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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and the foremost, I shall thank God Almighty who gave me the inner strengt
h, resource and ability to complete the work successfully, without which all my
efforts would have been in vain.
I express my sincere gratitude to our principal, Dr. C. J. Joseph for providing
me good guidance to do it in the required way. I am thankful to Prof.Binoy Baby
of Department of Mechanical Engineering, for his valuable advice and motivation.
I wholeheartedly thank my group tutors Mr.Peter Jose (Asst. Professor, Dept. of
Mechanical Engineering) and Mr. Bonny John(Asst. Professor, Dept. of Mechanical
Engineering) for their valuable advice and support.
I also extend my sincere thanks to Kerala Minerals And Metals Ltd. For the permi
ssion granted for conducting industrial visit in the companies. Finally I take t
his opportunity to acknowledge the coordinators of our industrial visit program,
who arranged it successfully

CONTENTS
Chapter
Title
Page No:
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Introduction
3
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History of The Company

Raw Materials

Manufacturing Facility

11

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15

Products

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18

Process

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20

Sales & Marketing

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21

Conclusion

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22

Reference

1. INTRODUCTION
Bringing more to your everyday life, KMML touches you in numerous ways. Be it th
e dress you wear, the cosmetics you use, the medicines you take, the paints you
decorate your home with or the utility plastic products, our products are there.
Eco-friendly & socially committed, it is the only integrated Titanium Dioxide f

acility having mining, mineral separation, synthetic rutile and pigment-producti


on plants. Apart from producing rutile grade Titanium Dioxide pigment for variou
s types of industries, it also produces other products like Illmenite, Rutile, Z
ircon, Sillimenite, Synthetic rutile etc.
Manufacturing Titanium Dioxide through the chloride route, KMML produces very pu
re rutile grade Titanium dioxide pigment. The different grades churned out by KM
ML under brand name KEMOX has a ready market which asks for more. The commendabl
e work in research by the R&D department has also helped KMML to add more colour
s to its portfolio.
Fig 1.1:KMML Industry Pvt Ltd.
With continued growth and demand in the economy and industry, the products of KM
ML are being lapped up by the eager market. This has in turn set the wheels turn
ing for KMML s expansion. KMML has always been responsive to social and environmen
tal causes. Some of the initiatives taken by KMML have made a significant change
to the area and its people.
KMML is now in the aerospace industry & Defence applications with the commission
ing of the Titanium Sponge Plant. The TSP is a joint venture of KMML, Vikram Sar
abhai Space Centre (VSSC) and the Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory (DMR
L). The VSSC has fully funded the Rs.143-crore TSP project. With the inauguratio
n of TSP, India becomes the 7th country in the world having the technology for p
roducing titanium sponge, which is the raw material for titanium metal.
Titanium sponge is known for its high strength but low weight, making it an idea
l material for aircraft manufacture, including fighter aircraft. The material is
also used in nuclear plants, Engine parts, Ocean platforms, Reactors, Heat Exch
angers and to make dental implants and artificial bones.

2. HISTORY
The history of thebeaches of Sankarmangalam and nearby areas is inextricably int
ertwined with the history of the precious beaches and KMML. Precious, as was dis
covered in 1909 by the German scientist Dr. Schomberg who found traces of monazi
te in the sand flakes on the imported coir from Sankaramangalam. The beaches wit
h a wealth of rare earth minerals became the center of scientific attraction.
By 1932, a visionary private entrepreneur established the F. X. Perira and Sons
(Travancore) Pvt. Ltd, the forerunner to KMML. During the course of time, KMML c
hanged hands three times over. In 1956 it was taken over by the state government
and was placed under the control of the industries department. The unit was sub
sequently converted as a limited company in 1972 by the name of The Kerala Minera
ls and Metals Ltd. with the following broad objectives.
1. Optimum utilization of mineral wealth found along the sea coast of Kollam-Ala
ppuzha Districts.
2. Large scale generation of employment in the state in general.
3. Overall growth and development of the local area in particular and the state
in general.

The construction of Titanium Dioxide Pigment using chloride technology started in


1979. The same was commissioned in 1984 as the first and only integrated Titani
um Dioxide Plant in the world.
Today, with over 2000 employees and a range of products, KMML has become part an
d parcel of local and international life.
On 27th December 2006 Hon. Ex-Chief Minister of Kerala Shri V.S. Achuthanandan l
aid the foundation stone of the Titanium Sponge Plant in the presence of the Hon
. Minister for Industries, Shri. Elamarom Kareem and other eminent dignitaries.
On 27th February 2011 Honorable Minister of Defense Shri. A K Antony Inaugurated
country's first Titanium Sponge Plant (TSP) at KMML.
Fig 2.1: Inauguration Of Titaniu
m Sponge Plant
With the inauguration of TSP, India became the 7th country in the world having t
he technology for producing titanium sponge, which is the raw material for titan
ium metal. Thus KMML has become a strategic Supplier of country s present requirem
ents of Titanium for its prestigious space missions. On 6th September 2011 KMML
TSP manufactured the 1st Batch of Titanium sponge & now the production is in ful
l swing.
2.1 Milestones of KMML

