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POWER-GEN 200

THE BEST COMPANIES IN POWER GENERATION

RENEWABLES

A ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION

POWER PLANT OPTIMIZATION


USING HIGH EFFICIENCY AIR FILTERS

the magazine of power generation

119
2014 Projects
YEARS

of the Year

January 2015 www.power-eng.com

SOLVAir Solutions
A great New Years resolution!

Air pollution control has been part of the Solvay lexicon for many years, and as SOLVAir Solutions,
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CORPORATE HEADQUARTERSPennWell Corp.


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CHIEF EDITOR Russell Ray
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FEATURES 119

12

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Power Engineering

VOLUME

2014 Projects of the Year

Every year, Power Engineering honors some of the


best power projects worldwide. Read about the most
outstanding successes in the industry.

ON-LINE EDITOR Jennifer Van Burkleo


(918) 831-9269 jvanburkleo@pennwell.com
CONTRIBUTING EDITORBrad Buecker
CONTRIBUTING EDITORBrian Schimmoller
CONTRIBUTING EDITORRobynn Andracsek
CONTRIBUTING EDITORWayne Barber
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No.1, January 2015

20

Renewable Energy Roundtable:


Production and Investment Tax
Policy to be a Top Priority in 2015

Power Engineering sat down with five movers and shakers in the
renewables industry. Find out what theyre expecting in the coming year.

26

POWER-GEN 200:
The Best in Power Generation

Check out the most successful publicly held companies in the power generation
business, ranked by a set of financial and performance metrics.

32

The Western Grid Can Weather


Disturbances Under High
Renewable Penetrations

Learn how high penetrations of wind and solar energy help


the Western Interconnection bridge the crucial first minute
following a grid disturbance.

37

Gas Turbine Air Filter System Optimization

Proper air filtration is critical to the overall performance and reliability of gas
turbines. Explore the impacts that small gains in efficiency have on essential filter
parameters and their effects on gas turbine operations and maintenance.

44

The Use of Natural


Ventilation for Power Plants

Power plants generate a lot of heat. Find out how natural


ventilation can remove that heat to optimize plant
equipment and safeguard employees.

DEPARTMENTS
2
4

Opinion
Clearing the Air

6
8

Gas Generation
Energy Matters

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OPINION

The Debate over


Distributed Generation
BY RUSSELL RAY, CHIEF EDITOR

s electric utilities reel from significant revenue losses caused


by the growth of distributed
generation power produced outside
the grid by homes and businesses
power professionals remain deeply divided over the breadth of DGs impact
on centralized power.
The division was plainly evident last
month at POWER-GEN International
2014, where the debate raged in the
conference rooms and hallways of the
Orange County Convention Center in
Orlando, Florida.
This is definitely creating a potential threat for utilities, said Nisha Desai, vice president of Distributed Generation for NRG Energy. The ones that
are forward looking can turn this into
an opportunity. The ones that dont
embrace it will certainly see their business models challenged.
The growing use of distributed generation is cutting into utilities profits
and their ability to pay for the up-keep
of power lines, substations and generation equipment. The result: Higher
rates for consumers and more customers leaving the grid. The blogosphere is
ablaze with dark narratives that place
utilities in an economic death spiral
created by advancements in DG and
consumer demand for cleaner homegrown energy.
John Easton, vice president of International Programs for the Edison
Electric Institute and a former assistant secretary for the Department of
Energy, said the predictions of a utility
death spiral are farfetched.
Some people believe the utility is
dead, Easton said during the plenary
session at POWER-GEN. This is over
2

a 100-year-old industry. I think it will


transform. It simply will not die out.
Kim Greene, chief operating officer of Southern Company, one of the
largest investor-owned utilities in the
U.S. with 4.3 million customers, said
the company is well equipped to adapt
to this disruptive force for investorowned utilities.
We are trying to create the right
infrastructure and rate structure so
that those customers who choose to
use distributed generation are not being subsidized by the customers who
dont, Greene said. We are also adding several hundred megawatts of solar. So even for those customers who
are getting power the way they traditionally have, solar now is a more significant part of that mix.
Mauricio Gutierrez, chief operating
officer of NRG Energy, the largest independent power producer in the U.S.
and a leader in DG development, said
the opportunities for collaboration between centralized and decentralized
power providers are abundant.
I think there is a way competitive
energy companies and the utility space
can work collaboratively, Gutierrez
said. They can be partners. I dont
think its an either or.
Meanwhile, global consulting firm
Accenture released an eye-opening
study last month that measures the
financial impact of the continued
growth of distributed energy resources. According to the study, the growth
of DG and energy efficiency could
cause the revenues of U.S. utilities to
plunge by up to $48 billion a year by
2025. During the same period, demand for power could fall by more

than 15 percent as more homes and


businesses produce their own power.
The more likely impact on U.S. utilities would be at the lower end of the
scale at around $18 billion a year, Accenture said. This is because adoption of energy efficiency and distributed generation will become possible
without subsidies, said Valentin de
Miguel, Accentures global managing
director of Smart Grid Services.
The study also included a survey of
utility executives around the world.
The survey included this question: Do
you believe the concept of a death spiral, where your customers migrate off
the grid or use the grid only as a backup, will materialize? An overwhelming
66 percent of U.S. executives said they
believe the utility death spiral will materialize, while three percent said it is
a significant risk that would impact a
large percentage of their customers.
Thirty-four percent did not believe the
death spiral would materialize.
However, despite reports of a looming death spiral for utilities, Accentures
research shows that such a scenario is
unlikely and would be too costly for a
large number of consumers.
The surge in DG is significant, but
some utilities and states are making
progress in modifying their business
models to reflect the increasing use of
DG. Claims that DG will lead to the
death of centralized power are outdated. The industry has moved on and is
adapting to the needs of consumers by
developing more solar power.
What do you think? Contact me at
russellr@pennwell.com. Follow me on
Twitter @RussellRay1.
www.power-eng.com

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CLEARING THE AIR

Light at the
end of the Tunnel
BY SEAN MCCLURG, MITSUBISHI HITACHI POWER SYSTEMS AMERICA

he Keystone Pipeline is no
stranger to controversy from
environmentalists in the United States.
The project first started construction
in 2008, and was divided into four
phases. Phase one connected the pipeline from Hardisty, Alberta to Steele
City, Nebraska and finally to Patoka,
Illinois. This is the longest of the four
phases and spans 2,147 miles and was
completed in February of 2010. Phases
2 and 3 are to be completed by early
2015 and the combined span will total
773 miles, bringing the pipeline from
Nebraska to the gulf coast of Texas. All
phases of the project have drawn controversy, however none more controversial than Phase 4.
It takes a more direct route from Alberta Canada to Steele City, Nebraska
spanning 1,000 miles of new pipeline.
It critically integrates the US oil reserves from the Bakken oil formation
in Montana into the pipeline system.
The most controversial piece of this
new pipeline is its route directly over
the Ogallala Aquifer in Nebraska. The
future of US oil demands are well defined by market analysts, conversely
the future supply is essentially a blank
script. What will the future US demand for fossil fuels spell for the Keystone Pipeline?
Due to environmental regulation
and delays to the fourth phase of the
Keystone Pipeline, TransCanadas original $5.4 Billion price tag is now estimated to increase to $8 Billion. There is
less incentive for U.S. investors to make
the project progress due to a recent
significant decrease in oil prices. The
4

United States imports nearly 8 million due unexpectedly low oil prices, which
barrels of crude oil a day and much of is a short term win for U.S. consumers.
that is imported from OPEC countries. Economists estimate the price cut in
OPECs primary producer is Saudi Ara- gasoline will save the U.S. consumers a
bia, currently producing approximately total of $65 billion a year. However if
9 million barrels of oil every day. This we want to become energy independent
large production value is nearly tripling from the OPEC nations, the Keystone
OPECs quota for Saudi Arabia, and the Pipeline is a step in the right direction.
Saudis are feeling pressure from OPEC It will allow North American produced
and other large oil producers to step oil and natural gas to be supplied to
down production. This sudden influx power plants in the eastern half of our
of Saudi oil is a large reason why the country while helping to stabilize the
global cost of oil has dropped so far. price of gas.
This is an ideal position for the U.S.
This years Midterm Elections providconsumer, seeing prices of under $3 a ed monumental change to the political
gallon for unleaded gasoline for the landscape bringing in Republican confirst time in over five years. However gressional control that hasnt been seen
this hurts the U.S. oil
since January of 2007.
What
will
this
production market
Starting in 2015, Reas well as investors change in political publicans will hold
incentive to invest
seats in the senate,
landscape spell for 54
into U.S. oil pipelines
246 in the house and
and fracking projects. the Keystone Pipeline 31
governorships.
Saudi Arabia under- and the EPAs new Contrary to popular
stands what its low
Clean Power Plan? belief Republicans
prices are doing to
still support strict
the U.S. oil production. Fracking is a far environmental standards. The current
more expensive process than tradition- cap and trade approach has been supal oil extraction; one can deduce that ported by multiple Republican presiSaudis are currently using their ability dents including G.W. Bush. The cap
to increase oil exports to gain a compet- and trade approach is marketed as the
itive advantage over their competition. most environmentally and economiIn turn the increased oil production by cally sensible approach to controlling
Saudi Arabia and other OPEC nations greenhouse gas emissions. What will
has decreased the global price of Crude this change in political landscape spell
Oil to under $60 per barrel.
for the Keystone Pipeline and the EPAs
On Nov. 18, 2014 the Senate failed new Clean Power Plan? Will a Repubto pass legislation to allow phase 4 of lican controlled Congress, the EPA and
the pipeline to come to fruition. The environmental groups work together to
Keystone pipeline isnt likely to see an agree on funding and approval for the
excess of funding any time in the near Keystone pipeline and provide a light at
future from to the federal government the end of the tunnel?
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GAS GENERATION

Hybrid Power:
The Relevance of Gas
in an Increasingly
Renewable World
BY TIM MISER, ASSOCIATE EDITOR

once stayed overnight in an apartment with a fake fireplace. If youre


like me, when you hear the phrase
fake fireplace you immediately develop a certain picture in your mind.
Im not going to tell you if I like fake
fireplaces or notI dontand its beside
the point whether you feel that fake fireplaces are chintzy or merely convenient.
The point is, when you hear that phrase,
you inevitably conjure up a particular
mental imagefake logs, painted ashes,
an artificial glow, all there to create the
impression of a log fire, albeit one whose
heat is actually derived from natural gas.
The fake fireplace in this apartment
was not so different. It relied on natural
gas for its flame and associated heat, and
it employed an artificial facade to trick
the eye into believing it was something it
was not. The only difference was, instead
of imitating an old-fashioned wood fire,
this particular fireplace pretended to be
an even older-fashioned coal fire, circa
merry old Victorian London, with large
chunks of fake anthracite piled up to
create the illusion of an ample supply of
mined fuel.
Even at the time, I found this scene curious. Never mind that I nearly blew up
the apartment trying to light the ancient
contraption; it stuck in my memory. It
wasnt until I began my editorial career in
energy that I realized just how ironic this
picture was. Here was a natural gas installation masquerading as a coal-burning appliance. You wont find many gasfired power plants doing that these days.
No, gas-fired power plants are proud
facilities lately, and it seems the days of
coal-fired generation are numbered. (At
6

least no one expects to see a new coal


plant being built anytime soon.) In this
respect, natural gas is the relative new
kid on the blockthe cleaner, more efficient hero of the environment, the savior
of well-lit dining rooms everywhere. Or
it was until those punk upstarts in renewable energy stormed the stage.
Anymore it seems that natural gasfired power plants are themselves
feeling a little threatened, and this
time its renewable energys fault. Perhaps, though, natural gas-fired plants
shouldnt feel quite so vulnerable. Renewable resources like wind and solar
represent important innovations in the
energy industry. In the very long term
they may even prove to be the dominant
force in the market, but it seems unlikely
that they will ever entirely supplant gas
generation. This is good news for a lot of
people. It means that renewables should
not be seen as obstacles, but as opportunities, and many utilities and power
plants are seeing them as just that.
Hybrid power plantsthose that
couple traditional fossil generation with
renewable technologies like wind or
solarare being developed across the
country. In many cases, these projects
do not represent entirely new installations, but existing fossil plants that have
chosen to add renewable resources to
their extant facilities. Such a proposition
can be enticing. Renewable add-ons are
typically cheaper than their greenfield
counterparts because they can share certain components like controls, valves,
and transmission lines with the fossil
infrastructure to which they are retrofitted. Other factors driving the addition of

renewable assets include the potential


for carbon pricing in the future and the
renewable portfolio standards being adopted by many states.
Of course, its not just fossil plants
that benefit from hybridity. Renewable
technologies also benefit from their relationship to fossil plants, in that their
much-decried intermittency issues can
be effectively mitigated by their more
reliable fossil brethren. In this way, hybrid power plants are like hybrid cars.
They can utilize their clean renewable
technologies when it is advantageous,
and depend on their fossil technologies
when renewable options prove infeasible.
Currently more than 80 percent of
power generated by the average hybrid
plant comes from traditional fossil fuels like natural gas, with the remaining power being generated renewably.
But its reasonable to anticipate a time
when this dichotomy will find greater
equilibrium, and renewable resources
will shoulder a greater portion of the
load. Predictions are tricky things, and
more than one prognosticator has been
made to look foolish by history. (I once
saw a 1950s-era prediction that personal
computers would somehow incorporate
a bus-sized steering wheel.) Renewables
may merely supplement natural gas indefinitely, or if the tables turn in our
Jetsons-like future, natural gas might
one day rank second in capacity to solar and wind. In the coming decades the
two might even find some semblance of
parity. Whatever the case, gas-fired generation will have a place in the energy
markets for a very long time.
www.power-eng.com

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WASTE TO ENERGY

ENERGY MATTERS

Clean Power Plan is our


New U.S. Energy Policy
BY BLOCK ANDREWS, BURNS & MCDONNELL

or many years, the United States


government has done little to defne an energy policy for electric
utilities. The utilities world was dictated
by their mission statement to provide
safe, low cost, environmentally compliant and reliable electricity to their customers. Environmental compliance was
part of the equation but not necessarily
the primary driver. However, environmental compliance has become a larger
part of a utilitys focus.
If the Clean Power Plan (CPP) is fnalized, as it was proposed, environmental
dispatch will have trumped the other factors in dictating how energy is generated.
Thus, EPA will become the agency dictating energy policy.
Predictability, other players in this
world, such as the electric utilities, North
American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory
Commission (FERC), Regional Transmission Organization (RTO), State Public Service Commissions and even state
legislators have some heartburn with the
notion that their concerns over cost and
reliability impacts have taken a back seat
to environmental concerns. As some of
these organizations have expressed their
views, EPA has basically said to follow
along with us and you will be able to fgure out your cost and reliability concerns.
Thinking through this process, the
phrase the devil is in the details comes
to mind. EPA has spent years on development of the Integrated Planning Model
(IPM) that incorporates environmental
compliance and cost parameters to justify their policy. However, IPM does not
evaluate how hourly loads will be met in
the future. In the Clean Power Plans future world, renewable energy and natural
8

gas combined-cycle turbines will rule the


day. For example, in Texas, the projected
natural gas and renewable energy mix
is projected to exceed 80 percent of the
energy generated by 2030. IPM has not
adequately provided costs for this type of
dispatch which would have to include a
signifcant amount of new electrical and
natural gas transmission, auxiliary services and demand response. Without these
costs included, the IPM and EPA have underestimated the Clean Power Plan costs.
Given suffcient time, these costs could
be estimated by the Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs). However, the
drive to fnalize the CPP will likely not allow time to do this analysis.
In addition to cost concerns, many
groups are concerned about reliability issues. Typically, an RTO oversupplies
electricity to the transmission grid by an
amount equal to the largest plant in the
system. This practice allows for a sudden
disruption of the largest plant in the system which might be 2,000 MW or more.
However, in an energy world flled with
natural gas and renewables, the system
not only has to deal with the largest plant
suddenly out of service but also the variability of renewable energy. Based on an
extrapolation of past weather conditions,
the future hourly change in renewable
energy could be 15,000 MW or more
in some RTOs. Most, if not all of the
RTOs are not ready for this scenario. In
time, it may be possible to account for
this generation variability, but will it be
combined-cycle units that meet this load
swing? For new natural gas combinedcycle facilities, the fast ramp rates needed
to meet the variable loads are achievable, but only at a signifcant capital and
operational and maintenance cost. For

existing combined-cycles, it is questionable whether they can physically be retroftted to meet these quick ramp rates and
what impact it will have on the units exiting useful life. Additional issues would
include potential New Source Review
(NSR) issues, worse heat rates than base
load and higher CO2 emissions.
To make matters even more complicated, the Clean Air Act does not regulate
RTOs; it regulates power plants through
state programs. Thus, the state will develop and enforce the Clean Power Plan.
EPA provides fexibility in developing
the plans which is both good and bad.
Unique state energy characteristics can
be incorporated which could be benefcial to the state; however, those plans will
likely require state legislative and regulatory approvals which are never easy. Additionally, the RTOs can only develop a
plan that optimizes compliance across
parts of single or multiple states. For instances where an RTO covers only parts
of a state, the state will have to deal with
multiple RTOs which may not have the
same ideas on compliance with the rule.
In these cases, states will be selecting winners and losers based on how they chose
to allocate emissions credits. Meanwhile,
the clock is ticking and compliance is expected to begin in 2020.
Then there are the individual generation plants, transmission companies and
electric utilities that have to actually provide energy. They are still on the hook to
provide environmentally compliant, safe,
reliable and low cost electricity while staying above water fnancially. This is going
to be a diffcult trick and every piece of
the puzzle is going to have to work in harmony. But no worries, EPA says we will
fgure it out.
www.power-eng.com

