacy
work, rural reconstruction, relief work, social forestry,
environment upgradation and so on, individually and in
groups, through formal schemes like NSS, NCC, NAEP,
etc. and through non-formal voluntary activities.
Teachers and schools cannot operate in isolation from
the society. They are to play emerging roles in
providing not only education to the future

citizens of

the country, but can help implementation of the


developmental programmes of the society. Their share
in the national development cannot be underestimated
and they have to be sensitive to the social issues and
problems. They are to be conscience keepers, friends
and guides of the social workers and leaders and not the
scape-goats in the local litigations nor the pawns in the
nasty politics. They are to assert and equip themselves
30

TEACHER EDUCATION

for properly discharging their growing responsibilities


and for adequately playing their new roles in the
educational

arena

in

particular

and

national

development in general.

31

TEACHER EDUCATION

MODERN TRENDS IN TEACHER EDUCATION

The teacher is the principal agency for implementing


educational programmes at various levels. Although his
main role is and will be teaching and guidance of his
pupils, he has to promote research, experimentation and
innovation. Teachers have to play a pivotal role in
extension and social service and have to participate in
the management of various services and activities which
educational institutions undertake for implementing
their programmes.
Professional or pre-service training of teachers is a
prerequisite in all parts of the country. Most of these
institutions suffer from inadequate resources--human,
physical and academic to provide good professional
education. In many universities curricula are not made
up to date and teaching practices are perfunctory to a
great extent (Sharma, 2004). In view of the emerging
roles of teachers under NPE, it has been envisaged that
both pre-service and in-service courses for teachers
should be developed and organized at the DIET level.
32

TEACHER EDUCATION

These teachers also include the personnel working in


non-formal and adult education programmes. The
programmes of an Elementary institution would include
(POA, 1992):
1) Pre-service and in-service education of teachers for
the formal school system.
2) Induction level and continuing education of nonformal

and

adult

education

instructors

and

supervisors.
3) Training and orientation of heads of institutions in
institutional planning and management and microlevel planning.
4) Orientation of community leaders, functionaries of
voluntary organizations and other influencing school
level education.
5) Academic support to school complexes and
District Boards of Education.
6) Action Research and experimentation work.
7) Serving as evaluation centre for primary and upper
primary schools as well as non-formal and adult
education programmes.
33

TEACHER EDUCATION

8) Provision of services of resources and learning


centres for teachers and instructors.
9) Consultancy and advice, for example, to District
Boards of Education(DEB).

Steps have already been taken for identifying and


setting up of the DIETs and recruiting suitable
personnel as Heads and Staff Members of these
institutions. These personnel would be trained and
reoriented in cooperation with National Council of
Educational Research and Training (NCERT), State
Council

of

Educational

Research

and

Training

(SCERT), National Institute of Educational Planning


and Administration (NIEPA), University Departments
of

Education

and

Advanced

Teachers

Training

Colleges. The AE/NFE resource units would be an


integral part of DIETs for which additional staff would
be appointed with the Central Government assistance.
Facilities of latest technologies would be provided at
DIETs, and the faculty members would be encouraged
to develop learning resources and media programmes

34

TEACHER EDUCATION

and should also improvise their own instructional


materials.
The Colleges of Teacher Education would continue to
prepare teachers for secondary schools, and the
Universities in cooperation with National Council of
Teacher

Education

(NCTE)

would

exercise

responsibility for their academic matters, e.g. conduct


of examinations, award of degrees and ensuring the
quality of secondary teacher education institutions.
These institutions would also be entrusted with
continuing

education

programmes

for

secondary

teachers. Some colleges of Teacher Education would be


developed as comprehensive institutions for organizing
programmes

for

primary teacher

education

and

possibly, four year integrated courses after higher


secondary stage, in addition to usual B.Ed., Master of
Education (M.Ed.) Courses. These comprehensive
institutions would also be provided with facilities and
staff for undertaking research and for supplementing the
efforts of SCERTs. Good colleges and Departments of
Education would be given autonomous status in order to
promote

innovations

and

experimentation.

The
35

TEACHER EDUCATION

Institutes of Advance Study in Education (IASEs) and


Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) would also work
more intensively in the areas of in-service and preservice training, research, publication of materials, etc.
The SCERTs would be required to play a very crucial
role of planning, sponsoring, implementing, monitoring
and evaluating the in-service education programmes for
all levels of teachers, instructors, supervisors and so on.
The needs for in-service education of these personnel
would arise from change of national goals, revision of
school curricula, new inputs in teaching-learning
system, improving background of teachers, etc. The
SCERTs would also prepare suitable materials for inservice education of teachers, undertake orientation of
key-persons monitoring and evaluation of programmes.
Since all in-service education programmes cannot be
organized in face to-face modality, especially in view of
the numbers involved, distance in-service education
should be provided with the help of broadcasting
agencies SCERTs would be equipped with necessary
resources for production of learning materials other than
print. Minimum essential equipment to record audio and
36

TEACHER EDUCATION

video programmes would be provided to each SCERT.


The comprehensive colleges of education, IASEs, CTEs
and DIETs would also be provided production facilities
in a phased manner. Experiences especially those of
voluntary organizations should be drawn upon in
designing courses, developing materials and modalities
for in-service education.
The POA (1986) has also visualized that a separate
cadre would be created for appointment of personnel in
SCERTs, Teacher Training Colleges and DIETs. These
selected persons would be given various incentives,
better service conditions and continuing education.
There would also be interchange of teaching and
teacher education personnel. The NCTE has to be
strengthened to meet the emerging challenges and be
conferred autonomous as well as statutory status. The
curricula for teacher education programmes should be
revised in the light of the new policy thrusts and with
emphasis on integration of education and culture, work
experience, physical education and sports, unity and
integration of India, planning, management, educational
technology, etc. are emerging areas of importance
37

TEACHER EDUCATION

bearing

impact

on

curriculum

development,

innovations, research and experimentation. Besides,


need-based printed materials, modern media and
methods would be utilized to an increasing extent for
improving competence of the personnel.

38

TEACHER EDUCATION

TYPES OF TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMME


The professional preparation of those students who
want to enter the profession of teaching, teacher
education prepares them for attaining the national
goals of education for all, to preserve the continuity of
traditions, to fulfill the actual needs of contemporary
society and to meet the challenges of the uncertain
future, through education. Education deals with human
beings who have intellect, emotions and conscience; it
is not something static but is a dynamic process; it is
development of human personality, and for human
development direction is needed from an educative
agent. Thus it is the teacher education which prepares
the teachers among those who want to join this
profession

through

higher

order

professional

equipment for guiding the pupils through the process


of discovering, analyzing, and synthesizing educative
experiences.
To maintain this there are various types of teacher
education programmes:

39

TEACHER EDUCATION

1)

Pre-service

teacher

education for those who after graduation or postgraduation decide to enter this profession and take
up teacher education courses in teacher education
colleges.
2)

In-service

teacher

education, which is a regular programme of


educating those teachers who are already in
teaching profession and want to upgrade their
knowledge

and

skills,

is

the

education

for

professional growth of in-service teachers.


3)

Distance

teacher

education is another mode of teacher education for


in-service teacher, but for those who have not done
Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) before joining the
teaching profession. Previously it was also known as
correspondence teacher education, but now the
nomenclature is changed to distance teacher
education.

40

TEACHER EDUCATION

4.
Emerging Roles of Teacher
Education Organizations at
the National Level

41

TEACHER EDUCATION

4.

Emerging

Roles

of

Teacher

Education

Organizations at the National Level

(A) NCERT
The NCERT has played an important role in the field of
Teacher Education for the last four decades. It has been
an apex organisation in the domain of school education
of which Teacher Education has formed a significant
part.. The Central Institute of Education (1948-49) and
National Institute of Basic Institution were predecessors
of the National Institute of Education or NCERT.
Previously, these organisations were organizing inservice education programmes and providing preservice

Teacher

Education.

