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Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution

of Higher Professional Education


Belgorod State National Research University
Department of French language

S.A.Androsova, Y. G. Sinelnikov

LATIN
IN ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY
for English-speaking medical students

Belgorod 2013
1

811.124:61(075.8)
81.46173+5
66
Approved for publication by the decision of the Editorial
and Publishing Council of the faculty of Roman and German
philology
of NRU Belgorod State University
Authors:
Androsova S.A., Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor of
the Department of French Language, Belgorod State
National Research University;
Sinelnikov Y.G., Ph.D. in Philology, Head of the
Department of French Language, Professor, Belgorod State
National Research University
Readers:
Chekulay I.V., Doctor of Philology, Dean of the Faculty of
Arts and Interculturalcommunication, Professor, Belgorod
State Institute of Arts and Culture;
Sinelnikova I.I.,Ph.D. in Philology, Associate Professor of
theDepartment of French Language, Belgorod State
National Research University.

66

Androsova S.A.
Latin in Anatomical Terminology. For Englishspeaking
medical students /S.A. Androsova, Y.G. Sinelnikov.
Belgorod :PH Belgorod NRU Belgorod State
University, 2013. 88 p.
ISBN 978-5-9571-0796-5
This manual is a guide in the Latin language in Anatomical
Terminology for foreign students of the medical department. The aim of
the book is the study of the International Anatomo-Histological
Nomenclature on the basis of the Latin grammar.
811.124:61(075.8)
2

81.46173+5

ISBN978-5-9571-0796-5

Androsova S.A.,SinelnikovY.G.,2013
Belgorod State National Research
University, 2013

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2013

811.124:61(075.8)
81.46173+5
66

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ISBN978-5-9571-0796-5

, 2013

Contents
PREFACE ..

LATINALPHABET. PHONETICS.

WORD STRESS IN LATIN

13

NOUN AND ITS GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES

17

STRUCTURE OF ANATOMICAL TERMS (CONSISTING


OF NOUNS)..
LATIN ADJECTIVES...

28
34

AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS.

45

PREFIXES IN THE ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY..

53

STRUCTURE OF MULTIPLE-WORD ANATOMICAL


57

TERMS.
NOMINATIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES..

64

GENITIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES..

70

SAMPLE FINAL TESTS..

74

APPENDIX

84

LITERATURE.

86

Preface
Invia est in medicina via sine lingua
Latina. There is no way into
medicine without the Latin language.

Textbook Latin in Anatomical Terminology introduces


students to the Latin and Greek medical terms that are commonly
used in Anatomy and Histology.The main purpose of the study of
Latin terminology at medical faculties is primarily to provide
students andfuture clinicians with a functional instruction
onprecise and linguistically correct usage of the terminological
apparatus.
Anatomical

terminology

is

the

foundation

of

medical

terminology and Latin is the international anatomical language, an


international language of physicians. The international version of
anatomical nomenclature remains Latin in the full extent.No less
than 75 % of the vocabulary of anatomy is derived from Greek and
Latin words. All of the anatomical nomenclatures produced so far
have used Latin as their base. Only Latin is the international basis
for creating equivalent terms in other languages.
The revision of modern anatomical terminology was initiated
in 1887.The first official Latin anatomical nomenclature was
introduced at a congress of the Anatomische Gesellschaft in Basle in
1895. The last edition, called Terminologia Anatomica, was
introduced

by

the

International
9

Anatomical

Nomenclature

Committee, accepted by the International Federation of Association


of Anatomists(IFAA)and published in 1998.
Latin as a dead language does not develop and does not belong
to any country or nation. It has a number of advantages that
classical languages offer, its constancy, international character and
neutrality.
The aim of the manual is to achieve an active command of
basic grammatical phenomena and rules with a special stress on the
system of the Latin language and on the specific character of
anatomo-histological terminology, and that to the extent that
enables an active use of Latin and Greek anatomical terms and
promote further own work with them.
While working with this manual medical students learn how
toread and stress Latin words and word combinations, they become
familiar with structure of anatomical terms, learn grammatical
categories of Latin nouns and adjectives, learn how to determine the
stem, the gender and the declension of nouns and adjectives, learn
how to make grammatical agreement of adjectives with nouns, they
become familiar with the structure of muscle names, with the role of
prefixion in the formation of anatomical and histological terms and
learn the principal Latin and Greek prefixes used in the anatomical
terminology,learn how to form the Nominative and Genitive plural
forms of nouns and adjectives in the anatomical terminology.
All grammar rules given in the textbook are for the anatomical
terminology only.A great deal of training exercices helps to form
firm skills and habits in analysis, interpretation and construction of
10

anatomical terms.The book is intended for foreign students of the


medical department studying their profession in English.

11

LATIN ALPHABET.PHONETICS
The Latin alphabet contains 25 letters: six vowels and
nineteen consonants.

Aa

Nam
e
a

Bb

be

Letter

Pronunciation

Examples

[a]

caput

[b]

Cc

tse

Dd

de

[d]

brachium
cervix,
caecum
caput,
crista
dexter

Ee

[e]

vertebra

Ff

ef

[f]

facies

Gg

ge

Hh

ha

Ii

Jj

yot

[j]

jugularis, major

Kk

ka

[k]

skeleton

Ll

el

[l] very softly

Mm

em

[m]

meatus

Nn

en

[n]

nasus

Oo

[o]

corpus

Pp

pe

Qq

ku

[p]
is always used in the
combination with
letter uand is
pronounced like [kw]

[ts]before e , i, y, ae,
oe
[k] in other positions

cystis,
costa,

[g]
gaster
intermediate between
homo, hiatus
[h] and [g]
[i]
inferior, internus

12

labium, pelvinus

palpebra
squama,
quadratus

Rr

er

[r]

13

ren

Ss

es

[z] between two


vowels or between a
vowel and the voiced
consonant m, n, r , l
[s] in other positions

pulposus,
transitorius,
extensio

Tt

te

[t]

musculus,
capsula,
sacrum
tractus

Uu

[u]

pulmo

Vv

ve

[v]

valva

Xx
Yy

iks

[ks]

radix

ypsilo
n,
igrek

[i]

(is used
only in the
words of
the Greek
origin)

Zz

zeta

[z] in the words of the


Greek origin
[ts] in the words
borrowed
from
modern languages

os

tympanum
zygoma
Zincum
(German),
influenza
(Spanish)

There are two diphthongs in the Latin language.


Diphthong is a combination of two vowels pronounced like
two vowel sounds and making together one syllable.
au [au]: auris
eu [eu]: pleura
There are two digraphs in the Latin language. Digraph
is a group of two letters representing one sound.
ae
oe

[e vertebrae, peritonaeum
]: oesophagus
14

Two dots placed over the letter eindicate that ae or oe


are not digraphs, their letters denote different sounds and
they are read separately: ar, diplo.
There is a particular pronunciation of some letter
combinations:
[ngv] before vowels: lingua, sanguis
ngu

[ngu] before consonants: angulus, lingula


[tsi] before vowels: spatium, articulatio,

ti

eminentia
[ti] before consonants and after s, t, x:
tibia, ostium
[sv] before vowels a, e: suavis

su

[su] in different syllables: sulcus

ch

[h]: nucha

ph

[f]: xiphoideus, raphe

rh

[r]: rhexis

th

[t]: thorax

EXERCISES
1.Read the following words paying special attention
to the vowels:
Ala, mnor, artria, lmina, abdmen, fvea, fbula, fmur,
lnea spera, plma, infundbulum, rgio, infrior, antrior,
membrna, manbrium
lna,

vula,

hpar,

strni, vna, hmerus, gingva,


hypoglssus,

hypothlamus.
15

hypogstrium,

2. Read the following words paying attention to the


pronunciation of diphthongs and digraphs:
-

uris,

plura,auriculris,pseudomembrna,aurcula,neurocrnium,
caudlis,
- cstae, incisrae, lae scri coelacae,oedma, lneae
transvrsae,cacus,

oesphagus,crpus

vescae

flleae,rgio glutaa, peronaus,


- ar,uropoticus, dplo, haematopoticus.
3. Read the following words paying attention to the
pronunciation of the letter c:
- medicna, crebrum, cylndricus, cacus, scer, fcies,
crvix,cciput, vscera,
- corna, actus, dctus,crnium,crsta, csta,cput,crpus,
colmna, cvum, cllum,canlis, slcus, rcus, crnu,
- crnu coccygum,fscia cerviclis, dctus hepticus
commnis, fascculus cunetus.
4. Read the following words paying attention to the
lettersi and j:
- intestnum, pries infrior, ilacus,
- junctra, jgum, jugulris, jejnum, conjunctva,

16

- canlis palatnus mjor, fssa infratemporlis, tubrculum


mjus.
5. Read the following words paying attention to the
pronunciation of the letter s:
- brsa, cpsula, os, msculus, dscus, strnum, spna,
lbus,

ltus,

ngulus,

accessrius,

imprssio,

snus,

sigmodeus, segmntum,fissra,
- adipsus, fibrsus, compsitus, pulpsus, tubersitas,
nsus, squamsus, mesentrium,mesogstrium, mucsus,
nasolacrimlis,bsis,extnsio,
plsma,

transitrius,

organsmus,

transvrsus,
chisma,

platsma,
- bsis ssis scri, procssus suprior, os scrum, fssa
incisva,

sptum

nsi,

canlis

hypoglosslis,

dens

incisvus,procssus stylodeus,pars petrsa, slcus snus


transvrsi.
6. Read the following words paying attention to the
pronunciation of the letters x and z :
- mximus, flxio, pex, rdix, dxter,smplex, pllex,
txtus,
- zygma, Zncum, zna, horizontlis, zygomticus.

17

7.Read the following words paying attention to the


pronunciation of different letter combinations:
-

nguis,

inguinlis,

snguis,lingulris,lngua,lngula,

ngulus, triangulris,
- tbia, tstis, stium, ctis, carticus, acsticus, hepticus,
articultio, substntia, sptium, eminntia, protuberntia,
addctio, abdctio,
- ncha, chle, chrda, brchium, cncha, trochnter,
trochleris, brnchus, arachnodea, ischidicus,
- phrynx, xiphodeus, phlanx, diaphrgma, apphysis,
encphalon, sphncter, lmpha, hemisphrium, phrnicus,
- rhphe, rhinlis,
-

nthropos,thyreodeus,

thrax,

thmus,

thlamus,

ethmoidlis, urthra,
- qua, squamsus, qudriceps,quadrtus, aquaedctus,
inaequlis,
-

squma

occipitlis,lmina

quadrigmina,

distntia

trochantrica,dctus choldochus, vrtebra qunta, lnea


oblqua,

os

trquetrum,

sptia

intercostlia,

ngulus

mandbulae.
8. Read correctly:
Lnea

nchae

suprior,

tubrculum

pharyngum,

os

sphenoidle, fssa hypophysilis, labyrnthus ethmoidlis,


kyphsis,

hemisphrium,

scaphodeum,

phalnges,

brachicephlicus,

artria

sectines

hypothlami,

smphysis,

sthmus,

ophthlmica,

vna

18

os

trncus
saphna,

ndus lymphticus, dctus thorcicus, spinothalmicus,


pars sympthica, cvum subarachnoidle, os schii, incisra
ischidica mjor, aquaedctus mesencphali, formina
nutrcia, substntia spongisa, articultio hmeri, artria
stylomastodea, nulus inguinlis superficilis.
WORD STRESS IN LATIN
One of the syllables in a Latin word is always more
accentuated than the others. We say that the syllable is
stressed. To determine which syllable is stressed the word
should be divided into syllables. Every Latin word has as
many syllables as it has vowels or diphthongs. In Latin
syllables are counted from the end of a word.
Examples:glandula(glan

gla

du-

la

d)

n3
ar-

2
ti-

1
cu-

la-

ti-

articulatio
(joint)

THE MAIN RULES FOR THE POSITION OF AN ACCENT


IN LATIN
1. The final syllable of a word is not stressed.
2. In disyllabic words (consisting of two syllables) the
second syllable (from the end) is always stressed.
Examples: cput, dxter, ndus.