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NUCLEAR REACTIONS

The Tortoise
and the Hare
BY BRIAN SCHIMMOLLER, CONTRIBUTING EDITOR

ne of Aesops most famous fables is the story of the tortoise


and the hare. The tortoise challenges the hare to a race after the hare ridicules the tortoises slow-moving nature.
When the race starts, the hare quickly
takes off and builds a large lead. After a
while, he decides to take a mid-race nap
confident that the tortoise is so far behind hell never catch up.
While the hare is sleeping, the tortoise plods along at a steady pace and
ultimately passes the hare to win the
race. The moral of the story: Slow and
steady wins the race.
In observing the U.S. nuclear power
industry the past 15 years, its clear to me
the hares are too often out front. Expectations about a nuclear renaissance pop up
every few years in response to one stimuli
or another, only to be tamped down by
the reality of economics or politics or
public perception.
Remember the U.S. Department of
Energys (DOE) loan guarantee program launched back in 2008? That
was supposed to be the governmental spark that would initiate a fresh
round of nuclear plant construction.
Admittedly, it didnt completely fail.
DOE received 17 applications for loan
guarantees, and Southern Company
did secure a loan guarantee for the
Vogtle project in Georgia.
No one could claim with a straight
face, however, that it has worked well.
Negotiations between Southern and
the DOE took years, with final agreement only occurring in early 2014, and
an earlier loan guarantee application
from Constellation Energy Nuclear
Group never got off the ground.
This past September, DOE announced
plans for a new $12.6 billion loan
10

guarantee program. This one would apply not only to new nuclear plant projects,
but also to uranium enrichment facilities,
capacity uprates, and small modular reactors. Probably a more realistic approach
in light of current market conditions, but
details are still being worked out.
As the four new units at the Vogtle and
Summer plants in Georgia and South
Carolina began to rise from the ground
in the last two years, that was supposed to
be the next signpost heralding the coming
renaissance. While significant progress
has been made just take a look at one
of the many impressive time-lapse videos
of the basemat pour or the placement of
one of the large modules for visible proof
its not been smooth sailing. Both projects face potential delays and potential
cost increases because of challenges
with the fabrication and delivery of modules and because of design modifications
along the way to comply with regulatory
requirements. South Carolina Electric &
Gas is in the midst of negotiations with
its main vendors, Westinghouse and Chicago Bridge and Iron, to revise the schedule and develop a new cost estimate. So
again, lets manage our expectations.
The most recent nuclear savior to come
on the scene is the Clean Power Plan,
which the Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) proposed in June 2014
as a commonsense plan to cut carbon
pollution from power plants. It is more
commonly referred to as 111(d) because
its built around a section of the Clean Air
Act that enables EPA to establish guidelines and the states to design programs
that comply with these guidelines to
achieve needed reductions. One of the
building blocks established in the Clean
Power Plan recognizes the role that zeroemitting sources like nuclear could play

in reducing carbon emissions.


Depending on how these regulations
evolve after EPA addresses the millions
of comments it received by the Dec. 1,
2014 deadline, nuclear power could potentially benefit from favorable treatment
although the benefit may be modest. A
major contention raised during the comment period revolved around the fact that
the original language would not allow
states where nuclear plants are being built
to claim credit for nuclear plants already
under construction.
Before getting overly excited about the
111(d) provisions, however, recall that
weve been down similar carbon reduction paths. In the 2008-2009 time period, expectations were relatively high that
carbon legislation of some sort was going
to pass. Multiple bills were put forward,
some getting close to passing, and each
likely would have provided a boost to nuclear power. Some companies, such as Exelon, bet heavily that a nuclear-weighted
generation portfolio would be profitable
in a carbon-constrained environment.
That didnt come to pass, of course, and
the growth of renewables and gas-fired
generation is now putting even more
pressure on some nuclear plants.
Notwithstanding the points above, Im
relatively optimistic about nuclear power
in the United States. I think many people
equate a nuclear renaissance with an
intense level of new construction. Thats
not the way to look at it. The real Renaissance with a capital R evolved from
the darkness of the Middle Ages, and
didnt suffuse European culture immediately. Neither will this.
There remains a place for clean, baseload power to satisfy the demand for
round-the-clock electricity. Im betting
on the tortoise.
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NEW PROJECTS

2014 Projects
of the Year
BY SHARRYN DOTSON, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, POWER ENGINEERING,
AND MEG CICHON, ASSOCIATE EDITOR, RENEWABLE ENERGY WORLD

ach year, power projects


from around the world are
recognized by the editors
of Power Engineering and Renewable Energy World magazines. The winners of the 2014 Projects of
the Year Awards were announced Dec. 8
at Disneys Odyssey Pavilion at EPCOT
during POWER-GEN International.
This years winners reflect the industrys search for cleaner, more efficient
sources of power generation and demonstrate new technologies that will help
achieve those goals. Project winners
showcased an international representation of excellence in the power generation industry. Winners ranged from the
largest concentrating solar power project in the world to the first large-scale
power plant equipped with carbon capture and storage technology.
To be eligible for the 2014 award, a
project must have been commissioned
between August 1, 2013 and July 31,
2014. When judging the finalists, editors considered capacity, the technology, and the projects impact on the
industry and on the communities in
which they were installed.
The editors of Power Engineering and
Renewable Energy World magazines evaluated each entry and selected the winning projects.

COAL
WINNER: Boundary Dam Integrated Carbon Capture and Storage
(CCS) Project; owned by SaskPower;
110 MW in Estevan, Saskatchewan,
Canada
12

The Boundary Dam Integrated CCS


Project will capture up to 90 percent of
carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and
store them permanently underground.
In Canada, the current regulation states
that coal-fired plants built before 1975
must close by 2020, while units built after 1975 must close by 2030 unless they
can emit less than 420 tonnes of CO2 per
gigawatt-hour. The Boundary Dam CCS
system will allow Unit 3 to continue operations by producing 140 tonnes of CO2
per megawatt-hour, and will allow for
the continued use of coal in the province
of Saskatchewan. The provinces power
needs are expected to increase by close to
30 percent in the next 20 years, and demand will double by 2050.
The construction of the project spanned
41 months, through three Saskatchewan

winters, with temperatures below -40


degrees Celsius (-40 degrees Fahrenheit).
More than 60 different contracted companies and several hundred contractors
were on the project site at any given time,
with 1,700 workers onsite at the peak

COAL WINNER: Boundary Dam


of construction. SaskPower had to deal
with labor shortages due to the provinces
booming economy, asbestos removal,
and the need to bring a 50-year-old unit
to common standards. Major project
contractors included Shell Cansolv, SNC
Lavalin, the Babcock & Wilcox Co., Mitsubishi Hitachi Power Systems Canada,
and Graham Industrial.

RUNNER UP: Columbia Energy


Center AQC Retrofit; owned by Wisconsin Power & Light; 1,025 MW in
Pardeeville, Wisconsin
Wisconsin Power and Light Co., a
subsidiary of Alliant Energy Corp., selected Black & Veatch (B&V) to be the
engineering, procurement, and construction (EPC) firm for an air quality control
www.power-eng.com

COAL RUNNER UP: Columbia Energy Center AQC Retrofit

retrofit at the Columbia Energy Centers


existing 512-MW and 511-MW subcritical
coal-fired units. The project was completed on time with an accelerated schedule,
and at a price significantly under budget.
Costs were controlled using an open-toclosed-book EPC process and through innovative construction techniques.
B&V used integrated phase planning
(IPP), which begins with development of
an integrated baseline schedule. Work activities that required integration between
subcontractors were identified, and subcontractors involved met to develop advanced work plans.
Resulting IPP schedules were monitored. Babcock & Wilcox used extensive
ground fabrication to move work activities from congested locations high above
the ground to more open areas near
ground level. Cables were cut offsite and
delivered, minimizing waste.
Some wood materials were donated to
Habitat for Humanity and to a local farm
that rehabilitates abused animals. B&V
workers also provided gifts to needy children, donated more than $20,000 to a
community splash pad, collected 700 lbs.
of food for a local food pantry, and participated in the Ride/Walk for Veterans
and the International Coastal Cleanup.
The construction area was surrounded
by the existing power plant, cooling lake,
and a sealed ash landfill. State regulations limited activities on top of the ash
landfill, which was resolved by removing
soil from the hill to create a flat site at the
www.power-eng.com

same elevation as the plant, and by using


the removed soil to create an additional
protective layer over the sealed landfill.
An application for a Certificate of Authority (CoA) for the new facilities was
filed April 2, 2009, but there were uncertainties related to future environmental
regulations, the need to maintain a reliable generating asset in central Wisconsin, and the need to minimize project
capital cost in order to reduce rate-payer
impacts.
The PSC issued the CoA on March 11,
2011.

NATURAL GAS
Winner: Florida Power & Light Riviera Beach Next Generation Clean

Energy Center; 1,250 MW in Riviera


Beach, Florida
The Florida Power & Light Riviera
Beach Next Generation Clean Energy
Center was built on the site of a 1960sera oil-burning plant. The new plant uses
33 percent less fuel per megawatt-hour
than its predecessor and is capable of
producing more than 1,250 MW of electricity without using any additional water
or land, all while significantly reducing
emissions. The plant utilizes combinedcycle natural gas technology that reuses
exhaust heat given off by the gas turbine
to create steam and generate additional
energy.
The new Riviera Beach facility produces approximately half of the CO2 emissions, and more than 90 percent fewer
air emissions, of the oil plant it replaces.
In addition, the plants administration
building was built to the U.S. Green
Building Councils Leadership in Energy
and Environmental Design (LEED) certification standards and includes rooftop solar panels, which help reduce the
plants auxiliary load requirements.
In the plants first full year of operations, it is expected to generate approximately $25 million in new tax revenue to
benefit local residents. Over its 30-year

NATURAL GAS WINNER: Riviera Beach Next Generation Clean Energy Center
13

NEW PROJECTS

operational lifespan, the plant is expected


to generate approximately $350 million
in tax revenue and provide FPL customers with hundreds of millions of dollars
in fuel and other savings. A manatee
education center will be built next to the
plant and is due for completion in 2015.
The center will include meeting rooms,
educational exhibits, a boardwalk, and a
manatee viewing area.
The project was completed on budget
and two months ahead of schedule, despite requiring approximately 25 acres
of remote laydown yards located in four
different and remote locations. The plant
was constructed in an existing residential/industrial area, with homes within
100 yards of the plants perimeter. Construction schedules and processes were
modified to meet noise ordinances.
Power piping code requires high-pressure
pipe welds to be examined by x-ray to
ensure integrity. Since the plant was constructed near the port, x-ray work could
only be completed between 10 p.m. and
5 a.m. so that the x-ray equipment would
not set off the ports radiation monitors.
To minimize impact on the construction schedule, significant work process
changes were implemented to overcome

the examination parameter. The projects


main contractor was Zachry Group.
RUNNER UP: Himeji No. 2 Power
Station; owned by The Kansai Electric
Power Co.; 2,919 MW in Himeji City,
Japan
The Himeji No. 2 Power Station is a
state-of-the-art, combined-cycle plant
composed of six single-shaft blocks rated
for a total of 2,919 MW. This modern
plant replaces Kansai Electric Powers
largest thermal power station rated at
2,550 MW, which had been in operations
since 1963. The first four units were commissioned two to four months ahead of
schedule. The plant uses bottoming cycle
technology, and several existing portions
of the plant such as cooling water intake
and seawater desalination were effectively refurbished.
Each block uses one Mitsubishi Hitachi
Power Systems M501J gas turbine, rigidly
coupled to a single reheat SRT-50 steam
turbine, resulting in a combined cycle
efficiency of over 60 percent. The M501J
gas turbine features steam-cooled combustors and operates at the turbine inlet
temperature of 1,600 degrees Celsius
(2,912 degrees Fahrenheit). The pressure
ratio is 23:1, and it incorporates advanced

TBC and advanced cooling technology


developed for the 1,700 degrees C (3,092
degrees Fahrenheit) Japanese National
Project. The SRT 50 steam turbine operates with a condenser vacuum of 96.3
kPa and features 50-inch steel blades
that result in large annular area for high
efficiency and large capacity. The largecapacity, single-casing reheat turbines
feature other advanced technologies such
as high-efficiency reaction blades, welded rotor, advanced seals, and high performance bearings. The new power plant
emits 30 percent less CO2 and 85 percent
less NOX compared to the original plant.
The original plan included decommissioning units 5 and 6 prior to the installation of new units 4 through 6, but due
to the critical electricity supply caused by
the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011,
existing units 5 and 6 remained in operation during construction. Because of that,
the parallel operation and construction
imposed close communication and cooperation between the involved teams,
including mechanical, electrical, I&C,
and others to prevent unintended interference that could either affect the operation of the existing units or delay the
progress of construction. High bearing
capacity piles were used to strengthen the
support of the bearing layer, and vibration measurements were performed during construction to avoid vibration trips
of existing units.
The city of Himeji is known for the
UNESCO world heritage Japanese castle,
so special attention was placed on the architecture of the plant in order to minimize the visual effect of the new plant on
the landscape of the city. Ivory and beige
were selected as base colors for the faade
in order to harmonize with the outer wall
of Himeji castle, and green paint was selected for the HRSGs and transformers to
reflect the natural greenery of the Harima
plain field surrounding the facility. The
projects main contractor was Mitsubishi
Hitachi Power Systems Ltd.

NATURAL GAS RUNNER UP: Himeji No. 2 Power Station


14

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NEW PROJECTS

said that all operations related to the


reactor equipment control and operations were being carried out by Russian specialists.
The anticipated 7 TWh/yr from the
Bushehr reactor frees up about 11 million barrels of oil, or 1.8 million cubic
metres of gas per year, which can be
exported for hard currency. In 2013,
Irans Energy Minister said that it saved
some $2 billion per year in oil and gas.
Russias Atomstroyexport was the projects contractor.

