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INTRODUCIION

TO

TEXIITE ENGINEERING

8Y

MD, SAJJAK IIOSSAIN

Unit

01

02

03

Contents

Lo39on

lnlrodudion

lo Sorne Texliles

lnlrodudon

lo Textile Testing

TednicrlTexti,es

Coton

Ginning

cotlon Spinning Flow Chart

 

Mrxing and Elending

Cotlon

Blow Room

Spinning

Carding

Dmwing

Srmplex Madrine

0{

Jde

Splnniog

Ring Frame

Combing

Jute

Jde Spinning Flow Chart Balch and Balching, Batch Mixer

Spreader m/c, Soltener lvVC

Pag.

09

30

10

12

50

51

58

61

75

89

100

105

,09

115

123

125

Jute C

131

137

ule Spinning

139

05

Counl

Different

'ems and Defnation About Yam Manufacludng

Ftow Chart of I having Manu'faclunng

Technology

E Knitting

Tecinology

\fbrping

Sizing

Looming Terms and Defnilion About Vlhaviog

Terms and DefnitionAbott Kn inq

Texlile Fabdcs

Elements of Knitling TechnologY

Kn trng Maclines

\ /eft Knitling Machrnes

Wbrp Knitting Machines

111

151

165

168

176

181

191

200

211

221

n5

n1

233

Unit

05

06

Contents

Lesson

Flow Charl oI \ ret Processing

Technology

Page

211

Sinoeing
R

218

 

Desizing

250

TreaLTent

Scounng

251

Bleaciing

253

Dyeing

Dyeing

257

and

- Pinling

Pdniing

278

Finishing Process orflerenl Terms and Definition Abooul Wel Prccessing Technology

281

285

s

Hislorical Developmenl of Gamenls Manufu c1unrc

2U

Flow Chad of Garmenls Manulacluring

295

Sample

291

Pallem

299

Marker

299

oifferent Tenns and Definilion Aboul Garlnenls Technology

303

INTRODUCTIONTOSOMETEXTILES

An Evolution ofTertiles:

/.,

Although man's first articles of clothing and fumishing were'Fibably animal skin wraps, sometimes stitched together using bone needles and

animal sinews, he soon attempted to manipulate fibrous materials into textile

fabrics, encouraged by experience gained fiom interlacing branches , leaves

and grass€s in the production of primitive shelters.

The word 'Textile' originates from the latin verb "Texere'- to weave -

but , as the Textile Institute's Terms and Defmition Glossary explains

now " a

it is

,

term applied to any manufacture from fibers ,

f aments or

general

yarns characteristics by flexibility , fineness and high ratio of length to

thickness,'

Textile:

Textile is a very widely used term which includes:

i)

AII kinds of fibers (e-g: Cotton , Jute, Wool, Viscose etc)

ii) Alt kinds of process (e-g: Spinning, Weaving, Knitting, Dyeing,

i)r'inting, Finishing etc).

iii) Ali

kinds of machineries (e-g: Spinning Machineries, Weaving

Machineries, Knitting

iv) 1b convert

Machineries etc).

textile fiber into finished or end use products (e g':

Garments, Fumishing Materials, Household Textiles, Medical'Iextiles,

Shoes Textiles, Fishing Nets etc).

Basic Textiles:

Fiber

I

Yarn

I

Grey Fabric

I

Finished Fabric

I

End Products

VGro"ation

of Different Basic Textites Briefly

l0

I

Pr9parltory

proc6sges

t2

Tf,XTILE FIBERS

It is defined as one of the delicate, hair portions of the tissues of a or anirnal or other substances that are very smatl in diameter in relation

to dreir length. A fibcr is a material which is several hundred times as long as

its thick.

