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Monophony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Monophony
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In music, monophony is the


simplest of textures, consisting
of melody without
accompanying harmony. This
may be realized as just one note
at a time, or with the same note
"Pop Goes the Weasel" melody[1] Play
duplicated at the octave (such as
often when men and women
sing together). If an entire melody is played by two or more instruments or
sung by a choir with a fixed interval between the voices or in unison, it is
also said to be in monophony. Music in which all the notes sung are in
unison is called monophonic. Musical texture is determined in song and
music by varying components. Songs intersperse monophony,
heterophony, polyphony, homophony, or monody elements throughout the
melody to create atmosphere and style. Monophony may not have
underlying rhythmic textures, and must consist of only a melodic line. The
music with a melodic line and rhythmic accompaniment is called
homophony.
According to Ardis Butterfield (1997), monophony "is the dominant mode
of the European vernacular genres as well as of Latin song ... in
polyphonic works, it remains a central compositional principle."[2]
Polyphony has two or more independent melodic voices. Monophony is
one voice in music rather like a soliloquy.
Pange Lingua sung

Contents
1 Western Singing
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0:00

MENU

This is the plainchant


version (mode iii) of Pange
Lingua sung to its
traditional Latin text.
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Monophony - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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traditional Latin text.

1.1 Plainchant
1.2 Plainchant styles
1.3 Troubador song

Problems playing this file? See media


help.

monophony
1.4 Geisslerlieder or
Flagellant songs
1.5 Lutheran Church
chorale
2 Monophony with
instrumental doubling
3 Music of India
4 See also

The Four
Ogives
File:Erik Satie
- Ogive
No.1.mid
Erik Satie The
Four Ogives.
Their calm,
slow melodies
are built up
from paired
phrases
reminiscent of
plainchant.

5 Sources
6 Further reading

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See media help.

7 External links

Western Singing
Plainchant
The earliest recorded Christian monophony
was plainchant or plainsong with its single
unaccompanied vocal melody. Sung by
multiple voices in unison (i.e. the same pitch
and rhythm), this music is still considered
monophonic. Plainsong was the first and
foremost musical style of Italy, Ireland, Spain,
and France. In the early 9th century, the
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monophony

Liber Usualis,
Antiphon "O
Adonai II:
Great Advent
Antiphon"
File:Liber
Usualis
0340b.mid
A monophonic
Antiphon from
the Gregorian
Chant
collection
Liber Usualis
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and France. In the early 9th century, the
organum tradition developed by adding voices in parallel to plainchant
melodies. The earliest organum merely augmented the texture of the
melody by adding a second voice in parallel octaves or fifths, which could
still be considered monophonic; however, by the 11th century the organum
had developed a style called "free organum" in which the voices were
more independent, evolving into a polyphonic tradition.

Plainchant styles
Mozarabic chant, Byzantine Chant,
Armenian chant, Beneventan chant,
Gregorian chant of the Kyrie
Ambrosian chant, Gregorian chant and
(plainsong)
others were various forms of plainsong
which were all monophonic. Many of
these monophonic chants were written down, and contain the earliest
music notation to develop after the loss of the ancient Greek system. For
example, Dodecachordon was published by the Swiss Renaissance
composer Heinrich Glarean (also Glareanus) and included plainsong or
Gregorian chant and monophony. The earliest manuscripts which contain
plainsong were written in neumes, a primitive system which recorded only
the outline of the melody, and it was not until the 11th century that Guido
d'Arezzo invented a more modern musical notation system that the exact
notes of the melodies were preserved.

Troubador song monophony


Most Troubador songs were monophonic. Aristocratic troubadours and
trouvres played religious devotion in courtly performances for kings,
queens, and countesses. [[]], poet and composer in the 14th century
produced many songs which can be seen as extensions of the Provenal
Troubador tradition, such as his secular monophonic lais and virelais.
Jehan de Lescurel (or Jehannot de l'Escurel), poet and composer northern
French Trouvre) also wrote monophonic songs in the style of virelais,
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French Trouvre) also wrote monophonic songs in the style of virelais,


ballades, rondeaux and diz ents. Minnesnger were similar to the French
style but in Middle High German.[3]

Geisslerlieder or Flagellant songs


A tradition of Lauda, or sacred songs in the style of Troubador songs, was
popularized in the 13th and 14th centuries by Geisslerlieder, or Flagellant
songs. These monophonic Laude spirituale songs were used in the 13th
and 17th century by flagellants, as recorded in the medieval chronicle
Chronicon Hugonis sacerdotis de Rutelinga (1349). [4]

Lutheran Church chorale


Monophony was the first type of texture in the Lutheran Church. A wellknown example is Martin Luther's hymn "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God,"
written as a monophonic tune sometime between 1527 and 1529. Many of
Luther's hymns were later harmonized for multiple voices by other
composers, and were also used in other polyphonic music such as the
cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Monophony with instrumental doubling


See Voicing (music)#Doubling
DeLone [5] more loosely defines monophony as "passages, movements, or
sections in which notes sound alone, despite instrumental doubling" even
if "such passages may involve several instruments or voices."

Music of India
Indian classical music is an ancient musical tradition where monophonic
melodies called ragas are played over drones, sometimes accompanied by
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melodies called ragas are played over drones, sometimes accompanied by


percussion and other accompaniment.
Hindustani music from the North of India
Carnatic music from the South of India, encompassing compositions
in Telugu, Tamil, Sanskrit, Kannada and Malayalam.
For more information see also Music history of India.

See also
Drone (music)
Duophonic
Polyphony
Voicing (music)#Doubling

Sources
1. ^ Kliewer, Vernon (1975). "Melody: Linear Aspects of Twentieth-Century
Music", Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Wittlich, Gary (ed.).
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.
2. ^ Ardis Butterfield (1997). "Monophonic song: questions of category",
Companion to Medieval & Renaissance Music. Oxford University Press.
ISBN 0-19-816540-4.
3. ^ crusades article template Music of the Crusades Era
(http://www.umich.edu/~eng415/topics/music/music-article.html) URL
accessed January 18, 2007] URL accessed January 18, 2007]
4. ^ Medieval secular song: Introduction
(http://www.arts.arizona.edu/mus535/535-20.htm) URL accessed January 18,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monophony

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(http://www.arts.arizona.edu/mus535/535-20.htm) URL accessed January 18,


2007]
5. ^ DeLone, Richard (1975). "Timbre and Texture in Twentieth-Century
Music", p.99, Aspects of Twentieth-Century Music. Wittlich, Gary (ed.).
Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. ISBN 0-13-049346-5.

Further reading
Copland, Aaron. "What to Listen for in Music". Published by Signet
Classic, an imprint of New American Library, a division of Penguin
Group (USA) Inc., 375 Hudson Street, New York, NY, 10014. Library
of Congress catalogue 98-53893.

External links
What is monophony, polyphony, homophony, monody etc.?
(http://www.medieval.org/emfaq/misc/homophony.html)
3EarlyMusic : monophony
(http://trumpet.sdsu.edu/m345/knowledge_webs/3Early_MusicY/mono
phony.htm)
Music Texture Monophony Polyphony
(http://www.aboutmusictheory.com/music-texture.html)
Ratio Representation Project (http://wwwclasses.usc.edu/engr/ise/599muscog/2004/projects/harlanchidambaram/monophony.htm)
Chapter 1: Plainchant and Secular Monophony
(http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_bonds_hisofmusic_1/0,7832,731071http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monophony

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Categories: Monophony Medieval music Chants Harmony
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