NUCLEAR WINNER: Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant

RUNNER UP: The Kudankulam 1

NUCLEAR
WINNER: Bushehr Nuclear Power
Plant; operated by Rosenergoatom;
915 MW in Iran
Irans first nuclear power plant began
operations in September 2013. Rosatom
unit Atomstroyexport built the VVER1000 Unit 1 using structures and equipment already in place at Bushehr. The Iranian and Russian governments signed an
agreement in August 1992 to build and
operate a two-unit nuclear plant in Iran.
All work at the plant was done under
International Atomic Energy Association
(IAEA) safeguards; and operations are
also under IAEA safeguards. The main
reactor components were built under a
construction contract with Atomstroyexport based on the V-320 design, but designated at a V-446 to include adaptations
to Siemens parts and for high seismic ratings.
The plant faced a series of delays and
was almost abandoned in 2007. By the
end of January 2008, Atomstroyexport
had delivered the 163 fuel assemblies
plus 17 reserve units for the initial core
of Bushehr, totaling 82 tonnes of nuclear
fuel. The reactor was due to start up in
February 2011, and fuel had been loaded
by the beginning of December. However,
during the startup process, a 1970s-era
pump failed and possibly shed metal particles into the primary cooling system.
16

NUCLEAR RUNNER UP: Kudankulam 1 nuclear power plant


The fuel was removed, cleaned, and
replaced, and the reactor successfully
started up on May 8, 2011. It was gridconnected in September 2011 and was
expected to enter commercial operation in April 2012, then May 2013. It
finally reached commercial operation
in September 2013.
After the unit was connected to the
grid, Iranian legislation required a national company to operate the nuclear
plant. In May 2012, the first deputy
director generation of Rosenergoatom

nuclear power plant; operated by


the Nuclear Power Corporation of
India Ltd.; 1,000 MW in Tamil Nadu,
India
Construction on the Kudankulam 1
nuclear power plant in India began in
March 2002. Russias Atomstroyexport
supplied two VVER-1000 reactors under a Russian-financed 122.9 billion
rubles ($3 billion) contract. A longterm credit facility covers about half
the cost of the plant. The AES-92 units
at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu state
www.power-eng.com

have been built by the Nuclear Power


Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL)
and also commissioned and operated
by NPCIL under IAEA safeguards. The
turbines are made by Leningrad Metal
Works.
Russia will supply all the enriched
fuel throughout the life of the plant,
though India will reprocess it, keep
the plutonium, and send the rest back
to Russia.
The first unit was due to start supplying power in March 2008. In the latter
part of 2011 and into 2012, completion and fuel loading was delayed by
public protests, but in March 2012 the
state government approved the plants
commissioning and said it would deal
with any obstructions.
Fuel loading took place in September, and Unit 1 started up in mid-July
2013. The unit was connected to the

grid in October 2013 and reached


commercial operation in August 2014.
Each unit will total 917 MWe net. Unit
2 is expected to reach operations in
late 2014.
While the first core load of fuel was
delivered early in 2008, there have
been delays in supply of some equipment and documentation.
Control system documentation was
delivered late, and when reviewed by
NPCIL showed that the design basis flood level is 5.44 meters, and the
turbine hall floor is 8.1 meters above
mean sea level. The 2004 tsunami wall
was under 3 meters.
A small desalination plant is associated with the Kudankulam plant to
produce 426 m3 per hour using fourstage, multi-vacuum compression
technology. Another reverse osmosis
plant is in operation to supply local

MORE POWER TO YOUR POWER PLANT.

township needs. Project contractors


included Atomstroyexport and Leningrad Metal Works

RENEWABLES

WINNER: Ivanpah Solar Electric

Generating System; 392 MW in the


Mojave Desert, California
After years of development and
months of testing, the 392-MW concentrating solar power (CSP) behemoth known as Ivanpah was officially
commissioned in January 2014.
It was the recipient of a $168 million loan from Google and a $1.3 billion loan guarantee from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), which has
proven to be a profitable renewable
energy program thanks in part to the
success of Ivanpah.
Located in Californias Mojave
Desert, Ivanpah is a shining beacon

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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS#8

NEW PROJECTS
RUNNER UP: Solara (Arizona Solar One), 250 MW, developed by
Abengoa S.A. in Gila Bend, Arizona
Solar and wind energy are both intermittent technologies, meaning that the
amount of power they feed to the grid
varies depending on sun and wind conditions. This intermittency creates unstable
grid conditions, which many believe can
be solved with technology that can store
excess energy and release it when necessary a grid stabilizer. Enter: Solana
(Arizona Solar One), the first solar plant
in the U.S. with built-in thermal energy
storage.
The 250-MW concentrating solar power
(CSP) plant near Gila Bend, Arizona and
developed by Abengoa S.A. is the largRENEWABLES WINNER: Ivanpah
of renewable energy progress, as evidenced by the fanfare at its dedication. Esteemed guests included representatives from Bechtel, NRG Energy,
Brightsource, financiers from the DOE
and Google, and Grammy-nominated
rock band The Fray, which used the
project as a backdrop for their album
cover and recent music video.
Ivanpah uses 173,500 heliostat mirrors that focus sunlight on several centralized power towers.
The towers generate steam to drive
specially adapted 123-MW Siemens
steam turbines the largest fully solar-powered turbines in the world.
In order to reduce its environmental
impact, Ivanpah also utilizes dry cooling to condense the steam back into
water, which minimizes water consumption to just 0.03 gallons of water
per kW of electricity generated.
Shortly after commissioning, reports emerged depicting bird deaths
due to solar flux that occurs when
the mirrors reflect light to the towers
and create a hazardous super-heated
area.
However, recent reports have found
that Ivanpahs impact is minimal, and
the project team is undertaking efforts
18

RENEWABLES RUNNER UP: Solana

to further reduce environmental


hazards.
For example, onsite staffing includes
several biologists that monitor and
respond to the needs of animal and
plant life.
Ivanpah led to more than 2,100 construction jobs and 86 permanent positions for the local community, with total employee wages estimated to reach
$650 million.

est CSP plant with storage in the world.


Solana uses parabolic troughs, which are
essentially curved mirrors that direct sunlight to power towers. The sunlight heats
water in the towers to create steam. The
steam then spins a turbine to produce
energy. But what makes Solana unique
is its thermal energy storage system that
uses molten salt to store heat. This system
helps stabilize output with more than
1,000 MWh of dispatchable power.
www.power-eng.com

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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS#9

Renewable
Energy Roundtable:

Production and
Investment Tax
Policy to be a Top
Priority in 2015

BY TIM MISER, ASSOCIATE EDITOR

he renewable energy
industry has come a
long way in relatively
little time. The costs of
renewable technologies
continue to go down, while renewable
capacities at many utilities continue to
go up. Although, in many cases, renewable technology is mature and ready
for utility-scale deployment, state and
federal production and investment tax
policies appear less evolved.
Such were the topics on the minds
of the participants in this years renewable roundtable, when Power Engineering talked with five renewable energy
executives as they prepared to take
on a new year in the industry. Joining
the conversation were: David Blittersdorf, Chief Executive Officer, AllEarth
Renewables; Karl Gawell, Executive
Director, Geothermal Energy Association; Tom Kimbis, Vice President of Executive Affairs, Solar Energy Industries
Association (SEIA); Derek Stilwell, Director of Sales and Tendering in North
America, Alstom Wind; and Emily
Williams; Manager of Industry Data &
20

Analysis, American Wind Energy Association (AWEA).


PE: What policies and/or regulations are going to most impact the
renewable energy industry in 2015?
Kimbis: Ill start off by stating the obvious; tax policy continues to be what
drives a lot of the energy development
in the United States. Over the last century, energy policy has essentially been
driven by tax incentives. The Investment
Tax Credit (ITC) is expiring soon. Thats
a 30-percent tax credit that permanently
drops to 10 percent at the end of 2016.
The scheduled end of that credit is beginning to cause serious repercussions in the
solar industry. We see large-scale projects
beginning to have difficulty securing
funding without more assurance that the
ITC will be around. We are strongly supportive of extending the ITC.
Stilwell: Yes, the continued effects of
this stop-and-go approach to policy has
already resulted in considerable consolidation up and down the chain in the
wind sector of the industry, meaning that
a concentration of powerful financiers

David Blittersdorf

and developers has virtually obliterated


the smaller developers, which are now
being absorbed by the larger developers.
The long-term result of this consolidation
is a market that doesnt compete freely
and openly. It will eventually result in decreased competition in the market and a
rise in prices for everyone.
Williams: All forms of energy need
predictable, stable, pro-growth tax policy. While we determine energy policy
for the tax code, we need policies that
we can count on. The U.S. Senate finally
passed a one-year extension of the Production Tax Credit (PTC) and ITC for
wind power. Congress, then, has basically given the wind industry two weeks
to start construction on projects. There
are construction companies, developers,
sales people, and lawyers that have had
their holiday plans put on pause as they
www.power-eng.com

Karl Gawell

Tom Kimbis

try to figure out how to creatively take advantage of this extension. This is no way
to do business, and it is not smart policy.
Short-term extensions do not keep developers in business, and they do not convince companies to make investments in
research and development that will ultimately bring down costs.
Kimbis: Too often we have discussions
within the energy community about
where financiers are going to put their
money. We ask ourselves, if theyre not
going to put money into wind and solar,
are they going to shift it over to natural
gas or something else? I think the folks
who focus on energy-related policy need
to realize more broadly that most financiers can put their money anywhere they
like. Renewables arent just competing
against fossil fuel investments; theyre
also competing against infrastructure
www.power-eng.com

Derek Stilwell

developments in other countries, and


against anything that yields a better return on investment for the financier. Its
the stability, predictability, and transparency of the policy that invites investment.
These technologies are not Republican or
Democrat; they are energy-producing
technologies that are great investments
for the United States. The reasons the policies were put in place to begin with were
to diversify our energy supply, increase
national security, and help the environment, and these are bipartisan objectives.
We need to get away from thinking that
certain technologies fit into one party or
another, and realize that they benefit everyone.
Gawell: And its not just wind and
solar that are affected by these things.
Geothermal is also caught up in the lapse
of the PTC, and so too are hydropower

Emily Williams

and biomass. The renewable industries at


large are capital investment-intensive industries, so tax credits have a tremendous
impact on where people choose to invest
their money. The lapse in the tax credits
is very destructive to not only growth in
these industries, but also to the advancement of technology and the creation of
jobs. Lets hope the future congress will
make these issues a priority.
Blittersdorf: Because of the problems
with our policy, a two-week extension of
the PTC doesnt accomplish anything. I
have a background in both wind and solar, so I get to play in the solar industry
while the wind industry tries to figure out
if its going to have any policy to support
it. But it is still really troublesome because
of where the tax equity investors are going, and because of how scared they become in the absence of good policy at
21

the federal level. It is problematic that


we dont have a coherent energy policy
at the federal level. The all-of-the-above
strategy does not work; its a failure. We
must find some leadership in renewables
for the United States.
Gawell: In the short-run, were all
suffering from the ups and downs of
tax policy, and from the federal governments fickleness about what it likes and
doesnt like. But in the long-run, I think
the general direction of policy is going to
be driven by the climate issue, both in the
United States and worldwide. We need
policy that will not just grow clean technology in the United States, but will help
U.S. companies compete in a very fastgrowing world market. My hope, then, is
that as these things become larger issues
at the state and federal levels, and as they
become larger issues globally with the
Paris meetings approaching, there will
be a push for stable policies that support
clean technologies.
Stilwell: We need a comprehensive
application of renewable policy that is
fair, above-board, and consistent in the
long-term, but one that is not necessarily at odds with fossil generation. I work
for a company that operates in all forms
of generation technology, and we dont
see any effort being made to mitigate,
manage, and balance the needs of both
renewable and fossil generation, two
broad approaches to generation which
are sometimes at odds with one another,
but dont need to be.
Gawell: Sounds like youre asking for
rational government policy. Thats a revolutionary statement. [Laughter from all
participants]
Blittersdorf: Yes, but climate change
and carbon pricing are going to be front
and foremost as we go forward, and this
does pit fossil generation against renewable generation. If we truly have the ability to price carbon, there will be winners
and losers. In the very long run, we must
transition to renewable energy that will
probably be based on an electric system, not a liquid-, hard-, or gaseous-fuel
22

system. The United States has to start


dealing with carbon pricing at a state level, just like British Columbia did in Canada. Someone has to lead. In the coming
year, we may actually see inroads made
toward pricing carbon.
Kimbis: I agree with that. Certainly
international law has faltered a little, but
I hope it can turn around. State policy
for solar energy is incredibly important.
As I already mentioned, our tax credit
drops off at the end of 2016. State policies like net metering, and policies which
govern the interaction between utilities,
distributed generation, and energy storage are going to be absolutely critical in
determining which states become leaders, not just with the new forms of energy
out there, but also in job creation and in
the economy in general. So were really
looking to states to recognize that theres
a new energy structure thats taking place
within the United States today, and those
that make smart policy moves which
look toward the future are going to be the
beneficiaries.
PE: When it comes to integrating
renewables into existing utilities, what
problems and/or promises do you
foresee? How does the issue of renewable intermittency play into the
larger landscape of power reliability? Does energy storage change this
equation?
Gawell: We face a unique issue; we
have to help people understand what our
technologies can do, and how they can
work together. We still need to overcome
a lot of misunderstanding in the general
public. For example, we have geothermal
plants that can operate very flexibly and
firm up a substantial amount of variable
resources. Alternatively, they can operate in base-load mode. Also, the states
are really still trying to understand what
their technological options are. There is
a substantial amount of technology that
can be addressed, but its going to take
looking toward a new power system in
the future. All renewables will play a part

in this.
Williams: One thing that some people
dont know is that we are already integrating large amounts of renewable energy today. In 2013, nine states generated
more than 12 percent of their energy using wind power. Iowa generated 27.4 percent of its electricity using wind. South
Dakota was at 26 percent. ERCOT, the
main grid in Texas, was at just under 10
percent for the year. Weve also seen ISOs
integrating significant amounts of wind
energy on an hourly basis. ERCOT has
integrated over 40 percent wind power
for short periods of time. So these levels
of market penetration are absolutely possible, and theyre happening today.
Kimbis: On the solar side, we see storage as part of the grid-integration issue,
just as net metering, penetration rates,
and interconnection are parts of the issue. Solar has multiple technologies that
have successfully demonstrated that concentrated solar power, such as that seen in
the southwestern United States, has the
ability to provide baseload power using
molten salt storage technology. We also
have batteries supporting residential and
commercial solar systems operating on a
distributed generation model which feed
into the grid. The common understanding is that all we need is better storage to
solve our problems. In fact, were talking
about a highly systemic issue across a grid
architecture that is aging, and which has
multiple components with thousands of
owners. Were also talking about utilities
that have jurisdiction over their respective territories. This makes the issue very
complex, and technology is not going
to be the only solution to the problem.
Were also going to need business and
policy components to complement those
technical innovations.
Gawell: Its not a question of technology. Theres a range of different technologies and technological choices. Its
becoming more of a question of institutions and policies. These are the areas
where were going to find the stability that
will enable greater amounts of variable
www.power-eng.com

resource to be integrated. Technologies


can be very complementary, but we need
to have the right institutions, grid structures, and policies to make the whole
thing work.
Kimbis: One way to look at this is from
the laypersons perspective. The way
people interfaced with a 1980s personal
computer system seems very rudimentary compared to a full-blown web connection today, where people experience
two-way, free-flow communication. The
institutions that we currently have in
placefrom governments to much of the
technologyare simply not set up to accommodate that sort of multi-directional
flow. Resolving these issues is going to require a lot of smart people making a lot of
smart decisions at the federal, state, and
utility levels. We need to take this issue
seriously as a country in order to ensure
that we make the right decisions and investments in what are some tough budget
times.
Blittersdorf: Im glad were talking

about the grid and utility integration.