-^ffA"r,

v

plant

dy'fextile Fiber: Textile fibers are the materials at natuml or artificial origin

rvhich can be conyerted into yarn and fabric for clothing and also for

domestic and industrial purposes by interlacing or interlooping. [n other

words, the raw materials (natural or artificial origin) which is used to produce yarn in order to make fabric is called textile fiber. In simple words, a slender

filament or fine strand of sufficient length pliability, fineness, flexibility and

strength to be spun into yams and woven into cloth is called textile liber.

Historical Development of Natural Fiber, Filament aod Man Made

l'iber : There are two types of history for fiber . Such as : History for natural

fiber and history for man made fiber. The first uses of natural fibers are

ocurred in 8000 B.D. in Egypt. ln Indian sub - continent man tried to use lhe

natural fiber from many ) ears ago. Specially in this continent men tried to use the silk firstly.

Man - made fibers are those that are made by drawing and orientation of

suitable semi - synthetic and synthetic polymers that are commonly called

fiber - tbrming polymers. Semi- synthetic polymers are infact

chemically

modified natural polymers where only the side groups are partly ,

,

significantly or fully modified by a chemical process. Synthetic polymers are

completly man - made and nature is unable to synthesize them.

The synthetic polymers are prepared from the respective monomers by a

process called polymerization. Polymerization can be accomplished by

intermolecular reaction-

The historical development ofman made fibers are very interesting and

challenging science. The idea of producing artificial and man - made fibers

arose from a desine to make a substitute for silk.

In 1664, the famous English scientist Robert Hooke published a book

called " Micrographia ". Amongst the many subjects Hooke discussed the

possibility of imitating the silkworm to make an artificial fiber. Here was an

insect that made the finest known textile fiber simply by forcing a liquid through a tiny hole in its head. Why could not we do the same tlring

mechanically and make an artificial silk?

It was neady two hundreads years before Hooke's suggesstion was

successfully tried out. Only the silkworm knew how to make the hardened

l3

into silk after it had been squired into the air. Nobody could suggest

anything els€ to do the job.

The production of man made fiber such as myon ' the first of the man

made fibers , believed that

other subslances, It be out of which the silk wom wire - draw his clew'

had been prophesied as long ago 1664 by Robert Hooke' He it was possible to make an artificial glutinous composition or

In 1710, Rene A de - Reaumer the Frence scientist suggested the

possibility of making silk filament out ofgun and resins'

ln

1770 ,

filament from

Dubert initiated the idea on experimental scale and produced silky gum , extructed from dead silk wom'

ln 1842

,

an English weaver, l.ouis Schwabe , devised a machin€ for

making artificial filaments by forcing liquid through very fine holes'

In 1855, Gorges Audemers ,

a swiss chemist, discovered how to make

cellulose mitrate.

nraking rayon.

ihis was the first step toward the nitro cellulose process of

In l884,Count Hilaire de Chardonnet , produced

the first man made

He

textile fiber from Nitro cellulose solution which

became the "Father of RaYon " .

In 1890 , l,.H.Despaisses of France developed the cuprarnnrum process for making rayon, which had some properties'

known as " Rayon "

In 1891, the first cupramnium rayon fiber uas manufactured itl

of conversion

of cellulosic naterial was

Germany. Another method

discovered in England by Cross and Bevan.

they discovered xanthation reaction i.e cellulose disolved in

sodium hydroxideand carbon disulphide to give spinnable liquid from which cellulose could be recovered by acidification. They also developed cellulose

tri acetate fiber in 1894 and in 1898.

In 1892 ,

secondary cellulose acetate was prepared by partial hydrolysis

ofcellulose triacetate. Sec.ondary acetates was found to b soluble in acetone'

In 1903 ,

In lgl4,commercial cellulose fiber was manufactured ' During this time Henry Drefus develoPed cellulose easter in Switzerland'

From lhese research activities, it was recognised that the fibers like natural fibers and rayons were composed of linear organic macromolecules

having molecular arangement oriented along three major dimension' The

of synthetic fibers has developed from this knowledge' The major

subjec-ts

invlntive step in evolution of the synthetic fibers took place in U S A and

ll

Cermany during the period 1928 - 1936.