19

3. In polysyllabic words (consisting of more than two


syllables) the second or the third syllable from the end of
the word is stressed.
To stress correctly a polysyllabicLatin word you should:
1) divide a word into its syllables,
2) find the next to last syllable,
3) determine whether the next to last syllable is
stressed or not. If the next to last syllable is not stressed,
the accent is shifted to the third syllable from the end of
the word.
The basic rules when the next to last syllable is
stressed/not stressed:
Next to last syllable is stressed:
1)if

it

contains

diphthong

such

as

ae,oe:peritonaum, peronaus;
2) if a vowel of this syllable is followed by two or
more

consonants

or

letters

x,

z:

ligamntum,

complxus;
3) if it contains such suffixes as-al-, -ar-, -at-, -in-,
-ur-, -os-, -iv-: medilis, fibrsus.
Next to last syllable is not stressed:
1)if its vowel is followed by another vowel: artria,
antrior;
2) if its vowel is followed by such letter combinations
as br, pl, tr: vrtebra, trquetrus;

20

3) if its vowel is followed by diagraphs ch, ph, th, rh:


choldochus;
4) if it contains such suffixes as-ic-, -it-, -ol-, -ul-,
-cul-:

lngula,

plvicus.
If the word cant be read according to any stress rule
you should consult a dictionary.Stressed syllables are
graphically

signed

by

stroke

():pylrus

pylrus.Unstressed syllables are indicated by acircumflex


() on the vowel: skelton skleton.
EXERCISE
Stress the following words

observing

the rules

of Latin word-stressing and explain them:


-

bursa,

cavum,bulbus,cauda,collum,cornu,ramus,costa,

apex, arcus,minor, manus, vomer, sternum, sella, larynx,


-columna,

processus,

cerebrum,palpebra,

profundus,

transversus,

internus,linea,tibia,

sinister,facies,anatomia,externus,

maxilla,substantia,

eminentia,ligamentum, vertebra,apertura, anulus, angulus,


foveola, incisura, thoracicus, tuberculum, spinosus, opticus,
articularis,

ventriculus,

cervicalis,

fissura,

vertebralis,

lateralis, lumbalis, fossula, glandula, scapula, clavicula,


gastricus,

maxillaris,

junctura,basilaris,

squamosus,

mandibula,

21

venosus,
musculus,

incisivus,
pelvinus,

epigastrium, quadruplex, digitatus, cribrosus, clavicularis,


mentalis, pubicus, glomerulus,
- coccygus,alae vomris, duodnum, sacrococcygus,
tracha,

orgnon,

pylrus,

orbta

oculi,

peritonum,

carpus, os coccgis, nervus trigemnus, metathalmus,


minmus,

lamna,

formen,

tuberostas

pterygoidea,

extremtas,
- cavtas orispropria,costa fluctuans, vertebra thoracica,
columna

vertebralis,

processus

articularis

superior,

tuberculum anterius, facies articularis anterior, sulcus


arteriae vertebralis, cartilgo thyroidea,nucleus pulposus,
anulus

fibrosus,

juncturae

ligamentum

columnae

atlantooccipitalis,

longitutinale

anterius,

vertebralis

et

cranii,

articulatio

canalis

vertebralis,

sulcus

costovertebralis minor, incisurae costales, ligamentum


captis

costae,

spatia

intercostalia,

apertura

thorcis

superior, angulus infrasternalis, fissura sterni, medulla


ossium, arcus vertebrae, membrum inferius, processus
transversus,
corpus

substantia

maxillae,

compacta,

facies

poplitea,

palpebra

superior,

atrium

meatus

medii,ductus choledochus, vesca urinaria,hiatus sacralis,


incisura
processus

supraorbitalis,

fossa

styloidei,processus

pterygopalatina,
zygomaticus,

vagina
hamulus

pterygoideus, sulcus pulmonalis, formen spinosum, fossa


glandulae lacrimalis, palatum osseum,pars squamosa, nodi

22

pancreatici,

foveolae

granulares,

incisura

bifurcatio trachae, articulatio captis costae.

23

vertebralis,

NOUN AND ITS GRAMMATICAL CATEGORIES


The grammatical categories of a noun are as follows:
1.Gender (masculine (masculinum m), feminine
(femininum f) and neuter (neutrum n)). The gender
is determined by the ending of Nominative singular (see
Table 1). Thus, nouns ending in -aand-esare feminine:
scapula (shoulder blade), nouns ending in -usand -erare
masculine: musculus (muscle), nouns ending in -um, -uand
-onare neuter: cranium (skull), etc.
2.

Number

(pluralis)).In

(singular

Latin

the

(singularis)

ending

of

the

and

plural

plural

varies

according to the gender and declension.


3. Case (there are six cases in Latin, but only two
cases are used in the Anatomo-Histological Terminology:
Nominative

(Nominativus

Nom.)

and

Genitive

(Genetivus Gen.)).

***
You should learn Latin nouns in their Dictionary
Form. The dictionary form of a noun consists of three
components:
1) the full form of Nominative singular;
2) the Genitive singular ending;

24

3) the designation of gender (with the letters m,


f, n).
For example, the dictionary form of the noun rib is
costa, ae f. It means that in Nom. case rib is costa, in
Gen. case costae, and that this noun is of feminine
gender. If the noun consists of only one syllable, in its
dictionary form the full Genitive form is used. E.g.: os, ossis
n (bone).
To make a Genitive form from the Nominative form you
should determine the stem of the noun. To determine the
stem you should detach the ending from the noun (Nom.
ending and Gen. ending). E.g.:crista, ae f crist- (the
stem) cristae (Gen.); collum, i n coll- (the stem) colli
(Gen.); vomer, ris m vomr- (the stem) vomris
(Gen.); caput, tis n capt- (the stem) captis (Gen.);
facies, i f faci- (the stem) facii (Gen.).
***
4.

Declension

Latin).The

(there

declension

is

are

five

determined

declensions
by

the

Genitive

singular endings (see Table 1).

Table 1. The endings of Nominative and Genitive


singular nouns
of all declensions.
25

in

Declensio
n

Gender

Nominati
ve
singular

II

III

IV

mfn

us

um

er

on

differ
ent

us

es

endings
Genitive
singular

ae

is

us

endings
First declension. The nouns of feminine which end
in -a are ascribed to the first declension. The Genitive form
of the first declension nouns ends in -ae. E.g.: vertebra, ae
f vertebra; fossa, ae f shallow depression, cavity.
Second declension.To the second declension are
referred masculines which end in -us and -er, and
neuters which end in -um, -on. In the anatomical
terminology there are no nouns of the 2 nd declension which
end in -er. The Genitive form of the second declension
nouns ends in -i. E.g.: nasus, i m nose; ligamentum, i n
ligament.

26

Third declension.The third declension includes nouns


of all the three genders which have different endings
in Nominative singular and -is in Genitive singular.E.g.:
pollex, cis m thumb; regio, nis f region; os, ossis n
bone.
Fourth declension.The fourth declension includes
masculines which end in -us, and the neuters which end
with -u. The Genitive singular form of these nouns ends in
-us. E.g.: plexus, us m network; genu, us n knee.
Fifth declension. The fifth declension includes nouns
of feminine which end in -es in Nominative singular and in
-ei in Genitive singular. E.g.: facies, ei f surface, face.

27

LIST OF NOUNS USED IN THE ANATOMICAL


TERMINOLOGY
(LEXICAL MINIMUM 1 / LM 1)
1st declension
ala, ae f
ampulla, ae f
aorta, ae f
apertura, ae f
arachnoidea,
ae f
arteria, ae f
bucca, ae f
bursa, ae f
capsula, ae f

chorda, ae f
clavicula, ae f
cochlea, ae f
columna, ae f
commissura,
ae f
concha, ae f
conjunctiva,
ae f
(tunica
conjunctiva)
cornea, ae f

wing
ampule,
ampoule
main artery of
body
aperture,
opening
arachnoid
membrane
artery
cheek
pouch,
sac,
bag
capsule,
membrane or
saclike
structure
cord
clavicle, collarbone
cochlea
column, pillar
commissure,
connection
concha, shell,
turbinated
bone
conjunctive
tunic

costa, ae f
crista, ae f
eminentia, ae
f
fascia, ae f
fibula, ae f

fissura, ae f
flexura, ae f
fossa, ae f

fovea, ae f
foveola, ae f
gingiva, ae f
glandula, ae f
incisura, ae f

cornea, tough
transparent

junctura, ae f
28

part of the
eyeball,
covering
the
pupil and iris
rib
crest, ridge
eminence
fascia, band,
fillet
fibula, splintbone, long,
thin outer
bone from
knee to ankle
fissure, narrow
slit
flexion
shallow
depression or
cavity
(longitudinal in
shape), fossa,
trench, ditch
a cup-shaped
depression or
small pit
foveola
gum
gland
notch,
incisure, slit
junction

lamna, ae f
linea, ae f
lingua, ae f
lingula, ae f

plate
line
tongue
lingula, small
tongue
lympha, ae f
lymph
mamma, ae f
mammary
gland
mandibula, ae lower jaw,
f
mandible
massa, ae f
mass
maxilla, ae f
upper jaw,
maxilla
medulla, ae f
medulla,
marrow, any
soft marrowlike structure
medulla
bone marrow
ossium
medulla
spinal cord,
spinalis
spinal marrow
membrna, ae membrane,
f
skin
or
membrane
that
covers
parts of the
body; a thin
sheet or layer
of tissue; the
lining
of
a
cavity, septum
or partition
mucosa, ae f
mucous tunic
(tunica
or membrane
mucosa)
nucha, ae f
nape of neck
orbta, ae f
eyesocket
palma, ae f
palm
palpebra, ae f eyelid
papilla, ae f
papilla
patella, ae f
patella, knee
cup
pleura, ae f
membrane
lining chest

plica, ae f
porta, ae f
protuberantia
, ae f
pulpa, ae f
retina, ae f

and covering
lungs
fold, crease
entry
protuberance

pulpa, pulp
retina, nervous
tunic of the
eyeball
scapula, ae f
shoulder
blade, scapula
sella, ae f
saddle
spina, ae f
spine,
backbone
squama, ae f
squama; scale
substantia, ae substance,
f
material
tibia, ae f
shinbone,
larger of two
bones of leg,
tibia
tonsilla, ae f
tonsil
trochlea, ae f trochlea,
pulley
tuba, ae f
tube
tunica,ae f
coat, covering,
tunic
ulna, ae f
ulna; the bone
of the elbow,
medial bone of
forearm
uvula, ae f
lingula
vagina, ae f
sheath, vagina
valva, ae f
valve
valvula, ae f
small valva;
valvule
vena, ae f
vein
vena portae
portal vein
vertebra, ae f vertebra, each
segment of
vertebral
column
29

2nd declension
masculine gender
aditus, i m
alveolus, i m
angulus, i m
anus, i m
bulbus, i m
calcaneus, i
m

canaliculus, i
m
carpus, i m
choledochus,
im
circulus, i m
digitus, i m
gallus, i m
gyrus, i m

enter
alveole
angle
anus
bulb;
any
rounded mass
calcaneus,
calcaneum, a
large
bone
forming
the
heel
small canal

wrist
common bile
duct
circle
finger; toe
cock
gyrus,
convolution
fasciculus, i
fascicle,
m
fasciculus
fonticulus, i
fontanel,
m
fonticulus
fundus, i m
bottom
humrus, i m humerus,
humeral bone
labyrinthus, i labyrinth
m
lobus, i m
lobe
meniscus, i
meniscus
m
musculus, i
muscle
m
nasus, i m
nose
nervus, i m
nerve
30

nodulus, i m
nodus, i m
nucleus, i m
oculus, i m
oesophgus,
im
pediculus, i
m
porus, i m
radius, i m

ramus, i m
sulcus, i m
talus, i m

nodulus, small
node
node
spheroid body
within a cell,
nucleus
eye
esophagus
pedicle, small
foot
opening, pore
thicker
and
shorter
bone
of
forearm,
radius, radial
bone
branch
furrow, groove,
sulcus
ankle
bone,
talus
thalamus

thalmus, i
m
thymus, i m
thymus
truncus, i m
trunk
uterus, i m
uterus, womb
ventriculus, i stomach;
m
ventricle
(of
the
heart,
brain,etc. )

neuter gender

acetabulum,
in
acromion, i n

acetabulum,
cotyloid (cuplike)
cavity,
coxal cavity
shoulder

amnion, i n
31

appendix,
acromial
process
amnion

antrum, i n
atrium, i n

cavity
first chamber
of heart,
atrium
brachium, i n upper
arm,
shoulder
caecum, i n
cecum,
blind
gut
cavum, i n
cavity, channel
cerebellum, i cerebellum
n
cerebrum, i n cerebrum,
larger portion
of brain
cingulum, i n girdle
collum, i n
neck, neck-like
portion
of
organ
colon, i n
colon,
large
intestine
cranium, i n
skull
crassum, i n
large
(intestinum
intestine
crassum)
dorsum, i n
back
duodenum, i duodenum
n
enamlum, i enamelum,
n
enamel
encephlon, i brain
n
frenulum, i n frenulum,
bridle
ganglion, i n nervous node,
nervous knot,
ganglion
ileum, i n
iliac intestine
infundibulum funnel
,in
intestinum, i intestine
n
intestinum
small intestine
tenue

ischium, i n
jejunum, i n
jugum, i n
labium, i n
ligamentum,
in
manubrium, i
n
membrum, i
n
mesenterium
,in
mesogastriu
m, i n
neurocraniu
m, i n
olecrnon, i
n
orgnon, i n
ostium, i n

ovarium, i n
ovum, i n
palatum, i n
periton(a)eu
m, i n
rectum, i n
retinaculum,
in
septum, i n
skelton, i n