As we all know, we have a 100-year-old
grid system that needs to change. Were
talking about one-way streets when we
look at how our grid has been set up under a centralized power station model.
This fundamentally has to change. I see
a lack of overall vision about where we
need to go. We have to transition off of
oil, gas, and coal. I believe were going to
transition to an electricity-based energy
system. Electric demand is going to have
to double or triple to make this possible.
These are huge challenges to our transmission and distribution systems. The
new system will have to be really smart to
integrate all the renewables. If we do this
well, we will need only limited amounts
of storage. Were always going to need
some backup, but I dont believe storage
is a huge issue.
Stilwell: In the interest of fairness, I
would like to speak on behalf of utilities
a little. A lot of utilities are progressing.
Theyre heavily investing in renewables

and the proper technologies to integrate


renewable assets into their portfolios.
Many utilities are creating opportunities
for renewables that make the industry
possible today. The transformation has
been difficult for them. Theyve been given a very limited set of options to solve
problems, and they have very harsh cost
constraints. While renewables have continued to improve on their competitiveness, and while utilities have continued
to invest, policies have not been created
that allow utilities to integrate amongst
one another, or to develop transmission.
Utilities continue to be the backbone, not
necessarily of the way electricity is generated anymore, but of the way energy is
transmitted and distributed. In my mind,
utilities should not be seen as opposing
parties. Rather, we need to create avenues
that open doors and develop relationships that are mutually beneficial.
Im in wind power. I live and die in the
renewable world, daily competing against
fossil fuels that my colleagues live on. But

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I think the approach needs to be more integrative and collaborative. We cant simply do away with the old to make way for
the new. Rather, we need to accommodate a transition from the olds ways into
the new ways that allow utilities to adapt
and adjust in a non-adversarial way.
Utilities are too often seen as part of the
problem, but if you talk to them, they see
themselves as part of the solution. They
are the mechanism by which change can
take place. We at Alstom see utilities making a great deal of forward movement that
they dont get enough credit for. Right
now were working with Dominion on an
offshore project in Virginia which is very
forward looking and renewable-oriented,
and which constitutes a bold move on the
part of the utility.
Kimbis: I think utilities are certainly
going to be front and center in the evolution of the grid. But we do need to realize one fundamental difference between
the way utilities operate and the way the
renewable industry operates. Were running fast. We have technology companies
that are similar to Apple and Microsoft.
Theyre not looking to innovate 10 or 20
years in the future. Theyre trying to effect
change now. Utilities have a very conservative corporate infrastructure, and they
24

have an incredible duty to keep the lights


on. So theyre operating in an old-school,
and in some cases monopolistic, manner.
On the other hand, many small technology companies are bred to move quickly
and want to see change at a much faster
pace. I think this time conflict has caused
a lot of consternation. Even though there
are good examples of utilities that have
embraced renewable technologies, the
majority of utilities have not; theyre not
moving full-bore toward renewables.
There are examples of utilities being very
obstructive when it comes to renewables
and to change in general. Unfortunately,
in some cases we have a real fight on our
hands, and we cant ignore that. Ultimately I think its a fight we can all win
by forcing change for the better. Im glad
to see that at least some utilities are embracing non-heritage fuels.
Gawell: I dont want to be put in a
position of either attacking or defending
utilities, but I also think we have to recognize that utilities are subject to a lot of
rules that are changing both at the state
and regional levels. We have to recognize
that this is a regulated system. The rules
of the road keep changing because were
still trying to figure out what the rules
should be. What we want to see is the

continued evolution of institutions at all


levels which can match the potential of
these newer technologies.
PE: What does the market for renewable energy look like in the coming year?
Williams: Were still finalizing the
most recent numbers, but in the third
quarter of last year the wind industry had
over 13,000 MW under construction,
which is more than weve ever had under
construction at one time before. Recently
weve seen significant cost reductions
for renewable energy. The cost of wind
power has fallen by more than 50 percent
over the last five years, and this has translated to a situation in which utilities are
actually buying more wind power than
is mandated by policy. In 2013, we saw
companies like Xcel Energy and AEPs
Public Service Company of Oklahoma issue RFPs for 200 MW of wind, and sign
600 MW of contracts because the economics made sense. These companies
also see that there is uncertainty about
future carbon regulations, and renewables offer great ways to scale up using
carbon-free electricity. Were also seeing
interest from corporate purchasers. Companies like Yahoo, Google, Microsoft,
and IKEA are investing in wind power
www.power-eng.com

and other renewables, either by signing long-term power purchase


agreements, or by investing in projects directly. These are companies that have internal carbon-reduction targets or goals for climate
mitigation. Theyre investing because they see that this is the future.
Gawell: For industries like geothermal, with long lead times of
six or seven years, the lapse of the tax credit is devastating. The federal credits have got to be stabilized, and we hope they will be if the
next congress can come up with some form of rational tax policy. As
we move toward larger amounts of variable resources like wind and
solar, we also hope they recognize the flexibility that geothermal
can add to the system.
Kimbis: Obviously, 2015 and 2016 will be big ramp-up years for
solar. The industry is growing very fast. Solar had a record year in
2014, with about 41 percent growth over the previous year. We saw
about 6.5 GW come online, and we placed second behind natural
gas for new electric capacity in the United States. Solar represented
about a third of all new electricity capacity in the country. In total,
we will have about 20 GW of installed energy. Weve got a long way
to go to catch up with all the great work that wind has done, but we
see good things in the coming year.
Blittersdorf: I think we might finally be making some inroads
against climate change denial. We are going to have to move very
quickly, and this movement will be driven mostly from the grassroots and state levels. With oil prices being temporarily low, we
have an opportunity to change policy and move things around. If
were ever going to tax carbon pollution, now is the time to do it. Its
going to be interesting to see what the guys in fracking do, and how
many stay in business, but I think the renewable folks can capitalize
on this. We might be seeing some change.
Stilwell: The renewable portion of the generation portfolio is
still relatively small in this market, especially when compared to
the application of renewable energy in other very successful markets. The amount of renewable generation that currently exists in
the market looks very small when compared to the complaints
we hear about integration. Other markets have successfully integrated much higher percentages of renewable energy without so
much backlash. So the short order will be to allow incentives to
provide a sustainable manufacturing, development, financing,
and integration landscape that will bring in investment and continue to grow renewables into a significant portion of the generation mix. The truth is, we still represent a very small percentage
of generation, but were getting a lot of attention, which shows
a kind of struggle that is being played out in the market. In the
long term, renewables are proving to be very sound investments
that draw plenty of capital. Investment in the industry is integral
to the health of the system overall. We havent even begun to
scratch the surface of this market. There are more mature markets around the world that have much higher percentages of renewables in their overall generation mixes. Weve got a long way
to go, but the value that is being delivered into the market place
by renewable energy is exceedingly good.
www.power-eng.com

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The Best in
Power Generation

BY RUSSELL RAY, CHIEF EDITOR

he POWER-GEN 200 is
a ranking of the most
successful publicly held
companies in the power generation business.
This is the inaugural publication of the
POWER-GEN 200, which is restricted
to companies whose revenues are derived from power generation.
The rankings are based on a set of
financial and performance metrics
gathered by researchers at the University of Tulsa. The results will be published each year in Power Engineering
magazine. The index is split into two
listings. It features the top 100 power
generators and the top 100 companies
that provide services and products to
power generators. The data includes
gross revenue, market capitalization,
net income, and generation capacity.
Power generators are ranked by
their generation capacity while service
providers are ranked by their gross
revenue. But the online version of
the POWER-GEN 200, which can be
found at www.power-eng.com, is interactive and can be sorted by market
cap, net income, generation capacity,
and gross revenue.

POWER PRODUCERS
French utility GDF Suez topped the
list of power producers with 113,700
26

MW of generation capacity. Nearly providers, with $146 billion in gross


18,000 MW of that capacity is gener- revenue recorded in its last fiscal year.
ated from renewable resources. Round- Rounding out the top five are: Sieing out the top five power producers mens, $102.5 billion; Hitachi, $95.9
are: Enel Spa, 95,000 MW; Kyushu billion; Toshiba, $62.8 billion; and
Electric, 91,280 MW; Korea Electric, Caterpillar, $55.6 billion.
65,380 MW; and ToHoneywell Inkyo Electric Power,
ternational is No.
The rankings are
64,500 MW.
9, with $39 billion
Duke Energy is based on a set
in gross revenue.
the highest ranking of financial and
Mitsubishi Heavy
American power proIndustries is No.
performance
ducer at No. 7, with a
10, with $32.5 biltotal generation ca- metrics gathered by lion, and Alstom is
pacity of 57,700 MW. researchers at the
No. 13, with $27.8
NRG Energy, the
billion. Fluor Corp.
University of Tulsa.
largest independent
and Emerson Elecpower producer in
tric are No. 14 and
the U.S., was No. 10, with 52,470 MW. No. 15, with $27.3 billion and $24.6
Georgia-based Southern Company billion, respectively.
was No. 15, with 45,500 MW. NextEra
GE was the most profitable service
Energy was No. 16, with 42,500 MW.
provider, reporting net income of $13
Although German utility E.ON was billion in its last fiscal year. Siemens
No. 6, with 61,090 MW of generation reported the second highest net income
capacity, the utility recorded $168.6 of $5.79 billion, and New Jersey-based
billion in gross revenue, more than any Honeywell International reported the
power producer on the list. Gazprom third highest net income of $3.92 bilrecorded $160 billion in gross revenue, lion. The fourth and fifth highest net
the second highest among power pro- incomes were reported by Caterpillar
ducers. GDF Suez had the third highest and Lockheed Martin Corp., with $3.79
gross revenue, with $123 billion.
billion and $2.98 billion, respectively.
To see the online, interactive version
SERVICE PROVIDERS
of the POWER-GEN 200, visit www.
GE topped the list of service power-eng.com.
www.power-eng.com

POWER-GEN 200 : TOP 100 SERVICE PROVIDERS


#

Company Name

General Electric Company

Company
Country
USA

Siemens

Hitachi

Company Symbol

Market Capitalization (USD)

Gross Revenue (USD)

Net Income (USD)

NYSE: GE

258,980,000,000

146,050,000,000

13,060,000,000

Germany

German: SIE

98,830,000,000

102,590,000,000

5,790,000,000

Japan

Tokyo 6501

38,450,000,000

95,930,000,000

1,860,000,000

Toshiba Corporation

Japan

Tokyo 6502

18,780,000,000

62,870,000,000

822,630,000

Caterpillar Inc

USA

NYSE: CAT

63,670,000,000

55,660,000,000

3,790,000,000

Marubeni Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 80020

11,270,000,000

51,580,000,000

2,180,000,000

Lockheed Martin Corporation

USA

NYSE: LMT

60,210,000,000

45,360,000,000

2,980,000,000

ABB LTD

Switzerland

NYSE: ABB

49,930,000,000

41,850,000,000

2,790,000,000

Honeywell International

USA

NYSE: HON

75,240,000,000

39,060,000,000

3,920,000,000

10

Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

Japan

Tokyo: 7011

21,030,000,000

32,580,000,000

1,600,000,000

11

Schneider Electric SA

France

Euronext Paris: SU

44,560,000,000

32,420,000,000

2,600,000,000

12

Halliburton

USA

NYSE: HAL

46,730,000,000

29,400,000,000

2,130,000,000

13

Alstom

France

Euronext Paris ALS

9,960,000,000

27,870,000,000

764,610,000

14

Fluor Corporation

USA

NYSE: FLR

10,360,000,000

27,350,000,000

667,710,000

15

Emerson Electric

USA

NYSE: EMR

44,710,000,000

24,670,000,000

2,000,000,000

16

Northrop Grumman Corporation

USA

NYSE: NOC

27,870,000,000

24,660,000,000

1,950,000,000

17

USA

NYSE: NOV

31,250,000,000

22,870,000,000

2,330,000,000

Ireland

NYSE: ETN

32,550,000,000

22,050,000,000

1,860,000,000

19

National Oilwell Varco


Eaton Corporation
Public Limited Company
MAN SE

Germany

XETRA: MAN

16,850,000,000

21,560,000,000

-721,340,000

20

Danaher Corporation

USA

NYSE: DHR

56,500,000,000

19,120,000,000

2,700,000,000

21

Kobe Steel LTD

Japan

Tokyo: 54060

5,830,000,000

17,750,000,000

716,510,000

22

Sojitz Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 27680

1,880,000,000

17,540,000,000

312,040,000

23

Cummins Inc

USA

NYSE: CMI

26,710,000,000

17,300,000,000

1,480,000,000

24

Saipem SPA

Italy

Italian: SPMI

6,960,000,000

17,120,000,000

-218,880,000

25

Weatherford International

Switzerland

NYSE: WFT

12,710,000,000

15,260,000,000

-345,000,000

26

Taisei Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 18010

6,420,000,000

14,910,000,000

315,830,000

27

Kajima Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 18120

4,680,000,000

14,800,000,000

207,210,000

28

Solvay NV

Belgium

Euronext Brussels: SOLB

11,400,000,000

14,270,000,000

371,680,000

29

Larsen and Toubro

India

Bombay: LNT

24,980,000,000

14,220,000,000

818,630,000

30

Kawasaki Heavy Inudstries

Japan

Tokyo: 7012

6,590,000,000

13,480,000,000

398,750,000

31

Ecolab Inc

USA

NYSE: ECL

33,380,000,000

13,250,000,000

967,800,000

32

Areva

France

Euronext Paris: AREVA

44,180,000,000

12,790,000,000

-582,300,000

33

IHI Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 7013

7,460,000,000

12,680,000,000

345,240,000,

34

Kubota Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 6326

20,190,000,000

12,390,000,000

781,830,000

35

datang power

China

Hong Kong: 0991

47,990,000,000

12,310,000,000

577,000,000

36

Jacobs Engineering Group Inc

USA

NYSE: JEC

6,310,000,000

11,820,000,000

423,090,000

37

Huadian Power International

China

Hong Kong: 1071

6,720,000,000

10,900,000,000

677,080,000

38

AGCO Corporation

USA

NYSE: AGCO

4,160,000,000

10,790,000,000

597,200,000

39

Cameron International Corporation

USA

NYSE: CAM

11,760,000,000

9,840,000,000

699,200,000

40

Vestas Wind Systems AS

Denmark

OMX Copenhagen: VWS

7,560,000,000

8,380,000,000

-112,880,000

41

AECOM Techology Corporation

USA

NYSE: ACM

3,240,000,000

8,150,000,000

239,240,000

42

Andritz AG

Austria

Vienna: ANDR

5,040,000,000

7,860,000,000

91,690,000

43

Applied Materials Inc

USA

NASDAQ: AMAT

26,910,000,000

7,510,000,000

256,000,000

44

Fuji Electric Co. LTD

Japan

Tokyo: 65040

3,140,000,000

7,390,000,000

211,580,000

45

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

India

Bombay: BHEL

10,190,000,000

6,610,000,000

584,980,000

46

AMEC PLC

England

London: AMEC

4,960,000,000

6,550,000,000

295,140,000

47

Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding

Japan

Tokyo 70030

1,790,000,000

6,520,000,000

432,820,000

48

John Wood Group

Scotland

London: WG

3,970,000,000

6,380,000,000

295,900,000

49

Rockwell Automation Inc

USA

NYSE: ROK

15,490,000,000

6,350,000,000

756,300,000

50

Sumitomo Heavy Industries, LTD

Japan

Tokyo: 6302

3,420,000,000

5,980,000,000

173,190,000

18

** Financials from Most Recent Fiscal Year


www.power-eng.com

**Market Cap as of November 4th, 2014


27

POWER-GEN 200 : TOP 100 SERVICE PROVIDERS


#

Company Name

51

Metso OYJ

Company
Country
Finland

52

United Rentals Inc

53

Flowserve Corporation

54

Company Symbol

Market Capitalization (USD)

Gross Revenue (USD)

Net Income (USD)

OMX Helsinki: MEO1V

4,920,000,000

5,310,000,000

406,100,000

USA

NYSE: URI

10,980,000,000

4,960,000,000

387,000,000

USA

NYSE: FLS

9,270,000,000

4,950,000,000

485,530,000

SPX Corporation

USA

NYSE: SPW

3,890,000,000

4,720,000,000

210,200,000

55

Superior Energy Services

USA

NYSE: SPN

3,890,000,000

4,610,000,000

-111,420,000

56

Fanuc Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 69540

34,300,000,000

4,390,000,000

1,080,000,000

57

Trinity Industries

USA

NYSE:TRN

5,560,000,000

4,370,000,000

375,500,000

58

Ebara Corporation

Japan

Tokyo: 6361

2,550,000,000

4,360,000,000

201,440,000

59

Manitowoc Company INC

USA

NYSE: MTW

2,820,000,000

4,050,000,000

141,800,000

60

Weir Group

Scotland

London: WEIR

8,110,000,000

4,010,000,000

552,180,000

61

FMC Corporation

USA

NYSE: FMC

7,640,000,000

3,870,000,000

293,900,000

62

Yokogawa Electric

Japan

Tokyo: 68410

3,550,000,000

3,780,000,000

135,040,000

63

CGG

France

Euronext Paris: CGG

1,030,000,000

3,770,000,000

-698,800,000

64

China Yangtze Power Co.