In 193,1 , the first synlhetic fiber developed in

Germany from tle co-

wliich

polymers ofVinyl halayde and Vinyl ester. The fiber was known as

and "Pe-Ce" .Which many claims as the first synrhetic texrile fibers

was never of great

Vinvon

,

commercial importance. The real beginning of synthetic

fiber industry was to

stcm from the work of Dr. Wallaie , H--Carothers on

polyesters and polyamides.

ln 1935 , he and his six workers prepared fiber forming

polymers frorn

polyesters and polyamides and they discovered nylon 6,6 i.e. poly hexa

methyline adipornide and cold drawing phenenrenon. On the other

hand,

PShlack ofCermany began a work on condensation polymer He discovered Nylon 6,6 i.e. poly caprolactum in 1937-38.

Poly ethylene terepthalate was

first made in England by J.R. Whinfiekl

Association in i941. foly acrylonitrile

patented a process lo manufacture

produced in 1957 followed by

and J.T. Dickson of Calico prinlers

.

was developed by Du - Pont in 1945.

In

1954, Ziegler and Natta

polypropyline. Poly vinyl alcohol was

production ofpolyurethene elastomeric fiber in 195g.

The development of textile fiber are occurring still now. These are the historical development of textile fiber.

Natural fiber (Cotton) Man ma& fikr (poiyotefn)

Filament

Classification of Tertiles Fibers in Difiercnt Sense:

Classification oftextiles fiber can be done in many ways. Some ofthem are

as follows:

i) Classification according their nature

ii) Classification according to botanical

iii) Classification according to the ability to attack water.

iv) Classification according to thermo plasticity.

and origin .

or zoological/chemical name.

v) Classification according to their utility.

vi) Classifi cation according to length.

l5

(i) Classilicarion According to Their Nature end Origin:

Mineral( e.g. A sbestos)

Leaf (e.9.: Sb8l, Pin€appls etc)

Vegetable .-+

Seed (e.9.: Cotton, Kapok

Bast Fber (e.9.: Jute, Fluxetc )

Ani(Ital----)

Wool(e.9.: Sheep)

sitk

Hair ( e.g.: Horse, C8nB0

Cellular ( e.9.: Vscose Ralon)

Celluiose Ester ( e.g.:Acetate Ralon)

-,

I

|

Fegene rareo---.|ll

F Prorein ( e s : Azbn, casin)

* others ( e.s.: Rubbe0

I

dd

--'lnorgarrb ( e g : Glass, Carbon MetaD

I

I p Polyamlles 1 e g.: Nyton 6.)|} Poly Acrylonilriele

I lrr.rv*,"*

ft

lit I

*',"""

tt

Poly Vinyl Derivatives

-+>

Urethanes

fPory

Lfothers

[

eotyvinyt cnro'ae

I eoFinvtitenc crroriie

Poly VinylAhohol

PovuinllJhe

f

I Dirtrle

r-

L'ornu"'". I

Ethylene ard

Rehted poyrners

l6

(ii) Classification According to Bolenical,lZoologicaUChemical Name:

BotanicalNarne

Vegetable Fiber

(e.9.:Cotton, Jute)

(iii) Classifcation

Fber

Zoobgi:alNarne

Fber

(e.9.:Wool, S ilk)

Chemical Narne

(e.9.: Povesler, Polyethylene etc)

Accordino to he Abilitv to Attack Water i.e. Moislure

Hydrophilic Fibers

(e.9.: Cotton, Jute)

Hydrophobic Fibers

(e.9.:All qmthelic Fber i.e. Potyester)

(iv) Classification Accordino to Their Thermo Plastkity :

(v) Chssification Accordinq to Utilitv:

--t

Maior Textile Fiber (e.9.: Cotton, Wbol, Sik etc. )

Minor Ten e Fibred

(e.9.: Abaca, Asbestos ,C asein etc)

t7

Longitudinal rIounts of dilferent fibers:

Regular coton (X€€clir)

\ \<.

