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THE PROPOSAL OF RESEARCH

A. Title
The Comparative Study Used between Grammar Translation and Contextual
Translation in Teaching Descriptive Texts

B. Background of the Problem


Language conveys a social semantics (Carter, 2005:3). As a text, language has
complete elements (meaning, wording, , and sounding) to convey meaning. One of the
meaning to communicate is text. A text as a cultural product is important for students to
understand. A good teacher in a good school is the person who treats speech to students
about describing text. As one of the various kinds of text descriptive text is important
for students.
Descriptive text is the text that has differences from other text. Descriptive text
is the text where the speaker has informed the message of the real events at whole.
Hence, the teller has informed the result of the text then retells again at whole.
The study of translation (Hung, 2002:19) is necessary for the practice at
teaching. The translation is done in teaching at class, emerging on the tip of the tongue,
and nagging at the back of mind.
Pedagogically, descriptive text supports the balance of fact and presentation. The
balance should be controlled through fact and information communicated. One of the

ways to control is translation activity. In other words, translation keeps balance between
fact and information communicated.
In practice, all students in class do practice of translation. The translation can be
one of the may kinds of translation, such as (1) translation based on language variety,
(2) translation based on text structure, (3) translation based language hierarchy _ (a)
phoneme-stage translation, (b) morpheme-stage translation (c) grammatical -stage
translation, etc.
In activity of translation, there are at least two kinds of elements to concern, they
are: (1) text types and (2) translation types. Text types (Simms, 1997:27) concern with
the content of the text. The texts may consist of race, ethnicity, and culture. On the other
hand, translation type concern with (a) word-by-word translation, (b) free translation,
(3) literal translation, (d) dynamic translation, (e) pragmatic translation, (f) grammar
translation, and (g) contextual translation.
Based on the above explanation the study on translation is important to conduct
because any time it is needed by human beings.

C. Identification of the Problem


Problem can identified from many aspects. Identifying problem is important.
Without knowing the specifications of problem the researcher will get trouble in
conducting a research. The problem is focussed on the students ability of the second
year students of SMA Al Wahsliyah 3 Medan in grammar translation and contextual
translation.

D. Limitation of the Problem


A research must be initiated from a problem because a research is to solve
problem. The problem is limited and specified in this research in order to make it clear.
This is done to focus the quality of research, expenditure, in results. This analysis is
especially focused on the students ability in grammar translation contextual translation.

E. Formulation of the Problems


The problems are formulated as :
1. To what extent is the ability of the second year students of SMA Al Washliyah 3
Medan in translation by using grammatical translation.
2. To what extent is the ability of the second year students of SMA Al Washliyah 3
Medan by using contextual translation.
3. Is there any significant effect on the students achievement in translating text by
using grammar and contextual translation.

6. Aims of the Research


The aims of this research are :
1. To investigate the ability of second year students of SMA Al Washliyah 3
Medan in translation by using grammatical translation method.
2. To know the ability of second year students of SMA Al Washliyah 3 Medan
by using contextual translation method.

3. To compare the achievement between the used of grammar translation and


contextual translation method in teaching translation.

7. Significance of the Research


One of the main importance in this research is the ability of student in
translating text.. This research can give significance primarily for the writer, other
researchers, readers and reference. For the researcher, this research is significant and
contribute ideas. For readers, this research enhances the knowledge of the readers and
as the structure materials for students. For the reference, this is significant to be read
and as the literature for any researcher.
This research is also significant for the English teachers where this research is
conducted. At least the headmaster and all of the Indonesian English teachers can
concern and decide what step to do further. The steps are intended to enhance the output
of English teaching. Only by knowing the difficulties of the students can the teacher of
SMA Al Washliyah 3 Medan whether the teaching of translation is successful or not.