China

Shanghai: 600900

22,200,000,000

3,710,000,000

1,480,000,000

65

Sulzer AG

Switzerland

Swiss: SUN

3,920,000,00

3,670,000,000

263,230,000

66

Ametek Inc

USA

NYSE: AME

11,650,000,000

3,590,000,000

517,000,000

67

Harbin Electric Co, LTD

China

Hong Kong: 1133

830,560,000

3,350,000,000

102,350,000

68

First Solar, Inc

USA

NASDAQ: FSLR

5,900,000,000

3,310,000,000

353,040,000

69

Foster Wheeler AG

Switzerland

NASDAQ: FWLT

3,110,000,000

3,310,000,000

97,170,000

70

USA

NYSE: BWC

3,070,000,000

3,270,000,000

346,080,000

Spain

Spanish: GAM

2,490,000,000

3,220,000,000

61,990,000

72

Babcock & Wilcox Company


Gamesa Corporation Tecnologica
Sociedad Anonima
KSB AG

Germany

German: KSB

480,920,000

3,090,000,000

90,420,000

73

Dresser-Rand

USA

NYSE: DRC

6,260,000,000

3,030,000,000

168,400,000

74

England

London: IMI

5,310,000,000

2,870,000,000

369,170,000

USA

NYSE: WAB

7,600,000,000

2,740,000,000

315,410,000

76

IMI PLC
Westinghouse Air brake
Technologies Corporation
McDermott International

USA

NYSE: MDR

912,510,000

2,660,000,000

-516,910,000

77

Tetra Technologies Inc

USA

NASDAQ:TTEK

1,720,000,000

2,610,000,000

-2,140,000

78

Aggreko PLC

Scotland

London: AGK

6,240,000,000

2,590,000,000

405,600,000

79

Elecnor SA

Spain

Spanish: ENO

976,310,000

2,570,000,000

73,360,000

80

Curtiss Wright Corporation

USA

NYSE: CW

3,320,000,000

2,510,000,000

137,980,000

81

Sunpower Corporation

USA

NASDAQ: SPWR

4,180,000,000

2,510,000,000

95,590,000

82

ITT Corporation

USA

NYSE: ITT

4,130,000,000

2,500,000,000

488,500,000

83

Senvion SE

Germany

German: RPW

1,760,000,000

2,480,000,000

27,960,000

84

Kuka AG

Germany

German: KUKA

2,140,000,000

2,440,000,000

80,260,000

85

Crompton Greaves Limited

India

Bombay: CROMPTON

1,910,000,000

2,250,000,000

40,800,000

86

Baoding Tianwei Yingli


New Energy Resouces Co. Ltd.

China

NYSE:YGE

459,320,000

2,200,000,000

-318,110,000

87

Rexnord Corporation

USA

NYSE: RXN

2,990,000,000

2,080,000,000

30,200,000

88

Nordex SE

Germany

XETRA NDX1

1,370,000,000

1,970,000,000

14,100,000

89

Precision Drilling Corporation

Canada

Toronto: PD

2,440,000,000

1,900,000,000

178,710,000

90

Japan Steel Works LTD

Japan

Tokyo: 56310

1,320,000,000

1,840,000,000

54,750,000

91

Vossloh AG

Germany

XETRA: VOS

771,190,000

1,820,000,000

20,650,000

92

RPC Group PLC

England

London :SETS RPC

1,640,000,000

1,740,000,000

46,580,000

93

Petroleum-Geo Services ASA

Norway

Oslo: PGS

1,080,000,000

1,500,000,000

238,300,000

94

Circor International, Inc.

USA

NYSE: CIR

1,330,000,000

857,810,000

47,120,000

95

Advanced Energy Industries, Inc

USA

NASDAQ: AEIS

789,890,000

547,000,000

32,090,000

96

Global Power Equipment Group

USA

NASDAQ: GLPW

233,400,000

484,220,000

11,790,000

97

Jinpan International Limited

USA

NASDAQ: JST

126,090,000

230,660,000

16,930,000

98

SL Industries Inc

USA

NYSE: MKT SLI

186,480,000.00

204,690,000

8,240,000

99

Sifco Industries

USA

NYSE: SIF

184,150,000

116,000,000

10,230,000

France

Eurnext Paris:TEC

8,140,000,000

12,850,000

775,160,000

71

75

100 Technip

** Financials from Most Recent Fiscal Year


28

**Market Cap as of November 4th, 2014


www.power-eng.com

POWER-GEN 200 : TOP 100 POWER PRODUCERS


#

Company Name

GDF Suez

Company
Country
France

Enel Spa

Italy

Kyushu Electric Company

Company Symbol

Total Generation Capacity (MW)

Market Capitalization (USD)

Gross Revenue (USD)

Euronext Paris: GSZ

113,700

54,270,000,000

122,930,000,000

Italian ENEL

95,000

45,820,000,000

106,350,000,000

Japan

Tokyo: 95080

91,280

N/A

17,420,000,000

Korea Electric Power Corporation

South Korea

Korea: 015760

65,380

27,510,000,000

50,520,000,000

Tokyo electric power company, inc

Japan

Tokyo: 95010

64,500

4,960,000,000

64,500,000,000

E.On AG

Germany

German EOAN

61,090

32,190,000,000

168,580,000,000

Duke Energy Corporation

USA

NYSE: DUK

57,700

56,790,000,000

24,600,000,000

Huaneng Power International

China

NYSE: HNP

54,930

16,200,000,000

21,720,000,000

Comision federal de electricidad (CFE)

Mexico

Mexican: CFE10

52,500

N/A

24,350,000,000

10

NRG Energy Inc

USA

NYSE: NRG

52,470

10,040,000,000

11,300,000,000

11

RWE AG

Germany

German: RWE

49,000

21,070,000,000

70,750,000,000

12

Electricite de france

France

Euronext Paris: EDF

48,000

52,580,000,000

104,060,000,000

13

Iberdrola Sociedad Anonima

Spain

Spanish: IBE

46,590

43,500,000,000

45,160,000,000

14

Centrica PLC

England

London: CAN

46,000

24,650,000,000

43,810,000,000

15

The Southern Company

USA

NYSE: SO

45500

42,460,000,000

17,090,000,000

16

Nextera Energy Inc

USA

NYSE: NEE

42,500

42,920,000,000

15,140,000,000

17

Endesa SA

Spain

Spanish: ELE

39,700

40,240,000,000

40,850,000,000

18

NTPC Limited

India

Bombay NTPC

39,670

19,560,000,000

12,030,000,000

19

Datang International Power Generation

China

Hong Kong: 0991

39,190

6,460,000,000

12,310,000,000

20

Gazprom

Russia

Russian: GAZP

38,240

75,020,000,000

160,070,000,000

21

Taiwan Power (taipower)

Taiwan

GreTai: B903QA

38,080

N/A

19,750,000,000

22

American Electric Power Company (AEP)

USA

NYSE: AEP

37,600

27,630,000,000

15,360,000,000

23

hydro-quebec

Canada

German: 04QA

36,970

N/A

12,040,000,000

24

The Kansai Electric Power Company

Japan

Tokyo: 95030

35,760

8,040,000,000

32,360,000,000

25

Exelon Corporation

USA

NYSE: EXC

35,000

30,700,000,000

24,890,000,000

26

AES Corporation

USA

NYSE: AES

35,000

9,930,000,000

15,890,000,000

27

Entergy Corporation

USA

NYSE: ETR

34,600

14,750,000,000

11,390,000,000

28

Chubu Electric Power Co, INC

Japan

Tokyo: 95020

32,830

8,260,000,000

27,640,000,000

29

USA

NYSE: CPN

28,100

8,840,000,000

6,300,000,000

Hong Kong

Hong Kong: 836

26,000

12,870,000,000

8,980,000,000

China

Hong Kong: 1071

25,780

5,910,000,000

10,900,000,000

32

Calpine Corporation
China Resources Power
Holdings Company Limited
Huadian Power International
Corporation Limited
China Yangtze Power Co. Ltd

China

Shanghai: 600900

25,300

21,140,000,000

3,710,000,000

33

Dominion Resources, Inc

USA

NYSE: D

23,600

41,210,000,000

13,120,000,000

34

EDP

Portugal

Euronext Lisbon: EDP

22,000

15,090,000,000

22,750,000,000

35

CLP Holdings Limited

Hong Kong

Hong Kong 0002

20,000

21,270,000,000

13,480,000,000

36

Ppl Corporation

USA

NYSE: PPL

19,000

22,940,000,000

11,860,000,000

37

China Shenhua Energy Company

China

Hong Kong: 1088

18,000

53,800,000,000

46,430,000,000

38

Firstenergy Corp

USA

NYSE: FE

17,850

15,250,000,000

14,920,000,000

39

Tohoku Electric Power Company, INC

Japan

Tokyo: 95060

17,000

N/A

19,830,000,000

40

Xcel Energy

USA

NYSE: XEL

17,000

16,630,000,000

10,910,000,000

41

Enersis SA

Chile

NYSE: ENI

15,850

15,448,000,000

11,920,000,000

42

Gas Natural SDG SA

Spain

GAS

15,400

27,970,000,000

34,370,000,000

43

Finland

OMX Helsinki: FUM1V

15,130

20,050,000,000

8,340,000,000

Hong Kong

Hong Kong: 2380

14,820

3,830,000,000

3,080,000,000

45

Fortum Oyj
China Power International
Development Limited
Empresa Nacional de Electrididad S.A

Chile

NYSE: EOC

13,850

12,410,000,000

3,860,000,000

46

Public Service Enterprise Group Inc

USA

NYSE: PEG

13,230

20,020,000,000

9,970,000,000

47

Public Power Corporation

Greece

London: PPCD

12,760

5,800,000,000

8,220,000,000

48

EnBW Energie Baden-Wurttemburg AG

Germany

XETRA: EBK

12,650

9,120,000,000

28,280,000,000

49

Edison SPA

Italy

Italian: EDN

12,100

3,340,000,000

17,960,000,000

50

Chugoku Electric Power Co.

Japan

Tokyo: 95040

11,800

N/A

12,220,000,000

30
31

44

**Financials from most recent fiscal year inputted 10/27/2014


www.power-eng.com

**Market Cap as of 10/27/2014


29

POWER-GEN 200 : TOP 100 POWER PRODUCERS


#

Company Name

51

Constellation Energy Group Inc

Company
Country
USA

52

Scottish and Southern Energy

Scotland

53

DTE Energy

54

Company Symbol

Total Generation Capacity (MW)

Market Capitalization (USD)

Gross Revenue (USD)

N/A see Exelon

11,750

7,530,000,000

1,000,000,000

London SSE

11,300

24,600,000,000

50,880,000,000

USA

NYSE: DTE

11,080

14,190,000,000

9,660,000,000

A2A Spa

Italy

Italian : A2A

10,800

3,000,000,000

7,420,000,000

55

Ameren Coporation

USA

NYSE: AEE

10,270

10,010,000,000

5,840,000,000

56

TransAtla Corporation

USA

NYSE:TAC

8,950

2,670,000,000

2,140,000,000

57

Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc

Japan

Tokyo: 95090

8,390

N/A

6,130,000,000

58

Hokuriku Electric Power Company

Japan

Tokyo: 95050

8,110

N/A

4,960,000,000

59

Verbund AG

Austria

Vienna: VER

7,700

N/A

4,380,000,000

60

USA

NYSE: PCG

7,640

22,240,000,000

15,600,000,000

Brazil

Pink Sheets: CESQ

7,460

2,940,000,000

1,650,000,000

62

PGE Corporation
CESP- Companhia
Energetica de Sao Paulo
Westar Energy Inc

USA

NYSE: WR

7,200

4,770,000,000

2,370,000,000

63

Shikoku Electric Power Company, Inc

Japan

Tokyo: 95070

6,960

2,470,000,000

6,190,000,000

64

OGE Energy Corp

USA

NYSE: OGE

6,780

7,340,000,000

2,870,000,000

65

Dynegy Inc

USA

NYSE: DYN

6,770

40,000,000

1,470,000,000

66

Companhia Energetica de Mina Gerais

Brazil

Sao Paulo: CMIG3

6,700

7,860,000,000

6,190,000,000

67

Osaka Gas Co LTD

Japan

Tokyo: 95320

6,640

7,960,000,000

14,710,000,000

68

Great Plains Energy Inc

USA

NYSE: GXP

6,600

4,040,000,000

2,450,000,000

69

Ratchaburi Electricity Generating


Holding Public Company Limited

Thailand

Thailand: RATCH

6,540

2,670,000,000

1,540,000,000

70

Pinnacle West Capital Corporation

USA

NYSE: PNW

6,370

6,530,000,000

3,450,000,000

71

CMS Energy Corporation

USA

NYSE: CMS

6,130

8,860,000,000

6,570,000,000

72

Wisconsin Energy

USA

NYSE: WEC

6,020

10,960,000,000

4,520,000,000

73

Origin Energy Limited

Australia

Austrailian: ORG

6,010

13,840,000,000

13,670,000,000

74

Enel Green Power SPA

Italy

Italian: EGPW

6,000

11,790,000,000

3,800,000,000

75

Edison International

USA

NYSE: EIX

5,570

19,760,000,000

12,580,000,000

76

Companhia Paranaense de Energia

Brazil

Sao Paulo: CPLE3

5,360

3,540,000,000

3,890,000,000

77

Alpiq Holding AG

Switzerland

Swiss: AT-N

5,270

N/A

10,730,000,000

78

Scana Corporation

USA

NYSE: SCG

5,270

7,580,000,000

4,500,000,000

79

Eni SPA

Italy

Italian: ENI

5,200

75,790,000,000

159,800,000,000

80

Alliant Energy Corporation

USA

NYSE: LNT

4,900

6,700,000,000

3,280,000,000

81

Teco Energy, Inc

USA

NYSE:TE

4,670

4,500,000,000

2,850,000,000

82

Drax Group PLC

England

London: DRX

4,000

3,870,000,000

3,400,000,000

83

Hidroelectricica del cantabrico SA

Spain

N/A See EDP

4,000

N/A

2,390,000,000

84

DPL Inc

USA

NYSE: DPL

3,800

N/A

1,640,000,000

85

Nisource INC

USA

NYSE: NI

3,000

13,170,000,000

5,660,000,000

86

Colbun S.A

Chile

Chile: COLBUN

3,000

N/A

1,700,000,000

87

Avista Corporation

USA

NYSE: AVA

2,920

2,220,000,000

1,620,000,000

88

Portland General Electric

USA

NYSE: POR

2,780

2,620,000,000

1,810,000,000

89

Cleco Corporation

USA

NYSE: CNL

2,570

3,220,000,000

1,110,000,000

90

PNM Resources Inc

USA

NYSE: PNM

2,540

2,780,000,000

1,390,000,000

91

Hawaiian Electric Industries Inc

USA

NYSE: HE

2,330

2,820,000,000

3,240,000,000

92

UNS Energy

USA

Parent Company: FTS

2,250

2,530,000,000

1,480,000,000

93

Pampa Energia

Argentina

NYSE: PAM

2,220

552,530,000

818,920,000

94

Guangzhou Development Group

China

Shanghai: 60098

2,100

2,380,000,000

2,720,000,000

95

Atlantic Power Corporation

USA

NYSE: AT

2,030

277,640,000

551,700,000

96

El Paso Electric Company

USA

NYSE: EE

1,850

1,510,000,000

890,360,000

97

Sempra Energy

USA

NYSE: SCG

1,500

26,520,000,00

10,560,000,000

98

The Hub Power Company LTD

Pakistan

Karachi: HUBC

1,460

N/A

1,680,000,000

99

The Empire District Electric Company

USA

NYSE: EDE

1,380

1,170,000,000

594,330,000

100

Vectren Corporation

USA

NYSE: VVC

1,300

3,620,000,000

2,490,000,000

61

**Financials from most recent fiscal year inputted 10/27/2014


30

**Market Cap as of 10/27/2014


www.power-eng.com

SAVE THE DATE


DEC. 810, 2015
LAS VEGAS CONVENTION CENTER
LAS VEGAS, NV
POWER-GEN.COM

THE WORLDS

LARGEST
POWER GENERATION EVENT

OWNED & PRODUCED BY:

PRESENTED BY:

SUPPORTED BY:

For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS#11

INTEGRATION

The Western Grid


Can Weather
Disturbances Under
High Renewable
Penetrations
BY KARA CLARK, NATIONAL
RENEWABLE ENERGY LABORATORY,
AND NICHOLAS W. MILLER, MIAOLEI
SHAO, SLOBODAN PAJIC, AND ROBERT
DAQUILA, GE ENERGY CONSULTING

new report finds that,


with good system planning, sound engineering
practices, and commercially available technologies, the Western Interconnection can
withstand the crucial first minute after
grid disturbances with high penetrations of wind and solar on the grid.
The report by the U.S. Department
of Energys National Renewable Energy
Laboratory and GE Energy Consulting
is titled The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study Phase 3
(W WSIS-3)Frequency
Renewable Generation Summary for All Study Scenarios
Response and Transient
Heavy
Stability Study.
Light
Light Spring Light Spring
WECC-Wide Summary
Summer
Spring
High Mix
Extreme
Large-scale transient
Base
stability and frequency
Wind (GW)
20.9
27.2
32.6
5.6
response are critical to
Utility-Scale PV (GW)
3.9
10.2
13.5
1.2
grid reliability, particuCSP (GW)
0.9
8.4
8.3
0.4
larly for the Western
Interconnection, which
Distributed PV (GW)
0
7.0
10.4
0.0
has a long history of
Total
25.7
52.8
64.8
7.2
dynamic performance
(1)
Penetration
21%
44%
53%
4%
constraints on its operation. The new report spe- (1) Penetration is the instantaneous % of total generation (not an annual average).
cifically addresses the dynamic performance of the Western Interconnection
with high penetrations of renewable
32

TABLE 1
Heavy Summer
High Mix
14.3
11.2
6.6
9.4
41.5
20%

www.power-eng.com

energy. The report examines a range of


scenarios with instantaneous renewable energy penetrations of up to 53
percent (see Table 1), under both light
spring and heavy summer load conditions. For each scenario, it analyzes grid
performance in the tens of seconds following a large grid disturbance, such as
a loss of a large power plant or major
transmission line.
For modeling the renewable energy
systems, all new wind plants and utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plants were
modeled as asynchronous machines
with voltage regulation and low-voltage
ride through (LVRT), while concentrating solar power (CSP) plants were modeled as synchronous machines without
governor response.
All new distributed PV was modeled
using the WECC composite load model.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE
AFTER GENERATION LOSS
Frequency response is the overall
response of the grid to large, sudden
mismatches between generation and
load. The primary concern is that the
minimum frequency, or nadir, during
design-basis disturbances should not
cause under-frequency load shedding
(UFLS), which means dropping customers from the grid. In the West, the
first stage of UFLS is normally at 59.5
Hz. Based on standards developed by
the North American Electric Reliability
Corporation (NERC), the Western Interconnection must also comply with
a frequency response obligation (FRO)
of 840 MW/0.1 Hz, which means that
the power output from all generators
should increase by 840 MW for a frequency drop of 0.1 Hz.
Without special operation or controls, wind and solar plants do not
inherently participate in the regulation of grid frequency. By contrast,
synchronous machines always contribute to system inertia, and some fraction of the synchronous generation in
operation at any point has governor
www.power-eng.com

controls enabled. When wind and solar generation displaces conventional


synchronous generation, the mix of
the remaining synchronous generators changes and has the potential to
adversely impact overall frequency response.
This analysis focused on spring
conditions when the loads are light,
because the relatively low level of synchronous power generation may present a challenge for frequency response.
It also focused on the single largest
design-basis generation outage in the
Western Interconnection: the trip of
two fully-loaded Palo Verde nuclear
power station units for a loss of about
2,750 MW.
The subsequent frequency excursion
is severe, as shown in Figure 1, but in
all cases, the frequency nadirs avoid
UFLS relay action, which begins at 59.5
Hz. The frequency nadir is 59.67 Hz in
the base case (blue line), 59.65 Hz for
the high renewable case (green line),
and 59.61 Hz for the extremely high
renewable case (red line).

In addition, the interconnectionwide frequency response meets its obligation (840 MW/0.1 Hz) in all three
cases. However, portions of the system
that rely primarily on thermal generation tend to fall short of meeting their
approximate FRO with their own generation resources, especially in the case
with a high mix of renewable energy.
This occurs because that thermal generation was displaced by wind and
solar, which do not provide frequency
response unless equipped with specific
controls. Other regions, particularly
the Northwest, far exceed their approximate FRO due to high levels of responsive hydropower.

RENEWABLE GENERATORS
CAN CONTRIBUTE TO
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
Despite the encouraging results of
the frequency-response evaluation,
WWSIS-3 also examined ways that
renewable generation sources could
contribute to frequency response and
grid stability. Specifically, the report

Frequency response to the loss of two Palo Verde


units under light spring system conditions.

33

INTEGRATION
Frequency response to two Palo Verde unit trips for high
mixes of renewable energy under light loads, with three
combinations of frequency controls on wind plants.

examined frequency-responsive controls on wind and utility-scale PV


plants.
For wind plants, one option examined was inertial control, which involves extracting additional energy
from the wind plant for a short period
of time, drawing on the momentum of
the spinning blades and slowing them
down momentarily. The downside of
this approach is that power production subsequently dips as the turbines
regain speed. The study found that inertial control provided a substantial
improvement in keeping the frequency
nadir above the UFLS, but the energyrecovery period tends to stretch out
the frequency depression over time.
Governor controls involve intentionally curtailing wind plant output
, holding this extra power production
in reserve for frequency response. In
this case, a 5 percent curtailment was
applied only to the new wind plants,
creating an overall curtailment of only
1 percent of the total wind production. Using a governor or active power
34

a long history of constraints due to


transient stability limitations that vary
depending on system characteristics,
such as the level of electricity demand
(e.g., peak summer load), the amount
of power flowing on the transmission
system (e.g., heavy flows on critical
paths), and the location of generating
plants in operation (e.g., remote from
population centers). Large penetrations of inverter-based, or non-synchronous, wind and solar generation
may substantially alter the systems
stability, so this analysis focused on
heavy load conditions and outages
that stress major interfaces in the West.
One of the major vulnerabilities is
in the power flows from the Northwest to Southern California, because a
limited number of pathways exist. For
instance, the California-Oregon Interface (COI) is sensitive to disturbances
under high-flow conditions; the loss of
control alone greatly improved the set- another north-south route, the Pacific
tling frequency--the frequency that the DC Intertie, requires some generation
system ends up at after the transient re- to be tripped offline to recover. For
sponseand the frequency response, the base case, system performance debut had little impact on the nadir. grades significantly with the loss of the
However, the comPacific DC Intertie
bination of both the
under high power
The
Western
governor and inertial
flows on the COI,
control improved the Interconnection
and this dynamic is
frequency nadir, setnot fundamentally
has a long history
tling frequency, and
changed in the case
of
constraints
due
frequency response.
with a high mix of
Note that the wind to transient stability
renewable energy.
governor
controls limitations that vary.
To help address
were set to emulate
this problem, WWthose on conventionSIS-3 examined the
al generation. Both the wind governor use of governor response on all new
and inertial controls could be made CSP plants in the West. As shown in
more aggressive.
Figure 3, this enabled the system to reIn addition, WWSIS-3 examined cover without having to trip any genergovernor controls for new utility-scale ation offline. One reason that the CSP
PV plants (again requiring a 5% cur- plants provided such a benefit is that
tailment), and it found such controls most of them are located in Southern
also greatly improved frequency re- California, south of the COI, so they
sponse.
provide crucial power to that area
Improving Transient Stability
when it is cut off from power sources
The Western Interconnection has in the Northwest.
www.power-eng.com

Voltage response to a loss of the Pacific DC Intertie,


without tripping generation, with and without CSP
governor controls.

ADDRESSING COAL
DISPLACEMENT AND
WEAK GRID CONCERNS
IN WYOMING
As demonstrated by the transient
analysis, high penetrations of renewable energy on the Western Interconnection have a direct impact on how
the system functions, simply because
the geographic locations of the main
power sources will change. Specifically, a high mix of renewable energy
results in decreasing coal production
in the Desert Southwest (Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico, Colorado) and in
the northeast section of the interconnection, which includes Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming.
Because that northeast region currently features significant power
production from coal, the high-mix
scenario results in more than an 80%
reduction in coal production for this

www.power-eng.com

For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS#12


35

INTEGRATION
Bus voltage for a fault at Aeolus under varying
particular condition in the spring,
penetrations of renewable energy, with and without
4
when loads are light. The transmissynchronous
condenser
conversion
sion system in that region was designed
based on the size and location of the
large coal power plants, which thus
became critical nodes in the network.
As a result, the transmission system
operators have historically counted on
those plants to provide the voltage and
reactive power support needed for reliable operation. Displacement of those
central plants by more dispersed wind
and solar generation results in those
nodes being poorly supported. Not
surprisingly, local voltage and thermal
problems occur, and good planning
practices need to be followed.
However, despite such challenges,
WWSIS-3 found that under the highmix scenario, an extra-high-voltage
fault at Aeolusa planned transmission line in the heart of the high-wind
area in the northeast regiondid not
lead to system instabilities. Of course,
the stress on the system becomes larger stabilized the system for the Aeolus
Mechanisms are also needed to alunder the extreme renewable energy fault with the conservative load and low balancing authorities to both
case, which causes a 90% reduction in wind plant modeling used. The syn- share frequency-responsive resources
coal commitment from the base case. chronous condenser conversion works and make sure that they have adequate
The rapid voltage collapse and system well to stabilize the system, which re- frequency-responsive resources within
separation during the fault, as shown covers in an orderly fashion when the their control. From a transient stability
in Figure 4, is representative of so- fault is cleared (see Figure 4).
perspective, the system appears to tolcalled weak grid issues.
erate substantial displacement of therSystems with very high levels of in- CONCLUSIONS
mal generation. However, care will be
verter-based generation are challenged
WWSIS-3 did not identify any fun- needed in the event that portions of
to provide fast, confident control dur- damental reasons why the Western the system are driven to a near-zero
ing faults and other
I n t e r c o n n e c t i o n commitment of coal plants.
disturbances.
No The fact that
cannot meet tranThe fact that the Western Interconcommercially availsient stability and nection can handle such high penetrathe Western
able wind or utilityfrequency response tions of renewable energy bodes well
scale PV generation is Interconnection
objectives with high for coming years, as our nation shifts
capable of operation can handle such
levels of wind and to cleaner, lower-carbon sources of enin a system without
solar
generation. ergy to address climate change, local
high penetrations
the stabilizing benHowever, good sys- air pollution, and other concerns. It is
efit of synchronous of renewable
tem planning and also encouraging to see how renewable
machines. Therefore, energy bodes well. power system en- energy can contribute to frequency
some mitigation was
gineering practices and transient response, resulting in a
required. The conversion of some coal must be followed. At a minimum, lo- more reliable power grid.
plants to synchronous condensers and cal voltage and thermal problems will
The full report is available for free
the addition of mechanically switched inevitably require some transmission download at: http://www.nrel.gov/
shunt
compensation
successfully system improvements.
docs/fy15osti/62906.pdf.
36

www.power-eng.com

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Gas Turbine Air


Filter System
Optimization
BY JAMES DICAMPLI, P.E., AND JACK PAN, GE POWER AND WATER,
AND MARK ARSENAULT, AMERICAN AIR FILTER

Aeroderivative gas turbine ventilation and combustion air filter systems are designed to protect the gas
turbine, generator, and equipment
www.power-eng.com

LM6000 Gas Turbine Generator Air Flow

Bolt-on Coil Section

Composite
Flter
Coil
Section Canisters

Ambient
Air In
Generator Cooling
Air Exhaust
Enclosure
Generator
Ventilation Enclosure
Air Exhaust
Exciter

Generator

Turbine
Exhaust
Guard Filters

Combustion Air
Ventilation
Air

Fan

Drift Eliminator

AIR FILTRATION
AND CONDITIONING
OVERVIEW

compartments from the effects of airborne dirt, contamination and foreign


objects. A number of inlet conditioning options are also available to maximize gas turbine performance.
GE Distributed Power gas turbines

Drift Eliminator

roper air filtration is critical to the overall performance and reliability of


gas turbines. Fuel costs
approach 80 percent of
the life cycle cost of electricity. Small
gains in efficiency can mean huge savings. With fuel costs of around $16.00/
mmBTU and higher in certain global
regions, operational savings can be
achieved through improved compressor performance using High Efficiency
(HEPA) air filters. Operators can see
greatly reduced maintenance costs as a
result of a much cleaner engine, quantified by less frequent inspections,
fewer shutdowns, and higher availability. HEPA filtration can maintain optimum GT efficiency throughout the life
of the filter. This article investigates
the decision criteria required in selecting an optimum air filtration solution,
with the goal of maximizing gas turbine availability and lowering operating costs. Through case studies and
analysis, essential filter parameters
and their impact on gas turbine operations and maintenance are reviewed.

filter house is comprised of weather


hoods, filter elements, chiller or antiicing coils, and plenum chamber assembly. Air from the plenum assembly
is ducted to the turbine engine intake
for combustion and to the turbine and
generator compartments for cooling
and ventilation. An external ladder
and walkway with access doors to the
air filter structure enables filter servicing.
A temperature element in the air fil-

Ambient
Air In

Fan

Enclosure
Ventilation
Air Exhaust

Turbine
Enclosure
Gear
Box

use a three-section inlet air filter that


mounts directly above the turbine enclosure, conserving space and providing compact, low-pressure loss ducting
to the turbine inlet. Figure 1 provides
an illustrative example.
The ventilation and combustion air
system consists of a filter house structure, roof-mounted silencers, fans, and
associated ductwork all located on the
turbine and generator enclosures. The

ter house combustion air section provides inlet temperature information to


the control system. Relative humidity
sensors measure moisture in the air
before it enters the filter housing and
activates an alarm if icing conditions
exist.
Pressure transmitters sense the pressure difference between the outside air
and the combustion air inlet plenum.
For example, on a GE LM6000, if the
37

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE


Summary For Investigated Sites
Site Location

Environment

Engine Model

USA

Continental

Lm2500+G4

Russia

Continental
Industrial(Aerosol,
Particles)

Lm2500+G4
Lm2500+G4

Static Air Filter; Additional Filter: PreFilter, Weather Hoods, Guard Filter

Synthetic Panel(F8)

Continental

Lm2500+G4

Static Air Filter; wAdditional Filter: PreFilter, Weather Hoods, Guard Filter

Synthetic Panel(F8)

Lm2500+

Static Air Filter: Pre-Filter, Duracel


Xl90, Hepa

G4, F8, H12

Lm2500+G4

Asc Pulse Filter, Hepa

F8, H12

Italy
Belgium
China Site 1
China Site 2

Heavy Industrial
(Aerosol, Particles)
Heavy Industrial
(Aerosol, Particles)

Source:

differential pressure reaches 5 in-Wg


(-127 mm), the control system activates an alarm, an indication of filter
clogging. If the differential pressure
reaches 8 in-Wg (-203 mm), the control system activates a load reduction.
Another pressure differential transmitter monitors total pressure drop at the
ventilation air plenum and activates
an alarm if the pressure differential
reaches -5 in-Wg (-127 mm).
Ventilation air is ducted from the
ventilation plenum directly into the
turbine compartment. One of the two
turbine compartment fan assemblies
draws air from the inlet air filtration
system through the turbine compartment and expels it to an air exhaust
stack that is equipped with a silencer
limiting the transmitted noise.