Re$ia cotb.l

ooogitudinal vl6r)

Me erized cdtoal (X-sedioi)

Rular Poly6ter

(X-sedion)

(Lor! itl"dinal vier )

Tniobal Polyesler

(x secton)

oeluslered ilylon 6 ($sectio,r)

Del6tered l,iylon 6 (longitodinal

visi.)

Silt (lorEilldlnal view)

Merino wool (X-sec.tion)

Trilobal nylon 6.6 (6oss seclion)

Trilobal nylon 6.6Polypropylene

Orion Asylic (cross sciion)

l8

Merino wool (longitudinal view)

Trilobal nylon 6.6 (longitudinal view)

Polypropylen6 (longitudinal view)

,fir{til" "

Fiber Prcperties :

a) Physical properties

b) ivlechanical ProPerties

c) Chemical proPerties

6df,Pf, vsicat Properties :

*i;,||;,.5.

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

Fineness.

CrimP'

MaturitY.

Lusture'

softness.

gfffihenical Properties:

w(i)

strength.

(ii) Elasticity.

(iii)

Extensibility.

(iv)

Rigidity.

(vii)ResiliencY'

(viii) Work of rupture'

(ix) DensitY'

(x) APPearance'

(xi) FlexibilitY'

(xii) Toughress'

(xiii) Elorgation.

* {dtZhem ical Properties:

(i)

Solubility in aqueous salt.

(ii) Solubility in organic salt.

Factors of a Model Textile Fibrt :

lq

(i) The fiber should be straight, continuous and allinged. They should be uniform in cross- section and strength through out their length.

(ii) The elemenl or matrix offiber be homogeneous and free from

cracks. (iii) The bonding between fibers and matrix should be perfect.

(iv) Fiber chain should be free from any cracks.

(v) The fiber as well as the matrix should be elastic.

Characteristics of Poorly Oriented Fiber :

(i) t ow tenacity.

(ii) High elongation.

(iii) Plasticity

(iv) Less lusture.

20

(v) IIigh moisture absorption. (vi) Low chemical stability.

(vii) High dyeing affinity.

(viii) Warm and soft handle.

All Fiber Are Not Tertile Fiber r

All the fibers can not be textile fibers

because to be a textile fibers it should posses some important qualities. It should have suflicient strength, length, fineness, elasticity, crimp, friction

power to protect the effect of biological agents etc. It should b€ available too.

Cotton, jute elc ar the textile fib€rs as they have the above qualities but fibers of banana tree only fiber and not textile fibers as they do not posses quality like strengfi, elasticity, appearance etc. So we can say, all fibers are

not textile fibers.

ffi

Jute fiber

Mscos fiber

Between Natural and Men Made Fibre

S.L -

Natural Fiber

01 The fibers which we get fom nature 8re

calhd natureal fiber

02 Cf,nerally fibr are hydrophilic.

03 ll,o. of molecule conlrolled by natura.

04 The letth can not be controlled.

05 Ih hbric made from natursl fibe, b

combrtable ard good bI hoelh.

06 It b €xpensive .

07 For mtural fter Yre have to depend on

natur3.

08 It t :"e! l"+:{ rat',e br finbhing.

09 Hygienic .

10 ConpaEtivev less durabls .

Man Made Fib6r

The fters whi$ arc developed bY man

are calH man rnade fibef.

Generally fibers are hydrophobic

No. of ryroleqrlo controlled by man.

L€rqth can be controlH

Man rEde fiber b not combrtabls ard

not good br heaih.

It b cheaper.

No d€pfldence on naturs. lt can grow

every where. Irb f€vorable lor fnishirE.

SonE ars not htgienic Conparsti\€ly rnoIe durable.