1974
Letter of Indent for the production of 48,000 tonnes of Titanium Dioxide
Pigment through Chloride process technology. Collaboration agreement with:
Benelite Corporation of America, USA Synthetic Rutile Plant. Woodall Duckham, U.
K Acid Regeneration Plant Kerr McGee Chemical Corporation, USA
Titanium Dioxide
Pigment (Chloride process)
1979
Construction of plants started at Sankaramangalam, Chavara, Kollam
1983
R&D recognition for KMML laboratory by DSIR.
1984
Commissioned the first fully integrated Titanium Dioxide Pigment Plant i
n the world. Launched for the first time in India, Rutile grade Titanium Dioxide
Pigment under Trade Name: KEMOX RC-822.
1992
Launched another grade of Titanium Dioxide Pigment KEMOX RC-800.
1992
Launched Plastic Grade Pigment KEMOX RC-800 PG. 1992
1992
Won the First National Award for in-house R&D efforts in Industry for Te
chnology Absorption under TAAS programmed by DSIR
1997
A new grade of pigment for the new water based paint application was int
roduced
KEMOX RC-813.
1998
Launched another improved grade pigment
KEMOX RC-822SG (Renamed as KEMOX
RC-802)
1998
Commercial production of Iron Oxide Bricks from the waste Iron Oxide an
innovative development by in-house R&D.
1998
Supported Combustion Process was successfully commissioned in one of thest
reams in the Oxidation Plant. This In-house developed process is a significant b
reak through which enables KMML to improve productivity of the plant and for fur
ther capacity enhancement.
1999
Bypass system in both streams and support combustion in other streams wa
s also
commissioned.
1999
Erected and commissioned one more Chlorinator in Chlorination section.
2003
New modern Lime Preparation Plant (LPP) for effluent neutralization was
commissioned.
2004
Commissioned new DM Plant and added two more digesters in IBP.
2004
Commissioned a new product packaging machine, modern energy efficient fi
lter and drier system, DCS system in Unit-400.
2005
World class quality management systems like ISO 14001 and OSHAS-1800 imp
lemented
2006
Capacity enhancement to 40,000MT
2006
Foundation stone laid for Titanium sponge plant
2007
Commissioned Recovery cyclone

2008
Commissioned new ETP sludge and Oxide pond
2009
Development of Nano Titanium Dioxide particles in laboratory scale.
2010
Commissioned the Enhahced Zircon Recovery plant at MS Unit.
2011
India s first commercial titanium oxy chloride pilot plant commissioned on
16/6/2011
2011
India s first commercial plant for synthesis of nano titanium dioxide comm
issioned on 19/7/2011
2011
Commissioned the Siliminite Recovery Sysytem at MS Unit
2011
Started the sale of Siliminite. --on 18th August 2011
2011
Birth of First Batch of Titanium Sponge on 06.09.2011

3. RAW MATERIALS

Material
Approximate Annual Req.
Silica Sand 1,200 MT
Sodium Silicate
3,280 MT
Beneficiated Ilmenite 4,644 MT
Hydrated Lime 12,800 MT
Aluminium Chloride
950 MT
Sulphuric Acid
1,800 MT
Potassium Chloride
114 MT
Petroleum Coke
Npf Grade
6228 MT
Hydrochloric Acid
24,537 MT
Liquid Chlorine In Containers 8,043 MT
Caustic Soda Lye
3,400 MT
Raw Ilmenite 12,000 MT
Floculant
11,330 MT
Cabosil
1.900 MT
Trimethylol Ethane (trimet) 240 MT
Zirconium Orthosulphate
300MT
Tri Iso Proponol Amine
27 MT
Succinic Acid 6 MT
Furnace Oil 28,029 KL
Liquified Petrolium Gas
4,000 MT
Aluminium Hydrate
1,280 MT
Calcined Petroleum Coke
18,500 MT

4. MANUFACTURING FACILITY
The sands are washed onto the beach by the waves every day. They are called beach
washing . These sands are the raw materials naturally harvested by KMML for the m
anufacture of the finest grades of Titanium Dioxide pigment and other products.
KMML is India's only RUTILE GRADE TITANIUM DIOXIDE MANUFACTURING FACILITY (throu
gh Chloride Route). The Manufacturing Plant at KMML comprises the Mineral Separa
tion Unit and the TP Unit (Ilmenite Beneficiation Plant, Acid Regeneration Plant
, Pigment Production Plant, Oxygen Plant & Utility Section).