Under

the

NCERT,

Regional Colleges of Education were set-up in 1963-64


and the Department of Teacher Education at NIE (196465) worked for improvement of Teacher Education. In
the area of Teacher Education Prof. S.N. Mukherji
presented a national scenario of Teacher Education in 2
volumes in 1968. Dr. G. Chaurasia in his book New Era
in Teacher Education (1967) described the modern
42

TEACHER EDUCATION

trends and expressed hope for Teacher Education. Prof.


Mukherji analysed the existing Teacher Education
system critically and found it defective and ailing with
so many maladies. However, he suggested the
establishment of the National Council of Teacher
Education (NCTE) and some methods for selection of
suitable persons for pre-service and in-service education
programmes. Both these authors also supported the
demand for multi-purpose schools and Integrated
Teacher Education Programmes.
The University Education Commission (1949) was also
critical of teachers' training and pointed out that
possession of the Bachelor of Teaching (B.T.) Degree
never gives "slightest real guarantee" to its holder either
to teach or control a class." The Secondary Education
Commission (1952) felt the urgent need for educational
re-construction in the field of Teacher Education. This
Commission also pleaded for a National Council of
Teacher Education and State Councils of Teacher
Education. At that time there was a lot of enthusiasm for
starting Correspondence Courses even in the field of
Teacher Education. There was a proposal for starting
43

TEACHER EDUCATION

net-work of Summer Courses, Evening Courses,


Vacation Courses and Correspondence Courses, etc. for
professional growth of Teachers. The Department of
Extension Services worked as a facilitating agency for
organizing better in-service programmes and improving
practice teaching or student teaching. Micro-teaching
approach was getting premium at the time in the field of
Teacher Education for improving teaching skills and
Summer School-cum-Correspondence Courses ((SSCC) were started under the 4 RCEs. The 4-year
integrated courses were also introduced with need-based
and innovative curriculum. Subsequently, SS-CC
courses degenerated and the 4 year-integrated course
was also criticised. A Seminar Reading programme was
also started in the NCERT for promoting action research
to be conducted by teachers at the elementary and
secondary level.
At the national level, it was felt that in-service education
has to be provided for making teachers knowledge and
skills updated. The NCERT was identified at the central
organisation to organise in-service courses for State
officers and Teacher Educators. It has also certain role
44

TEACHER EDUCATION

to play for orienting pre-service education in order to


enable it to face modem challenges and fulfilling social
needs. After 3 decades, it was felt to review the plans
and programmes of the NCERT in the light of national
goals and professional requirements. The emphasis has
now been shifted from pre-service to inservice
education. The NIE Departments and RCEs were to
give a second look at their functioning for improving
school education and particularly Teacher Education
which has suffered from drudgery of repetitive teaching
and routine classroom transaction and other stereotyped
activities.
The B.Ed. courses and 4-year integrated courses were
started in RCEs to meet the requirements of the multipurpose schools. But these courses were felt to be
revamped or replaced. The Ministry of Human Resource
Development wanted the Department of Teacher
Education to work as nodal ,agency in organising Mass
Orientation for School Teachers (PMOST) through
District Institute of Education and Training CTE and
TASEs under the SCERTs. Since it was a massive
programme, all these organisations were involved
45

TEACHER EDUCATION

actively for planning and organising these courses. As


many as 37 Colleges of Teacher Education, University
Departments and Institutes of Advanced Study in
Education (IASEs) also helped in terms of academic
assistances and professional leadership.
The Department of Teacher Education under NCERT
served as Academic Secretariat of the NCTE for some
years. The NCTE then became an Independence
autonomous body under the statute of the Parliament.
By the end of the 20th Century, it was found (Teacher
Education No. 1, 1999, IATE, pp 8-9) that India was
one of the largest Teacher Training Systems in the
world in which more than 30,000 Teacher Educators
were engaged in the preparation of School Teachers.
There were nearly 13,000 Elementary Teacher Training
Institutions, 430 DIETs and nearly 700 CTEs/University
Departments of Education. There were about 6 lakh of
Primary Schools, 1.76 lakh, Elementary Schools, 98,000
High/Higher Secondary Schools and 4.52 million
teachers out of which nearly 3.5 million were teaching
at the primary/ elementary level. A sizable number of
these teachers were either untrained or under-trained.
46

TEACHER EDUCATION

Since providing in-service education through PMOST


courses was found inadequate, Special Orientation of
Primary Teachers (SPOT) and other distance education
programmes were planned and implemented. All these
activities were conducted for effectively implementing
the NPE, 1986/1992.
According to Seshadri (Ibid., p. 10), "The grim reality
that one has to accept is that teacher education is yet to
establish itself as a strong profession. And until and
unless it shapes itself into an effective professional
undertaking, it continues to remain marginalised from
mainstream educational activities and even lose its
relevance to school education. The onus is now on the
community of Teacher Educators to appreciate the
gravity of this threat and tackle the crucial issue of
conceptualising and organising teacher education as a
truly professional experience." He has also added that in
order to make Teacher Education a profession it would
meet a number of stringent criteria. A profession is
usually characterised by a sufficiently long period of
academic learning an organised body of knowledge on
which the undertaking is based. A formal rigorous
47

TEACHER EDUCATION

professional training is essential and a code of


professional ethics has to be observed for the purpose.
Besides the knowledge and skills about how to teach,
there should be adequate knowledge about what to teach
and all these need the interdisciplinary perspectives of
philosophy, history, psychology and sociology. It was
also desirable to make at least 3 to 5 years of teaching
experience in school compulsory for the profession.
Seshadri also felt that (p. 11) with the demands for
M.Ed. continuing to escalate, the programme suffers
further in quality and soon loses its professional focus
and becomes a general degree.
Teacher Education has thus singularly felt to build
itself into a reliable and vibrant system for improving
the competence in human resources to run the thousands
of teacher institutions in the country. There has been
low level of performance on the ground-in teaching,
training, research and extension. The IT revolution has
made rapid strides in the country and has influenced all
aspects of education. The computers and internet have
their impact on the school and higher education system.
Television and video conferencing modes of training
48

TEACHER EDUCATION

teachers through the distance learning systems have


already come in a big way. The growing influence of
electronic media has been felt and there is impact of
globalisation

and

liberalisation

policies

of

the

government.

(B) NCTE
Teacher Education has to assume responsibility to
prepare teachers with proper attitude and ability to
translate the philosphy of education into practical
learning experience. Therefore, to build the teacher
education on sound professional lines it is imperative to
take strategic actions on multiple fronts-structural
reforms, curricular upgradation improving the status and
motivation of teacher educators. At present as needed
by the NCTE, the curriculum of most of the M.Ed.
programmes are not specifically designed to prepare
teacher educators. The M.Ed. programme is a
discipline-oriented Post-Graduate level of programme
of educational studies and research that provided for
specialisation in different sub-disciplines of education.
49

TEACHER EDUCATION

It has to focus on the knowledge, skills and values of the


profession and provide appropriate experience in the
emerging areas.
Fortunately, the NCTE has apprised of the situation and
is making efforts to redress the situation mainly through
its restructuring of the programmes for the preparation
of teacher educators. In some States the persons with
M.A. Degree in Education have entered into teacher
education

arena

without

sufficient

professional

preparation, particularly in student teaching and some


other practical aspects. Of course, they are found to be
familiar with the latest developments in education
theories and research methodology. Therefore, attempts
need be made to bring about a suitable bridging
programmes for improving the desired professionalism
as well as competencies of teacher educators having
either M.Ed. or M.A. Degree in Education.
The NCTE has not so far been successful in developing
a common syllabus of Teacher Education at different
stages acceptable to different states of the country.
Many Universities have not developed their curriculum
for Teacher Education so far in the light of the NCTE,
50