32

seat, ischium
jejunum,
empty
gut
eminence
lip
ligament
manubrium
member,
extremity, limb
mesentery
middle part of
abdomen
skull
tip of elbow,
elbow
appendix
organ
mouth,
aperture,
opening,
orifice,
entrance
ovary
ovum, egg cell
palate, roof of
mouth
peritoneum
rectum,
straight
gut
retinaculum,
halter, band
partition,
membrane,
dividing wall
skeleton

spatium, i n
sternum, i n
stratum, i n
supercilium,
in
tuberculum, i
n

space
breast bone
layer
eyebrow

tympnum, i
n
vestibulum, i
n

tubercle; small
rounded

swelling
tympanum,
drum
vestibule,
enclosed
space like
lobby

3rd declension
masculine gender

apex, icis m

apex, top, tip,


summit, the
extremity ofa
conical
structure
atlas, antis
atlas, the1st
m
cervical
vertebra
axis, is m
axis, the
second
cervical
vertebra
canalis, is m canal, some
tubular
structure
coccyx,
tailbone,
gism
coccyx,
coccygeal
bone
cortex, icis m cortex, bark
dens, dentis tooth
m
fornix, icis m arch, fornix,
arc, vault
hallux, cis
great toe
m
homo, nis m man; a human
being

humor, ris
m

index, icis m
larynx, ngis
m
lien, linis m
margo, nis
m
paries, tis
m
pes, pedis m
pharynx,
ngis m

humor; any
clear fluid (one
of the
elemental
body fluids)
index finger,
forefinger
larynx, organ
of voice
production
spleen
edge, margin,
border
wall

foot
pharynx,
throat, joint
opening of
gullet and
windpipe
pollex, icis m thumb
pulmo, nis
lung
m
ren, renis m
kidney
sanguis,
blood
nism
splen,splenis spleen
33

m
stapes, dis
m

stapes, stirrup
(the smallest
of the
three auditory
ossicles)
tendo, nis m sinew, tendon
thorax,
chest,
cism
breastplate,
thorax
trochanter,
trochanter
ris m
unguis, is m
nail
ureter, ris
ureter, urinary
m
canal
venter, tris m venter , wide
swelling part
of a muscle
vertex, icis
vertex, the
m
topmost point
(as of the vault
of the skull)
vomer, ris
m

vomer,
ploughshare,
flat bone,
forming nasal
septum

34

feminine gender

appendix,
cis f
articulatio,
nis f
auris, is f
basis, is f
bifurcatio,
nis f
bilis, is f
calx, calcis f
cartilgo,
nis f
carotis, idis f
= arteria
carotis
cavtas, atis
f
cervix, cis f

appendage,
process,
appendix
joint

rainbow
lens, lentis f lens
transparent
part of the
eye, behind
the pupil,
through which
light is
refracted
mater, tris f
medullary
tunic,
membrane of
brain or spinal
cord
dura mater = hard medullary
pachymeninx tunic
(Gen.
durae
matris)
pia mater=
soft medullary
leptomeninx tunic
(Gen. piae
matris)
meninx,ngis medullary
f
tunic
pars, partis f part
pelvis, is f
pelvis, basin
pelvis
renal pelvis
renalis
phalanx,
bone in a
ngis f
finger or toe,
phalanx
pubes, is f
genitals
pyramis, idis pyramid
f
radix, cis f
root
raphe, es f
raphe
regio, nis f
region

ear
base
bifurcation
bile
heel, calx
cartilage
carotid artery
cavity

cervix (of the


uterus, urinary
bladder,
tooth),neck
cutis, is f
skin
frons, frontis forehead
f
gaster, tris f stomach
glandula
parotid gland
parotis
(Gen.
glandulae
parotidis)
Syn.
glandula
parotidea
impressio,
impression,
onis f
deepening
incus, dis f anvil, incus
iris,idis f
iris of eye,
35

salus, tis f
tuberositas,
atis f

health
tuberosity,
elevation,esp.f

rom the
surface of the
bone

neuter gender

abdmen,
nis n
caput, tis n
chiasma, tis
n
cor, cordis n
corpus, ris n
crus, cruris n

diaphragma,
tis n

fel, fellis n
femur, ris n
formen, nis
n

abdomen,
belly
head
chiasm,crossin
g
heart
body
leg, crus,
shank, limb,
any structure
resembling a
leg
diaphragm,
septum
between
thorax and
abdomen
bile
femur,
hip,
thigh-bone
opening,
foramen,
an
aperture
or
perforation
glome, glomus

glomus, ris
n
hepar, tis n liver
nomen, nis n name
occiput, itis n occiput,
the
back of the
head
os, oris n
mouth
os, ossis n
bone
pancreas,
pancreas,
tis n
salivary gland
of the
abdomen
36

platysma,
subcutaneous
tis n
neck muscle
pecten, nis n comb, crest
pectus, ris n chest,breast,
anterior wall of
chest or
thorax, pectus
rete, is n
network
stroma, tis
n

stroma,the
framework
(usually of
connective
tissue)
systma, tis system
n
tegmen, nis roof
n
tempus, ris temple; time
n
tuber, ris n
tuber
vas, vasis n
vessel
zygma, tis cheek-bone
n

4th declension
aquaeductus
, us m
arcus, us m
audtus, us
m
cornu, us n
ductus, us m
genu, us n
hiatus, us m

water
duct,
aqueduct
arch
hearing,
audition,
acusis
horn-shaped
process, horn
duct,
canal,
tubular
structure
knee
opening,
ostium,

meatus, us
m
plexus, us m

37

hiatus
passage, tract,
channel
plexus, brade,
network
or
interjoining of
nerves
and
blood vessels
or of lymphatic
vessels

processus,
us m

process,
appendix,
projection,
outgrowth

recessus, us
m

38

recess, socket,
hollow,
recessus

sinus, us m

hollow, cavity,
sinus, channel
textus, us m tissue
tractus, us m tract,
path,
way, track

39

5th declension
facies, i f

face, surface

EXERCISES
1. Define the declension of the nouns and their
stems; translate into English:
Ala, ae f; facies, i f; pars, partis f; nervus, i m; plexus, us
m; ramus, i m; ligamentum, i n; genu, us n; vertebra, ae f;
systma, tis n; tympanum, i n; arcus,us m; formen, nis
n; linea, ae f; sulcus, i m; sella, ae f; cornu, us n; ostium, i
n; columna, ae f; angulus, i m; os, ossis n; sinus, us m;
costa, ae f; sternum, i n; skelton, i n; musculus, i m;
scapula, ae f; colon, i n; dens, dentis m; cartilgo, nis f;
tuber, ris n; hiatus, us m; canalis, is m; rete, is n; lingua,
ae f; chorda, ae f; femur, ris n; cervix, cis f; articulatio,
nis f; fonticulus, i m;acetabulum, i n; carpus, i m; cor,
cordis n; crus, cruris n.
2. Define the gender of the nouns; translate into
English:
Vertebra, ae ; arcus,us ; linea, ae ; sulcus, i ;
facies, i ; ganglion, i ; ostium, i ; sella, ae ;
textus, us ; vestibulum, i ; clavicula, ae ;
tympnum, i ; thalmus, i ; septum, i ; substantia,
40

ae ; encephlon, i ; oculus, i ; nasus, i ; arcus, us

scapula,

ae ; acromion, i ; lingua, ae ; mandibula, ae ;


cranium, i ; processus, us ; dorsum, i ; incisura, ae

cerebrum,

tuberculum,

i ; sinus, us ; maxilla, ae ; palatum, i ; cornu, us


; meatus, us ; humrus, i ; lympha, ae ;
olecrnon , i ; concha, ae ; ductus, us ; ramus, i .
3. Write the endings of the Genitive singular; define
the gender where possible; translate into English:
septum sept (II)
dens dent (III)
zygma zygomt (III)
concha conch (I)
caput capit (III)
plexus plex (IV)
fovea fove (I)
formen foramn (III)
oculus ocul (II)

recessus recess (IV)


species speci (V)
rete ret (III)
genu gen (IV)
axis ax (III)
canalis canal (III)
superficies superfici (V)
pleura pleur (I)
pecten pectn (III)

4. Make up the dictionary form of the nouns and


translate them into English:
Arcus, bulbus, flexura, incisura, plica, sulcus, cornu, lingua,
ramus, nasus, amnion, tuberculum, porus, septum, scapula,
collum, ganglion, aditus, colon, lingula, sinus, orgnon,
manubrium, nodus, papilla, musculus, textus, facies.

STRUCTURE OF ANATOMICAL TERMS


41

(CONSISTING OF NOUNS)
The anatomical term is a word used to name a
definite unit or structure of a human body. Anatomical
terms may consist of one, two, three, four and more words
(up

to 8). Mind, that they are for the most part

combinations of words, consisting of a noun the nucleus


of any term and some attributes to it, which may be
expressed

either

by

nouns

in

Genitive

case

(no

agreement with the nucleus), or by adjectives, having


agreement

in

number,

gender

and

case

with

the

corresponding noun.
While working with anatomical terms, mind the
main rule: in Latin any term starts with a noun in
Nominative case, the nouns in Genitive case follow
it.
In order to translate the term (consisting of nouns) into
English you should make the analysis as follows:
spina scapulae
- determine the part of speech of each word:
N.

N.

spina scapulae
- determine the case of each word:
N.

N.

spina scapulae

42

Nom.

Gen.

- translate the term keeping in mind the main rule: at


first you should translate the words in Nominative case and
only then the words in Genitive case, placing before the
Genetive wordsthe preposition of:
spineof shoulder bone
In order to translate the term (consisting of nouns) into
Latin you should make the analysis as follows:
base of skull
- determine the part of speech of each word:
N.

N.

base of skull
- determine the case of each word:
N.

N.

base of skull
Nom.

Gen.

N.B.1 The words standing before the preposition of are in


Nominative case, the words after the preposition of are in
Genitive case.
- remember the dictionary form of each word:
base basis, is f
skull cranium, i n
Thus, the translation of the term is:
basis cranii
1

NB! = Nota bene! Pay attention!


43

N.B. cohlear = of cochlea


costal = of rib
cranial = of skull
aortic = of aorta
nasal = of nose
mandibular = of lower jaw
cranial = of skull
vertebral = of vertebra
cervical = of neck

EXERCISES
1. Translate the terms into English:
Arcus vertebrae, facies acromii, sulcus sinus, raphe palati,
skelton membri, fossa glandulae,septum nasi, manubrium
sterni, crista tuberculi, processus radii, caput fibulae,corpus
tibiae, linea nuchae, basis cranii, angulus mandibulae,
tuber maxillae,caput radii, ligamentum patellae, collum
dentis, tuberculum dentis, os cranii, collum costae, arteria
genus, crista capitis costae, tuberculum costae, canaliculus
vestibuli,

apertura

canaliculi

vestibuli,

fossa

olecrni,

capitulum humeri, medulla ovarii, corpus cerebelli, fundus


uteri.
2. Translate the terms into Latin:

44

Body of vertebra, sulcus of vomer, head of rib, aortic arch,


base of skull, neck of radius, nasal cavity, nasal passage,
neck of scapula, mandibular notch, muscle of neck, cranial
suture, head of humerus, base of patella, crest of neck of
rib, ligament of tubercle of rib, plate of arch of vertebra.
3. Translate the terms into English:
Collum radii, caput humeri, caput mandibulae, os digiti,
sulcus arteriae, vagina musculi, basis patellae, facies
maxillae, foramen mandibulae, corpus costae, chorda
tympani, tuberositas ulnae, aqueductus vestibuli, trochlea
humeri, incisura acetabuli, membrana sterni, frenulum
linguae, tuberculum sellae, facies maxillae, fossa acetabuli,
cornu pulpae, fossa olecrni, sulcus papillae, dorsum nasi,
linea nuchae.
4. Translate the terms into Latin:
Muscle of neck, capsule of nerve node, back of saddle,
tuber of upper jaw, neck of shoulder blade, sheath of
process, aperture of cohlear canaliculus, crest of costal
head, ligament of costal tubercle, plate of arch of vertebra,
wing of cocks crest, aperture of aqueduct of vestibule,
vestibule of nose, surface of costal tubercle, dividing wall of
nose, base of cochlea, small pit of process, small foot of
arch of vertebra.