Fig 4.1: U200 Scrubber


The raw Ilmenite obtained from the Mineral Separation Unit is taken to the manuf
acturing facility for further processing. Titanium Dioxide is manufactured here
using the chloride route. The chloride route is better than the sulphate route a
s highest levels of purity can be achieved with this.
The
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The
uct
are

process mainly consists of four steps:


Reduction and Leaching of raw ilmenite to 90-92% TiO2
Ilmenite Beneficiation
Regeneration of spent HCl
Conversion of Beneficiated Ilmenite to TiO2
resultant TiO2is used to produce TiO2pigments of different grades. The by prod
Iron Oxide of the process is used to make the popular Iron Bricks. Special c
is taken to regenerate the acid and keep the pollution to near zero levels.

The facility follows stringent Safety, Health and Environmental Policies and Pra
ctices at every step of the manufacturing process.
4.1 Titanium Sponge Plant (TSP):
Fig 4.2: Titanium Sponge Plan
t
Titanium Sponge Plant is first plant in India to produce Titanium Sponge, which
is the intermediate product to Titanium Metal. Titanium Sponge Plant has its thr
ee sections as below.
4.2 Tickle Purification Plant (TPP):
Fig 4.3: Tickle Purificatio
n Plant
Titanium Tetra Chloride (TiCl4) is the main raw material for the production of T
itanium Sponge, which is available as pigment grade TiCl4in the Titanium Pigment U
nit of KMML. This pigment garde TiCl4is further purified in to metal grade TiCl4th
ough double stage fractional distillation in Tickle Purification Plant.
4.3 Metal Production Plant (MPP):

Formation of Titanium Sponge took place at the Metal Production Plant of TSP thr
ough Kroll Process.The raw materials used are metal grade TiCl4and the high purity
Magnesium (Mg) metal. The processes involves reduction of TiCl4with Mg and pyro-v
acuum distillation to tap out the MgCl2produced as by product during the process.
Fig 4.4: Metal Production Plan
t

4.4 Sponge Handling Plant (SHP):


Fig 4.5: Sponge Storage
Final product formation of the Titanium Sponge Produced is taking place in SHP,
where cutting of the sponge using hydraulic presses, shredding, and pelletizing
to required size are done.
All the sponge formation processes are taking place under high purity argon atmo
sphere for which separate argon storage with evaporators along with utilities li
ke compressed air, water treatment system etc are installed in the titanium spon
ge plant.

Fig 4.6: Sponge Handling Plant


The Manufacturing Facility at KMML is equipped with the following Units / Plants
/ Sections.
Click on each to know more about each plant or the processes involved in the pro
duction of the Titanium Dioxide pigments of various grades and other products ma
nufactured by KMML.
5. PRODUCTS

KMML always maintains high standards of perfection, achieving technical excellen


ce in every phase of production. Catering to strict guidelines, KMML offers a wi
de range of products for quality conscious customers. Our products go into the m
anufacture of a variety of products used in everyday life. Dress materials, faci
al creams, tablets, newsprints, wood paints, emulsions, enamels, plastics, tooth
paste, rubber products, cosmetics, and printing ink
All contain titanium dioxid
e. Believe it, you need our products to brighten your life.

Titanium Dioxide Pigment(Rutile)


KEMOX RC 800
KEMOX RC 802
KEMOX RC 808
KEMOX RC 822
KEMOX RC 800 PG
KEMOX RC 813
Magnesium Chloride
Nano Titanium Dioxide Pigment (Rutile)
NanoKemox
NanoKemox 100 HB
NanoKemox 102 HB
NanoKemox 102 HL
NanoKemox 108 HL
Titanium oxy chloride KMML grade

Titanium Tetra Chloride


Ilmenite
Monazite
Sillimenite
Zircon
Leucoxene
Rutile
Titanium Sponge
Grade 1: 99.70% Ti & BHN 85- 110, Size 2 to 25 mm
Grade 2: 99.60% Ti & BHN 110-150, Size 2 to 25 mm
Grade 3: 99.00% Ti & BHN >150, Size 2 to 25 mm
Ti Fines: 99.00% Ti & BHN >150, Size < 2 mm
Off Grade: BHN >150, Size 2 to 25 mm

6. PROCESS
The Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd (KMML) is the world s first fully integrated Ti
tanium Dioxide Plant. KMML is also India s first and only manufacturer of Rutile G
rade Titanium dioxide by chloride process.
6.1 The Process in Brief:

Titanium dioxide (TiO2), also referred to as Titania, is a substance as


old as the earth itself.
Titanium dioxide is readily mined in its purest form from beach sand. Th
e beaches of Sankarmangalam and nearby areas in Kollam are inextricably intertwi
ned with the history of this substance and KMML.
Dr. Schomberg, a German Scientist, discovered in 1909 traces of monazite
in the sand flakes on the imported coir from Sankaramangalam. The beaches with
a wealth of rare earth minerals became the Centre of scientific attraction.
?
Titanium Dioxide is essentially harvested from sea. The Mineral
Separation Unit (MS Unit) of KMML is engaged in the separation of Ilmenite, Ruti
le, Leucoxene, Monazite, Silliminite etc from the beach sand. The MS Unit employ
s Gravitational, Magnetic & High Tension Electrostatic Techniques for separation
of minerals from the sand.
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Raw Ilmenite is chemically processed to remove impurities such a
s iron, leaving the pure, white pigment available for use.
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KMML is India s first and only manufacturer of Rutile Grade Titani
um dioxide by chloride process.
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The chloride process produces TiO2 products by reacting titanium

ores with chlorine gas.


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The chlorides of impurity metals are removed from Titanium Tetra
Chloride (TiCl4) through various processes to complete the recovery of TiCl4. I
t is further purified by distillation to obtain pure Titanium Tetra Chloride in
the liquid form which is stored in storage vessels. Titanium Tetra Chloride is v
aporized, pre heated and oxidized with oxygen in the Oxidation Plant to produce
raw Titanium Dioxide at a high temperature.
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Beneficiated Ilmenite (BI) is the raw material for the Pigment P
roduction Plant. BI from Ilmenite Beneficiation Plant is chlorinated in the Chlo
rination Plant to produce Titanium Tetra Chloride (Tickle). Chlorine reacts with
Titanium Dioxide and other metallic oxide impurities in BI in the presence of p
etroleum coke at a temperature of 9000C in a fluidised bed chlorinator to produc
e chlorides of Titanium and other impurity metals.
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The raw Titanium Dioxide is then classified and surface treated
with various chemicals, filtered and washed to remove the salts, sent to the dry
er and then to the microniser, in the Pigment Surface Treatment & Finishing Plan
t. The Titanium Dioxide pigment (in powder form) is subsequently packed.
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The plant uses recycling and regeneration methods at various lev
els of processing, including acid regeneration, which ensures negligent pollutio
n. Responsible harvesting from the seas reaffirms our commitment to the environm
ent.
The Technology being adopted for production of titanium sponge is a batch proces
s based on the Kroll process. The titanium sponge plant is designed to produce 5
00 TPY of commercially pure Titanium sponge by the reduction and pyro-vacuum dis
tillation of anhydrous titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 ) with Magnesium

Magnesio- Thermic Reduction of Titanium Tetrachloride(TiCl4) into Titanium Spong


e (Ti) and Magnesium Chloride i.e. MgCl2
TiCl4 (g) +2Mg (l) =2MgCl2 (l) +Ti(s)
Purification of the sponge cake by Pyro-Vacuum distillation to remove locked up
magnesium and MgCl2.
The main steps involved in the process are:
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Purification of pigment grade tickle to metal grade
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Magnesio-thermic reduction of tickle
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High temperature vacuum distillation of Magnesium and Magnesium Chloride
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Handling, grading and evaluation of titanium sponge
7. SALES & MARKETTING
The marketing network of KMML is spread worldwide. KMML exports to the developed
and developing nations and has earned a two star rating as an exporting house.
The web of over 30 offices servicing 50 odd nations is the backbone of the marke
ting network.
KMML s products are supplied to industries all over the globe, including countries
like China, Korea UK, Philippines, South Africa, Turkey, Mauritius, Dubai and S
ri Lanka. At KMML, customer is the king. A team of motivated marketing experts,
who make it their business to find out your views, highlights our customer consc
iousness. Maintaining close contacts, they are perfectly aware of the customer s n
eeds and are instrumental in offering world-class services and prompt attention
to your every requirement.
Major customers in the domestic market are served directly by the company. KMML
has an all India network of 12 stockists to meet requirements of our customers.

8. CONCLUSION
Titanium Dioxide is used in paints and all paints are formed by adding colours t
o this component. As in the report the process of titanium dioxide is discussed
by making an efficiency of almost 85% by reusing the components and producing th
e several components in easy ways.
Such a firm could be more profitable if careful handling of machines is done. Si
nce Schomberg has discovered the minerals in Sankaramangalam we are able get a f
irm like this going and who knows there aren t more such treasures in our earth ev
en the sand we stand upon.

9. REFERRENCE
www.kmml.com
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Wikipedia
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Information collected from the personals of the firm