COMPONENT
DESCRIPTION
Weather Hoods and Drift
Eliminators
Air entering the filter house first
passes through (optional) weather
hoods, drift eliminators and inlet
screens. Weather hoods protect filters
from rain, snow and sun. Weather
hoods are bolted to the inlet side of
the left and right coil assemblies (for
dual inlet systems). Weather hoods
prevent rain and snow from entering
the inlet filter house by drawing inlet
air upward at lower velocities than that
38

1
Air Filter

Filter Type

Static Air Filter; Additional Filter: PreFilter, Weather Hoods, Guard Filter
Static Air Filter

of falling rain and snow. Snow hoods


and tropical rain hoods are available
for snowy or tropical environments.
Inertial moisture separators (vane type
separators) are also available to prevent heavy rain or heavy fog mist from
entering the filter house.
Filters
A multi-stage filtration system is
available which includes a guard filter upstream of the chiller coils and a
set of composite canister barrier or
panel-type filters located downstream
of the coils. The guard filters (also
known as pre-filters) keep the chiller
coils clean for maximum heat transfer
efficiency and provides supplementary
filtration to extend the service life of
the composite fine filters.
The fine filter elements are mounted
to the filter face of the inlet plenum
and extend into the clean air plenum.
The elements have extended surface
area, large dirt-holding capacity and
low-pressure drop.
Air passes through the fine filters
and enters the clean air plenum. This
fabricated structure is the center section of the inlet filter assembly and
separates ventilation air from combustion air. Combustion air flows
through a transition duct from the
clean air plenum to the combustion
air inlet silencer. Ventilation air flows
through transition ducts to the turbine
and generator compartment. The inlet

Synthetic Panel
Synthetic Panel(F8)

silencer is a low-pressure-drop device


located in the combustion air stream
before the inlet volute. The silencer
attenuates noise from the turbine and
helps maintain the units low noise
level.
Inlet Cooling and Heating
Air conditioning options include
evaporative coolers or optional inlet
air chiller coils to maximize gas turbine performance on hot days. Conversely, coils can be used for anti-icing
and/or optimizing efficiency during
partial power operations.
The evaporative cooling system uses
the process of evaporation to create
a reduction in inlet air temperature.
Water is pumped to a header that distributes the water over media blocks
that consist of corrugated layers of a
fibrous material. Air passing through
channels comes into contact with the
falling water causing a portion of the
water to evaporate, transferring heat
from the air to the water.
Static and Pulse Filter Options
The correct type of filter (pulse or
static) should be used for the specific
project environmental conditions and
specific contaminants.
In general, a pulse or self-cleaning
type inlet air filter should be used
when the dust loading approaches
0.300 mg/m3 or higher, or when operating in conditions where dust or sand
storms can occur. The ambient air can
www.power-eng.com

be tested using a direct read-out device, such as a laser photometer that


counts particulates in the air sample.
The American Air Filter ASC Pulse
filter system utilizes a unique inertial
separation system that diverts over 90
percent of the dust particles from the
gas turbine inlet into a secondary air
system, via negative pressure. The remaining particles are captured on the

requires (e.g., based on filter pressure


drop, ambient relative humidity, hourly, daily, or even continuously). For
example, a common recommendation
for an installation in a cement factory,
is to minimize caking on the filters by
automatically pulsing the filters whenever the relative humidity is greater
than 80 percent.
Pulse filters are also utilized when

Particle Test Result at China Sites


1,200,000

Particle Count

1,000,000

Site 1 June 2011

WATER WASH

Site 1 October 2011

Fouling deposits on gas turbine


compressor airfoils reduce engine performance output. The water wash system provides a mechanism for cleaning engine compressor blades. The aim
is to recover power output and heat
rate performance by restoring the compressors flow capacity and efficiency.
There are many types of compressor
fouling. The type and rate of fouling depend on the environment in which the
gas turbine operates and the efficiency
level of the inlet filtration. Among the
most common types of contaminants
are dirt or soil, sand, coal dust, insects,
salt, oil, and even turbine exhaust gas.
Salt also causes corrosion of blading
and ductwork and subsequent ingestion of rust and scale. Oil increases
the ability of contaminants to cling to
compressor passages and airfoils. The
type of material that is deposited on
the compressor blading influences the
method of its removal.
Keeping the compressor internals
clean can alleviate a number of problems before they ever become apparent. Besides the obvious benefits of
enhanced efficiency (increased power
output, lower compressor discharge
temperatures, etc.), keeping the compressor clean will help blades survive
longer.
If the compressor is dirty, additional
weight is added to the airfoil and this

Site 2 April 2011

800,000
600,000
400,000
200,000
0

0.3m

0.5m

surface of AAFs PanelPak filter element, which in turn is pulsed off the
filters when required.The AAF system
prevents re-entrapment of the pulsed
particles as they are expelled into the
same separation system during the
pulse cycle. This allows for continuous
operation of the GT during the pulse
cycle, while the design provides for a
lower pressure drop of the entire inlet system. AAF has over 900 of these
units in operation to date, in many industrial areas and locations with very
poor air quality.
Pulse filters can and have been successfully used in very dusty environments, such as steel mills, cement
plants, Middle East environments,
or areas where sand or dust storms
are prevalent, even with high humidity. The pulse controller can be
programmed to pulse as the loading
www.power-eng.com

0.7m
1.0m
Particle Size

pre-filters can become a maintenance


item and drive up costs over the life
of the project. For example, for areas
with a high hydrocarbon loading or
areas with cement dusts and frequent
high humidity, pleated composite type
pre-filters, rather than the more standard fibrous type, are often required to
prevent short barrier filter life. These
pre-filters are less expensive and must
be replaced (or possibly removed and
cleaned) at somewhat frequent intervals.

3.0m

5.0m

a turbine is being operated in an environment with significant loading of


snow or ice crystals. Although a static
filter can be used in these environments if there is a properly designed
conditioning system upstream (e.g.,
heating coils, bleed air or other hot
air conditioning), pulse systems are
the most reliable for preventing filters
plugging due to cold weather moisture.
Another advantage of pulse filter
systems, particularly for peak loading turbines, is that the filters can be
pulsed when the unit is not in operation, which provides maximum effectiveness to the pulse cleaning, so the
filters can be cleaned and ready for
the next start-up.
Static filters can be fitted with inexpensive pre-filters that can be replaced
and/or cleaned to extend the life of the
barrier elements. However, special

39

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Summary For Filter Change Cycle & Water Wash Cycles

Project
Location

Filter Change Cycle

Water Wash Cycle

Pre-Filter

Static/Pulse

(H)EPA

Online

Offline

USA
Russia

5.5 months
No change

11 months
No change

No (H)EPA
No (H)EPA

1-3 times/week
No

Italy

9.7 months

No change

No (H)EPA

No

Belgium
China Site 1
China Site 2

every 18 months
1 week-4 months

every 18 months
2 - 8 months
every 12 months

No (H)EPA
6 - 9 months
every 12 months

Every 2 days
No
No

every 2-3 months


every 2 months
every 3-4 weeks:
700-900 hours
every 6 months
every 5.5 months
every 5.5 months

Source:

increases the cyclic stress. Also, dirt in


the dovetail slots will add to the existing friction loading at the dovetail/slot
interface and between the two mechanisms making a blade dovetail failure
more likely. Performing thorough water washes with high quality ingredients on a regular basis with help combat these conditions.
Washing utilizes liquid detergents, a
concentrated solution of water soluble,
surface active agents and emulsifiable
solvents produced primarily for cleaning gas turbine compressors, where
the intent is to restore performance by
removing fouling buildup from compressor components.
Methods of Detection
The best method for detecting a
fouled compressor is visual inspection.
This involves shutting the unit down,
removing the inlet plenum inspection hatch, and visually inspecting
the compressor inlet, bellmouth, inlet
guide vanes, and early stage blading. If
there are any deposits, including dust
or oily deposits that can be wiped or
scraped off these areas, the compressor
is fouled sufficiently to affect performance. The initial inspection reveals
whether the deposits are oily or dry.
For oily deposits, a water-detergent
wash is required, followed by clean water rinses. The source of the oil should
be located and corrected before cleaning to prevent recurrence of the fouling.
40

Another method for detecting a influence on compressor efficiency.


fouled compressor is performance
There are no hard and fast rules for
monitoring. Performance monitor- when to crank-soak wash because the
ing involves obtaining gas turbine schedule must be tailored based on
data on a routine basis, which in turn type of atmospheric contaminants,
is compared to baseline data to moni- temperature, operational frequency,
tor trends in the performance of the gas turbine health, and site economgas turbine. The performance data is ics. In the absence of this information
obtained by running
a prudent strategy
the unit at a steady Keeping the
would be to crankbase load and recordsoak (off-line), wash
compressor
ing output, exhaust
every 2 weeks. High
temperatures, inlet internals clean can concentration of oily
air
temperatures, alleviate a number deposits and dust
barometric
presrequire more
of problems before will
sure, compressor disfrequent crank-soak
charge pressure and they ever become
washing.
temperature,
and apparent.
On-line washing
fuel consumption.
serves primarily to
The data should be taken carefully maintain gas turbine performance bewith the unit warmed up. If perfor- tween crank-soak washes. The primamance analysis indicates compressor ry effect of on-line wash is to remove
fouling, it should be verified by a vi- deposits on the blade which adhere
sual inspection.
by impact. Also, dust and dirt are reThe compressor cleaning operation moved on the pressure (concave) side
is conducted after turbine shut down of the blade but not on the suction side
(crank-soak cleaning) or while operat- which has a lesser influence on effiing (on-line cleaning).
ciency. For this reason, the use of waA consistent gas turbine water-wash ter for on-line wash is often as effective
strategy pays for itself many times over as a detergent solution. The higher the
in power and efficiency improvement. concentration of oil and tars, the less
A crank-soak wash is typically the effective on-line washing will be for
only means to remove most deposits, improving performance.
including oily or tarry deposits which
In the absence of site-specific inbind dirt to the blades. Because crank- formation, it would be beneficial to
soak wash cleans the suction (convex) on-line wash with water daily. Use of
side of the blade it has the greatest detergent should be based on testing
www.power-eng.com

Filter Change & Water Wash Data (Unit 2) China Site 1

10
9
8

Pressure Drop (Inch H20)

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Sep- 11

Nov- 11 Jan- 12

Mar-12

May- 12 Jul- 12

PreFilter

which demonstrates measurable benefits for the site. Visual inspection of


the rinse water is effectively used by
some sites to set the wash schedule. If
the rinse is mostly clear, the interval
can be extended.

FILTER CLASSIFICATION
Filtration systems are optimized to
minimize foreign contaminants entering the gas turbine, and are largely
based on the operating environment.
Seasonal pollutants, rain, ice and
snow, sand, dust, local industry exhausts, and other air contaminants
must be taken into consideration.
Filters are generally classified by several standard rating methods:
United States: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE) in standard 52.2: 2007.
Europe: European Standards EN
779: 2012 and EN 1822: 2009
(Parts 1 through 5).
High Efficiency Particulate Air
www.power-eng.com

Sep- 12

Nov- 12 Jan- 13 Mar- 13 May- 13

Duracel X90

HEPA Filter

filters ((H)EPA) filters are generally


defined as having an efficiency greater
than 85% for particles greater than or
equal to a filters Most Penetrating Particle Size (MPPS). The MPPS for a filter
varies depending upon the media, media velocity, configuration along with
other factors, but is primarily between
0.07 and 0.2 microns for filters used in
gas turbine inlet applications.

CASE STUDIES
Six General Electric Distributed
Power LM2X gas turbine sites were investigated. The environment of these
sites ranged from continental, relatively
clean air to heavy industrial sites with
significant amounts of hydrocarbon
aerosols and particulates. The air filter
configurations are listed in Table 1. The
usage of high efficiency filters as a 3rd
stage was installed at two of these sites,
both with very poor air quality.
The following sections summarize
each case.
U.S. Site

Jul- 13

Sep- 13

Nov- 13

Jan- 14

Mar- 14

Water wash

This site is an urban area with an interstate highway nearby. There are two
filter stages in this system, a pre-filter
and the AAF Duracel XL90N. The operator changed the pre-filters at 4,000
hrs and primary filters at 8,000 hrs.
Online water washing was completed
1-3 times/week as a proactive measure
to minimize off-line washes.
Off-line water washing has been
performed approximately every 3
months, equivalent to 2,000 hrs of operation. Offline washing takes about
one 8 hour shift, although it usually is
performed in conjunction with other
work to maximize overall availability.
The operational history has shown ~1
MW power loss after the three month
period.
Russian Site
The plant has been operating since
2012 in a relatively clean environment
and uses only one stage filter, a static
EU8.
Still, the HPC rotor blades and stator
vanes have rust colored deposits on the
41

OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE

Fifteen Year Return For HEPA Filtration, Base Load


Variable Title
3% Efficiency loss to wash
Fuel mmbtu/hr
MW
Fuel $/MMBtu
Sell price,$/(MW-hr)
# years
rate of return
run time, hr/yr
NPV w/o Cost
Equipment Cost Adder
NPV/3

Variable Value
330.6
35.732
16
15
15
0.15
8000
$7,423,260
-$34,440
$3,694,409.86

Year
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

Power Loss
Cashflow
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0
$0

3
Efficiency Raw
Cashflow
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504
$1,269,504

Net Adj Annual


Cashflow
$1,103,917
$959,927
$834,719
$725,843
$631,168
$548,842
$477,254
$415,003
$360,872
$313,802
$272,871
$237,279
$206,330
$179,417
$156,015

Source:

surface. Compressor residue samples


should be taken and analyzed at a lab
to identify the corrosion mechanism.
From this, changes to the filtration
system and/or wash detergent can be
recommended.
Italian Site
This site is a small industrial area,
but the air is generally clean. The unit
is running about half of the year.
There are 3 filter stages, two pre-filter stages and then the Duracel XL90N.
The pre-filter was changed at 7,000
hours because of high dP. Offline water wash is performed every 3-4 weeks,
or after 700-900 hours of operation.
The site does not perform any online
water washing, but conducts off line
water washes frequently to keep the
compressor efficiency high.
Belgium Site
The plant operates near a refinery.
The refinery fumes can be ingested by
the gas turbine, causing oil contamination of the filters. Both pre-filters
and fine filters are changed every 18
months. Offline water washing is
performed every 6 months unless the
42

power loss exceeds 1MW, then an addiThe 1st stage pre-filter change cycle
tional offline wash is performed. On- is 3-4 months from March through
line washing is generally performed October, then typically less than once/
every 2 days.
month from OctoChina Sites
ber through March.
The site analyses
The two China
The 2nd stage Duracel
showed
that
sites investigated are
change cycle is 4-8
in areas with very EPA filtration
months (Mar-Oct),
poor air quality. The results in cleaner
and from 1 week-2
particulate
count
months (Oct-Mar).
compressors,
and size are shown
This is because of
in Figure 2, taken at longer cycles
poor air quality in
different times of the between water
the winter months.
year.
The 3rd stage HEPA
washing,
and
The
particulate
filter change cycle is
count at the size level higher compressor
quite stable, every
of 0.3um and 0.5um efficiency.
6-9 months. Offline
make up 99% of the
water wash is percontamination. At this level the par- formed at every 4,000 hours and reticulates are captured by the 2nd and 3rd quires 8-10 hours to complete.
stage filters.
China Site 2
China Site 1
The plant has a pulse filter system,
There are 3 filter stages: 1st stage is a and there are 2 filter stages. The 1st
G4 pre-filter, the 2nd stage is a Duracel stage is an ASC Panel Pak element
F8, and the 3rd stage is a HEPA H12 fil- (F8), and the 2nd stage is a HEPA filter
ter. The filter change cycles and water (H12). The filter change cycle and wawash cycle are shown in Figure 3 for ter wash cycles are shown in Figure 4
Unit 2 at the site.
(Three gas turbines on site).
www.power-eng.com

Both the pulsed filter and HEPA filter have not been changed, and have
been running almost one year.
Filter pulsing has proved very effective in removing particles. Offline water wash is performed at every ~4,0005,000 hours.
No on-line water washing has been
conducted.

compressors, longer cycles between


water washing, and subsequently
higher compressor efficiency and plant
availability.
To illustrate the savings, costs are
normalized, and assumptions are
based on the site data summarized in
this article. It is assumed that there
is a 14 percent filter house cost adder

infrequent off-line water washing. (H)


EPA filtration yields higher compressor efficiencies over a longer period
saving fuel costs compared to non-(H)
EPA filtration systems.
Proper filtration is essential for gas
turbine peak performance. Selecting
the optimal filters and configuration is
based on operating and environmen-

Filter Change & Water Wash Data China Site 2

Pressure Drop (Inch H20)

7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Mar-13

Apr-13

May-13

Jun-13

Jul-13

Aug-13

Unit 1

Filter Change Cycle/ Water


Wash Cycle Analysis
The filter change cycle and water
wash cycle data is summarized in Table 2. Not surprisingly, better air quality sites do not have to change the prefilter as often. The filters at China site
2 performed better than those in China
site 1 due to the effectiveness of the
pulse cleaning mechanism. The water
wash cycle, both on- and off-line, at the
site with no (H)EPA is more frequent,
meaning more downtime at the plant.