2t

I

!3

No need spinnerator.

No spinning process b requird to

produc€ filarnent.

Dusl 8nd trash are rernaioed in fib€r.

14 lrnpossble to

I Natural color

ciange strudure.

are found.

'16

Natural crimp is rernained

17 ln rosl cases scouring and bleaching

't8

'19

are done.

Easy to dye .

Conparatively have less lib time.

20 Uses of natural fiber b limled.

Spinnerator neds to pmduce filanlent .

Difierent sphning nrethods (li(e nEl, wet ,dry etc are rcquired. )

No dust and tlash are rerlBined. Possible to dlange strudure.

No natural cobr are fuund.

No natural cdmp is rernained

Very l,ttle tirne scouring and bleaching

are done.

Not easy to dle.

Corparatively have rnore lib tkrE

There are many uses of nstural fibers

i$

Kapok fiber

ffi-w

Sisal

Silk

Hair fiber

;

YARN

textile institute yam may be defined as a product of

According to

t"ngttiand relatively small cross-section consisting of fibers or

.uU.t"ntiui

filaments with or without twist'

Clr$lfcltioo ofY.m :

n

Yarn ouy ta chssified on tlB bosis ofstnrdlEe :

Yarn

Muhi- Folded Yrn

Modified Continuous t ilarn€or

MuhiFilsnEr{

Iontinuous Filarnent

tvionoFilarnenl

23

Collectively Yarn Are Classified as Following:

(i) Staple / spun yarn.

(ii) Mono filament yarn .

(iii) Multi filament hvisted yam.

(iv) Multi filarnent untwisted yam.

(v) Multi filament false-twisted and heat set yam.

(vi)

Folded ( untwisted yam).

(vii)

Twisted multiply sinrple yarn.

(viii)

Twisted multiply fancy yam.

(ix) Slub yarn.

(x) Core spun yam.

(xi) Wrapped yam;

(xii)

Cable yarn.

(xiii)

Multi - filament textured yam.

Differnt types ofyaro with sketch3

Single or Spun yam

Carded couon (ring) yam

Ring Spun yam

Monc,filment y8m

False-twist Texured yarn

FIat mullifilnEnt yam

Stufler-box Texured yam

Rotor Spu yarn

Combed co[on (ring) yarn

T*isled multi-fi lment yam

Kpil{ekint T€xured }am

Folded tx ply yarn

Mffi

Three Folded or ply ysm

Four Folded or ply yanr

Thre. l'ol,,l. 1wo-fold

(lairiri i ant

'nrrec fokl, two-tbld,

fold Cablcd yarn

actors Affecting Yam Strrngth:

(lore spun lam

The various factors rhat affect the strength ofyarns are:

(i)

Slapl;: irngth.

(ii)

tlnift;rrniO'in fiber length,

(iii) Fiber iength distributiorr.

(iv) Maturity of fiber.

(v) Iriber fineness.

(vi) Yam twist.

(vii)

Iribcr strength.

(viii)

Yam twist.

(ix)

Yarn evenness.

(x)

Moisture.

(xi)

Yarn finish.

(xii) No. of major beating points used during opening and cleaning.

(xiii) No. of drawing passage. (xiv) Roller setting in spinning.

(xv) OtheB.

Properties of a llighly Oriented Yarn :

(i) IIigh tenacity.

(ii) Lorv clongation.

( iii) Brillleness.

2i

(iv) lncreased lusture.

(v) Low moisture absorption .

(vi) High chemical stability.

(vii) Low dyeing affinity and

(viii) Unattractive handle.

Yarn Designation :

The factors which are required to express yarn structure and properties wholly are called yarn designation. The factors are :-

(i) Yam count (linear densitY) ( ii) No. of filament.

(iii) No. of compon€nt in folding

(iv) Direction and amount of twist.

(v) No. of components in cabling.

(vi) Fiber components.