H. Basic Assumption
Any scientific research has assumption. This means that any approach has
assumption. The assumption treated in this research is that the English teachers of SMA
Al Washliyah 3 Medan have taught students translation by using grammar and
contextual translation method based on English curriculum. This assumption is based on
the approach that the second year students of SMA Al Washliyah 3 Medan understand

descriptive text based on curriculum. This means that all students are familiar with the
materials.
I. Hypothesis
Based on the problem, translating descriptive text has significance to support the
ability in enhancing the students understanding on texts. Hence, there are two
hypotheses in this research, they are zero hypothesis (H0) and alternative hypothesis
(Ha). The hypotheses are formulated as the following.
H0 : There is no significant effect of students ability in translating by using grammar
and contextual translation method.
Ha : There is significant effect of students ability in translating by using grammar and
contextual translation method.
J. Review of Literature
Translation
The word translation is derived from the word translate in Longman
Dictionary of the English Language (1984:176). The meaning of the word translate is
to change (speech or written) from one language into another language of the act of
rendering from one language into another language retaining the sense. Translation by
dictionary definition, consists of changing from one state or to another. To turn into
ones another language (the Merriam Webster Dictionary, 1984) translation is basically
a change of a form. Where we speak of the form of words, phrase, clauses, sentences,
paragraph, etc, which are spoken or written. These forms are referred to as surface
structure of a language. It is the structural part of language which is actually seen in

print or heard in speech. In translation there are two things necessary for good
translation such as an adequate common of the original language (the source language)
and an adequate common of the language into which one is translating.
Nida and Robert (1989:12) affirm that translation consists of transferring the
meaning of the source language into the receptor language. The form which the
translation is made will be called the source language and from into which it is
changed will be called the receptor language. Bell (1991:4) also emphasised translation
as the

expression in target language that has been expressed in source language,

preserving semantic and stylish equivalencies. Translation, then consists of studying the
lexical metaphor, grammatical structure, and grammatical metaphor communication
situation, and genre of the source language text, analyzing it in order to determine its
meaning and then reconstruct this same meaning by using the lexicon and grammatical
structure which are appropriate in the receptor language.
The activity of the translation requires changes frequently in the form and
arrangements of words because the similarities in both language structures. More over,
translation is a replacement of textual material in source language by equivalent textual
material in target language. The meaning of original text should be expressed closely.
The form may express a variety of meaning. On the other hand another characteristics,
he or she as the translator should be able to understand both the source and the target
language to produce adequate translation. In terms of translation, there must be
equivalent in a lexical form. If the word does not exist in the target language, the best
solution is to borrow the sound (pronunciation) of the original word or modifying the
utterance according to the phonological rules of the target language.

a. Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language (source language)


by equivalent textual material in another language (target language) (Catford:
1969:20).
b. Translations consists in reproducing in the receptor language which is the closest
natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and
secondly in terms of style. (Nida, 1969:2).
c. Translation is the rendering of a Source language (SL) text into the Target Language
(TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately
similar and (2) the structures of the Source Language will be preserved as closely as
possible but not so closely that the target Language structure will be seriously
distorted. (Mc. Guire, in Rachmadie, 1988:2).
Types of Translation
The word translation itself in terms of the human perception may be divided into
three. Bassnett (1989:14) describes the types of translation as follows:
a. In eremitic (symbols)
In the interpretation of symbols as expressed in language will interface with the
process of translation. There is a stage in which the expression has to be translated
in the same language to find out its communicative equivalence.
b. Intro lingual (within the same language)
The intro lingual process occurs when cultural nations are present in the text. It is
time anything the bundle of meaning of a sentences and dismantling the components

to obtain the equivalents. The sentences in the source language is translated into the
same language as the target language.
c. Intro lingual translation (between two different languages)
The intro lingual process comes later when the appropriate expression has been
found in the language. Intro lingual translation is an interpretation of verbal signs
by means of same language for instances; the sentence Robert came in English as
the source language can be translated into Bahasa Indonesia as the target as Robert
datang.
Translation Method
Method can be determined as a dearly produced that is established a general way
of doing something. Before establishing the method there is one step. The step is
establishing approach conceptually or in axiomatic way. The term of method, as quoted
from Richard and Rodger (1988:140) who state the method is an over all plan for
orderly presentation of language material, and all of which is based upon. An approach
is axiomatic. The objective of using method is in order to make the results adequate.
Relating to translation, the translation method is the established procedure in translation
that should be followed. So that, the result of translation can be adequate natural and
comprehend able to the readers in translating a text. It is important to choose the most
suitable method after having comprehended and examined the text that will be
translated.
There are some kinds of method of translation:
a. Word for word translation