CONCLUSIONS
The site analyses showed that
(H)EPA filtration results in cleaner
www.power-eng.com

Sep-13

Unit 2

Oct-13

Unit 3

Nov-13

Dec-13

Jan-14

Feb-14

Mar-14

Apr-14

Water wash

for (H)EPA filtration, and a negligible


power loss due to higher filter differential pressure. Further assume a 3
percent efficiency drop occurs linearly
over a 2 month period (non-(H)EPA)
or 6 month ((H)EPA). Base natural
gas price is $16/MMBtu (Asia) and
power sells for $15/MW-hr. Using (H)
EPA filtration, the loss of compressor efficiency is a rate 1/3 slower than
without. For a 32MW turbine, the net
present value is >$550k for a base-load
machine for one year and $3.7M over
15 years, as shown in Table 3. That
is, a net benefit for (H)EPA filtration.
Another $200k/year could be assumed
for increased operating time due to

tal factors. Subsequent data collected


since the case studies shows 1 percent
degradation in power loss with HEPA
over a years time. Improper filtration
will degrade turbine performance, including blade erosion, fouling, cooling
passage plugging, and corrosion. These
and other factors should be discussed
with your OEM turbine manufacturer
or filter supplier. Cost-benefit models
for specific operating environments
can be applied and account for filter
purchase price, fuel price, power sale
price, maintenance, inspections, wash
cycles, power degradation, heat rate
increase, pressure loss, labor costs and
down time.
43

44

www.power-eng.com

Installation of a high efficiency Roof Vent at Power


Plant. Photo courtesy: Moffitt Corp.

The Use of

NATURAL
VENTILATION
for

Power Plants

BY CHRIS SHEHEANE, CALDWELL/SHEHEANE INDUSTRIAL

n certain parts of the country, working inside of a power


plant during summer can be
very challenging on both personnel and equipment. Also,
the higher you go inside a power plant,
the hotter it gets. The closer you get to
the roof, you may start thinking, If we
could just cut a big hole in our roof, we
could get rid of this heat. Well, that
would be called natural ventilation.
Over the years, many industries
have discovered the benefits of natural
ventilation. While the steel industry
has utilized natural ventilation principles since its inception, industries such
as paper production and glass plants
to aluminum smelters and gypsum
plants have all seen the advantages
of natural ventilation as well. Power
plants however, have been slow to
adopt to this technology mainly due to
a lack of exposure and understanding
of a natural ventilation System and
its benefits. Such benefits include a reduction of plant energy consumption,
reduced maintenance costs in parts
www.power-eng.com

and labor and in some cases is viewed


as going green.
Oftentimes powered fans and equipment are used out of habit or common
sense. Natural ventilation was dismissed as unpredictable and the potential savings in the electric bill seemed
inconsequential. However, in the past
few years, due to many plants looking at ways to reduce their footprint as
well as costs, Power Plants have been
adopting natural ventilation. Power
plants are in the business of producing
and selling power and by using a natural ventilation system a plant can sell
more power rather than consuming it
to run a Mechanical System.
In fact, since 2010, Southern Company has put natural ventilation systems in place at 5 different plant sites.
They were installed at various plant
sites for various applications but the
ultimate goal at each site was to reduce
the heat load inside the building and to
help keep Plant personnel and equipment cool. In doing so, these plants
have seen a reduction of maintenance
45

costs that were associated with previous


mechanical systems. Plant personnel
do not have to change out moving parts
and pieces associated with mechanical
systems and now they are able to sell the
power that was being used to operate the
mechanical systems instead of consuming it. Over the course of a few years, this
equals significant savings to the plant.
One of the plants located in West
Alabama was having issues with the
heat inside of the Penthouse of a Precipitator. This power plant would get
very hot during the middle of the day
making it almost impossible for plant
staff to do maintenance work inside of
the Penthouse. These penthouses did
not have access to electricity so the
plant had to bring in generators for
lighting and ventilation purposes each
time they had to perform maintenance
work making it costly to the plant.
Temperatures inside the penthouses
would get up to around 115 degrees
in the late afternoons which only allowed the workers limited time inside
Installation of labyrinth roof vents on
penthouse of a precipitator. Photo courtesy:
Moffitt Corp.

46

to perform their work. By installing


weatherproof roof vents and wall louvers, the hot stagnant air was able to
more freely move about the facility.
Natural ventilation increased internal
airflow, leading to a cooler work floor
and more comfortable, more productive plant personnel. The Natural
ventilation system was able to reduce
the temperature inside by more than
20 degrees allowing plant personnel
to work continuously instead of on a
limited time basis as was the case before the installation. One of the other
benefits of adding the natural ventilation system was that it allowed natural
light into the Penthouses, therefore
the plant no longer needed to bring in
generators for lighting and ventilation
purposes.
Natural ventilation works on the
principles of gravity and natural air
flow. Warm air has a natural propensity to rise and placing a natural ventilator on the roof allows this warm air to
escape. This process is aided by placing wall louvers at the ground level to

push fresh, clean air into the building.


This creates an airflow cycle that then
pushes out the hot stagnant air at an
increased rate. A cycle of air, flowing
through the building helps keep the
interior environment and plant personnel cool.
Maintaining a consistently cool
temperature, and more importantly,
adapting to changes in temperature
are crucial for keeping a buildings
interior comfortable. As the day goes
on and the temperature increases, a
natural ventilation System is self-compensating with the cycle of air moving
through the building increasing as the
temperatures rise, keeping the interior
space cool.
Of course not every environment is
ideal for natural ventilation. There are
certain requirements to ensure that the
air will flow at the proper rate to make
natural ventilation effective. For instance, a building needs to be of a certain height (typically 24 feet and higher) to allow for a proper stack effect for
air movement. Additionally, natural

www.power-eng.com

ventilation works best in a facility that


is already producing its own heat. Of
course, power plants often meet these
requirements, making them good candidates for natural ventilation.
Advancements in technology, such
as computational fluid dynamics
(CFD), help better illustrate the effectiveness of natural ventilation. A CFD
analysis is an effective tool for determining how to best ventilate a building. By inputting the building dimensions, heat sources, and surrounding
areas, a CFD model can stimulate the
transfers of energy though the building. Utilizing thermal imaging technology CFD modeling helps determine the best design for a ventilation
system and depicts the results as easy
to interpret 3D models.
CFD modeling allows for a more effective ventilation solution to be made
for a given building. Various factors,
such as placement of vents and louvers, temperature changes, and weather conditions throughout the year can
all be tested before construction ever
takes place. This ability to better determine the necessary vent size and placement allows for natural ventilation
systems that are more effective than
ever before, greatly reducing hot-spots
and dead zones.
Utilizing the natural flow of air and
heat means a ventilation system with
no fans and in turn, no consumption
of electricity. Of course, many plant
managers will argue that electricity
costs are hardly an issue and that the
energy it takes to power fans is insignificant. However, with the push from
customers and local governments to
go green, reduce their footprint and be
more efficient, many facilities are seeing the benefits of implementing green
practices.
Energy costs are not the only
issue when it comes to a Mechanical
Ventilation System. Any fan or powered
ventilation system has moving parts
www.power-eng.com

and therefore needs maintenance and


repair more often. Whereas the failure
of a few fans can lead to the work
floor quickly becoming unbearable
or difficult to operate. We often walk
into a plant and find that many roof
fans are not in operation due to a lack
of maintenance. Changing belts or
replacing a motor on a rooftop fan can
get expensive and time consuming,
especially if the fan (or fans) are not
easy to access. Often times, these fans
will sit inoperable until a normally
scheduled PM takes place, therefore
creating higher temperatures inside
the building. A Natural ventilation
system is continuously operating with
no moving parts to break or wear
down. Wall louvers, roof vents and
other natural ventilation products last
for a long time before requiring any
attention or replacement.

Of course, for all of its benefits,


natural ventilation does not work in
all power plants. If the building is not
high enough to allow for proper air
flow, it would be a bad candidate for
natural ventilation. A certain height is
needed to ensure that the air will rise
through the building at the proper rate.
Additionally, a plant where the turbine
hall is enclosed would also be unable
to utilize natural ventilation. Other
issues such as environments with persistent bad weather or plants in certain
areas, will make natural ventilation a
poor option.
However, due to the advancements
in design technology, the increasing
need to reduce power consumption,
and the long-lasting life of the equipment, more and more power plants
are implementing natural ventilation
techniques.

Condenser Performance
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47

ShowcaSe advertiSing contact Jenna hall: 918-832-9249, Jennah@pennwell.com

| SUPPLIERS SHOWCASE

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Why Should You


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Brandenburg is the premier demolition and


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Engineering & Design

High Voltage Equipment

Iso Phase Bus

Crown Electric
Iso Phase Bus
Amec Foster Wheeler
designs, delivers and
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Call or Email for a quick quote


and fast track delivery of

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Phone660.596.7727
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www.energy-parts.com/power-eng

Fabrication
Installation
Upgrades & Uprates
GSU Change Outs
With pro-forma 2013 annualized
scope revenues of US$9 billion
and over 40,000 employees
in more than 50 countries, the
company operates across the
clean energy, power generation,
mining, pharma, environment
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513 539-7394 ext.


201
175 Edison Dr.
Middletown, OH 45044
www.crown-electric.com
sales@crown-electric.com

amecfw.com

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Quality and Service Since 1908

Ring Granulators, Reversible Hammermills,


Double Roll Crushers, Frozen Coal Crackers
for crushing coal, limstone and slag.
1319 Macklind Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110
Ph: (314) 781-6100 / Fax: (314) 781-9209
www.ampulverizer.com / E-Mail: sales@ampulverizer.com

For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 452

Weve got people.


The PennEnergy JOBS process puts your
recruitment message in front of the industrys
best talent whether its online, in print, or at an
event. This approach offers you the fexibility
to create custom recruitment advertising
campaigns best suited to meet your budget
and objectives.
| Learn More |
Visit: www.PennEnergyJOBS.com
Call: 1-800-738-0134

Get a thorough mix with:

Pugmill Systems, Inc.


P.O. Box 60
Columbia, TN 38402 USA
Ph: 931-388-0626 Fax: 931-380-0319

www.pugmillsystems.com
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 453

Classified advertising ContaCt Jenna Hall: 918-832-9249, JennaH@pennwell.Com

Eliminate valve cavitation by


placing one or more diffusers
downstream of the valve.
Noise and pipe vibration will
also be eliminated or reduced.
Valves first costs and maintenance burden
will also be
reduced.

Classified advertising ContaCt Jenna Hall: 918-832-9249, JennaH@pennwell.Com

| CLASSIFIEDS

FOR SALE/RENT

24 / 7 EMERGENCY SERVICE
BOILERS
20,000 - 400,000 #/Hr.

DIESEL & TURBINE GENERATORS


50 - 25,000 KW

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LARGEST INVENTORIES OF:


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FAX: 847-541-1279

visit www.wabashpower.com

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GEORGE H. BODMAN, INC.


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ESI Boi ler R enta ls , LL C

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email: blrclgdr@aol.com

Office (281) 359-4006


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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 457


CONDENSER & HEAT EXCHANGER TOOLS
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24/7 On-Call Service

John R Robinson Inc


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e-mail: sales@johnrrobinsoninc.com

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- Rental Boilers - Economizers - Deaerator Systems - Water Softener Systems -

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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 454

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Exothermic Engineering, LLC


Burner Management
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Has your Burner Management System
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email: dwood@staffing.net
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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 456

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For Classifed Advertising Rates & Information


Contact Jenna Hall
Phone - 918-832-9249, Jennah@pennwell.com

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Phone - 918-832-9249 | Jennah@pennwell.com

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For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 462

save the date!


the center of it all.

DECEMBER 8 - 10, 2015


LAS VEGAS CONVENTION CENTER
LAS VEGAS, NEVADA USA
W W W. C OA L - G E N . C O M

WE ARE PROUD TO ANNOUNCE THAT COAL-GEN IS JOINING

Covering every aspect of the power generation industry, POWER-GEN International, NUCLEAR
POWER International, Renewable Energy World Conference & Expo North America, POWER-GEN
Financial Forum, GenForum, and COAL-GEN converge in 2015 to form Power Generation Week.
Beneft from fve days packed with pre-conference workshops, technical tours, more than 100
conference sessions, panel discussions, three exhibition days and multiple networking events.
Gain access to nearly every facet of the market all under one roof.
For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS# 14

OWNED &
PRODUCED BY:

PRESENTED BY:

Classified advertising ContaCt Jenna Hall: 918-832-9249, JennaH@pennwell.Com

Braided
Wrap

CLASSIFIEDS |

CRITICAL EQUIPMENT
PROTECTION
SOLUTIONS

INDEX
RS# COMPANY

Buckman

PG#

RS# COMPANY

PG#

SALES OFFICE

17

15

1421 S. Sheridan Rd., Tulsa, OK 74112


Phone: 918-835-3161, Fax: 918-831-9834
e-mail: pe@pennwell.com

POWER-GEN Natural Gas

www.poer-gennaturalgas.com

14 COAL-GEN

51

Redecam

12 SEI Group

35

www.coal-gen.com

13 Conco Services Corporation 47


www.concosystems.com

10 Cormetech Inc

www.southernenvironmental.com

25

www.cormetech.com

15 Hilliard Corporation

C3

www.hilliardcorp.com

Hytorc Industrial Tools

Solvay Chemicals Inc

C2

www.solvair.us

Victory Energy Operations, LLC9


www.victoryenergy.com

23

Westinghouse Electric Co.

www.westinghousenuclear.com

Ljungstrom Division
of Arvos Group

16 Zachry Industrial

C4

www.zhi.com

www.arvos-group.com

Mitsubishi Hitachi Power


Systmes America - Energy
and Environment, LTD

19

www.mhpowersystems.com

NRG Energy

11 POWER-GEN International
www.power-gen.com

11
31

Advertisers and advertising agencies


assume liability for all contents (including text representation and illustrations)
of advertisements printed, and also assume responsibility for any claims arising therefrom made against the publisher. It is the advertisers or agencys
responsibility to obtain appropriate
releases on any items or individuals pictured in the advertisement.

Sr. Vice President North


American Power Group Richard Baker
Reprints Foster Printing Servive
4295 Ohio Street
Michigan City, IN 46360
Phone: 866-879-9144
e-mail: pennwellreprint@fosterprinting.com
National Marketing
Consultant Rick Huntzicker
Palladian Professional Park
3225 Shallowford Rd., Suite 800
Marietta, GA 30062
Phone: 770-578-2688, Fax: 770-578-2690
e-mail: rickh@pennwell.com
AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KS, KY, LA, MD, MO,
MS, NC, SC, TN, TX, VA, WV
Regional Marketing Consultant Dan Idoine
806 Park Village Drive
Louisville, OH 44641
Phone: 330-875-6581, Fax: 330-875-4462
e-mail: dani@pennwell.com
CT, DE, IL, IN, MA, ME, MI, NH, NJ, NY,
OH, PA, RI, VT, Quebec, New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Ontario
Regional Marketing Consultant Natasha Cole
1455 West Loop South, Suite 400
Houston, Texas 77027
Phone: 713.499.6311; Fax: 713.963.6284
e-mail: natashac@pennwell.com
AK, AZ,CA,CO,HI,IA,MN,MT,ND,NE,NM,NV,
OK,OR,SD,UT,WA,WI,WY,AB,BC,SK, Manitoba,
Northwest Territory, Yukon Territory
European Sales Tom Marler
The Water Tower
Gunpowder Mills
Powdermill Lane
Waltham Abbey, Essex EN9 1BN
United Kingdom
Phone: +44 1992 656 608, Fax: +44 1992 656 700
e-mail: tomm@pennwell.com
Europe and Middle East
Classifieds/Literature Showcase
Account Executive Jenna Hall
1421 S. Sheridan Rd.
Tulsa, OK 74112
Phone: 918-832-9249, Fax: 918-831-9834
email: jennah@pennwell.com

52

www.power-eng.com

A Division of THE HILLIARD CORPORATION

For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS#15

Award-winning Clean Energy

photo supplied by FPL

Congratulations to Florida Power & Light (FPL) on winning the


2014 Project of the Year award in the category of best gas-red project
for their Riviera Beach Next Generation Clean Energy Center.
The award, presented by the editors of Power Engineering and
Renewable Energy World magazines, acknowledges how the
Riviera Beach Next Generation Clean Energy Center uses the latest
technology and clean, low-cost American natural gas to achieve a
33 percent reduction in cost per megawatt-hour with signicantly
lower emissions.
Zachry is proud of our long and collaborative relationship with FPL on
progressive projects like this one.
Zachry Group is Americas pace-setter in turnkey construction,
engineering, maintenance, turnaround and fabrication services to
the power, energy, chemicals, manufacturing and industrial sectors.
For more information, visit www.zhi.com.

For info. http://powereng.hotims.com RS#16