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February 12, 2013

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Dr. Ezeddin Shirif

INTRODUCTION TO RESERVOIR
SIMULATION

Instability

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Contents

Home
Introduction

Introduction

Instability

Conservation of
Mass

Karpluss Method

Flow between
block

Neumanns Method

Constitutive
Equations

Matrix Method

Transmissibility
Flow Equation

Implicit Scheme

Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Explicit Scheme
Crank Nickolson
Fourier series Method
Explicit Method

Questions
Nomenclature

Implicit Method
Crank Nickolson Method
Handouts
(pdf file)

Questions
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Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Determination of stable time

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Single precision, the truncation error is about 10-8

Constitutive
Equations

Double precision, the truncation error is about 10-16

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

An unstable solution scheme will


accumulate round-off error until the
solution becomes meaning-less

Questions
Nomenclature

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Determination of stable time

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Determination of stable t:

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

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1. Karpluss method 99 % of time gives correct results.


This method does not include BCS
2. Fourier series (Newmanns method) 100 % of time
gives correct results. This method does not include
BCS
3. matrix method  100 % of time gives correct results.
This method includes BCS and ICS

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Express the flow equation in the following form:

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

a ( pin+1 pin ) + b( pin++11 pin ) + c( pin1 pin ) + d ( pin +1 pin ) + ...... = 0

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

1. If all coefficients (a, b, c, ) are positive, then


scheme is stable.
2. If one or more of the coefficients are negative, then
for stability:

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Neglect Gi and qi , then:

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

For stability:
A + b + c + d + .. 0

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

a ( pin+1 pin ) + b( pin++11 pin ) + c( pin1 pin ) + d ( pin +1 pin ) + ...... = 0

Questions
Nomenclature

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for explicit scheme

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

n
i +1

n
i

n
i

n
i 1

'
i

Ti +1 / 2 ( p p ) Ti 1 / 2 ( p p ) q =

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

i vbi c
t

( Pi n +1 Pi n ) + Gi

Rewrite the above equation and ignore q and G:

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin+1 pin ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pin pin1 )

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i vbi c
t

( Pi n +1 Pi n ) = 0

Nomenclature
Nomen
References

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for explicit scheme

Conservation of
Mass

For stability:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Ti +1 / 2 + Ti 1/ 2

i vbi c

Transmissibility

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

or:

t
Questions

i vbi c
Ti +1/ 2 + Ti 1 / 2

Nomenclature

Calculate t for every i, then choose the smallest value

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for explicit scheme

Conservation of
Mass

2-D:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

i , j vbi , j c
Ti +1 / 2, J + Ti 1 / 2, J + Ti , J +1 / 2 + Ti , J 1 / 2

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

10

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for implicit scheme

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin +1 ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin+11 ) qi' =

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

i vbi c
t

( Pi n +1 Pi n ) + Gi

Rewrite the above equation and ignore q and G:

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin +1 ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin+11 )

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i vbi c
t

( Pi n +1 Pi n ) = 0

Nomenclature
Nomen
References

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

11

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for implicit scheme

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin + pin pin +1 )

=0

i vbi c n +1
n +1
n +1
n
n
n
Ti 1 / 2 ( pi pi 1 pi + pi ) t ( Pi Pi )

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Rewrite the above equation

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin ) Ti +1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin )

=0

i vbi c n +1
n +1
n
n +1
n
n
Ti 1 / 2 ( pi pi ) + Ti 1 / 2 ( pi 1 pi ) t ( Pi Pi )

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

12

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for implicit scheme

Conservation of
Mass

For stability:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Ti +1 / 2 + Ti 1/ 2 Ti +1 / 2 Ti 1/ 2

Transmissibility

i vbi c
t

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

or:

i vbi c
t

Questions

0 this is true for all t

Nomenclature

This means, that the scheme is absolutely stable

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

13

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

n +1
n +1
n +1
n +1
[Ti +1 / 2 ( pi +1 pi ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pi pi 1 )] +
2
= i vbi c ( Pi n +1 Pi n ) + Gi
t
1

n
n
n
'
[
T
(
p

p
)