TEACHER EDUCATION

"Curriculum

Framework

for

Quality

Teacher

Education" (1998). Although B.Ed. course through


distance education has been stopped, but there has been
no control over M.Ed. courses through Correspondence
/Distance Education. Many Universities are producing
sub-standard

teacher

educators

with

M.Ed.

qualifications offered by the Directorates/ Departments


of Distance Education. The term "correspondence" has
only been replaced by "Distance" by these agencies
without utilizing the distance learning mode through
radio, TV or other electronic mode. The IGNOU
programme for Teacher Education is of recent growth
and the standard and norms of these courses are yet to
be ascertained through their results and if necessary,
through some external evaluation.
The NCTE has been able to control commercialization
to some extent in the field of Teacher Education by
closing the B.Ed. course through Correspondence
/Distance Directorates of various Universities, but no
adequate action has been taken for streamlining inservice education courses for Teacher Educators. As
expressed by Prof. R.P. Singh in his presidential address
51

TEACHER EDUCATION

in the 29th Annual Conference of IATE (Dec. 23,1995),


"The present arrangement of in-service education of
school teachers and teacher educators is by no means
equal to the demand both in magnitude and dimension."
He suggested for setting up of Teacher Educators Staff
Colleges separate from the Academic Staff Colleges as
in vogue under various universities. He has also made it
clear it would not be an infringement on the area of
operation of either the UGC or the NCERT as the
NCTE Act has given all powers to NCTE in the field of
Teacher Education. To provide in-service education
with the whole mass of school teachers is a stupendous
task, whatever SCERT and DIETs are doing seem to be
very unsatisfactory. The duration of courses, course
contents, the coverage and their transactions were very
insufficient and serve no purpose. He also suggested a
survey of in-service education to be conducted for
planning modalities and strategies for meeting the
demands adequately. As the in-service education has not
been linked with the promotion and pay increment
policy of teachers, the trainees as well as trainers do not
take these activities seriously. In this context he has also
52

TEACHER EDUCATION

rightly remarked this task cannot be accomplished


without taking the help of Distance Education in view
of the teachers' strength.
Dr. Singh felt that such in-service programmes, inspite
of planning -and execution have always been Achiles'
heel. These programmes are mostly unsatisfactory and
the Extension Service Course, PMOST and other such
courses were found to be failures and observed that,
"They failed to serve the real need of the teachers." He
also gave the example of the concept of a Professional
Center for in-service education in the light of the James
Committee Report of UK. Teacher Education Centres
there have been planning and organizing the need-based
and meaningful programmes throughout the year with
sufficient motivation, expertise and sincerity of purpose.
Unless and until the present system of Teacher
Education is revamped and re-organised, it would be
difficult to provide suitable preservice as well as inservice education and upgrade the quality of education
in the country.

53

TEACHER EDUCATION

Role and Functions of Teacher Education: Concerns


and Commitments
The quality of nation depends on the quality of its
citizens; quality of its citizens depends more than any
other features on the quality of their education. The
quality of their education depends to a great extent upon
the quality of their teachers. Dr. Radhakrishnan, our
former President and Chairman of the University
Education Commission (1949) rightly observed, "The
Teacher's place in the society is of vital importance. He
acts as the pivot for the transmission of intellectual
traditions and technical skills from generation to
generation and helps to keep the lamp of civilization
burning." Teachers are therefore regarded as the
custodians of the present as well as future. They prepare
the citizens to shape destiny of the country. They are
therefore called the architects of the society and the
makers of mankind. They are actually the backbone of
the educational system.
The quality and standards of an education system
largely depends on the quality, characteristics and
commitment of the teachers to their profession. The
54

TEACHER EDUCATION

Education Commission, 1964-66 therefore pointed out,


"For the qualitative improvement of education a sound
programme of professional education of teachers is
essential". It is essential for improving teacher
education through a sound programme of professional
education. The National Policy on Education, 1986 and
revised NPE, 1992 laid emphasis on revamping Teacher
Education Programme (TEP) for bringing about
qualitative improvement in education.
As a concrete step towards this end, the National
Council of Teacher Education (NCTE) was set-up by an
Act of Parliament (No. 73 of 1993) and actually came
into existence w.e.f. 17th August, 1995. Besides its
objectives, the NCTE (1998) has said, "Education is a
process of human enlightenment and empowerment for
the achievement of better and higher quality of life,
sound and effective system of education" results in the
unfoldment of learners' potentialities, enlargement of
their competencies and transformation of their interest,
attitudes and values.
The Secondary Education Commission, 1952-53 for
improving the quality and standards of Education have
55

TEACHER EDUCATION

actually expressed, "We are however convinced that the


most important factor in the contemplated educational
reconstruction is the teacher-his personal qualities, his
educational qualifications his porfessional training and
the place that he occupies in the school as well as in the
community (1965, p. 126). The Ministry of Education
document, "Challenge of Education : A Policy
Perspective" (1985, p. 54) mentioned, "Teacher
performance is the most crucial input in the field of
education. Whatever policies may be laid down in the
ultimate analysis this have to be interpreted and
implemented by teachers as much their personal
example as through teaching-learning process."- The
NPE, 1986 similarly reiterated the status and position of
teachers and suggested that the methods of teacher
recruitment should be re-organised to ensure merit,
objectivity

and

conformity

with

the

functional

requirements.
Teacher Education is a continuous process and its preservice and inservice components are complimentary to
each other. Its programmes have to be re-organised and
geared to the emerging needs of the society. The NPE,
56

TEACHER EDUCATION

1986 (p. 26) provided, "The new programme of Teacher


Education will emphasise continuing education and the
need for teachers to meet the thrusts envisaged in this
policy."
Teacher Education is based on the thesis, "Teachers are
made, not born" in contrary to the assumption,
"Teachers are born, not made." Since teaching is
considered an art as well as science, the teacher has to
acquire not only knowledge but also skills that are
called "tricks of the trade."
Like various professions Teacher Education has
assumed special significance and identity as an
important profession. According to Goods' Dictionary
of Education (1959, p. 550), "Teacher Education means
all the formal and non-formal activities and experiences
that help to qualify a person to assume responsibilities
of a member of the educational profession or to
discharge his responsibilities more effectively." Teacher
Education is not only meant for teaching the teacher
how to teach but also to kindle his initiative to keep it
alive to minimise evils of the "Hits and Miss" process
and to save time, energy and money of the teacher and
57

TEACHER EDUCATION

the taught. It would help the teacher to minimise his


trouble and to discharge his responsibilities with
efficiency and effectiveness. Teacher Education is no
longer a training process but an education strategy for
enabling teachers not only to teach successfully, but
also to inspire and infuse the students with commitment
and concern for their well-being. NCTE (1998, p. 23)
has pointed out that Teacher Education programmes
shall focus on competencies and commitment in much
greater magnitude. It calls for bringing out a
transformation in teacher preparation strategies as well
as in behavioural challenges in pupils under their
charge. Although the objectives of Teacher Education
vary from one stage to another, the general aims of
teacher education is to prepare right kind of teachers
with adequate consciousness conscience and concern for
the society and individuals under his responsibility.
Teacher Education (TE) seeks to prepare good teachers
providing them with a sound foundation of the
theoretical knowledge, understanding, skills, attitude
and interests. It enables the trainees to acquire
knowledge, skills and techniques for effective teaching
58

TEACHER EDUCATION

and to inculcate in the trainees the desired ideals and


behavioural patterns of the society in which we live. It
develops certain attitudes, values and interests in
conformity with ideals of democracies, socialism and
secularism.
According to the International Encyclopaedia of
Teaching and Teacher Education (1987 p. 77), "Teacher
Education or Teacher development can be considered in
3 phases: Pre-service, induction and in-service. The
three phases are now considered as parts of a continuous
process." Teacher Education is therefore a continuous
and comprehensive process of these phases. -The
emerging issues and concerns are to be incorporated in
the T.E. curriculum. Disparities characterise it in a
continum as India is a multi-cultural and multi-lingual
society with a perennial under current of essential unity.
Due to such dynamism required in the Education system
the Challenges of Education (India, 1985), A Nation at
Risk (USA, 1983), Learning to Succeed (UK, 1993),
Learning to be (UNESCO, 1973) and so on have looked
critical at their national and international systems of
education. At the international level further the
59

TEACHER EDUCATION

UNESCO document "Learning : The Treasurer Within"


(1996) has taken a critical look at the total educational
scenario of the world and made long range and
meaningful suggestions. Teacher education under this
dynamic, multi-cultural and universal background has to
be revamped and re-constructed to meet the new
challenges of the 21st century and to play its role more
effectively.
The Latest Report of the UNESCO entitled "Learning:
Treasure Within" seems to have been based on an
Indian dictum "Know Thyself" or know yourself
(Atmanobiddhi).

