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Piping and Valves

For this reason, the minimum

ft/s

2.4 (7.9 ft/s)

flow velocities must be


need to be considered:

Vertical
2
6
Flow velocity

observed. The following aspects

Enlarged view in the appendix

m/s

1.4 (4.6 ft/s)

Horizontal

vertical and horizontal pipes


Inside diameter of the pipe,

numerous approximation
calculation methods should be

avoided as their scope of


0

0
0

100
4

200
8

300
12

400
16

500
20

600
24

700
28

800

900

32

36

DN (mm)
1000
40

DN (in)

Fig. 4.1.1.1 b: Minimum flow


velocities n

considering that larger


diameters require higher flow

pressure, the use of the

Different flow velocities for

Given the complexity of surge

validity is very limited and


cannot be applied in general.
The use of such methods
outside their scope of validity

Surge analyses

velocities

can lead to significant


dimensional errors.

Fluid composition (analysis of

In water supply and waste water

fiber content, solids content

systems any change in the

and particle size)

operating conditions also leads

Operating mode of the piping

to dynamic changes of pressure

(discontinuous or continuous)

and flow. These transient

Total length of the piping

processes in piping systems for


the extraction, treatment,

KSB conducted some research

transport and distribution of

on the transport of substances

water have to be taken into

contained in waste water at the

account and examined when

Berlin Technical University.

planning a pumping station as

The results are documented in

they can cause significant

the diagram Minimum flow

damage to pipes, valves and

velocities (Fig. 4.1.1.1b). The

other internal parts. Transient

nominal diameter range of DN

operating conditions can have

In this context we would like to

100 to DN 250 (4 to 10 inches)

many causes and are generally

refer to the DVGW booklet,

was examined in more detail

unavoidable. They can be the

technical rules, worksheet W

and the nominal diameter range

result of pump failure, start-up

303 Dynamic pressure

of DN 500 to DN 1000 (20 to

or shutdown of pumps, cutting

variations in water supply

40 inches) was extrapolated.

in or cutting out of pumps in

systems and to the KSB Know-

The substances in the fluid

addition to already operating

how volume 1 Water

handled are those commonly

pumps, also of variable speed

Hammer. We recommend

contained in waste water, such

pumps or of closing/opening

consulting experts in this field

as fiber, gravel 0/4, gravel 16/32

valves, control valves, pressure-

to assess the surge pressure and

and granite gravel 2/5.

reducing valves, etc.

define preventive measures.

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