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Mass Transfer 2

CPB 20103

CPB 20103 MASS TRANSFER 2


TUTORIAL 2
DRYING OPERATIONS
1. Air of 20oC and I bar with relative humidity of 80% is heated to 50 oC. The
heated air flows along a flat tray filled with completely wetted material.
The heat transfer coefficient is 35 W/m2.K and the latent heat of
vaporization is 2.45 x 106 J/kg. Calculate the constant drying rate.
[R = 3.43 x 10-4 kg/m2.s]
2. A wet solid with a moisture content of 0.50 kg H 2O/kg dry solid occupies
0.1 m2 on a flat tray. A laboratory experiment shows that the critical
moisture content is 0.2 kg H 2O/kg dry solid and the constant drying rate
is 0.36 g/m2.s. Calculate the time required to reduce the moisture
content of the wet solid on the tray containing 2 kg of dry solid from 0.40
to 0.20 kg H2O/kg dry solid.
[3.09hr]
3. A porous solid is dried in a batch dryer under constant drying
conditions. 5 hours are required to reduce the moisture content from 35
to 10 percent. The critical moisture content was found to be 20 percent
and the equilibrium moisture 4 percent. All moisture contents are on the
dry basis. Assuming that the rate of drying during the falling-rate period
is proportional to the free-moisture content, calculate the time required
to dry a sample of the same solid from 35 to 5 percent under the same
drying conditions.
[t = 9.67hr]
4. A granular solid is to be dried in a tunnel dryer from
50% to 10% moisture under identical conditions in 3.0 x 10 4 s. The
critical and equilibrium moisture contents are 12% and 3%, respectively.
Calculate the time required to dry the solid from 50% moisture to 5%
moisture if all moisture contents quoted are on a dry basis.
[t = 7.37hr]
5. A granular insoluble solid material wet with water is being dried in the
constant rate period in a pan 0.61 m x 0.61 m and the depth of material
is 25.4 mm. The sides and bottom are insulated. Air flows perpendicular
to the top surface at a velocity of 3.05 m/s and has a dry bulb
temperature of 60oC and wet bulb temperature of 29.4 oC. The pan

FG/T2/July2011

Mass Transfer 2

CPB 20103

contains 11.34 kg of dry solid having a free moisture content of 0.35 kg


H2O/kg dry solid and the material is to be dried in the constant rate
period to 0.22 kg H2O/kg dry solid. Calculate the drying rate and the
time in hours needed.
[R = 1.642 kg/h.m2, t = 2.41h]

6. A slab with a wet weight of 5 kg originally contains 50% moisture (wet


basis). The slab is 600 by 900 by 75 mm thick. The equilibrium moisture
content is 5% of the total weight when in contact with air of 20 oC and
20% humidity. The drying rate is given in Table 1 for contact with air of
the above quality at a definite velocity. Drying is from one face. Determine
the time required to dry the slab to 10% moisture content (wet basis).
Table 1
Wet slab weight, kg
9.1
7.2
5.3
4.2
3.3
2.9
2.7

Drying rate, kg/m2.h


4.9
4.9
4.4
3.9
3.4
2.0
1.0

7. A wet filter cake in a pan 1 ft x 1 ft square and 1 inch thick is dried on


the top surface with air at wet bulb temperature of 80 oF and a dry bulb
of 120oF flowing parallel to the surface at a velocity of 2.5 ft/s. The dry
density of the cake is 150 lbm/ft 3 and the critical free moisture content is
0.09 lb H2O/lb dry solid. How long will it take to dry the material from a
free moisture content of 0.20 lb H2O/lb dry sold to the critical moisture
content?
[t = 17.03h]
8. Slabs of filter cake with a bone-dry density of 1600 kg/m 3 are to be dried
from an initial free moisture content of 90% (dry basis) to a final free
moisture content of 5% (dry basis) batchwise in trays that are 1 m long
by 0.5 m wide with a depth of 3 cm. Drying will take place only from the
top surface. The drying air conditions are 1 atm, 60 oC and a 39oC wet
bulb temperature. Air flows perpendicular to the top surface at velocity of
3.5 m/s. Experiments under these drying conditions show a critical free
moisture content of 45% (dry basis) with assuming that the drying rate is
a linear with free moisture content through origin. Determine:

FG/T2/July2011

Mass Transfer 2

CPB 20103

a)
b)

The drying time for the constant rate period in hours.


The drying time for the falling rate period in hours.

9. A wet solid is to be dried in a pan 0.61 m by 0.61 m and the depth of


material is 25.4 mm under constant rate period. The sides and bottom
are insulated. Air flows parallel to the top surface at a velocity of 3.05
m/s and has a dry bulb temperature of 60 oC and wet bulb temperature
of 29.4 oC. The pan contains 11.34 kg of dry solid having a moisture
content of 40% and the material is to be dried in the constant rate period
to the critical moisture content of 20%. The equilibrium moisture was
found to be 4%. All moisture contents are on the dry basis.
a)
Calculate the drying rate and the time required in hours.
[R = 1.599 kg/h.m2, t = 3.82hr]
b)

Calculate the drying rate and the time needed in hours if the
depth of material is reduced to 12.7 mm.
[R = 1.599 kg/h.m2, t = 1.91hr]

10.A wet solid is dried with air at 60oC and a humidity of 0.010 kg H2O/kg
dry air. The air flows parallel to the flat, wet surface of the solid at a
velocity of 5 m/s. Under these conditions the heat transfer coefficient is
given by h = 14.3( v )0.8, where is the density of the mist air in kg
moist air per unit volume moist air. The surface area available for heat
exchange with air is 0.25m 2 and the latent heat of vaporization is 2.45 x
106 J/kg. Calculate the total amount of water evaporating per unit time.
[R = 1.71 x 10-4 kg/s]

FG/T2/July2011