There

is

treasure

capability

in

everybody which needs to be explored and unfolded.


This docturn has also been reiterated over the centuries
through various works of the saints and seers, artists and
poets of the country. The Chairman of the International
Commission which developed this document is Jacques
Delors and the entire report offers a theoretical
paradigm constructed upon the 4 pillars of learning such
as Learning to Know, Learning to Do, Learning to Be
and Learning to Live Together. It also reminds us about
the Jnanayoga, Karmayoga and Tattwomasi and under
60

TEACHER EDUCATION

lies the principles and preception of Rishis and Gurus of


the ancient times who said Sahana Bhunaktu, Sahana
Bhabantu. Our Vedic Culture also tells that one should
know oneself as well as get noble thoughts from all
sources (Ano-bhadra Kratu biswatah). The UNESCO
Report thus reinforces the Indian Vedic concept of selfknowing, self-learning, selfdoing and learning to living
together.
In the theoretical construct Delors has mentioned
"Education : The Necessary Utopia" where he analysed
various types of tensions that characterise the modern
socieities. These tensions are between (i) Global and
Local; (ii) Universal and Individual; (iii) Tradition and
Modernity;

(iv)

Long-term

and

Short-term

considerations; (v) Competition and equality of


opportunity, and (vi) Extraordinary expansion of
knowledge and human capacity to assimilate. All these
concerns deeply affect education in general and Teacher
Education

in

particular.

There

is

explosion

of

knowledge every where, but human ability to grasp it


properly is limited as well as unlimited. Thus ability is
to be expanded and unfolded through education. There
61

TEACHER EDUCATION

is conflict between quality and quantity and the


information technology is gaining ground to help the
man to cope up with the expanding knowledge. The
Delors Commission also suggested life long learning
/education for enabling human-beings to live and grow
and to discharge the responsibilities in various positions.
The Teacher Education like other professional education
pre-supposes teacher's efficiency and commitment to the
society and to the profession.
The International Report says that teachers have always
been valued in the society as major agents in individual
and social development. Even in the 21st Century, in
spite of various changes the teacher's role is likely to
become even more critical. The traditional role of the
teacher as a figure of authority and repository of
knowledge and values has undergone changes. The
teachers are to be provided with the following
conditions for enabling them to play their roles
effectively:
(i) Favourable conditions for teaching and learning;

62

TEACHER EDUCATION

(ii) Training facilities adequate and suiting to their


functions;
(iii) Opportunities for participating and co-ordinating
the decision-making; and
(iv) Providing

democratic

and

enlightening

environment for shaping the destiny of their own


institutions and then the destiny of the nation. Further,
in order to resolve the tensions mentioned above,
education has to play a significant role by transcending
its traditional role and transmitting knowledge and skills
required for the living and working in the modern
world. The commission aptly stated that it is to succeed
in its task, education must be organised around 4
fundamental types of learning called the pillars of
knowledge: Learning to know, that is acquiring the
instrument of understanding; learning to do so as to able
to act vigorously in one's environment; learning to live
together so as to participate and co-operate with the
other people in all kinds of activities; and learning be an
essential progression which proceeds from the previous
three resulting in the development of personality in all
63

TEACHER EDUCATION

its dimensions. Particularly, teachers of teachers' need


be imbued with the spirit of "Vasudhaiv Kutumbakam."
Besides 4 pillars of learning and 4 issues of current
importance before education as discussed by Delors
Commission (UNESCO, 1996) the global perspectives
have posed some challenges in the development of
Teacher Education. The Teacher Training Institution
due to resource crunch have difficulties in upgrading
their infrastructure and updating their programmes. But
as a pre-requisite for quality improvement of teacher
education, it is essential to provide professional and
academic

opportunities

to

teachers

and

teacher

educators to acquaint themselves with the changes in the


scientific and technological areas and social, economic
and cultural contexts. The Teacher Educators have to
acquire adequate awareness and familiarity with the
latest

trends

and

competencies

for

effectively

discharging their responsibilities. Cultures and traditions


of our community are likely to face conflict with global
situations. The challenges before Teacher Education
would increase both in quantity as well as complexity.
The struggle between tradition and modernity has been
64

TEACHER EDUCATION

perpetual

and

the

equalisation

of

educational

opportunity has to compete with the need for


competition. There is also struggle between short-term
and long-term initiatives. One important issue is the
curriculum load of children and the capacity of humanbeings to absorb this expansion of knowledge and
information. The conflict between the spiritual and
material is continuous. The humanistic, ethical and
spiritual values enhance the quality of life and India
emphasises moral and cultural dimensions of education.
The International Education Commission has not undervalued the central role of brain power and innovations
and the contribution of education to economic and
social development.
In order to strengthen the 4 pillars of learning as
identified by the Delors Commission, the teachers are
supposed to awaken curiosity, streamline independence,
encourage intellectual rigour and create the conditions
for success and promotion of formal and continuing
education. Conducive

environment has to be created

in training institutions for high quality of Teacher


Education in an upgraded infrastructure. Besides "What
65

TEACHER EDUCATION

to Teach",- Teacher Educators are also concerned with


"How to Teach." Teachers are to be provided with
teacher training facilities, higher social status and
adequate competencies. They are to be motivated and
committed to professional efficiency and higher
learning attainments. Besides pre-service education,
they need to provide with in-service and continuing
education. They are to develop awareness about
environment, population, national and international
understanding, racial and religious tolerance and some
other current issues and concerns.
Professional upgradation. is an important issue in
Teacher Education. Isolation of the teacher and the
community has to go and Teacher Education has to be
made an integral part of social as well as educational
system. There should be dynamism in our approach to
meet the challenges of the diverse problems with
confidence and competencies. The code of professional
ethics and values has to be pursued vigorously. Teacher
Education has to strive here to achieve social and
professional

accreditation

on

par

with

other

distinguished professions. It has been rightly remarked


66

TEACHER EDUCATION

by Rajput (AIU, New Delhi, 2001, p. 263), one of the


major draw-backs suffered by teacher education system
is the lack of inflow and utilisation of researches and
innovations in the system. Teachers in schools are
hardly encouraged to conduct researches or to
participate in innovative efforts. It is, therefore, felt
imperative to establish mechanism for promotion and
dessernination of research outcomes to the teachers and
Teacher Training Institutions and to ensure their
utilisation in the transactional strategies. Teachers
should

undertake

action

research,

developmental

projects and various kinds of research studies and


innovations. The DIETs, CTEs and IASEs are to be
more involved in conducting research and evaluation
studies.
Value-based educational system has been emphasised
and teacher education has to be oriented and involved in
the process of value education. We have to achieve a
social order characterised by harmony cohesion and
mutual fellow-feeling through Teacher Education.
Rajput has also added (Ibid., pp. 263-4) that the world
can no-longer tolerate for long sustained violence and
67

TEACHER EDUCATION

terrorism. With firm determination, it would like to


eliminate hunger and poverty. That would be possible
only when each and every one strives for social justice,
equity and equality. Avoidable disparities must be
eliminated and human dignity needs to be sustained
even in adverse circumstances. Although it sounds to be
Utopian a teacher education system has to be inculcated
and imbued with all eternal values and high ideals.
Teacher educators have to set "Role Model" for teachers
in facing the new challenges and emerging issues of the
21st century.