Yarn lWist :

According

to textile institute, "Twist is the spiral disposition of the

components of a thread rvhich is usually the result of relative rotation of the two ends."

Classification of Yarn Twist I

i. S- twist ii. Z- twist

Amount of T*ist :

Amount of twist:

No. of Tums of Twist

Unit Length

Amount of T\wist Express :

Amount of twist expressed in -

(D rPl.

(iD TPM.

(iii)TPCm.

TWist Messurtment Method of Yarn :

(i) Single untwist method. (ii) Fiber straightened method . (iii) Single tsrist - untwist mcthod.

(iv) Double twist - untwist method.

(v) Multiple twist - untwist method.

26

Tivist Measurrment of Plied Ygrns:

(i) Ordinary twist tester.

(ii) Take up twist tester and.

(iii) The quadrant twist tester.

FABRIC

Fabric :

A manufactured assembly of fibers and / or yams that has substantial surface area in relation to its thickness and sufficient cohesion to give the assembly useful mechanical strenglh is called fabric.

Tlpes of Fabric :

(i) Woven Fabric

(ii) Knitted Fabric

(iii) Non- Woven Fabric

(iv) Braid Frctons Thst Determine the !'abric Pmperties :

(l) Fiber Pmperties :

(a) Chemical content.

(b)

Molecular weight.

(c)

Molecular arangement.

(2) Yarn Pmpeflies :

 

(a)

Fiber properties.

(b)

Fiber arrangement.

(c)

TPI.

(3)

Fabric Construction :

(a)

EPL

(b)

PPI.

(c)

Warp count

(d)

Weft count.

(4) Weave Structure:

(a)

Plain.

(b)

Twill.

(c)

Satin.

(d)

Derivatives.

5. Brsic Knit Structur€ :

(a) Plain.

(b) Rib.

(c) Purl.

21

(d)

Interlock.

(e)

Derivalives.

6. Fabric Engineeritg :

(a) Yarn specification.

(b) Fabric specification.

(c) Yam crimp.

(d) Weave structure.

7. Fabric Finishing :

(a)

Mechanical or physical finishing.

(b)

Electrical finishing.

(c)

Physio chemical finishing.

End Product :

There are a lot ofend producLs. Such as:

(a) Shirts.

(b) Pants.

(c)

S\4eaters.

(d)

T - shirts.

(e)

Curtain.

(f) Shoes etc.

Properties of Textile lflaterials :

l. Strength.

2. Durability / Sen,ic:ability.

3. Degradation.

4. Weight.

5. Thickness.

6. Pliability.

7. Absorbency.

8. Air permeability.

9. Stiffiress / Softness.

10. Abrasion resistance.

I l. Compressibility.

12. Elasticity.

13. Frictional / Surface characteristics.

14. Electrical properties

I 5. Thermal properties.

16. Crease recovery.

17 . DraSx. I8. Handle.

19. Lusture.

20. Regain.

Introduction of liber, yarn and fabric atructurc and properties:

Molecular Pr( i:!:ics aod

Yams Properths

i-nd Usr Brhavior

Fahic Structure

Anofi,lches lo T.nsile Slrr!rL r. i

l_fure arc lwo t)?€s of leosi:: suilclure. Such ar :

(A)

Non - Eryineering A!,i,r.acf'it

(B)

Engireering Approaciil.

No[- Ense Appr0!cb

{C.H,O.N)

t I

:

Chemical Contenl

Molecular - Pmpen i's -'

Moleculsr Struclure

----.> Yam Structure

Fabric Propertics

End -

tt

- tc.fo,rnancr

{B)Engq Appmrct.s:

Dclermincl r]n oI Fnd Use Requiremenlj

r.,r'ic PIomhs

t

Yarn Prcpc.n ie s

Fsbric PropenEs

Fabria Properli{s

Yarn Structure

t9

Molecular Pmpeflles

I

Chemical Conlent

I

( c, lr, o, N)

Molecular Structurc

ScrtioE Wisc now Chlrt of T. il. f,rgir.crirg

OulDut

Fiber

--|'

Spiru ng

I

_--+

Grey cloth

Yarn --------) Weaving

-----+

I

I

Wel Prccfssing

--)Dytd/

-4

I

yarn

Grey Cloth

Print€d Fabric

DtdPrinted Fahic

Can*ntt*orfa.tu.iry ------+

End Producl

-

30

INTRODUCTION TO TEXTILE TESTING

Testing: The Process to determine the properties of different kinds nf

substances is called testing .