45

5. Translate the terms into English:


Collum costae, incisura mandibulae, angulus costae, collum
scapulae, corpus fibulae, radix dentis, corpus humri,
angulus mandibulae, corpus tibiae, radix linguae, collum
radii, caput humeri, os digiti, sulcus sinus, basis patellae,
musculus corpris, arcus aortae, tuberculum humri, facies
maxillae, foramen mandibulae, caput mandibulae, arteria
genus.
6. Translate the terms into Latin:
Bone of skull, first chamber of heart, arch of vertebra, head
of mandible, foramen of mandible, ligament of scapula,
head of radius, nasal septum, depression of process,
mandibular notch, pedicle of arch of vertebra, surface of
tubercle of rib, plate of process, nucleus of horn, cortex of
cerebellum, cortex of brain.
Latin muscle names
The

Latin

elements:
musculus

muscle

names

are

composed

of

two

1) the first element is the noun muscle


usually

abbreviated

as

m.;

2) the second element is a masculine noun ending in -or (ris for Gen.) or -er (-ris for Gen.). E.g.: musculus
flexor (flexor muscle). The Latin muscle names are usually
translated into English without a word muscle, cf.:
musculusmasseter

chewer;musculuslevator
46

elevator.Most of the muscle names are not translated but


transliterated, i.e. reproduced with the Latin letters. E.g.:
musculus pronator pronator.
Memorize the names of the following muscles according to
their function:
m. abductor abductor muscle (taking away)
m. adductor adductor muscle (bringing together)
m. buccinator buccinator muscle (cheek muscle)
m. constrictor constrictor muscle (shortening)
m. corrugator corrugator muscle (wrinkler muscle)
m. depressor depressor muscle (bringing down)
m. dilatator dilator muscle (widening)
m. extensor extensor muscle (stretching)
m. flexor flexor muscle (bending)
m. levator elevator muscle (raising)
m. masseter masticatory muscle (chewing muscle)
m. pronator pronator muscle (turning inward face
downward)
m. rotator rotator muscle (turning round)
m. sphincter sphincter muscle (narrowing)
m. supinator supinator muscle (turning outward face
upward)
m. tensor tensor muscle (straining)
In any Latin multiple-word term a noun denoting an
organ whichexperiences the action of a muscle, is always
used in the Genitive Case. It is interpreted into English
either with the help ofan of phrase put at the end of the
term, or by preserving Latin name ofthe organ put after the
noun

designating

function

and

before

muscle.E.g.:
Lat. Musculus tensor tympani (Gen. )
47

the

noun

Engl. Tensor tympani muscle

or

tensor muscle of

tympanum
Lat. Musculus depressor labii(Gen. )
Engl. Depressor labii muscleor

depressor muscle of

lip
EXERCISE
Translate the terms into English:
Musculus dilatator pupillae,musculus levator scapulae,
musculus rotator cervicis, musculusconstrictor pharyngis,
musculus buccinator, musculus depressor anguli oris,
musculus

extensorindicis,

musculus

sphincter

ani,

musculus corrugator supercilii.


LATINADJECTIVES
According to their endings Latin adjectives used in
Anatomy can be divided into two groups: the first and the
second group (see Table 2).
The 1st group of adjectives:
The adjectives of the 1st group have different forms for
every gender. In Nominative case for masculine gender
they have -us, for feminine gender -a, for neuter gender
-um. In Genitive case for masculine and neuter gender
they have -i, for feminine gender -ae. So, the dictionary
form

of the adjectives of the 1st group consists of three

components: 1) adjective in the masculine form; 2) the


feminine ending; 3) the neuter ending.
48

E.g.: transversus, a, um (transverse): transversus (m)


transversa (f)
transversum (n)
The stem of the 1st group adjectives is obtained from
the

Nominative

form

by

removing

the

gender

ending:transversus, a, um(Nom.) transvers- (the stem)


transversi, ae, i (Gen.).
The adjectives ending in er fall also into this adjective
group. In the anatomical terminology only some of them
are used. E.g.:dexter (right), sinister (left), liber (free),
ruber (red). As for the stem of adjectives with the ending
er in masculine it is obtained from the Nominative form by
removing the feminine ending: dexter, tra, trum (Nom.)
dextr- (the stem) dextri, ae, i (Gen.); sinister, tra, trum
(Nom.) sinistr- (the stem) sinistri, ae, i (Gen.); liber,
ra, rum (Nom.) liber- (the stem) liberi, ae, i (Gen.);
ruber, bra, brum (Nom.) rubr- (the stem) rubri, ae, i
(Gen.).
The 2nd group of adjectives:
The

adjectives

of

the

2nd

group

have

identical

Nominative masculine and feminine forms ending in -is and


the neuter ending -e. The Genitive form is identical for all
genders, it is -is. So, the dictionary form of the adjectives
of the 2nd group consists of two components: 1) adjective in
the masculine and feminine form; 2) the neuter ending.
49

E.g.: frontalis, e (frontal): frontalis (m)


frontalis (f)
frontale (n)
The stem of the 2nd group adjectives is obtained from
the

Nominative

ending:vertebralis,

form

by

e(Nom.)

removing
vertebral-

the
(the

gender
stem)

vertebralis (Gen.).
In the anatomical terminology some adjectives of one
form for all genders are used. They have the ending -ex or
-es and are included into the 2nd group of adjectives. In the
dictionary form of such adjectives the Nominative form
(common for all genders) is first indicated, and then the
Genitive ending with the stem part.E.g.: simplex, icis
(simple); multiplex, icis (multiple); teres, tis (round). The
stem of such adjectives is obtained from the Genitive form
singular by removing the ending: simplex, icis simplic(the stem); multiplex, icis multiplic- (the stem); teres,
tis teret- (the stem).
E.g.: simplex, icis (simple): simplex (m, f,n) (Nom.)
simplicis (m, f,n) (Gen.)
Like in English, there are three degrees of comparison
of adjectives in Latin: the positive degree, the comparative
degree and the superlative degree.
The positive degree.It is the basic form of adjective, by
which it is presented in the dictionaries: latus, a, um(wide).
50

The comparative degree.There are some adjectives in


comparative degree used in the Anatomical terminology
(see LM 2). The dictionary form of these adjectives has two
components:

1)

Nominative

singular

masculine

and

feminine form with the suffix -ior; 2) suffix -iusof the


Nominative singular neuter form.
E.g.:anterior, ius (anterior, front): anterior (m)
anterior (f)
anterius (n)
The stem of the adjectives in the comparative degree
coincides with the Nominative masculine and feminine form
terminated by -ior. The Genitive singular form for all the
genders in the comparative degree is formed by adding the
ending -is to the stem. E.g.:anterior, ius (Nom.) anterior(the stem) anterioris (m, f,n) (Gen.).
The adjectives in the comparative degree are placed
on the last position: E.g.: nervus cutaneus brachii lateralis
inferior inferior lateral cutaneous nerve of arm.
There are some pecularities in the use of adjectives
magnus, a, um great (positive degree) and major, us
greater (comparative degree); parvus, a, um small,
little (positive degree) and minor, us lesser (comparative
degree). In the Anatomical terminology the Comparative
degree

of

theseadjectives

denotes

twin

anatomical

formations (ala major et ala minor; tuberculum majus et


tuberculum minus) and when describing an oddanatomical
51

formation, we use the Positive degree of these adjectives


(foramen occipitale magnum). Remember, that the majority
of anatomicalformations are twins, that is the reason for
extensive use of the adjectivesmajor, us and minor, us in
Anatomy.
The superlative degree. There are some adjectives in
superlative degree used in the Anatomical terminology (see
LM 2). The superlative degree of adjectives ending in us,
a, um is formed by adding the suffix

-issim- and the

endings us, a, um to the base of the Positive degree.


E.g.:longus, a, um (long) longissimus, a, um (the
longest). The superlative degree of adjectives ending in
er, a, um is formed by adding the suffix

-rim- and the

endings us, a, um to the form of the masculine gender.


E.g.: ruber, bra, brum (red) ruberrimus, a, um (the
reddest).
The dictionary form of the adjectives in the superlative
degree coincides with the dictionary form of the 1st group
adjectives and consists of three components: 1) adjective
in the masculine form; 2) the feminine ending; 3) the
neuter ending.
There are special forms of superlative degree of some
adjectives. E.g.: maximus, a, um (the greatest).
As the adjectives of the 1st group, adjectives in the
superlative degree have the masculine and neuter genitive
ending -i, and the feminine genitive ending -ae.E.g.:
52

maximus, a, um (Nom.) maxim- (the stem) maximi, ae,


i (Gen.).
Compound adjectives
Compound adjectives include two or three roots
(bases) and are usedto denote anatomical formations,
connecting two organsor belonging to two organs. The
combining vowel -o-is used to connect the bases of
compound adjectives. Mind, that Latin bases are preserved
in the English equivalents ofsuch adjectives.E.g.: nervus
musculocutaneus musculocutaneous nerve; musculus
stylopharyngeus stylopharyngeal muscle.

53

Table 2
m

the 1st group of


adjectives and
adjectives in
superlative degree

Nom.

-us
(-er)

-a

-um

Gen.

-i

-ae

-i

the 2nd group of


adjectives

Nom.

adjectives in
comparative degree

Nom.

-is

-e
-is

Gen.
-or

Gen.

-us

-oris

Most of the adjectives in the Anatomo-Histological


Nomenclature are formed from nouns with the help of the
suffixes which have definite meanings:
-al-, -ar-(is, e) pertaining to the structure named in the
root. E.g.: costa (rib) costalis (relating to a rib)
-at- (us, a, um)possessing (Engl. -ate)
-os- (us, a, um)having plenty of (Engl. -ous)
-iv- (us, a, um)able to do something(Engl. -ive)
-id+e- (us, a, um) resembling (Engl. -oid (al))
-id+al- (is, e) in the shape of
-in- (us, a, um) pertaining to (Engl. -ine)
-ic-(us, a, um) pertaining to (Engl. -ic)
-e- (us,a,um)pertaining to (Engl. -eal); consisting of a
substance(Engl. -eous).
54

LIST OF ADJECTIVES USED IN THE ANATOMICAL


TERMINOLOGY
(LEXICAL MINIMUM 2 / LM 2)
1st group of adjectives

accessorius
,a, um
acusticus,
a, um
adiposus,
a, um
albus, a,
um
anatomicus
, a, um
aorticus, a,
um
aquosus, a,
um
arteriosus,
a, um
asper, ra,
rum
bilfer, ra,
rum
biliosus, a,
um
calcaneus,
a, um
cardicus,
a, um
caroticus,
a, um(is
used with
the names
of different
structures,
excluding
the artery)

accessory,
additional
auditory,
acoustic
adipose, fatty

carpeus, a,
um
cavernosus
, a, um
cavus, a,
um
coccygus,
a, um
coelicus,
a, um
compactus,
a, um
compostus
, a, um
coronarius,
a, um
cuneatus,
a, um
cutaneus,
a, um

white
anatomical
aortic, aortal
aqueous,
hydrous, watery
arterial
asperous

carpal
cavernous
caval, hollow
coccygeal
belly, womb,
celiac
compact
complex
coronary

wedge-shaped,
cuneate
cutaneous,
relating to the
skin
cylindricus, cylindrical
a, um
dexter, tra, right
trum
durus, a,
hard, solid
um
fibrosus, a, fibrous
um
flavus, a,
yellow
um
gastricus,
gastric
a, um
glutaeus,
pertaining
to

gall, bile
bilious
calcaneal
cardiac
carotid

55

a, um
hyoideus,
a, um

buttocks
hyoid (denoting
os hyoideum
bone under the
tongue)
hypoglossu hypoglossal
s, a, um
(denoting
nervus
hypoglossus
nerve under the
tongue)
iliacus, a,
iliac
um
incisivus,
incisive, cutting,
a, um
sharp
internus, a, internal
um
ischiadicus ischial, sciatic
, a um
laryngeus, laryngeal
a, um
latus, a,um broad
liber, ra,
free
rum
lobatus, a, lobulose,
um
lobulous,
lobulated
longus, a,
long
um
lymphaticu lymphatic
s, a, um
magnus, a, large, great
um
masseteric masticatory,
us, a, um
chewing
mastoideus mammiform,
, a, um
mastoid, breast
shaped
medius, a, middle
um
membrana membranous
ceus, a, um
mucosus,
mucous
a, um

nervosus,
a, um
niger, gra,
grum
nutricius,
a, um
obliquus,
a, um
obturatoriu
s, a, um
oesophag
us, a, um
ophthalmic
us, a, um
opticus, a,
um
osseus, a,
um
palatinus,
a, um
parvus, a,
um
pelvinus, a,
um
peron(a)eu
s, a, um
petrosus,
a, um

pius, a, um
pharyngeu
s, a, um
planus, a,
um
popliteus,
a, um
profundus,
a, um
proprius,a,
um
pterygoide
us, a, um
56

nervous
black
nutritious
oblique, slanted
obturative
esophageal
ocular,
ophthalmic
optic, visual
bony, osseous
palatine, palatal
little, small
pelvic
fibular, peroneal,
relating to fibula
stony,
petrous,
petrosal, relating
to
petrous
portion
of
temporal bone
soft
pharyngeal
flat, plane
popliteal
deep
proper
wing-shaped,
pterygoid

pulposus,
a, um
pyloricus,
a, um
quadratus,
a, um
quadrigem
nus, a, um
rectus, a,
um
respiratori
us, a, um
rotundus,
a, um
ruber, bra,
brum
sacer, cra,
crum
sanguineus
, a, um
sanus, a,
um
scalnus,
a, um
scaphoideu
s, a, um

pulposus
pyloric
square
quadrigeminal
straight
respiratory
round
red
sacral (for bone)
blood,
sanguiferous
healthy
stairs-shaped

scaphoid,
navicular, keelshaped,
boatshaped
serratus, a, serrate
um
sinister,
left
tra, trum
sinusoideu sinusoid
s, a, um
squamosus squamous,squa
, a, um
mate,
scaly,
covered
with
scales
spinosus,
spinous, thorny
a, um
spongiosus spongy
, a, um
spurius, a, false
um
57

thoracicus,
a, um
thyreoideu
s, a, um
transitoriu
s, a, um
transversu
s, a, um
trapezoide
us, a um

thoracic

uropoticu
s, a, um
vagus, a,
um

thyroid, in the
shape of a shield
transitory

urinogenous

vage,
wandering,
vagus
venosus, a, venous
um

transverse

trapezoid,
resembling a
trapezium
triquetrus, triangular,
a, um
trihedral
tympanicus tympanic
, a, um