68

TEACHER EDUCATION

5.
Effective Teaching
and
Successful Teachers

69

TEACHER EDUCATION

5.

Effective Teaching and Successful Teachers

1.

QUALITIES OF A TEACHER

The qualities of head, heart and hand mainly constitute


the teacher's personality. His intellect, knowledge and
thoughts

are

the

qualities

of

head,

sympathy,

understanding, fellow feeling, love and affection are the


qualities of heart and handwriting, drawing, painting
and other muscular activities are the qualities of hand.
Thus his personality traits, academic achievement and
professional efficiency determine his image as a teacher.
The secret of his success lies in his love for his work
and love for the student. K.G. Saiyidain pointing out
love as the secret of his personality says, "Love that
unlocks all doors and conquers all obstacles." With
affection, he will gain confidence of the child, wins into
his heart and releases hids dormant force and energy.
Sacrifice and dedication to his service enables character
and

humanitarian

qualities

of

love,

sympathy,

compassions, affection and so on are more important


than his intellectual achievements.

70

TEACHER EDUCATION

Teachers should be the living incarnation of the great


trinity of Truth, Goodness and Beauty. He must have a
deep sense of reasoning right and wrong; he must
cultivate non-violence and objective outlook towards
everything and he must appreciate beauty and
orderliness. Teacher must have robust optimism and be
free from frustration and pessimism. If he lacks in
idealism and compassion, his personality will be a dead
wood without any tender feelings for anybody. His
vision of life must be based on love, sympathy and
affection for all in general and for the needy and
deprived classes of the society in particular.

2. CHANGE IN THE EDUCATIONAL SCENARIO


Gone are the days when the teacher was the supreme
master of the educational arena. He was the school, he
was the textbook and he was the moral force. Nobody
was there to rival, to share his responsibility and to
supplement his efforts, The school had the monopoly
over all sources of knowledge and was the only light
post of education on a vast area. But the conditions have
71

TEACHER EDUCATION

changed and the situations have improved. Many


agencies of education have come, several media have
emerged and variety of materials are being used for
education. Now schools have lost the monopoly of
learning, teachers have ceased to be the only providers
of education, no curriculum is obligatory and no
certificate is a license for anything. Ivan Illich, the
prophet of the Deschooling Society has emphatically
said that most of education takes place before the
school, outside the school and since the school, schools
are not the only places of learning and children at
present are allowed to learn freely and widely. There are
radio, television, newspapers and other materials, there
are meetings, conferences and congregations of all
kinds, political, social, cultural, literary and religious
and all these have also educational roles to play and
individuals are all exposed to such learning.
Therefore, teachers have to labour hard for keeping
themselves not as the only source, but as a main source
of learning and knowledge. They have to keep
themselves abreast with the latest trends, ideas and
practices in their respective fields. There has been
72

TEACHER EDUCATION

"explosion of knowledge in every field. Unless the


teacher continuously learns himself, he cannot be a
good teacher. He will fail in his duty if he is not able to
satisfy the educational needs of the students. He will not
be able to do justice to his duties and responsibilities if
he is not up-to-date with the modern knowledge,
techniques, methodology and media. He will have to
keep in his mind the following immortal words of the
Viswakabi Rabindranath and work accordingly;
"A lamp never light another lamp,
Unless it continues to burn its own flame
A teacher can never truly teach,
Unless he is still learning in himself."
Today students are quite advanced in their mental age in
their intellect, ideas and outlook. They are curious to
know and have many doubts. Teachers have to meet the
queries and satisfy this hunger with confidence.
Therefore, they have to democratise their approach,
methods and class organisation. There must be adequate
freedom, flexibility and frankness in them. Questioning
must be encouraged and responsibility must be shard in
73

TEACHER EDUCATION

school administration as well as organisation. There


must be equalisation of educational opportunity and
adequate interaction between the school and the
community.
The International Commission on Education for
Development has aptly said, "Democratising education
does not only mean giving more education to more
people, but also involving more people in educational
management." But unfortunately most of our schools
are divorced from the society and the conditions
prevalent in the schools are adverse to the growth of
democracy. Our teachers should recreate education and
reorganise their approaches to education in order to
cope up with the changed situations. With a view to
deserving a respectable position and status in the
society, teachers have to play their role more effectively
and meaningfully and for that, they have to be well
equipped with adequate knowledge, skills, attitude and
interests suitable for this age of science, technology and
democracy. These are the challenges to be taken up by
the teachers and on their success depends the success of
education as well as prosperity of the nation.
74

TEACHER EDUCATION

3. CHANGING CONCEPTS OF TEACHING AND


LEARNING
Over the years, not only the role of the teacher has
undergone changes, but also the very concept of
"Teaching" has changed and assumed new - meaning
and significance due to various reasons. Previously,
teaching was synonymous with giving or transmitting a
quantum of information. But this is now very well
undertaken by a machine like computer. When such
information is received by and accumulated by a person
like the student it becomes knowledge and as the latter
is assimilated and utilised for modifying one's behaviour
and for solving the various problems in life it becomes
wisdom. These differences are very well manifested by
T.S. Eliot, the unmortal poet in his poem, "The Rock" as
follows;
Where is Wisdom?
We have lost in Knowledge?
Where is the knowledge?
75

TEACHER EDUCATION

We have lost in information.


If the information or knowledge does not properly form
a part of the cognitive development and is not used for
promoting thoughts in individuals whether young
students or adult learners, we cannot say that they have
been wise. The distinguished educational philosopher,
Alfred Whitehead has very rightly said, "I have been
much struck by the paralysis of thought induced in
pupils by the aimless accumulation

of precise

knowledge inert and unutilised. "Teaching is not merely


enabling students to accumulate and reproduce dead and
try facts and figures, knowledge or information. No
actual learning takes place in this process of teaching or
transmission of knowledge and information that is why,
it is said that whatever is taught is not learned and
whatever is learnt is actually taught. Teaching is
incomplete and ineffective if no learning takes place.
Actual teaching is thus not merely giving some
information or knowledge, but to enable the students to
properly

utilise

the

same

independently

and

thoughtfully. Teaching is therefore more a facilitating, a


motivating and promoting process. It is helping students
76

TEACHER EDUCATION

to acquire knowledge, skills, ideals, attitudes, interests,


and appreciations, leading to changed behaviour and
growth of a person with a balanced personality. Without
this, there is no learning and mere memorisation is not
learning. Our education system is therefore very much
criticised as it does not help actual teaching and
learning, Benjamin S. Bloom (1958 p. 8) has voiced this
contention as follows:
"The system consisting of examination, syllabi, teaching
method and instructional material-has formed a grand
conspiracy to persuade everyone involved in it that
learning is to be equalised with memorisation. As a
result, learning is a heavy task to be undertakes for a
system of rewards not directly related to the beauty and
power of subjects like Mathematics, Chemistry,
Literature or History. The fact that students may come
through this process with an interest in or even a love
for Chemistry or Mathematics or History, must be
explained by something outside the system. They
develop this set for learning and for a particular subject,
if they do not at all in spite of the system and not
because of it"
77

TEACHER EDUCATION

Teaching was given too much importance and learning


was not given its due place. That is why, in the teachers'
training programmes, teaching was emphasised and
pedagogy-the science of teaching behaviour found an
important place. The entire education system was
teacher-dominated and teacher centred. Now the
scenario has changed and teaching has given way to
learning. The science of learning called mathematics is
accorded high priority." "How to learn" is more
important than "What to learn." Thus, learning is now
found more significant than teaching and learners or
students are given prominence in the entire teachinglearning process. The education has been studentcentered and the needs and conditions of learners are
given due consideration.
The International Commission on Education and
Development
explosion

of

(1972) has
knowledge,

aptly observed,
explosion

of

"With
student

population, explosion of aspirations of students, the


problem of higher education have acquired greater
complexity and magnitude. The teacher is now expected
not only to inculcate knowledge but to encourage
78