T
(
p

p
)]

i +1 / 2
i +1
i 1 / 2
i
i 1
i
2

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Rewrite the above equation and ignore q and G:

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin +1 ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin+11 ) + 2i vbi c n +1


n

(
P

P
i
i ) =0
T ( pn pn ) T ( pn pn )

t
i
i 1 / 2
i
i 1
i +1 / 2 i +1

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

14

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin pin +1 + pin ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin pin+11 + pin ) +

2i vbi c n +1

=0
n
n
n
n
n
( Pi Pi )

Ti +1 / 2 ( pi +1 pi ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pi pi 1 )

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Rewrite the above equation

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Ti +1 / 2 ( pin++11 pin ) Ti +1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pin +1 pin ) + Ti 1 / 2 ( pin+11 pin ) +

2i vbi c n +1

=0
n
n
n
n
n
( Pi Pi )
Ti +1 / 2 ( pi +1 pi ) Ti 1 / 2 ( pi pi 1 )

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

15

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Introduction

Karpluss method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Conservation of
Mass

For stability:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

2i vbi c
Ti +1 / 2 + Ti 1 / 2
0
t

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

or:

2i vbi c
t
Ti +1/ 2 + Ti 1 / 2

Questions
Nomenclature

This means, that the scheme is conditionally stable


Karpluss criteria gives us a conservative answer
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Derivation of the Flow Equations

16

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Stability analysis by Fourier Series method

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

The finite difference solution discrete value can be decomposed into a


product of space and time dependent terms as:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Pi ,nj = n ei ( 1x + 2 y )

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

Pi +n1, j = n ei [ 1 ( x + x )+ 2 y ]
Pi ,nj +1 = n ei [ 1x + 2 ( y + y )]
n
i 1, j

n i [( 1 ( x x ) + 2 y ]

= e

Pi ,nj+1 = n +1ei ( 1x + 2 y )

Nomenclature

n +1
i 1, j +1

P
REFERENCES

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n +1 i [( 1 ( x x ) + 2 ( y + y )]

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

17

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Stability analysis by Fourier Series method

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

The Fourier Series states that a scheme is stable as long as the


amplification factor, AFmax, is less than one.

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

the amplification factor, AFmax describes how an error grows with time

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

Continue

AFmax

Nomenclature

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n +1
= n 1
max

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

18

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Consider the following flow equation

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

( pin+1 pin ) ( pin pin1 ) c Pi n +1 Pi n


=
(
)
2
x
k
t

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

2 P c P
=
2
x
k t

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

19

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

The finite difference solution discrete value can be decomposed into a


product of space and time dependent terms as:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

kt
let r =
cx 2

Questions

r ( pin+1 2 pin + pin1 ) = Pi n +1 Pi n

Nomenclature

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

20

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Using Fourier Series definitions:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

n ei[ 1 ( x + x )] 2 n ei [ 1x ]
n +1 i [ 1 x ]
n i [ 1 x ]
r n i [ ( x x )]
=

1
+ e

Questions
Nomenclature

Dividing by

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i 1 x

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and rearranging:

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AuthorEXIT

Derivation of the Flow Equations

21

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Using Fourier Series definitions:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

r[ n ei 1x 2 n + n e i 1x ] = n +1 n

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

n [r (ei x + e i x ) 2r + 1] = n +1

Questions

Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Rearranging:

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

22

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Eulers identity:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Transmissibility

= cos i sin

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Now, applying Eulers identity:

Questions

n [r (cos 1x + i sin 1x ) + r (cos 1x i sin 1x ) 2r + 1] = n +1

Nomenclature

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

23

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

n [2r cos 1x 2r + 1] = n +1

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Rearrange:

n [1 2r (1 cos 1x )] = n +1

Questions
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Derivation of the Flow Equations

24

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Dividing both sides by n and rearranging:

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

n+1

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

For stability, AF

Nomenclature

REFERENCES

AFmax = n = 1 2r(1 cos1x)

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max1

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

25

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

1 2r(1 cos1x) 1

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Consider the following three situation for the above argument:

1) 1x = 0

Questions
Nomenclature

2) 1x =

3) 1x =
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Derivation of the Flow Equations

26

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Situation #1

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation

1x = 0 cos0 = 1

Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

1 2r(1 cos1x) 1
1 2r(11) 1 1 1

Questions
Nomenclature

The above is always true but it provides no useful information.