vitreus, a,
um
xiphoideus,
a, um
zygomaticus,
a, um

hyaline,
hyaloid,
vitreous
swordshaped
zygomatic

2nd group of adjectives

alaris, e
alveolaris, e
anularis, e
arciformis, e
articularis, e
auricularis, e
biliaris, e
brevis, e
capillaris, e
caudalis, e
centralis, e
cerebralis, e
cervicalis, e

relating to a
wing, winged,
alar
alveolar
ring-shaped
arch-shaped,
arciform
articular,
related to a
joint
auricular
biliary
short
capillary
caudal
central
relating to
larger brain,
cerebral
cervical,
relating to the
neck

ciliaris, e
cochlearis, e
communis, e
costalis, e
cranialis, e
cuneiformis,
e
dentalis, e
dorsalis, e
ethmoidalis,
e
facialis, e

fibularis, e
frontalis, e
58

ciliary
cochlear
common
costal
cranial
wedgeshaped,
cuneiform
dental
dorsal,
pertaining to
the back
sieve-shaped,
ethmoid
facial,
pertaining to
the surface or
face
fibular,
relating to the
fibula
frontal,

referring
to
the
frontal
bone
horizontal

pectoralis, e
pleuralis, e
pulmonalis,e
rectalis, e
renalis, e
sacciformis,
e

horizontalis,
e
inguinalis, e
inguinal
intestinalis, e intestinal
jugularis, e
relating to the
throat
or
neck, jugular
lacrimalis, e
lacrimal
lateralis, e
lateral
lingualis, e
lingual
longitudinali longitudinal,
s, e
lengthwise
lumbalis, e
lumbar
mandibularis relating to the
,e
lower jaw,
mandibular
maxillaris, e
relating to the
upper jaw,
maxillary
medialis, e
medial
mentalis, e
mental
moblis, e
mobile
molaris, e
molar
muscularis, e muscular,
pertaining to
a muscle
nasalis, e
relating to the
nose, nasal

sagittalis, e
semilunaris,
e
sphenoidalis,
e
spinalis, e

sternalis, e
sublingualis,
e
superficialis,
e
synovialis, e
temporalis, e
tenuis, e

navicularis, e navicular,
keel-shaped,
boat-shaped
occipitalis, e occipital,
relating to the
occiput
orbitalis, e
orbital
ovalis, e
oval
parietalis, e
parietal,
relating to the
wall of any
cavity

tibialis, e
triangularis,
e
trigeminalis,
e
trochlearis, e
vaginalis, e
ventralis, e
59

pectoral
pleural
pulmonary
rectal
renal
sacciform,
saccular,
bursiform
sagital
semilunar
wedgeshaped,
sphenoid
relating to any
spine
or
spinous
process;
relating to the
vertebral
column; spinal
sternal
sublingual
(any structure
except bone
and nerve)
superficial
synovial
temporal,
relating to the
temple
thin (used in
the name of
the small
intestine)
tibial
triangular
trigeminal
trochlear
vaginal
ventral,

pertaining to
the front

60

vermicular,
lumbrical

vertebralis, e vertebral,
relating to a
vertebra

biceps,ipitis

biceps,
bicephalous
deferent,
revehent
simple
round

triceps,ipitis

defrens,
entis
simplex, icis
teres, tis

triceps,
tricephalous
quadriceps,
quadriceps,
ipitis
fourcephalous

multipl multiple
ex, icis

Adjectives in comparative degree

albior, ius
anterior, ius
inferior, ius
latior, ius
longior, ius
major, us

whiter
anterior, in
front of
lower, inferior,
below
broader, wider
longer
greater, major

minor, us
lesser, minor
posterior, ius back,
posterior,
behind
simplicior,
simpler
ius
superior, ius higher, upper,
superior,
above

Adjectives in superlative degree

61

latissmus, a,
um
longissmus,
a, um
maxmus, a,
um

the widest
the longest
the greatest,
the
largest
(when
the
highest
quantity
is
characterized)

62

minmus, a,
um

the smallest,
the least

suprmus, a,
um

supreme,
the
highest
(when
the
highest
position
is
meant)

EXERCISES
1. Write the dictionary form of the adjectives and
translate them:
Rectus, transversus, spinosus, latus, cervicalis, anterior,
osseus, spinalis, superior, ethmoidalis, obliquus, brevior,
costalis,

vertebralis,

posterior,

zygomaticus,

orbitalis,

simplex.
2. Construct adjectives in their feminine gender
form:
Coccygeus,

medianus,

sacer,

spongiosus,simplicior,

major,

quadriceps,

thoracicus,
pterygoideus,

mastoideus, ruber.
3. Construct adjectives in their neuter gender form:
Pterygoideus,
sphenoidalis,

dentalis,
frontalis,

longus,

palatinus,

minor,

articularis,

scapularis,

longior,

nutricius, ovalis, pelvinus, cerebralis, inferior.


AGREEMENT OF ADJECTIVES WITH NOUNS
In all Latin terms the position of adjectives is after the
noun with which it has grammatical agreement.To agree a
noun and an adjective means to use them in the same
Gender, Number and Case.

In order to translate the terms (consisting of nouns and


adjectives) into Englishyou should make the analysis as
follows:
foramen vertebrale
- determine the part of speech of each word:
N. Adj.
foramen vertebrale
- remember the dictionary form of the noun and
translate it: formen, nis n opening; by the ending given
in the term you define its case: Nominative. The adjective
after the noun in Nominitive is also in Nominative:
N. Adj.
foramen vertebrale
Nom.Nom.
- remember the dictionary form of the adjective and
translate it: vertebralis, e vertebral;
- translate the term:
vertebral opening
In order to translate the terms (consisting of nouns and
adjectives) into Latin you should make the analysis as
follows:
stony nerve
- determine the part of speech of each word:
Adj.N.
stony nerve

- determine the case of each word:


Adj.N.
stony nerve
Nom.Nom.
- remember the dictionary form of the noun: nerve
nervus, i m;
- remember the dictionary form of the adjective: stony
petrosus, a, um;
- translate the term keeping in mind that in Latin any
term starts with a noun, then the adjective (agreed with the
noun by gender, number and case) is used:
nervus petrosus
EXERCISES
1. Make up grammatical agreement of the following
adjectives with the given nouns and translate the
ready terms:
sulcus, i m

sulcus, i m

os, ossis n

ligamentum,

processus,

in

us m
arteria, ae f

palatinus, a,
um

formen, nis

linea, ae f
crista, ae f

transversus,
a, um

caput, itis n

n
tuberculum, i articularis, e

sutura, ae f

n facies, i f

angulus, i m

frontalis, e

processus,

tuber, ris n

us m

incisura, ae

cavitas, atis f

musculus,

plexus, us m venosus, a,

i pterygoideus,

a um

sinus, us m

fossa, ae f

um

valvula, ae f

fovea, ae f
formen, nis vertebralis, e

nasus, i m

facies, i f

externus, a,
um

canalis, is m
ligamentum,

lateralis, e

canalis, is m

in

tuberculum,

radix, cis f

in

caroticus, a,
um

arcus, us m

zygomaticus,

facies, i f

os, ossis n

a, um

ganglion, i n um

internus, a,

2. Translate the terms into English:


Vertebra

thoracica,

costalis,

tuberculum

simplex,

sinus

ductus

bilfer,

pharyngeum,

maxillaris,

facies

os

frontale,

glandula

arcus

alveolaris

articularis,

hiatus

oesophagus, sulcus major, processus articularis, cornu


sacrale, crista sacralis, nervus opticus, arteria ophthalmica,
circulus arteriosus et circulus venosus, nervus vagus,
peritoneum parietale, plexus arteriosus, tonsilla palatina,
vesica biliaris, hiatus aorticus, arteria coronaria dextra,
columna

vertebralis,foramen

vertebrale,caput

majus,

processus transversus,sutura squamosa, palatum durum,


formen sacrale pelvinum,linea transversa, os temporale,
foramen superius.
3. Translate into Latin making agreement between
nouns and adjectives:
Transverse

(groove,

line,

ligament),

anterior

(sulcus,

tubercle, crest, opening, ligament), vertebral (canal, notch,


foramen), articular (process, surface, tubercle), lower
(sinus, part, spine), pterygoid (muscle, fossa), posterior
(arch, surface, ligament), palatal (process, bone, groove),
mastoid (process, part), frontal (angle, suture, tuber),
higher (process, opening).
4. Open the brakets using the correct form of
adjectives and translate the terms into English:
Tuber

(occipitalis;

ischiadicus;

externus;

parietalis),

ren

frontalis;
(dexter;

major;

mobilis;

minor;
sinister;

lobatus), facies (articularis; carpeus), foramen (occipitalis;


magnus; mentalis; incisivus; mastoideus), pulmo (dexter;
sinister), musculus (externus), paries (lateralis; jugularis;
anterior; tympanicus), ligamentum (dorsalis; profundus),
ductus (hepaticus communis), venter (posterior; frontalis),
substantia
frontalis;
hyoideus;

(albus;
palatinus;

niger),

os

occipitalis;

zygomaticus;

sacer;

(parietalis;

temporalis;

lacrimalis;

calcaneus;

nasalis;

sphenoidalis;

ethmoidalis; scaphoideus), mater (pius; durus), cavitas

(pleuralis;
frontalis;

articularis;
dexter),

auris

medullaris),

margo

(anterior;

(internus;

externus;

medius),

cartilago (costalis; alaris; articularis; major), pars (osseus;


lateralis; anterior; dexter), vas (lymphaticus; sanguineus;
capillaris),

systma

(centralis;

nervosus;

lymphaticus),

caput (longus; transversus; lateralis; brevis), crus (sinister;


lateralis; brevis; simplex; anterior), hepar (mobilis; lobatus;
major), pes (calcaneus; planus), trochanter (major; minor),
humor (vitreus; aquosus), liquor (cerebrospinalis; flavus),
cor (adiposus).
5. Translate the terms into Latinmaking agreement
between nouns and adjectives in brackets:
Crest

(transverse,

tympanic,

sphenoid,

nasal,

iliac,

ethmoid), vertebra (cervical, thoracic, sacral, dorsal),


surface (lateral, medial, dorsal, cerebral, inferior,articular,
temporal), bone (frontal, palatine, nasal, ethmoid, occipital,
hyoid, zygomatic, sacral), process (transverse, articular,
ethmoid, palatine, frontal, temporal, sphenoid), foramen
(round, occipital, spinous, vertebral, ethmoidal, frontal,
greater, palatine), depression (oval) (iliac, jugular, lesser,
mandibular,mastoid, petrosal, pterygoid), groove (aortic,
ethmoidal, superior, frontal, mediane, palatine, temporal,
transverse, occipital), fovea (superior, anterior, articular,
ethmoid, temporal), spine (anterior, nasal, posterior iliac),
muscle

(teres

major,

teres

minor,

articular,

biceps,

brachioradial,brachial,cephalopharyngeal,
ligament

(gastrocolic,

posterior,sacrococcygeal,

the

iliofemoral,
round,

longest),
thyrohyoid,

transverse),

horn

(anterior, sacral, superior).


6. Translate into English the following Latin names
of bones:
Os

parietale,

os

temporale,

maxilla,

os

frontale,

os

palatinum, ospubis, os occipitale, humerus, ulna, os coxae,


os lacrimale,calcaneus, os hyoideum, os zygomaticum,
radius, os coccgis, os sacrum, os nasale, os sphenoidale,
patella, os ethmoidale, os scaphoideum, os naviculare, os
ischii.
7. Translate the following terms into Latin according
to grammatical agreement:
Lateral

ligament,

network,supreme

arch-shaped
nasal

concha,

crest,

pharyngeal

palatine

process,

pulmonary surface, simple joint, medial root, deep cervical


lymphatic node, medial head, right plate, the widest back
muscle, oval opening, thoracic fascia,sublingual bone,
occipital angle, transverse palatine raphe, costal surface,
vertebral nerve node,the longest chest muscle, sacral
canal, stony branch, internal capsule,the longest muscle of
neck,frontal

tuber,

middle

temporal

artery,

spinous

opening, parietal lobe,gluteus maximus muscle, superficial


vein, costal arch, frontal crest.

8. Translate the terms into English:


Scapula dextra, cornu majus et minus, os occipitale, vena
profunda,

processus

spinosus,

processus

articularis,

foramen spinosum, incisura ischiadica major, foramen


vertebrale, ganglion pterygopalatinum, facies posterior, os
nasale, os ethmoidale, ligamentum posterius, vertebra
thoracica, sinus petrosus, os palatinum, pars petrosa, os
sacrum, facies anterior, angulus inferior, ganglion superius,
cornu majus, pelvis minor, arcus posterior, radix anterior,
ductus

nasolacrimalis,

tuberculum

majus,

substantia

compacta et substantia spongiosa.