In this method the words of the source language text are rendered one by
one into the target language without making allowance for grammar. This is
often demonstrated as inter lingual translation with the target language
immediately below the source language words. The source language word
order is kept unchanged. Actually the main use of word for word translation
is either to understand the process of how the source language operates or to
explain a difficult text as a translation process.
For example:
-

Gatot and Tengku won the election (English)

Gatot dan Tengku menang dalam pemilihan (Indonesia)

b. Literal Translation
This is a kind of translation which attempts is to follow the form of the
source language text. This method is useful as a preliminary step

for

discovering on acceptable method to translate the text. The source language


grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest target language
equivalents but the lexical words are again singly out of context. Actually
literal translation has a little communication value and a little help to the
readers of target language.
c. Semantic Translation
Semantic translation includes more meaning in its search for one meaning. It
does not emphasize the effect. It attempts to readers as closely as possible,
the semantic and syntactic structure of the receptor language must convey
the precise, contextual meaning of the original text. In this method the less

important cultural words are translated by functional terms not by cultural


equivalents.
For example :
-

Beware of fire! (English)

Awas api! (Indonesia)

After the definition of the translation, the second part which has to be known is
concerned with the categories of it. Translation can be divided into three distinctive
types, namely Full Translation, Partial Translation and Rank Translation.
1. Full Translation
In a full translation every part of the source language is replaced by target language
material. In other words, the entire text is submitted to the translation process.
For example:
English

Indonesian

- Amran has been back

Amran sudah kembali.

- Umar will came

Umar akan datang

2. Partial Translation
In partial translation, some parts of the source language text are left untranslated.
They are simply transferred to the target language and incorporated in it, because
they are regarded as untranslatable words or for introducing local colour or
event. Because they are so common and frequently used that translation is not
needed.
For example:
- Burhan ate pecal this morning (untranslatable)

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Burhan makan pecal tadi pagi


- The jamaah read pray (local colour)
Jemaah membaca doa
In partial translation, some words undergo both spelling and pronunciation change
such as in microfilm (English) become mikrofilm (Indonesian) and orang hutan
(Indonesian) become orang utan (English).
3. Rank Translation
In the third type of differentiation in translation is related to the rank in grammatical
hierarchy at which translation equivalent is established. It can be in the form of:
-

Word to word translation

Group to group translation

In this type of translation, lexical and grammatical adjustments should be


applied to achieve the suitable equivalent in terms of meaning. It will be discussed more
deeply in the text passage.
Besides the three categories of translation above, there are some categories
which are proposed by Savory (1969:20-24). He distinguished translation categories
into four parts as follows:
1. Perfect Translation.
Perfect translation provides all purely informative statements, they are encountered
by traveller and used by advertiser.
2. Adequate Translation.
In this category, the very large number of almost characterless translations made for
the general who may use then without giving a though to the fact that what he/she is

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reading was not originally written in his/her own language. In the process of
translation, the translator can paraphrase the original meaning freely by his/her own
words whenever it suits him/ her to do so. For example English pop novel is
translated into Indonesian.
3. Composite Translation
It is the translation of prose into prose, poetry into prose and poetry into poetry. In
this category, the commercial value of the translation is often neglected and the
translator may spend a very long time on his work. He would only get the
intellectual exercise and pleasure. For example:
Movie and rental video developers of Medan city to obey regulation No 11 in 2002
Pengusaha bioskop dan video rental Kota Medan diimbau patuhi Perda No 11
Tahun 2002
4. Scientific Translation
Scientific translation is made to get the specific aims, that is to attain the accuracy,
clearness and precision of the concepts. The translator will have a reasonable
knowledge of the science or technique about which the original was written. This
will be him/her to maintain the aim above. For example:
To translate an English text on disease we should have medical background besides
the target language knowledge, so that it can be acceptable scientifically.
5. Grammar Translation
In conducting translation, grammar or linguistics is generally used. The factor
reinforcing the usage is the nature of the language. Grammar translation is one of
the ways of translating text. For example:

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Language is often slow to keep up with changes in society.