TEACHER EDUCATION

thinking. He has to become more an advisor, a partner


to talk to. He has to help seek out conflicting arguments,
rather than hand out ready made truths. For this he will
have to devote more and more time and energy to
productive and creative activities. Thus, "the teacher's
role is changing in that the authoritative delivery of
knowledge is being supplemented by spending more
time diagnosing the learner's needs, motivating and
encouraging study, and checking the knowledge
acquired. "Teaching is therefore to create interest and
motivation in learning. It is a creative, motivating,
encouraging and inspiring process." As Torsten Eusen
has observed, "more emphasis will be put on learning,
not on teaching. The focus will be shifted to the
economic management of the teaching function, to a
close analysis of its real import and of the purpose it is
supposed to serve."
4. SUCCESS AND EFFICIENCY OF TEACHING
Henry Von Dyke has rightly observed, "And what is
teaching? AN There you have the worst paid and the
best rewarded of all vocations. Do not enter it unless
you love it. For the vast majority of men and women it
79

TEACHER EDUCATION

has not promise of wealth and fame, but they do whom


it is dear for its own sake are among the nobility of
mankind. I sing the praise of the unknown teacher, king
of himself and leader of mankind."
It is a basic fact that teaching is the fundamental duty of
a teacher and it has to be made effective in order to
make a successful teacher. "Successful" and "effective"
- these two terms may be used as synonymous in the
context of good teaching. I.L. Mursell has, therefore,
aptly observed, "Successful teaching is teaching that
bring about effective learning." The question is not what
methods or procedures are employed, or whether they
are

old

fashioned

or

modern,

time-tested

or

experimental, conventional or progressive. All such


consideration may be important, but none of them is
ultimate, for they have to do with means, not ends. The
ultimate criterion for success in teaching - is results."
Now the question arises; by what kind of results should
be success of teaching be judged? Such a criterion needs
not only the knowledge, understanding and skills of the
teacher, but also his attitude towards teaching. Of
course, the common sense answer to this question is that
80

TEACHER EDUCATION

teaching should be judged by results that last and that a


learner can and does actually use in his life. No teaching
can be considered truly effective if its results are not
durable or quickly vanish, however, impressive its
immediate results, or effects. The effects of teaching
must influence the pupil's behaviour, his personality, his
values and attitudes. The learner should use the results
of teaching freely and flexibility in his life. Such results
must enter into his personality of shape his mental
development or affect his thinking or influence his
action and mould his character.
Teaching may be called the organisation of learning and
the successful teaching is to organise learning
effectively. For this, the teacher has to master certain
secrets of his trade. It has to be realised that good
teaching involves skill in learning. Such guidance is
done by suggestions and persuasion rather than by
command and enforcement. The teacher should create
such situation, which can lead to desired types of
activity. Teaching is an activity, a unique, creative
rational and human activity. It is called not merely an
art, but the most difficult of all arts and Drofound of all
81

TEACHER EDUCATION

sciences. Teaching is therefore an intricate, complex


and conscious activity.
Effective teaching must ensure maximisation of learning
experiences. It aims at achieving the objectives of
education to the optimum. Effectiveness can be
achieved with the help of skillful teacher, well-planned
curricula, suitable infrastructural facilities, trained
laboratory and library personnel. Teaching and learning
are the two aspects of the same coin, and education
implies the study of teaching skills and practices.
Teaching to be effective must be handled by effective
teachers. If the destiny of a nation is being shaped in its
class room, teacher is the architect of the destiny. It is
rightly said that the more efficiencies the teacher has,
the more efficient the teacher is and the more effective
is his teaching. Teacher effectiveness is related to the
outcomes that reflect the achievement of students and
the objectives of education.
The major goal of teaching is maximising teacher
effectiveness which is quite pertinent to school
effectiveness which is in turn determines students'
success. The characteristics of an effective teacher have
82

TEACHER EDUCATION

been summed up by Krishnan and Nightingale (1994 p.


8) as follows: (1) He can teach using different methods
of teaching, employing a variety of audio-visual aids,
(2) he should have moral prestige, (3) he should have
intellectual depth, (4) he should have a sense of humour,
(5) he should be. man of all-round personality, (6) he
should be confident and at ease when teaching, (7) he
has a good relations with the pupils, (8) he manages the
class well, (9) he plans the lessons well, (10) explains
points clearly, (11) he pays attention to revision and
examination reforms, (12) he tries to make lessons
interesting, (13) he conveys high expectations for work
of the pupils, (14) he stimulates and motivates pupils to
think independently, (15) he should be creative,
constructive, innovative and helpful in criticism of
pupils, (16) he should be resourceful in providing the
varied experiences to the students, and (17) he should be
flexible, alert and democratic in nature.
5. STEPS IN GOOD TEACHING
In the teaching work the teacher should try to give a
good start, because it creates interest and motivation in
learning. It is rightly called that to make a good start is
83

TEACHER EDUCATION

half way to win the battle. The teacher must remember


that nothing bores the audience more than monotony.
His movements, his pronunciation, his gesture and
posture, all should have variety, novelty and realisation,
Stereotyped or dry presentation of facts, too much
movements like a shuttlecock or standing in a statue like
position are not liked by students.
Preparation of the lesson is a pre-requisite. The teacher
should not feel that because he is a first class graduate
or a post-graduate or he is a teacher with long
experience to his credit, he can deliver a good lesson
without any planning or preparation. He should think,
rethink and plan his sequence of teaching points. Good
teachers continue to plan their work and prepare their
lesson afresh even if they teach the same subject to the
same class for years. Edwin Arnold was teaching the
same subject in the same class of the Rugby School for
long 25 years, still he was requiring preparation. He
once forcefully said, "I want. my pupils to drink from a
living fountain and not from a stagnant pool."
Therefore, good teaching must be planned carefully

84

TEACHER EDUCATION

allowing sufficient flexibility and novelty in approach


and methods.
Good teaching is kindly and sympathetic. True
understanding of and love for teaching and students are
essential. Successful teacher must create confidence in
the pupils. The good teacher must be neither too firm
nor too soft. Justice and impartiality are virtues which
must be cultivated for successful teaching.
Teaching is a cooperative affair between the teachers
and the taught. Successful teaching must create a
congenial atmosphere in the classroom for mutual
interaction between the teachers and students and
among the students also. Hence, democratic spirit
should prevail in the classroom for making the teaching
effective. Successful teaching should be invigorating
and stimulating. It may be done through his action,
behaviour and personality. It must be creative and
promotive of all the good activities and qualities of
students.
Successful teaching must develop initiative and
independence in thoughts and actions of students in the
85

TEACHER EDUCATION

classroom. It must liberate the student and his mind


from lethargy, inertia and indifference. Lastly, Vasani
(1980) has cogently said, "There is no single royal road
to effective and successful teaching. There are many
roads, high ways and by ways, royal roads and narrow
lanes, delightful paths and even rough ones which need
to be used for meeting particular needs, situations and
goals."
6. CHALLENGE TO THE TEACHER
The teacher is the backbone of the society. He works for
welfare of the nation. His functions affect eternity.
Therefore, teaching in order to be effective and
successful must influence the thoughts and action of
pupils most remarkably and perceptibly. The successful
teaching must be effective with the help of various
modern media, means and methods. Gone is the age of
"talk and chalk". The modern age of science and
technology demands creative, dynamic as well as multidimensional and multi-media approach. Therefore,
radio, television, films, tapes, etc. should be used with
profit along the traditional media and materials.
86