9. Form Genitive singular of the adjectives:


Spinosus (m), spinosa (f), spinosum (n), spinalis (m),
spinalis (f), spinale (n), transversus (m),transversa (f),
transversum (n), superior (m), superior (f), superius (n),
osseus (m), ossea (f), osseum (n), ethmoidalis (m),
ethmoidalis (f), ethmoidale (n), simplicior(m), simplicior(f),
simplicius(n),

anterior

pterygoideus

(m),

(m),

anterior

pterygoidea

(f),

(f),

anterius

(n),

pterygoideum

(n),

posterior (m), posterior (f), posterius (n), sphenoidalis (m),

sphenoidalis (f), sphenoidale (n), inferior (m), inferior (f),


inferius (n).

10.

Make

up

Genitive

forms

of

the

following

adjectives:
Vertebralis, e; medius, a, um; internus, a, um; temporalis,
e; lumbalis, e; nutricius, a, um; flavus, a, um; cervicalis, e;
latior, ius; lymphaticus, a, um; thoracicus, a, um; minor, us;
sinister, tra, trum; albior, ius; pyloricus, a, um; lateralis, e;
osseus, a, um; major, jus.
11. Translate the terms into Latinmaking agreement
between nouns and adjectives in brackets. Put the
terms into the Genitive singular:
Cavity (proper, medullary, pleural, tympanic, articular),
tuberosity (costal, deltoid, iliac, pterygoid, masseteric), ear
(external, internal), part (abdominal, alar, anterior, cardiac,
cervical,

clavicular,

costal,right,

horizontal,

inferior,

mastoid, osseous, petrous), cartilage (costal, greater alar,


lesser alar, articular, thyroid), joint (composite, fibrous,
simple, synovial), canal (pterygoid, optic, mandibular,
vertebral,
capillary,

sacral,

carotid,

collateral,

blood),

facial),
region

vessel

(lymphatic,

(deltoid,

anterior,

femoral, lateral, calcaneal), root (medial, lateral), axis


(transverse, horizontal, thoracic, optic, mandibular, long),
margin (anterior, right, frontal, lateral, mastoid, occipital,

squamous), foramen (sciatic, internal, oval, round, incisive,


alveolar, palatine,greater, lesser, sphenoid, mastoid), leg;
anything resembling a leg (right, left, lateral, short, long,
medial,simple, anterior), head (long, short, deep, slanting,
transverse, lateral), body (adipous, ciliary, cavernous),
kidney (right, left, mobile, lobous), spleen (accessory,
mobile), network (articulary, arterial, lymphatic), system
(central nervous, lymphatic), liver (mobile).

12. Translate the terms into Latin and put them into
Genitive case:
Oval foramen, middle temporal artery, greater sulcus,
transverse palatine suture, sacral horn, superior slit,
articular surface, lower lip, iliac spine, posterior arch, iliac
tubercle, medial sacral crest, spinous foramen, temporal
bone, greater head, transverse line, posterior obturative
tubercle, greater wing, vertebral column, squamous suture,
sacral bone, superior opening, anterior surface, lower
angle, greater horn, superior nerve node, small pelvis,
greater tubercle, anterior root, posterior arch.
PREFIXES IN THE ANATOMICAL TERMINOLOGY
It is known that the body or organs of the body may be
sectioned according to planes of reference. These include a
midsagittal plane that runs vertically through a structure,
dividing it into right and left halves; a sagittal plane that
runs vertically through a structure, dividing it into right and
left portions; a coronal (frontal) plane that runs vertically
through a structure, dividing it into anterior (front) and
posterior (back) portions; and a transverse (cross-sectional)
plane that runs horizontally through a structure, dividing it
into upper and lower portions.
In the anatomical terminology a great variety of terms
with the spatial location meaning is used. The fundamental

importance in this aspect have Latin and Greek prefixes as


follows:
Prefixe
s
anteprepostretrosupraepiinfrasubhypo-

intraendoextraintermesoadabpara-

Meaning of the
Examples
prefixes
before/behind
before, preceding antebrachium (forearm)
before, ahead of
presacralis (presacral)
after, behind
postaortalis (postaortal)
back, behind
retrocavalis (retrocaval)
above/under
supraauricularis (supraabove
auricular)
on; upon; over
epigastrium (epigastrium)
under; below
infraspinalis (infraspinal)
subarachnoidalis
under; below
(subarachnoid)
below;
hypochondrium
incomplete;
(hypochondrium)
deficient
inside/outside
intramuscularis
within
(intramuscular)
endocervicalis
within
(endocervical)
extracapsularis
outside of; beyond
(extracapsular)
between
intervertebralis
between
(intervertebral)
mesogastrium
middle
(mesogastrium)
to/from
to; toward
adductor (adductor)
from; away from
abductor (abductor)
beside, around
beside; beyond;
paraduodenalis

perisynco-,
com(con-)

around
(paraduodenal)
surrounding
pericardium (pericardium)
(outer)
together, joined
together; joined
synarthrosis (synarthrosis)
together

commissura (commissure)

LIST OF COMMONLY USED ANATOMICAL TERMS WITH


PREFIXES
1.antebrachium, i n
2.collateralis, e
3.epigastrium, i n
4.hypogastrium, i n
5.infraclavicularis, e
6.infraorbitalis, e
7.infraspinatus, a, um
8.interalveolaris, e
9.intercostalis, e
10. interglobularis, e
11. interlobaris, e
12. interlobularis, e
13. intermuscularis, e
14. interosseus, a, um
15. interradicularis, e
16. interspinalis, e
17. interspinosus, a, um
18. intracranialis, e
19. retromandibularis, e
20. subclavius, a, um
21. subcutaneus, a, um
22. sublingualis, e
23. submandibularis, e
24. suboccipitalis, e
25. supraclavicularis, e
26. suprarenalis, e
27. suprascapularis, e

EXERCISES

forearm
collateral
epigastrium
hypogastrium
infraclavicular
infraorbital
infraspinatus
interalveolar
intercostal
interglobular
interlobar
interlobular
intermuscular
interosseal, interosseous
interradicular
interspinal
interspinal
intracranial
retromandibular
subclavicular
subcutaneous
sublingual
submandibular
suboccipital
supraclavicular
suprarenal
suprascapularis

1. Make up new words using prefixes and translate


into English explaining their meaning:
Extra- (cellularis, e; capsularis, e), intra- (cranialis, e;
glandularis, e), infra- (orbitalis, e; patellaris, e), supra(clavicularis, e; scapularis, e; renalis, e), para- (sternalis, e;
vertebralis, e), inter- (costalis, e; osseus, a, um; alveolaris,
e), pre- (centralis,e ; axillaris, e), retro- (mandibularis, e),
sub- (cutaneus, a, um; lingualis, e).
2. Translate into English:
Facies

interlobaris,

fossa

infraclavicularis,

pars

intracranialis, margo interosseus, arteria suprascapularis,


septum

intermusculare

infraspinatus,

arteria

cruris

suprarenalis

anterius,

musculus

media,

membrana

intercostalis interna.
3. Translate into Latin:
Interlobar

artery,

preoccipital

notch,

suprapleural

membrane, submandibular gland, interclavicular ligament,


intermandibular suture, intraglandular lymphatic node,
supraorbital vein, common interosseal artery, fascia of
forearm.
4. Translate into Latin, give the dictionary form of
each word and explain the meaning of prefixes:

Forearm,

collateral,

infraclavicular,
interlobar,

epigastrium,

infraorbital,

intermuscular,

hypogastrium,

infraspinatus,

intercostal,

interosseal,

interspinal,

intracranial, retromandibular, subclavicular, subcutaneous,


sublingual, submandibular, suboccipital, supraclavicular,
suprarenal, suprascapularis.

STRUCTURE OF MULTIPLE-WORD
ANATOMICAL TERMS
In order to translate multiword terms into English you
should make the analysis as follows:
lamina horizontalis ossis palatini
- determine the part of speech of each word:
N.

Adj.

N.

Adj.
lamina horizontalis ossis palatini
- determine the case of each word (remember that the
first noun is always in Nom., all other nouns are in Gen. and
that in most cases adjectives after the noun in Nom. are
also in Nom., adjectives after the noun in Gen. are also in
Gen., but pay attention to the words endings):
N.

Adj.

N.

Adj.

lamina horizontalis ossis palatini


Nom.

Nom.

Gen.

Gen.

- at first translate the Nominative words and start by


the adjective, only then the Genitive words and start by
the adjective too, place the preposition of between the
Nom. and Gen. word combinations:
horizontal plate of palatine bone

If anatomical terms consist of more than two words


and include nouns and adjectives, in order to translate such
terms into Latin you should make the analysis as follows:
fibrous capsule of thyroid gland
- determine the part of speech of each word:
Adj.

N.

Adj.

N.
fibrous capsule of thyroid gland
- determine the case of each word(remember that the
words

standing

before

the

preposition

of

are

in

Nominative case, the words after the preposition of are in


Genitive case):
Adj.

N.

Adj.

N.
fibrous capsule of thyroid gland
Nom.

Nom.

Gen.

Gen.
- remember the dictionary form of each word, translate
them and make the corresponding agreements between
nouns and adjectives:
capsule capsula, ae f
fibrous fibrosus, a, um
gland glandula, ae f
thyroid thyroideus, a, um

} capsula fibrosa
} glandula thyroidea

in Gen.
glandulae thyroideae
- translate the term (at first Nominative words, then
the preposition ofand the words in Genitive case):
capsula fibrosa glandulae thyroideae
EXERCISES
1. Translate the terms into English:
Lamina orbitalis ossis ethmoidalis, arcus vertebrae, basis
ossis sacri, labium mediale lineae asperae, linea temporalis
superior, sulcus sinus sigmoidei, facies articularis capitis
fibulae, tuber maxillae, tunica mucosa linguae, facies
maxillae, tuberculum mediale processus posterioris tali,
foramen

vertebrale,

facies

articularis

acromii,corpus

vertebrae thoracicae,sulcus sinus petrosi, hiatus canalis


nervi petrosi minoris, lamina horizontalis ossis palatini,
arteria

temporalis

media,

sulcus

arteriae

temporalis

mediae, caput fibulae, facies partis petrosae, pars lateralis


ossis occipitalis.
2. Translate the terms into Latin:
Ligament of vertebral column, ulnar flexor muscle of wrist,
palatal tuber of maxilla, articular process of vertebra, bony
septum of nose, articular tuber of vertebra, palatine
process of upper jaw, valve of coronary sinus, ligament of
vertebral column, groove of occipital artery, depressor

muscle of eyebrow, squama of occipital bone, arch of


thoracic duct, middle fossa of skull, left lumbar trunk,
fibrous capsule of thyroid gland, furrow of occipital artery,
aperture of frontal sinus, osseus nasal septum, extensor
muscle of little finger, depressor muscle of lower lip.
3. Translate the terms into English:
Tuberculum obturatorium posterius, processus superior,
ramus superior, labium inferius, ala major, facies anterior
partis petrosae, fovea articularis processus articularis
superioris, ala minor ossis sphenoidalis, arcus dentalis
inferior, processus articularis superior vertebrae lumbalis,
ramus dexter venae portae, musculus palpebrae superioris,
crista tuberculi majoris, sulcus nervi petrosi majoris, caput
superius musculi pterygoidei lateralis, pars lateralis ossis
occipitalis,

nervus

cutaneus

brachii

lateralis

inferior,

processus maxillaris conchae nasalis inferioris, ligamentum


longitudinale anterius columnae vertebralis.
4. Translate the terms into Latin:
Tensor

muscle

of

tympanic

membrane,

superior

process,greater ischiadic slit, superior branch, cortex of


lymphatic node, inferior constrictor muscle of pharynx,
posterior arch, dura mater of brain, posterior surface,
smaller and greater horn, posterior ligament,elevator
muscle of thyroid gland, depressor muscle of lower lip,

small (great) trochanter, heart apex, left (right) lung,


medial surface of lung, floor of tympanic cavity, wedgeshaped bone, membranous wall of trachea, frontal wall of
stomach, small horn of sublingual bone, zygomatic process
of temporal bone, ethmoidal sulcus of nasal bone, notch of
heart apex, sphincter muscle of urinary bladder, wrinkler
muscle of eyebrow.

5. Translate the terms into English:


Cavitas medullaris, basis cranii externa, cartilago thyroidea,
cartilago alaris major, margo inferior pulmonis sinistri, auris
externa,

bifurcatio

tracheae,

basis

pyramidis

renalis,

musculus sternothyroideus, margo uteri dexter, axis bulbi


externus, pancreas accessorium, pars libera gingivae,
cartilago septi nasi, sinus sphenoparietalis, cavitas oris
propria, labyrinthus osseus auris internae, terminatio nervi
cutis,
major,

vas lymphaticum superficiale,


caput

pancreatis,

regio

canalis palatinus

thoracis

posterior,

suturazygomaticomaxillaris, sanguis venosus et arteriosus.