Bahasaa adalah sering lamban menjaga perubahan dalam masyarakat.
6. Contextual Translation
In contrast to grammar translation, contextual translation the congruency of text and
context in translating activity (Cholidudin, 2007:7). For example:
Language is often slow to keep up with changes in society.
Bahasaa kerap kali lambat dalam mengikuti perubahan dalam masyarakat.
Principles and Method of Translation
Translation is a process of replacement of the message from one language to
another. Actually, there is no principles which are accepted universally since the only
people who are qualified to formulate them have never agreed among themselves. But it
can be identified as the two of literal or faithful translation and idiomatic or free
translation.
There are two reasons for the advocacy of faithfulness. First, the translator must
remember that he is a translator. He is not the original writer and the work in his hand
was never his own. He is just an interpreter, one whose duty to act as a bridge or a tool
to put the mind of the author in contact with the minds of his reader. The second reason
is about the style. Style is the essential characteristic of every piece of writing. The
outcome of the writers personality and his emotions at that time could be preserved in a
literal translation.
A literal or faithful translation is too difficult because in reality word for word,
phrase for phrase, and even sentence for sentence equivalents are often difficult to
maintain if accuracy, clearness and precision are to be achieved. The translator who

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attempts to follow this principle of faithfulness soon runs into difficulties. Troubles arise
from gabs in language, which can not be overcome by translating since a word that may
be quite familiar in one language, but it has no equivalent in another. For example, Jaran
Kepang, makan sahur or taraweh have no equivalent word in English. To get all of the
intended qualities of translation, a translator could turn into the easier principle of
idiomatic or free translation. In this principle, he can include such lexical and
grammatical adjustments in order to obtain the meaning of the source language text as
closely as possible to the target language equivalent. This kind of translation should be
able to pass itself off as an original and show all the freshness of original composition,
so that it can be read with ease and pleasure.
A part from those principles above, translation activities can not be separated
from the reader. The choice whether a translation should be literal (faithful) or idiomatic
(free) depends on the intended readers. As Rachmadie says the concept of reader
analysis will demonstrate that each from of translation has its own function, which it
adequately fulfils when used by the type of reader for whom it was intended.
(Rachmadie, 1988:25). There are four groups of readers can be classified. They are:
1. The readers who dont know anything about the original language and read it from
curiosity or genuine interest.
2. The readers who knew the language in the past, but have forgetten almost the
whole of his early knowledge now.
From the four groups of readers above, we can make an analysis what type of
translation which is intended by the readers. It is good to give the free translation for the
first group to satisfy the curiosity. They will read it with pleasure without the pain of

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thought. The second group prefer the translation that sounds like a translation, because
it brings back more memories of their early scholarship and gives a subconscious
impression that they are almost reading the original language. The third, who know both
the matter and style of the original may enjoy making moments that are more caustic
and critical and find pleasure by reading it. And the last group are best helped by the
literal translation.
Method is a way in doing something, especially in accordance with definite
plan. Generally, based on the principles which have been explained above, there are two
methods in the way of translation being done. They are source language method and
target method. In this first method, the translator attempt to give the contextual meaning
of target language text exactly. The syntactical and semantic difficulties can not be
avoid to be occurred in terms of form and meaning. The second, the translators have to
convey the message of the original writing according to the opinion of the original
writer. In this method, the translator can translate the text by using his/her own words as
far as it has no influence in terms of meaning.
Actually, the basic distinction of the two methods of translation above is the
stressing on the language being focussed. Even though such was the cause, they fit out
mutually in practice. In this case, there are some indications that can help the translator
to choose the suitable method in doing translation, both in its planning and execution.
1. The intention of the original text, for example:
- Argumentation to argue about a topic by giving the reason and conclusion
- Description: To describe something to be clearer by characterizing and
classifying the topic discussed.