TEACHER EDUCATION

It may be concluded with an observation of the same


forceful author Henry Von Dyke - "He (teacher)
communicates his own joy learning and shares with
boys and girls the best treasures of his mind. He lights
many candles, which in later years will shine back to
cheer him. This is his reward. Knowledge may be
gained from books but the love for knowledge is
transmitted only by personal contact. No one has ever
deserved better of republic than the unknown teacher."
The modern society very hardly needs such teachers
who are not only knowledgeable, but also good towards
their students, committed to their profession and sincere
in their efforts for doing good to the society. For success
of democracy such teachers are invaluable assets and
they can be really effective for bringing about desired
social change and accelerating the speed of national
reconstruction. The National Policy on Education, 1986
has rightly remarked, "The status of the teacher reflects
the socio-cultural ethos of a society; it is said that no
people can rise above the level of its teachers. The
Government and the community should endeavour to
create conditions, which will help motivate and inspire
87

TEACHER EDUCATION

teachers on constructive and creative lines. This shows


the concern of the Government of India about the role
and functions of teachers and the need for providing
high status and adequate facilities for enabling them to
discharge their onerous responsibilities with great
success. However, teachers should take up the
challenges and deserve themselves the respect and
responsibility by acquiring the qualities of hand, head
and heart and by doing their best to realise the cherished
goals of the nation. In conclusion, it may be pointed out
that
"A poor teacher informs. An average teacher gives
knowledge.
A good teacher explains.
A better teacher demonstrates.
An excellent teacher gives experience. A great teacher
inspires."

88

TEACHER EDUCATION

6.
IN-SERVICE TEACHER
EDUCATION:
CONCEPT
AND
NEED

89

TEACHER EDUCATION

IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION: CONCEPT AND


NEED
There is a need of some sort of provision which may
make the teachers up-to-date with respect to the
knowledge of his subject of teaching, methods and
techniques and innovative ideas in each sphere of his
academic life. For the sake of this reason, the idea of inservice education has emerged.
In-service education may be defined as continuing
education of teachers and other educators which
commences after initial professional education is over,
and which lead to the improvement of professional
competence of education all throughout their careers. In
other words, in-service education is designed to promote
the continuous development of profession by providing
of the teacher after he enters the teaching profession by
providing planned and systematic instruction within an
educational setting. The term in-service education is
commonly used to denote planned efforts to promote the
professional growth and development of teachers. Inservice education includes all those courses and
activities in which a serving teacher may participate for
90

TEACHER EDUCATION

the purpose of extending his professional knowledge,


interest or skill. Teacher education institutions can
extend their services out side their premises either
through the visits of their staff for consultations,
lectures, or conducting courses, or through lending of
books and equipment. Such services are also called as
'Extension Service' because these are extended beyond
the physical limits of an institution and aim at
promoting the professional growth of teachers by
adding to their repertoire of skill and knowledge.
In-service teacher education has variously been defined
by different Educational Theoreticians. According to
Buch (1968), "In-service education is a programme of
activities aiming at the continuing growth of teachers
and educational personnel in-service. It may be
regarded as the sponsoring and pursuing of activities
which will bring new insight, growth, understanding,
and co-operative practices to the members of teaching
profession and arouse them to take action to improve
themselves in every possible manner. In other words, it
may be regarded as including all activities and
experiences participated by the educational personnel in
91

TEACHER EDUCATION

education during their services. These activities are


planned and organized by various agencies to help the
educators to improve as persons and to mature as
professionals.
Siddiqui (1991) defined In-service Teacher Education as
"all those activities and courses which aim at enhancing
and strengthening the professional knowledge, interest
and skills of serving teachers."
This

definition

has

the

following

significant

components:
1. Professional knowledge.
2. Skill aspect.
3. Attitude towards profession.
4. A code of conduct or ethics of profession.
5. Professional skills, Such as administrative skills,
management skills, organizing skills, leadership
skills, etc.
6. Interest in teaching profession.
7. Course refers to the provision of such experiences
based on sound

92

pedagogical

and

empirical

TEACHER EDUCATION

considerations as well as related to research


findings.
8. Activities,

such

as

seminars,

symposium,

workshops, discussion, brain storming, etc.


Teacher education is primarily meant for regular serving
teachers.

It

includes

such

new

courses

whose

fruitfulness and validity have been tested. It subjects the


serving teachers to such activities which may enhance
their professional knowledge, interest and attitude so
that they may maximize their pupil's learning and, in
turn, derive maximum inner satisfaction and sense of
achievement.
The need for in-service education of teachers was
recognized as early as 1904 in Lord Curzon's
Resolution on Educational Policy. Secondary Education
Commission

(1952-53)

was

more

specific

in

recommending the programme of extension services to


provide in-service education to secondary school
teachers.
NCERT promoted experimentation in the classroom
instruction by teachers through extension services
departments. In 1964 State Institute of Educations
93

TEACHER EDUCATION

(SlEs) were established to organize in-service education


for primary teachers. Today SlEs/SCERTs are main
agencies for planning, implementing and monitoring inservice education at state level. At district level DIETs
are performing pace-setting role for training and
orientation of elementary school teachers, Headmaster,
and Supervisors.
Although pre-service teacher education and in-service
teacher education are given at different stages of
education, they have to be planned and executed as two
essential constituents of a single internal system, neither
being complete without the other. In fact, in-service
education follows a full-fledged face-to-face regular
pre-service education, which enables a person to enter a
teaching career. In-service teacher education is a form
of movement, in which all teachers, teacher educators
and administrators participate enthusiastically and enjoy
this activity. A well designed, carefully planned and
properly executed

system of in-service training

programme in our educational system is need of the


hour (NPE 1986). Accordingly, it should have the
following considerations:
94

TEACHER EDUCATION

(1) The pre-service teacher education programme which


merely leads a prospective teacher to the profession
of teaching is never completed if it is

not

supplemented by periodic in-service programmes


due to faster changes in content areas, pedagogical
science, changes in socio political scenario, and job
expectations of teachers. Therefore, pre-service
programmes need to be examined, confirmed,
rejected, modified or reinforced on the anvil of
experience of the real teaching-learning situation,
and the developing maturity of the teacher.
(2) In the beginning teacher needs support and guidance
during the period of transition from the supporting
culture of pre-service education to the actual
problems of the school; otherwise teacher falls back
for mere survival to the routine ways.
(3) In-service education of the teachers becomes all the
more

necessary,

not

only in

view of the

advancement in knowledge of the subject teacher


teaches but also due to experiments and innovations
in the field of pedagogy and the skills required to
adopt those innovative practices. Periodic adoption
95

TEACHER EDUCATION

of new education policies and consequent changes


in the curricula and instructional materials also
necessitates in-service education problems for
teachers in order to enable them to handle the new
materials with ease and effectiveness.
(4) A teacher can make his teaching more interesting
and effective with the help of teaching aids,
produced with ever-developing technology. He
needs to be trained and retrained periodically in the
production and use of appropriate audio-visual aids.
(5) A teacher has to handle special groups of children
like the disabled, the backward, the gifted, the
socially

disadvantaged

and

the

economically

deprived. In the pre-service education programme,


such knowledge is given theoretically but in-service
education programme further equips the teachers
with necessary practical skills to handle such
children.
(6) In-service

education

brings

into

focus

the

desirability of a teacher to always be a learner


during

96

his

professional

life,

thus

avoiding

TEACHER EDUCATION

obsolescence,

fossilization

and

irrelevance of

knowledge.
(7) The teachers could be made abreast of global
perspectives regarding changes in the ideas about
the theory and practice of education in different
countries, which may help them to give a fresh look
at their own thinking and working styles.