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

27

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Situation #2

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation

1x =

, cos

= 0,

2
2
1 2r (1 cos 1x ) 1,

Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

1 2r (1 0) 1, 1 2r 1

Questions
Nomenclature

Lets wait for our final decision.

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

28

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Situation #3

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

1x = , cos = 1,
1 2 r (1 cos 1x ) 1,
1 2 r (1 + 1) 1, 1 4r 1

Questions
Nomenclature

Lets wait for our final decision.

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

29

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Situation #3

Constitutive
Equations

1 4 r 1, + (1 4r ) 1, 4r 0, r 0

Transmissibility
Flow Equation

OR,

Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

1
(1 4r ) 1, 4r 2, r
2

kt
Recall r =
c x 2

Questions
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Derivation of the Flow Equations

30

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Explicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Situation #3

Constitutive
Equations

1
0r
2

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

kt
1

2
cx
2

1 c x 2
t
2
k

Questions
Nomenclature

This means, this scheme is conditionally stable

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

31

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Consider the following flow equation

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

( pin++11 pin +1 ) ( pin +1 pin+11 ) c Pi n +1 Pi n


=
(
)
2
x
k
t

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

2 P c P
=
2
x
k t

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

32

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

The finite difference solution discrete value can be decomposed into a


product of space and time dependent terms as:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

kt
let r =
cx 2

Questions

r ( pin++11 2 pin +1 + pin+11 ) = Pi n +1 Pi n

Nomenclature

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

33

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Using Fourier Series definitions:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

n +1ei [ 1 ( x + x )] 2 n +1ei [ 1x ]
n +1 i [ 1 x ]
n i [ 1 x ]
r n +1 i[ ( x x )]
=

1
+ e

Questions
Nomenclature

Dividing by

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i 1 x

Home

and rearranging:

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

34

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Using Fourier Series definitions:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

r[ n +1ei 1x 2 n +1 + n +1e i 1x ] = n +1 n

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

n +1[r (ei x + e i x ) 2r 1] = n

Questions

Nomenclature

REFERENCES

Rearranging:

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

35

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Eulers identity:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Transmissibility

= cos i sin

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Now, applying Eulers identity:

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

n +1[r (cos 1x + i sin 1x ) + r (cos 1x i sin 1x ) 2r 1] = n

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

36

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

n +1[2r cos 1x 2r 1] = n

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Multiply by -1 and rearrange:

n +1[2r (1 cos 1x ) + 1] = n

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

37

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Dividing both sides by n and rearranging:

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

n+1

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

For stability, AF

Nomenclature

REFERENCES

AFmax = n =

2r(1 cos1x) +1

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max1

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

38

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

1
1
2r(1 cos1x) +1

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

2r(1 cos1x) +1 1

2r(1 cos1x) +1 1

Questions
Nomenclature

2r(1 cos1x) 0
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Derivation of the Flow Equations

39

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Implicit scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

2r(1 cos1x) 0

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation

1 cos1x 0

Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

cos1x 1

Questions
Nomenclature

This is true for all values of

1x

, regardless of the value of r.

The scheme is unconditionally stable.