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2. The background of the reader.


It is about who the reader are. It can be seen from their ages, education,
gender and whether they are public or experts.
3. The setting of the text.
Whether the text be written in a newspaper, a book, or a journal. When the
text has been written by the original author and when it will be translated.
Nowadays, the method of translation is not only the object of debate between
literal translation and free translation which always dominate the problems of
translation. Such problems can be overcome selecting the suitable method. Both of
source language centre method and target language centre method can be distinguished
into some types.
a. Target Language centered Method is distinguished into four types as follows:
1. Adaptation
Adaptation is a closest translation to the source language, it is usually used in
translating a drama or poetry. The important parts of the text such as theme,
characters and plot are still maintained.
2. Free translation
Free translation gives the priority to the context of meaning by ignoring the
form of source language. Usually, it translates as a paraphrase which can be
shorter or longer than the original text, for example:
My ambition is to be a nurse. This thought came into my mind when I was in
Primary Five.
3. Idiomatic translation

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This kind of method aims to reproduce the message of source language text by
using idiomatic expression. It will seem to be friendly and close to the target
language expression.
Example:
A full purse attracts a lot of girls.
Ada uang abang sayang, tak ada uang abang melayang.
4. Communicative translation
In Communicative Translation Method, linguistic aspects and the context of
meaning are reproduced in order that it can be understood by the reader easily.
For example: The word sister in sister city is translated kembar for city
development.
5. Literal translation
Literal translation method is the method of translation to use the true meaning
without imagination and contextual elements.
Procedures and Process of Translation
At least there are some steps to do while doing translating. The steps are
procedures and process. A procedure is the act or manner of proceeding in any action of
process.
Translation in very broad sense of the term can be listed in terms of different
levels of complexity (Choliludin, 2007:3). The procedure of translation can be
distinguished in the forms of:
1. Transliteration.

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This means rendering the letters of one alphabet into the letters of another with a
different alphabetical system. For example, from Arabic into Latin. But no
transliteration takes place between Indonesian and English because both use the
same alphabets.
2. Borrowing
This procedure often used when the target language has no equivalent for the source
language units to adapt them without changing, but sometimes with spelling or
pronunciation adjustment.
For example:

English

Bahasa Indonesia

durian

durian

3. Literal
Literal procedure is one-to-one structural and conceptual correspondence. It means
that the structure and the equivalent of words are still maintained. It can be
presupposed as a kind of inter lingual synonymy. In literal procedure, we may
include borrowing and word-for-word translation.
Example:
English
Twenty students

Bahasa Indonesian
dua puluh siswa

4. Transposition-transposition is one of translation procedure in which involves


replacing a grammatical structure from source language into target language. It is
done to achieve the same effects in terms of meaning. Not surprisingly, that this
procedure is the most common used by translators.
There are some reason, why the translator use transposition procedure, such as:

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a. It is caused by the difference of system and principles in both of source language


and target language. In this case, translator has no options to be chosen except to
do it. For example:
-

Some plural nouns in English become single in Bahasa indonesia.


English

Indonesia

a cluster of banana

setandan pisang

Repeating adjective indicates pluralizing in English


Example: The ladies India are mostly beautiful
gadis India umumnya cantik.

b. Transposition should be done if grammatical structure of source language is not


same with target language. To illustrate, check out these examples:
-

It is known that Medan is crowded (Passive)


orang tahu Medan padat (Active)

As an addition, we have to realize that is not usual to put at the foreground in English,
except in the imperative sentence.
c. Transposition is done for properness of expression reason. Sometimes, literal
translation seems in order that it needs some adjustment. For example:
-

Industrial zone

(Adjective + Noun)

Zona industri

(noun+noun)

5. Modulation
Modulation entails a change in lexical elements, a shift in point of view
(Rachmadie, 1988:37). It means that in modulation the translation involves shifting

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in terms of meaning. It is caused by different perspective about the meaning but


sometimes, it is done to make the meaning clearer. For example:
-

Medan the smart city


Medan kota bestari

6.