97

TEACHER EDUCATION

HISTORY

OF

IN-SERVICE

TEACHER

EDUCATION
Extension Services were started in Europe as extramural
departments in early eighteenth century. After a gap, the
services changed its nomenclature and called workers
education department. Birkbeck College was an output
of these efforts. The objectives of this education were to
propagate "secular", "scientific" knowledge to once
imparted by church.
In India Buddhists were perhaps the first to start
evening classes for imparting useful' knowledge. It was
presumed in those days that all monks had to learn an
extra trade of 'secular' skill. Certain trades were
organized on family basis like oil pressures, gold smith,
carpenters

etc.

and

improved

knowledge

were

transmitted with in family circles. In old days people


extended their education in the community through
different media such as fairs and festivals, yatra
(pilgrimages)

community discussion,

folk

stories

(katha) etc. were strong means of providing education.


But of course what we mean by in-service education of
98

TEACHER EDUCATION

teachers in the professional sense is a development of


recent times.
The need for regular programme of in-service education
was

stressed

in

subsequent

reports

of

various

commissions in 1918, 1929, 1937, and 1944. After


independence, the Government of India paid attention
to improvement of standard of education. In 1949,
University Education Commission (Radha Krishanan
Commission) recommended that "the scheme of
refresher courses could be made a real success if the
authorities of schools and colleges and the Government
Education Department made certified attendance at
University refresher courses, one in every four or five
years, a qualification for promotion". In 1950, the first
conference of the Principals of the training colleges at
Baroda

recommended,

"to

ensure

continued

professional growth of trained teachers and to prevent


their laps into unprogressive methods, refresher courses,
both general and special should be organized.
Secondary Education Commission (1953) was more
specific in recommending the programme of extension
services of secondary teachers, "The teacher training
99

TEACHER EDUCATION

institutions should accept its responsibility for assisting


in this in-service stage of teacher training. Among the
activities which the training college should provide or
should collaborate are (i) refresher courses (ii) short
intensive courses in various subjects (iii) practical
training workshops and (iv) seminar, workshops and
professional conferences".
As a result of various International Project Teams and
Third conference of principals of training colleges All
India Council for Secondary Education was established
in 1955, with the objective to promote in-service to
secondary teachers in a well planned and organized
way. In 1959, the character of all India Council for
Secondary Education was changed, "The Directorate of
Extension

Programme

for

Secondary

Education

(DEPSE) was established by Ministry of Education,


Government of India (GOI). All extension services
centres were taken over by DEPSE. In 1961, NCERT
started and DEPSE became one of the departments of
this new organization renamed as field services. During
this long span of time approximately one third training
colleges had extension service centres. Practically these
100

TEACHER EDUCATION

centres cope up with in-service demands. Extension


services centres have worked hard with full enthusiasm,
zeal and developed an image in the field of in-service
education.

But

these

centres

have

had

some

shortcomings of their own, some of these are as


follows:
First, there was variation on the duration of inservice training programmes, which ranged from
three days seminars to ten days courses.
Secondly, most of these courses have been
organized during, school hours, as a result of
which the school routine is disturbed.
Thirdly, the extension service centres made no
provision for follow up.
Fourthly, feedback to the organizer is not ensured.
Fifthly, the extension service centres programmes
have concentrated much on the techniques of
teaching when content knowledge has changed in
quantum.

101

TEACHER EDUCATION

To minimize these, many schemes have been suggested.


Continuing education is one of them. In 1977, NCERT
established a special cell for continuing education in the
country. Most of the continuing education centres were
located in academic colleges with a few exceptions;
these centres were established on the recommendation
of the SIE's with the concurrence of the NCERT.
With the inception of the centres for continuing
education the financial assistance to the extension
centres of the country was discontinued though their
role is totally different than continuing education
centres. Extension Service Centres were handed over to
state education department, where as others have not
taken any stand. The result is that the extension service
centres remain on paper.
Centre of continuing education is the baby of the
Philosophy of Summer Institutions in science, a scheme
launched in collaboration between the NCERT., the
NCTE and the University Grants Commission (UGC) in
the early sixties, where a very small number of teachers
were being trained during summer vacation. The need
for more effective and economical way of training was
102

TEACHER EDUCATION

on a continuing basis. The scheme had certain plus


points, they were: (1) it endeavors to upgrade the
content knowledge of school subject in teachers, (2) it is
an on going activity and hence there would be no
disturbance to school routine. (3) free and leisure time
of teachers is gainfully used for their own professional
growth, (4) expertise in school subject is made available
to teachers from colleges staff, (5) these centres are
located in graduate and post graduate colleges where
laboratories are well equipped and facilities are
available, (6) centres checkout their programmes on the
direction of State Advisory Board (SAB) and local
advisory committee.
But later on a number of problems crept in and finally
the scheme was abandoned from 1989. There were
certain reasons for this discontinuation of scheme such
as financial, coordination between academic colleges
and school teachers, lack of knowledge on pedagogical
part, lack of faith in in-service education among college
staff and certain complexes at these levels.
NPE (1986) stressed in-service education of teachers at
all levels very strongly. It suggests, "The Teacher
103

TEACHER EDUCATION

education is continuous processes and its pre-service


and in-service components are inseparable. As the first
step, the system of teacher education should be over
hauled".

This

policy

statement

emphasized

the

attachment of in-service programme with the training


colleges. An equal weightage is given for in-service
education with pre-service education.
In the light of NPE (1986), Programme of Massive
Orientation Scheme for Teacher (PMOST) was in
practice. About five lakhs of teachers were oriented
under this scheme; several camps during summer
vacation were organized for primary and secondary
school teachers. These participants were exposed to
new thrusts envisaged in the policy. The enthusiasm
shown by nation in this regard is highly appreciable.
Teacher,

recourse

administration

had

persons,
worked

key

persons
hard.

and

During

implementation of NPE (1986), a POA was planned,


which was time bound direction for implementation.
The other point as suggested in the policy was "The
new programme of teachers education emphasized
continuing education and the need for teachers to meet
104

TEACHER EDUCATION

the thrusts envisaged in the policy". It is realized in


NPE (1986), that there should be smooth machinery,
which coordinates in-service education of the teachers
at primary level. Looking to the large number of
primary schools and teachers, this work can be assigned
to district level institutions. In view of it, the DIETs
have been established. There is provision of in-service
education and pre-service education in cell in each
DIET with one senior member as its Head. This cell
will look after the training and in-service education
aspect of the teachers of primary level of the entire
district. It is expected that these institutions will provide
in-service education of the elementary level effectively.

105

TEACHER EDUCATION

LINKAGE FOR IN-SERVICE TEACHER EDUCATION


The DIET will liberally draw upon the resources of and
work as an implementing agency for the programmes
and activities of various institutions in the state and
nation. Not merely will every DIET establish a close
and continuing dialogue with 'the field' (i.e. with
elementary schools, school complexes, teachers, head
masters,

school

supervisors,

instructors/

supervisors/project officers of AE/NFE, and with


District level officers in these three sectors), but will
also establish close linkage with organizations and
institutions at the national, state, divisional and district
levels whose objectives and interests converge with its
own. Some of these institutions would be as follows:
At the District Level:
Non Government Officers (NGOs), institutions of
higher

education,

institutions,

local

secondary
Radio

teacher
Station

education
(wherever

applicable), etc
At the Divisional Level:
University Department, of Education, IASE, NGOs
and other concerned organizations and institutions.
106

TEACHER EDUCATION

At the State LevelSCERT, State Institute of Management and Training


(SIEMAT), State Resource Center (SRC) for Adult
Education, NGOs and other concerned organizations
and institutions,
At the National Level:
NCERT, National Institute of Educational Planning and
Administration, Centre for Cultural Resources and
Training (CCRT), Directorate of Adult Education,
Central Institute of Indian Languages, NGOs working
in the elementary and adult education etc.
In specific terms, the linkage would be established
through a meaningful and continuous dialogue in which
institutions share problems, experiences, achievements,
information and resources. The DIET may also work as
an agency for implementing some of the programmes
and activities of national and state level organizations.

107

TEACHER EDUCATION

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I am not
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awakener
Robert Frost