Tlpes ofTesting:

(i) Routine Process Testing (ii) Quality Recond Testing.

(i) Routine Pmcess Testing:

The testing whose result can get quickly in working field is called

routine process testing.

(ii)Quality Record Testing:

The testing whose result is to be recorded for different objects to

finish the u'ork is called quickly record testing.

Objects of lesting:

(i) Researrh .

(ii)

Sclection of raw material.

(iii)

Process control .

(iv)

Product control .

(v) Process development .

(vi) ProdLrct develogrment.

(vii) Specification test.

f'actors Afferting lbst Result:

(i) Atmospheric conditions during test.

(ii) Method of test.

(iii) 'lesting instruments used.

(iv) The efiiciency oftechnicians etc.

The Necessary Test ofDilferent Textiles:

Fibcr Test:

(i) Identification of fiber.

( ii) Grading.

(iii) Fiber lenglh.

(iv) Strength and elongation

i.e.

.tensile properties

(v) Fineness or linear density test.

(vi) Maturity test.

(vii) Trash ,neps test etc.

Yrrn T€st:

lt

(i) Yam count or linear density.

(ii) Twist per unit length.

(iii) Strength and elongation i.e. tensile properties .

(iv)

Appearance.

(v)

Evenness and regularity.

(vi)

Hairiness .

(c) Fabric Test:

(i) Strenglh and elongation i.e. tensile properties.

(ii) width.

(iii) 'fhickness.

(iv) Number ofends and picks per unit length.

(v) The count ofyarn used.

(vi) Fabric weight per unit length.

(vii) Design and construction ofthe cloth.

(viii) Air permeability.

(ix) Thermal properties.

(x) Stiffness, handle, drape.

(xi) Crease resistance and recovery.

(xii) Abrasion.

(xiii) Pilling.

(xiv) Shrinkage.

(xv) Water absorbency or resistance etc.

Testing Machineries of an Ideal Spinning and Weaving Mill

(D

(iD

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi)

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x)

(xi)

(xii)

Psychrometer or hygrometer

Drying over

Microscope Lengthmeasurementinstrument. Fiber streng& tester.

Fiber fineness and maturity tester. Lap meter. Roving reel and yam reel.

Different types ofbalance. Dircct yc.:r count balance Yam winding unit for prcparing black board for yarn appearance.

Evenness tester.

(xiiD Twist tester.

32

(xiv)

Tensile strength tester.

(xv)

Abrasion tester.

(xvi)

Thickness tester etc.

Auriliary Equipments:

(i) Scissors.

(ii) Pick out needles and combs.

(iii) Steel rulers ofdifferent measursment.

(iv) Trveezers.

(v) Stop watch.

(vi) Magniffing glass.

(vii) Snrall velvet covering board. (viii) 'femplate of different size.

(ix) Nep counting board.

(x) Calculator etc.

Some Psychrometer or Hygrometer Which are Generally

Industry--:

(i) Wet and dry bulb hygrometer

(ii) Hair hygrometer

(iii) Electrolytic hygrometer.

(iv) Dew point hygrometer.

(v) Chemical hygrometer.

(vi) Gravirnetric hygrometer etc.

Used in

Measurement of Humidity of Textile Materiak:

There are two types of humidity measuring method. such as:

(i)

Direct method

(ii)

Indirect method

a) Direct Method :

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