Adaptation and context


This procedure is used when the others do not suffice. It involves modifying the
concept or using a situation analogous to the source situation though not identical to
it. As Choliludin says, Cara memahami terjemahan terletak pada kajian teks.
Selain itu termasuk juga koneteks (Choliludin, 2007:3). (Adaptation is attempt in
cultural equivalent between two different concept need to be adopted). For example:
-

How are you


Apa kabar (not what is the news)

Transposition and modulation are obviously the most important procedures that
should be taken into account by the translator. Normally, he has to study the text as a
whole before he begins his translation activities. After getting a picture of whole he
break it up into parts. The analysis will move from simpler to the more complex. It is a
part of process of translation. The smallest unit of equivalent should be determined
firstly. The levels of equivalence ascending order are as follows:
1. Substitution of printed letter for printed letter. For example from Arabic into Latin
of from Chinese into Latin.
2. Substitution of morpheme for morpheme
Examples: predict
Prediction

meramal

ramalan

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Predictable

dapat diramal

3. Substitution of word for word


Example:

eat

makan

Mango -

Mangga

4. Substitution of phrase for phrase


Example; a never ending circle depression Unpredictable attact

depresi berkepanjangan
serangan tak terduga

5. Substitution of sentence for sentence


Example:
-

Wait a minute please


Silahkan tunggu sebentar

6. Substitution of paragraph for paragraph, and


7. Substitution of discourse for discourse.
Process is a series of actions or tasks performed in order to do something. The
explanation above is a part of translation process, namely analyzing. There are three
parts of the process of translation such as, analyzing, transformation and adaptation. It
can be see in the flow chart below:
Analyzing means understanding the text. A text is a communication act which
involves aims, style of writing and culture. When someone writes a text, he/she has
specific aims to be conveyed to the reader. He/she also has the style to realize his ideas
into sentences. Both of aims and style should be analyzed by translator as a base to the
next process, namely transformation.

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The second process is transformation (in terms of language and meaning). What
the translator looks for is the correspondences, not similarity. As a consequence,
equivalence over correspondences in both language is minimized or even is ignored. In
spite of that, we must take concentration on the content of meaning. It is possible for us
to change the form of sentence based on target language rules. But it must be
remembered that the meaning should be transferred as the original writer intended. So,
the respond of the reader in both language is same. In conclusion, transformation needs
grammatical adjustment to achieve the best product of translation.
If analyzing and transformation have been passed by, last step should be done is
adaptation. In this section, translator tries to adapt the text as a result of translation
according to the principles of target language. Sometimes, adaptation takes place in
terms of terminology like turisme or parawisata instead of tourizm. Grammatical
Adjustment and Lexical Adjustment
Translation equivalence would be in the rank of word-for-word, phrase-forphrase, sentence-for-sentence, and so on. In translating English word, phrase or
sentence into Indonesia, we must take consideration to the grammatical equivalence in
order to get faithfulness and readability.
When we use the auxiliaries and modals in question tags, problems will come
out as the tag patterns of English and Indonesian are not similar. Study the following
examples:
Diana is attractive, isnt she? Diana cantik ya kan?
-

Situation : Andrew didnt study hard. He got bad marks in his final
exam.

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1. Order within clauses


Every language has its own system of grammatical patterns. There are similarities as
well as the differences between both of English and Indonesian patterns, especially
in order within clauses. When they have same order, translation will be easily, but if
they are different, it will be much more difficult. We can compare English and
Indonesian pattern in the following statements:
(1)

She writes a letter

(2) She does not write a letter

Dia menulis (sebuah surat)


Dia tidak menulis surat.

A simple sentence usually consists of a subject, a predicate (verb) and an object.