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

40

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Consider the following flow equation

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

2 P c P
=
2
x
k t

Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions
Nomenclature

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( pin++11 pin +1 ) ( pin +1 pin+11 )


+

2
2 c Pi n +1 Pi n
x
(
)
n
=
n
n
n
k
t
( pi +1 pi ) ( pi pi 1 )

x 2

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

41

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson
scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

The finite difference solution discrete value can be decomposed into a


product of space and time dependent terms as:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

let 2r =

kt
cx 2

Questions

2r ( pin++11 2 pin+1 + pin+11 + pin+1 2 pin + pin1 ) = Pi n+1 Pi n

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

42

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Using Fourier Series definitions:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

n +1ei [ 1 ( x + x )] 2 n +1ei[ 1x ]
n +1 i[ 1 ( x x )]
n i [ 1 ( x + x )]
n +1 i [ 1 x ]
n i [ 1 x ]
2 r + e
+ e
=

2 n ei [ 1x ] + n ei[ 1 ( x x )]

Questions
Nomenclature

Dividing by

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i 1 x

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and rearranging:

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

43

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Using Fourier Series definitions:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Rearranging:

n +1[2r (ei 1x + e i 1x ) 4r 1] =
n

i 1x
i 1x
+e
) 4r + 1]
[2 r ( e

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

n +1ei 1x 2 n +1 + n +1e i 1x +
n +1
n
2r n i x
=

n
n i 1x
1
2 + e
e

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

44

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass

Eulers identity:

Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations

Transmissibility

= cos i sin

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

n +1[2 r (cos 1x + i sin 1x ) + 2r (cos 1x i sin 1x ) 4r 1] =


n

[2r (cos 1x + i sin 1x ) + 2 r (cos 1x i sin 1x ) 4r + 1]

Nomenclature

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Now, applying Eulers identity:

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

45

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

n +1[4r cos 1x 4r 1] = n [4r cos 1x 4r + 1]

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

Multiply by -1 and rearrange:

n +1[4r (1 cos 1x ) + 1] = n [4r (1 cos 1x ) 1]

Nomenclature

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

46

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

Dividing both sides by n and rearranging:

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility

n+1

Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

For stability, AF

Nomenclature

REFERENCES

4r(1 cos1x) +1

AFmax = n =

4r(1 cos1x) +1

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max1

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Derivation of the Flow Equations

47

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

4r (1 cos 1x ) + 1
1
4r (1 cos 1x ) + 1

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

4r(1 cos1x) +1 4r(1 cos1x) +1

cos 1x ) 1

Questions
Nomenclature

This is true for all values of

1x

, regardless of the value of r.

The scheme is unconditionally stable.


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Derivation of the Flow Equations

48

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Instability
Fourier Series method for Crank-Nickolson scheme

Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

4r (1 cos 1x ) + 1
1
4r (1 cos 1x ) + 1

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

4r(1 cos1x) 1 4r(1 cos1x) +1


1 1

Questions
Nomenclature

This is true for all values of

1x

, regardless of the value of r.

The scheme is unconditionally stable.


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Derivation of the Flow Equations

49

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

Incompressible fluid flow in 1-D


Introduction

Example: No flow boundary

Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block

All blocks have the same depth and area


qi=100m3/D

Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions

2=.25

3=.15

P1

P2

P3

x1=200m

x2=190m

x3=150m

K2=1m2

K4=0.1

Continue

A4

T7/2=0

=50mPa.s, c=10-6kPa-1, Di=0, and initial conditions, Pio=10MPa


Calculate pressure distribution as follows:

Nomenclature

REFERENCES

T1/2=
0

A2

A1=5000m2
K1=.5
1=.2

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1.

Explicit scheme at t1=t, t2=2t, and t100=100t

2.

Implicit scheme at t2=2t, and t100=100t

3.

Also calculate the MB


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Derivation of the Flow Equations

50

ENPE 470 RESERVOIR MODELING

THE END
Introduction
Conservation of
Mass
Flow between
block
Constitutive
Equations
Transmissibility
Flow Equation
Single-phase
Flow
Non-horizontal
Flow
Mutlidimensional
Flow
Coordinate Systems

Questions
Nomenclature

REFERENCES

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