6. Translate the terms into Latin:
Dura mater of brain, pyloric canal, fornix of stomach, canal
of great stony nerve, angle of stomach, fornix of pharynx,
ring-shaped part of fibrous vagina, sholder joint, capsule of
pancreas, tympanic cavity of middle ear, greater palatine
canal, cartilage of nasal septum, inferior constrictor of

pharynx, superficial lymphatic vessel, posterior nucleus of


trapezoid body, internal carotid artery, base of heart, apex
of heart, root of lung, cavity of uterus, renal pelvis, thyroid
cartilage, pylorus part, left lobe of lung, ventricle of larynx,
superior constrictor of larynx, capsule of pancreas, external
oblique muscle of stomach, mucous membrane of mouth,
cardiac impression of lung, body of mammary gland, spinal
muscle of neck, the longest muscle of head, canal of neck
of uterus, frontal region of face, external base of skull, wing
of vomer, membranous wall of trachea, short radial
extensor muscle of wrist.
7. Translate the terms into English:
Spina nasalis anterior, cor sanum, sulcus palatinus minor,
fissura orbitalissuperior, vena laryngea inferior, facies
articularis anterior, linea temporalissuperior, tuberculum
posterius atlantis, processus articularis superior, linea
nuchae superior, fossa craniianterior, ala major ossis
sphenodalis, foramen ischiadicum minus, arcusposterior
atlantis, ligamentum capitis fibulae posterius, tuberculum
humeriminus, ligamentum transversum scapulae superius,
sulcus sinus petrosi inferioris, facies temporalis alae
majoris, ramusdexter venae portae, processus articularis
superior vertebrae lumbalis,ostium venae cavae inferioris,
sulcus nervi petrosi majoris, skeletonmembri superioris, ala

minor

ossis

sphenoidalis,

ligamentum

capitis

fibulaeanterius, meatus nasi inferior.

8. Translate the terms into Latin:


Lateral horn of spinal cord, temporal bone, greater round
muscle, body of thoracic vertebra,frontal bone, lesser
round muscle, zygomatic process of frontal bone,right
jugulartrunk,palatine

bone,

petrosal

sinus,

groove

of

petrosal sinus, lateral pterygoidmuscle, anterior spinal


artery, venous plexus, greater straight muscle ofhead,
broad

ligament

of

uterus,

superior

cervical

neural

knot,muscular plate of mucous membrane of esophagus,


sciatic bag of gluteus maximus muscle, greater sciatic
foramen,ethmoid crest of frontal process of upper jaw,
lesser tubercle of humerus, superiorand middle nasal shell,
alar process of ethmoid bone, mandibular notch.

9. Translate the terms into English:


Sulcus parietooccipitalis, musculusstylopharyngeus, plexus
cervicobrachialis,

ligamentum

sacrococcygeumdorsale

profundum, os longum, os breve, ligamentum teres,


ligamentum latum, cornumajus, musculus teres major, crus
osseumsimplex, musculus quadriceps, ductus sublingualis
major, glandulaalveolaris simplex, arcus palatoglossus,
lamina

muscularis

musculus

mucosae

latissimus

dorsi,

oesophagi,
cavum

gaster

peritonei,

sana,
tunica

muscularis oesophagi,tunica mucosa tracheae, caput breve


musculi bicipitis brachii, corpus ossishyoidei, spina iliaca
anterior superior, tuberculum humeri minus, caputlongum
musculi

bicipitis

femoris,

flexura

duodenojejunalis,

musculus triceps, musculus teres minor, bursa musculi


teretismajoris, musculus biceps femoris, caput longum
musculi

tricipitis

brachii,glandula

alveolaris

simplex,

intestinum tenue.
10. Translate the terms into Latin:
Wing of ploughshare, cerebellar cortex, ethmoid groove of
nasalbone,cerebral cortex, cortex of lymph node, greater
and lesser trochanter, tip of heart, right and left lung, hyoid
bone, dura mater of brain, elevator muscle of rib, frontal
tuber,groove of ploughshare, medial surface of lung,
cardiac notch of lung, temporal process of zygomatic bone,
sphenoid bone, anterior wall of stomach, lesser horn of
hyoidbone, notch of tip of heart, anterior venter, ischial
tuber,cerebrospinal liquid, jugular wall, tip of posterior
horn, long flexor muscle of thumb.
11. Translate the terms into English:
Pulmo dexter, pulmo sinister, apex pulmonis dextri, cortex
glandulaesuprarenalis, facies pulmonis, lobus pulmonis
superior, fissura horizontalispulmonis dextri, tuber frontale,
homo sanus, tuber parietale, atrium cordis, os frontale,pars

thoracica, pyramis renalis, basis pyramidis renalis,margo


uteri dexter, musculus adductor hallucis, cortex lentis,
axislentis,

facies

posterior

lentis,

pancreas

accessorium,paries tympanicus ductus cochlearis, dura


materencephali,

tunica

mucosa

ventriculi,

ventriculus

sinister cordis,trochanter major, cor pulmonale, pia mater


encephali, tuber ossis ischii,vertex cranii.
12. Translate the terms into English:
Cavitas medullaris, basis cranii externa, cartilago thyroidea,
pars thoracica, pyramis medullae oblongatae, glandula
parotis accessoria, cartilago alaris major, os parietale, os
hyoideum, os planum, os nasale, apex pulmonis sinistri,
paries mastoideus, margo inferior pulmonis sinistri, auris
externa, tuberositas phalangis distalis, phalanx media, basis
phalangis mediae, apex patellae, pars endocrina pancreatis,
radix dentis, cervix dentis.
NOMINATIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
To form the Nominative plural of the noun it is
necessary:
- to remember the dictionary form of the noun in order
to define the declension and gender of the term;
- to single out the base of the noun in order to attach
the corresponding ending in the Nominative plural to it.

NOUNS ENDINGS IN NOMINATIVE PLURAL


Declensi
I
II
III
IV
V
on
Gender
f
m
n
m, f
n
m
n
f
Endings -ae
-i
-a
-es
-a -us -ua -es
E.g.: vena, ae f (vein) venae (veins); nervus, i m (nerve)
nervi (nerves); foramen, inis n (opening) foramina
(openings); facies, ei f (surface) facies (surfaces).
PS: There is one neuter noun of the 3rd declension which
has the Nominative plural ending -ia: rete, is n
(network)retia (networks).
ADJECTIVES ENDINGS IN NOMINATIVE PLURAL
Group
Adjectives of the 1st group
+ adjectives in superlative
degree
Adjectives of the 2nd group
Adjectives in comparative
degree

Nominative plural endings


m
f
n
-i
-ae
-a
-es
-es

-ia
-a

E.g.: latus, a, um (wide) lati, latae, lata; vertebralis, e


(vertebral) vertebrales, vertebralia; minor, us (small)
minores, minora.
All neuter nouns irrespective of their declension as well
as all adjectives in the neuter form in Nominative plural
end in -(or in -ia).

Nominative plural endings


n
m, f
-a
I
II
IV
III
V
the same as
-es
in Gen.
sing.
- adjectives
and
-ae
-i
- of the 2nd
u group
s - adjectives
in the
-ia
-ua
comparative
adjective
-only one -nouns in
degree
s of the
noun:
-u
1st group
rete retia
adjectives
adjective
of the 2nd
s in the
group
superlati
ve
degree

ABBREVIATIONS USED IN THE ANATOMICAL


TERMINOLOGY
Singular form
Plural form
a. arteria
aa. - arteriae
b. bursa
bb. - bursae
gl. - glandula
gll. - glandulae
for. - foramen
forr. - foramina
lig. - ligamentum ligg. - ligamenta
m. - musculus
mm. - musculi
n. - nervus
nn. - nervi
r. - ramus
rr. - rami
vag. - vagina
vagg. - vaginae
v. - vena
vv. venae

NB! In many cases medical terms are borrowed from Latin


into the Endlish medical terminology without any change
even in the flexions (direct borrowings). In these cases
they preserve Latin rules for forming plurals in English.
E.g.:

Engl.

sing.vertebraEngl.

plur.vertebrae;

Engl.

sing.bronchusEngl. plur.bronchi; Engl. sing.ovumEngl.


plur.ova;Engl. sing.apexEngl. plur.apices.
Some exceptions to this rule are for the nouns of the
4th declension:
Lat. sing.sinusLat. plur.sinus
Engl. sing.sinusEngl. plur.sinuses
EXERCISES
1. Make up Nominative plural of the following nouns:
Ala, ae f; bursa, ae f; margo, inis m; dens, dentis m; os,
ossis n; arteria, ae f; articulatio, onis f; paries, etis m; arcus,
us m; foramen, inis n; fundus, i m; crus, cruris n; sinus, us
m; digitus, i m; cornu, us n; facies, ei f; alveolus, i m;
septum, i n; ligamentum, i n; ductus, us m; cellula, ae f;
gyrus, i m; plexus, us m; appendix, icis f; pyramis, idis f.
2. Make up Nominative plural of the following
adjectives paying attention to their group, degree
and gender:
Dorsale, zygomaticum, liber, major, latissimus, buccalis,
lata,

anterior,

labiale,

posterius,

maxima,

craniale,

vertebralis, brevis, proprium, thyroideum, flava, osseus,


simplicissimus,

bronchialis,

sacrale,

longus,

alaris,

latissimum, minima.
3. Give the Dictionary form of the nouns, determine
their declension and translate into English:
Venae, cilia, palpebrae, tubera, retia, ganglia, cornua, labia,
vasa, meninges, dentes, processus, juncturae, alveoli,
sinus, musculi, cartilagines, canales, partes, arteriae, rami,
aures,

radices,

tuberositates,

alae,

vertebrae,

sulci,

ligamenta.
4. Observe the Nominative plural endings of the
words in the following anatomical terms and explain
them:
Alveoli dentales (dental alveoli), spatia interglobularia
(interglobular spaces), valvulae venosae (venous valvulae),
nomina anatomica (anatomical names), juga alveolaria
(alveolar

eminences),

venae

intercostales

anteriores

(anterior intercostal venae), labia oris (lips of mouth),


canaliculi dentales (dental small canales), facies articulares
(articular surfaces), ductus sublinguales minores (minor
sublingual ducts), vasa sinusoidea lienis (sinusoid vessels
of spleen), crura ossea (bony crura), arteriae ciliares
posteriores longae (long posterior ciliary arteries).

5. Translate into Latin. Make up Nominative plural


forms:
Carotic (tuber, sulcus, canal), lymphatic (vessel, node,
valve), incisive (canal, opening, fossa), articular (cavity,
process, cartilage), nasal (concha, bone, opening), anterior
(margin,
jugular

surface,

septum),

(tubercle,

slit,

palatine

process),

(tonsil,

process),

wing-shaped

(canal,

process, fossa), ethmoidal (crest, bone, foramen), occipital


(region, lobe, opening), mammiform (process, incisure,
opening), lower (wall, fissure, arch), transverse (process,
lobe, ligament, artery), posterior (horn, nucleus, surface).
6. Form Nominative plural of the following terms and
translate them into English:
Processus
lymphaticus

ciliaris,

arteria

lumbalis,

gastrica

glandula

brevis,

lingualis,

nodus
ganglion

thoracicum, vena nasalis externa.


7. Choose for the nouns in Nominative plural the
corresponding adjectives given in brackets

and

translate the terms:


Nodi (epigastrici, dextri, profunda, internae, lumbales,
lymphatici,

pectoralia,

pulmonales,

regionales,

mastoidei),

ligamenta

palmaria,

cruciata,

intercarpei),

dentes

interosseae,
(incisivi,

iliaci,

occipitales,

(interspinalia,
alaria,

molares,

longae,

flava,

dorsalia,
canini,

permanentes,

major,

minores),plexus

inferiores,

gastrici,

medii,

vasculares),

foramina

(ethmoidalia,

(iliaci,

medianae,

rectales,
viscerales,

minora,

nervosae,

palatini).
8. Translate into English:
Arteriae

ciliares

subcostales,
frontalis,

posteriores,

ganglia

pyramides

nervi

cardiaca,
renales,

craniales,

partes
nervi

musculi

orbitales

spinales,

ossis

spatium

intercostale, meatus acustici, sinus intermedii, suturae


cranii, vasa sanguinea retinae, venae rectales inferiores,
venulae rectae, rami cardiaci cervicales inferiores, plexus
venosi

vertebales

interni,

regiones

membri

inferioris,

radices spinales, incisurae cartilaginis, ductus sublinguales


minores, nomina anatomica, canales palatini minores,
tubercula dentis, plicae gastricae, venae intercostales
inferiores,
lymphatica
cartilagines

arteriae

ciliares

superficialia,
nasales

posteriores

cartilagines

accessoriae,

longae,

alares
gyri

vasa

minores,

temporales

transversi, ossa membri inferioris, venae digitales dorsales


pedis, musculi suboccipitales, ductus sublinguales minores.
9. Translate into Latin:
Inferior veins of cerebrum, pectoral cardiac branches,
lesser sublingual ducts, dorsal branches of tongue, anterior
superior alveolar arteries, transverse folds of rectum, iliac

plexuses, lesser palatine canals, posterior superior alveolar


foramina, pelvic ganglia, pterygoid processes of sphenoid
bone, sinuses of aorta, muscles of back, short gastric veins,
interphalangeal articulations of foot, synovial bags and
sheaths.
10. Read the terms in their full form; translate them
into English:
Mm.

interspinales,gll.

orbitales,

vagg.

intestinales,

synoviales,

vv.

mm.

centrales,
interossei,

rr.
bb.

trochantericae, aa. nutriciae, nn. cardiaci, forr. palatina


minora, aa. superiores, nn. profundi, rr. oesophagei, aa.
sigmoideae.
GENITIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES
To form the Genitive plural of the noun it is necessary:
- to remember the dictionary form of the noun in order
to define the declension and gender of the term;
- to single out the base of the noun in order to attach
the corresponding ending in the Genitive plural to it.