But sometimes it does not always have an object. It takes place in both English and
Indonesian has the same order in a clause. But in negative sentence, all English
statements have the auxiliaries and not while Indonesian are expressed by using the
word tidak means not. But sometimes not can be translated into belum or bukan,
such in these sentences:
-

John is not translator (John bukan seorang penerjemah)

They have not read the magazine (mereka belum membaca majalah itu)

In interrogative sentence, the English yes/no questions always begin with the
auxiliaries, while the Indonesian questions begin with the word apakah even though,
we have the alternative, such as, bisakah, akankah, etc.
Examples: Bisakah Joy mengangkat batu itu? Instead of apakah
Joy bisa mengangkat batu itu?
2. Ellipsis is a structural relation, where one linguistic item is ommited (Halliday,
2004:533). On the other hand, ellipsis is the leaving out of a word or words from a

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sentence when the meaning can be understood without it/them. Ellipsis can be
nominal, verbal, or clausal which can be filled by reference to a previous sentence.
It occurs in all languages but in different structure. Look at these examples:
1. Diana read a book and I read magazine
Diana membaca sebuah buku dan saya membaca majalah
2. Bob seemed angry, but Petter certainly was
Bob tampaknya marah, tetapi Peter benar-benaar marah
The concept of meaning
In the process of translation, meaning plays an important role. It also needs
some adjustments in order that the result of translation can be acceptable. There are
different kinds of meaning in language such as lexical, grammatical, textual, situational
and sociocultural.
Lexical Meaning and Adjustment
Lexical meaning is the meaning as defined in the dictionary. Translation is more
than translating SL words into TL words. It is also transferring the real meaning,
depends on the context in which it is used. Thus, lexical equivalence in translation
should always to be viewed in terms of context if proper research are desired to be
achieved. It is true that translation in concerned with words, but it is not with words
alone. It has to be related to the context. In this case, lexical equivalence and adjustment
takes a role in terms of meaning.

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Contextual Translation
Contextual translation is based on text. Register theory has been one of the more
significant contributions to our understanding of the interaction between translation and
linguistics. The remarkable influence which register analysis has had on language and
Translation Studies is in part due to the numerous revisions which the notion of register
has undergone over the years, incorporating new and valuable insights into the major
thesis that people speak in many registers. This comprehensive view of language
variation which has emerged counters the prevalent myth of one situation = one
language. In other words, one context conveys one genre of language.
Cost in more practical terms, these issues has given rise to a number of relevant
questions: What are the criteria for judging one kind of language (or one translation) as
appropriate or inappropriate for a particular situation or context? In what way does our
reaction to appropriateness form part of our textual competence as language users or
translators? Are these critical skills teachable or learnable? How can awareness of these
communicative variables help translators and interpreters deal more efficiently with the
rich variety of texts they encounter in professional life?
Tenors of discourse result from the mutual relations between the relationship the
user has with his audience, and the language used. When the relationship is looked at as
a personal one, variations in English and other languages can be seen to range from
extreme degrees of formality to similar degrees of informality by way of virtually
unmarked norms. These are what are known as personal tenors of discourse. When the
relationship is viewed functionally, concerned with what the user is trying to do with
language to his audience, whether he or she is teaching, persuading, amusing,

25

controlling and so on, we can discern functional tenors of discourse. Tenor of discourse
is certainly an area in which the translator has to keep his head. For example: A North
Sumatera young man may easily talk to his father in an informal personal tenor: indeed
his father might suggest he was being taken for a ride if he did otherwise: but a
Javanese or Sundanese young man may have to use honorific forms in such a situation.
Certainly filial respect and affection are likely to be both present in both situations but
respect is usually not linguistically relevant for the North Sumateran in this situation: it
is for most Javanese. The Translator has to decide what sort of equivalence he wants
here. If when translating into English he uses a formal English tenor, he would probably
do well to use it consistently so the reader begins to appreciate that in the particular
culture the text is about, this formality of language is the norm in that situation or
register.
Genre occupies translation shifts. The distinction between two levels of
abstraction in approaching the notion of genre is distinctive in translation. Translation
itself may be seen as a genre in the abstract (Bhatia, 1994: 78) that covers (1) What the
author did, (2) How the author did it, (3) What the author found, and (4) What the
author concluded. This is function of the total effect of choices made and felt to be
intrinsic to any act of translation (i.e. the transitional sense of genre, as in all translation
intrinsically seems foreign or contrived). There is, on the other hand, the detailed more
concrete sense of genre. This subsumes all kinds of purposeful activities with which
translation, like any other form of text production, deals and which revolve around
conventionalized communicative events (i.e. the linguistic sense of genre, as in the
cooking recipe, the academic abstract).

26

The extract in this research shifts the focus from genre to discourse, and from
Applied Linguistics to Cultural Studies, the discipline which examines the cultural
ramifications of issues such as conventions and attitudes. In this field of inquiry, two
basic research trends may be identified: one simply unsympathetic to linguistics or even
to discourse analysis, the other cognisant of the contribution of discourse studies to the
study of culture and translation. The later approach may be illustrated by the work of
the cultural commentator and translation theorist, while firmly grounded in Cultural
Studies, has nevertheless branched out in number of interesting ways to include
discursive models and socio-political theory. Specifically, it is the focus on discourse
alongside other types of sign (genre, text, etc) which has primarily motivated our choice
of this reading at this point in our discussion.
Conceptual Frame
Translation is the process of transferring meaning or content of source language
(SL) to target language (TL). The procedure and process are accumulated so that what is
intended in SL can be realized in TL. The process follows U form.

SL

TL

Culture
of TL

Culture
of SL
language

27

K. Design of the Research


Design of research is also important to decide. By knowing the design of the
research, the research can be easier in focusing the object. The researcher uses
experimental quantitative analysis as the design of this research. As the name is
experimental analysis, the writer divides the respondents into two classes. The first class
is named A class or experimental class and the second one is B class or control class.
The design can be seen as follows.
TABLE: TREATMENT OF THE RESEACH
GROUPS
Experiment
Control

PREE TESTS
Treated
Treated

TREATMENT
Treated
Treated

POST TESTS
Treated
Treated

L. Population and Sample


The population of this research is the achievement of the second year students of
SMA Al Washliyah 3 Medan in translation. The respondents are the second year
students of SMA Al Washliyah 3 Medan in 2013/2014 academic year in answering the
tests of translation.
The sample of this research is the achievement of A and B class of respondents
in mastering translation. A class is experimental class and B class is control class.
M. Variable and Indicator
Based on the title there are two variables, they are the scores of experimental
and control class in translation text of the second year students of SMA Al Washliyah 3
Medan in answering the tests of translation. In other words, the indicators are the Means

28

of the respondents both from A (experimental) and B (control ) in answering the tests of
translation texts both by using grammar and contextual method.
N. Instruments of the Research
The instruments of this research are the tests of translation. There is one type of
text. The forms of the tests are the ability of the students in translating. In other words,
the tests consist of essay questions. The respondents are required to answer the tests.
O. Technique of Collecting Data
There are steps in collecting the data. In doing it, researcher uses several steps.
Step by step, the writer goes to SMA Al Washliyah 3 Medan to check the school how
the condition and everything concerning with the process of the academic activities. The
researcher asks permission from the headmaster to conduct a research. Hierarchically,
as the writer is allowed, she arranges the test concerning with the subject of the
research. The researcher gives to the students with the arranged tests as pre test. The
result is treated as decision to go on further step of the research. English teacher treats
the teaching by using grammar and contextual method
P. Technique of Analyzing the Data
In order to find out the ability of the second year students of SMA Al Washliyah
3 Medan. The criteria proposed by the writer is the criteria proposed by the Department
of Education and Culture (Diknas, 2005:10). The criteria after being converted and
translated as Excellent with the mark of (10), Very good (9), Good (8), More than
fair (7), Fair (6), Almost fair (5), Lack (4), Very lack (3), Bad (2), Very bad

29

(1)

(Diknas, 2005:10). As the ability in translation has been understood by the

researcher, the effect of grammar and contextual translation method in teaching


translation are analyzed by using the following formula:
X1 -

X2

t =
S

1
--n1

1
+ --n2
(Sudjana, 2005:231)

REFERENCES

30

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