NOUNS GENITIVE PLURAL ENDINGS


Declension
Endings of
Genitive plural

I
rum

II
III
- um,
rum - ium

IV
uum

V
rum

E.g.: vena, ae f (vein) venrum (of veins);nervus, i m


(nerve) nervrum (of nerves); cornu, us n (horn)
cornuum (of horns); facies, ei f (surface) facirum (of
surfaces).
Nouns of the 3rd declension end by -um if they have
unequal number of syllables in Nominative and Genitive,
which stem is terminated by one consonant: foramen, inis
n

foramin-um;pulmo,

onis

pulmon-um.
Nouns of the 3rd declension end by -ium:
- if they have equal number of syllables in Nominative
and Genitive:auris, is faur-ium;
-

if

they

have

unequal

number

of

syllables

in

Nominative and Genitive and their stem is terminated by


two consonants:dens, dentis m dent-ium;os, ossis n
oss-ium.
Exception: vas, vasis nvasorum. The nouns fauces, ium
f fauces and lumbi, orum loins are used only in plural
form.
ADJECTIVESGENITIVE PLURALENDINGS
Group

Genitive plural endings


m
f
n
Adjectives of the 1st group - rum - rum - rum
+ adjectives in superlative
degree
Adjectives of the 2nd group
-ium
Adjectives in comparative
-um

degree
E.g.:longus, a, um longrum, rum, rum; maximus, a,
um maximrum, rum, rum; brevis, ebrevium;
anterior, ius anteriorum.

EXERCISES
1. Determine the declension of each word, give the
dictionary form:
Capsularum, palpebrarum, facierum, angulorum, digitorum,
arteriarum, plexuum, foraminum, cavorum, ligamentorum,
gingivarum, arcuum, processuum, canalium, tendinum,
cingulorum.
2. Translate into Latin. Give the dictionary form of
each noun, make up Genitive plural:
Shoulder blade, trunk, incisure, node, valve, duct, eye,
back, tubercle, canal, horn, muscle, layer, neck, palate.

3. Make up the Genitive plural forms of the following


adjectives:
Mucosus, a, um; articularis, e; dexter, tra, trum; thoracicus,
a, um; lateralis, e; inferior, ius; superior, ius; communis, e;
internus,

a,

temporalis, e.

um;

longissimus,

a,

um;latus,

a,

um;

4. Put the terms into the Nominative and Genitive


plural:
Canalis alveolaris, processustransversus, vas sanguineum,
cornu minus,septum interradiculare,valvula semilunaris,
nervus spinalis, vena minima,dens premolaris, papilla
lingualis,

alveolus

dentalis,

concha

nasalis,

facies

articularis, glandulalingualis, ligamentum flavum.


5.

Translate

the

terms

into

Latin;

form

their

Nominative and Genintive plural:


Anterior

surface,

ligament,posterior
palatine

horn,

mastoid
pterygoid

groove,transverse

palatine

notch,

transverse

canal,

nasal

bone,

fold,

lesser

wing,

ethmoid foramen, minimum vein, ciliaryprocess, articular


surface, membraneous leg, lymphatic vessel, anterior
margin.

6. Make up the Genitive plural forms:


Nervus

cranialis,

superficiale,

vena

cornu

minus,

pulmonalis,

vas

lymphaticum

processus

transversus,

concha nasalis, valvula semilunaris.


7. Translate the terms into Latin:
Short

elevator

muscles

of

ribs,

septum

of

frontal

sinuses,foramina of pulmonary veins of left atrium, anterior


and posteriortubercle of cervical vertebrae, sinus of hollow
veins of rightatrium, short extensor muscles of fingers,
superior

retinaculum

oftendons

of

peroneal

muscles,

fibrous sheaths of fingers of hand, alveolar foramina, long


elevator muscles of ribs, chiasm of tendons,retinacula of
extensor muscles.
8. Translate the terms into English:
Noduli

valvularum

semilunarium,

plexus

cavernosiconcharum, tunica conjunctiva palpebrarum, vv.


meningeae

mediae,nn.vasorum,

retinaculum

tendinum

mm. flexorum,commissura palpebrarum lateralis, vagg.


tendinum digitorum pedis, nuclei nervorum cranialium,
vagina synovialis mm. peroneorumcommunis, sinus vv.
cavarum atrii dextri, forr. vv. minimarum, rr. alveolares
superiores

anteriores,

forr.

palatina

minora,

gangliathoracica, aa. ciliares posteriores longae, rr. tractus


optici.

SAMPLE FINAL TESTS


1
1) lamina arcus vertebrae

1) ligament of costal
tubercle
2) medulla ovarii
2) body of vertebra
3) processus accessorius
3) head of rib
4) foramen rotundum
4) depressor muscle of
nasal septum
5) vagina processus styloidei 5) thyroid cartilage
6) tuberositas pterygoidea
6) right margin of heart
7) palatum osseum
7) lateral margin of foot
8)
membrana
antebrachii 8) membranous wall of
interossea
trachea
9) canalis obturatorius
9) the longest muscle of
head
10) ligamentum popliteum 10 frontal region of face
obliquum
)
11) cavitas oris propria
11 cardiac impression of
) lung
12) intestinum tenue
12 cavity of uterus
)
13) atrium meatus medii
13 renal pelvis
)
14) cartilago thyroidea
14 root of lung
)
15) vesica urinaria
15 base of heart
)
16) extremitas inferior
16 superficial lymphatic
) vessel
17) arcus posterior atlantis
17 internal (external) carotid
) artery
18) lineae transversae
18 aortic arch
)
19) eminentia cruciformis
19 angle of rib
)
20) facies anterior
20 root of tooth
)

21) os triquetrum

21
)
22) basis patellae
22
)
23) recessus sacciformis
23
)
24)
spatia
interossea 24
metacarpi
)
25) labium superius
25
)

capsule of pancreas
ligaments of tendons
vessels ofvessels
notch of lower jaw
abductor muscle of
thumb

2
1)
2)
3)
4)

ligamentum laterale
tuberculum costae
spatia intercostalia
cavernae
corporum
cavernosorum
5) vasa vasorum
6) sectiones
medullae
oblongatae
7) incisura
thyroidea
superior
8) musculus
adductor
pollicis (hallucis)
9) nodi lymphatici capitis et
colli
10 vertebra thoracica
)
11 musculus pronator teres
)
12 apex pulmonis sinistri
)
13 apex ossis sacri
)
14 os parietale
)
15 musculus
rotator
)
thoracis
16 musculus
sphincter
)
ductus choledochi
17 pulmo sinister
)
18 dura mater spinalis
)
19 os palatinum
)
20 sinus petrosus
)
21 appendix vermiformis

1)
2)
3)
4)

neck ofscapula
nasal passage
mandibular notch
muscle of neck

5) spinous foramen
6) arc of thoracic duct
7) squama of occipital bone
8) vertebral column
9) squamous suture
10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)
16
)
17
)
18
)
19
)
20
)
21

sacral horn
transverse line
articular surface
groove of ploughshare
sacral bone
head of humerus
tip of posterior horn
red and yellow bone
marrow
temporal bone
wing of cocks crest
external sphincter
muscle of anus
long adductor muscle

)
22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

taeniae coli
pancreas accessorium
isthmus faucium
tonsilla tubaria

)
22
aperture of cohlear
)
canaliculus
23 body of vertebra
)
24 back of saddle
)
25 capsule of nerve node
)

3
1) corpus
vertebrae
thoracicae
2) lobus pulmonis superior
3) paries ductus cochlearis
4) alavomeris
5) pars
lateralisossis
occipitalis
6) paries lateralis orbitae
7) lamina horizontalis ossis
palatini
8) ampulla
ductus
deferentis
9) bifurcatio tracheae
10 sulcus sinus petrosi
)
11 regio respiratoria
)
12 arteria temporalis media
)
13 lamina orbitalis ossis
) ethmoidalis
14 alae sacri
)
15 cellulae mastoideae
)
16 semicanalis
tubae
) auditivae
17 lamina
muscularis
) mucosae oesophagi
18 valvula
semilunaris
) dextra ventriculi sinistri
19 bulbus duodeni
)
20 phalanx media
)
21 nervus cutaneus brachii
) lateralis inferior

1) tuber of upper jaw


2)
3)
4)
5)

head of rib
arch of aorta
notch of lower jaw
base of skull

6) cranial suture
7) wrinkler muscle of
eyebrow
8) muscle of neck
9)
10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)
16
)
17
)
18
)
19
)
20
)
21
)

neck of rib
nasal cavity
cheek muscles
cortex of lymph node
elevator muscle of
upper lip
vestibule of nose
base of skull
head of fibular bone
elevator muscle of
thyroidgland
notch of tip of heart
surface of costal
tubercle
base of patella
neck of radius

22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

processus
medialis 22 crest of neck of rib
tuberis calcanei
)
arteria
interossea 23 abductor muscle of
communis
) little finger
sutura intermaxillaris
24 septum of frontal
) sinuses
facies articularis anterior 25 sinus of hollow veins of
) rightatrium

4
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

spina scapulae
os ethmoidale
skeleton membri
os cranii
pars petrosa
sulcus
arteriae
temporalis mediae
7) crista tuberculi
8) caput fibulae
9)
10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)
16
)
17
)
18
)
19
)
20
)
21

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

cavity of nose
neck of shoulder blade
ligament of tubercle of rib
plate of vertebral arch
passage of nose
anterior palatine foramen

7) plate of arch
8) small foot of arch of
vertebra
angulus mandibulae
9) aperture of aqueduct of
vestibule
basis cranii
10 arch of vertebra
)
os sacrum
11 foramen of mandible
)
processus
maxillaris 12 head of radius
conchae
nasalis )
inferioris
facies
temporalis 13 elevator muscle of thyroid
alaemajoris
) gland
foramen
palatinum 14 gluteus maximus muscle
minus
)
sulcus
sinus
petrosi 15 dilator muscle of pupil of
inferioris
) eye
tunica mucosa tracheae 16 foramina of pulmonary
) veins of left atrium
tuber maxillae
17 anterior and
) posteriortubercle of cervical
vertebrae
facies articularis capitis 18 ampule of rectum
fibulae
)
tuber maxillae
19 inferior turbinated bone
)
pars
lateralis
ossis 20 greater palatine canal
occipitalis
)
labium mediale lineae 21 squama of occipital bone

)
22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

asperae
cavum nasi

)
22
)
glandula
alveolaris 23
simplex
)
tuberculum majus
24
)
ramus
dexter
venae 25
portae
)

cartilage of nasal septum


posterior region
tympanic cavity of middle
ear
external intercostal muscles

5
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)
16
)
17
)
18
)
19
)
20
)
21
)

sulcus sinus
caput radii
facies partis petrosae
os occipitale
facies maxillaris
skeleton
membri
inferioris liberi
ligamentum
longitudinale
anterius
columnae vertebralis
flexurasacralis recti
spina ossis sphenodalis
ostium
venae
cavae
inferioris
crista tuberculi minoris

1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

sheath of process
crest of costal head
lower orbital fissure
bone of skull
head of mandible
ligament of scapula

7) dividing wall of nose

8)
9)
10
)
11
)
foveaarticularis
12
processus superioris
)
meatus nasi inferior
13
)
ligamentum patellae
14
)
sulcus
lacrimalis 15
processus
frontalis )
maxillae
caput
superiusmusculi 16
pterygoidei lateralis
)
collum dentis
17
)
caput fibulae
18
)
tuberculum humeri
19
)
linea nuchae superior
20
)
tuberculum dentis
21
)

longest muscle of head


base of cochlea
lower articular process
round pronator muscle
short extensor muscles
of fingers
highest turbinated bone
anterior gluteal line
broadest muscle of
back
short muscle of little
finger
gluteus minimus
muscle
supreme line of nape
small pit of process
superior thyroid
tubercle
cervical rotator muscle

22 foramen mandibulae
)

22 superior retinaculum
) oftendons of peroneal
muscles
23 musculus rectus superior 23 fibrous sheaths of
) bulbi oculi
) fingers of hand
24 ala
major
ossis 24 sigmoid colon
) sphenoidalis
)
25 nervus cutaneus brachii 25 supreme line of nape
) lateralis inferior
)
6
1) vertebra thoracica

1) anterior ethmoidal
opening
2) incisura angularis
2) superior hypogastric
network
3) facies superior
3) anterior longitudinal
ligament
4) glandula ciliaris
4) small tympanic spine
5) canalis opticus
5) nasal septum
6) fovea trochlearis
6) depression of process
7) collum radii
7) mandibular notch
8) basis patellae
8) pedicle of arch of
vertebra
9) musculus corporis
9) surface of tubercle of rib
10 arcus aortae
10 plate of process
)
)
11 caput mandibulae
11 nucleus of horn
)
)
12 facies maxillae
12 bone of skull
)
)
13 crus
membranaceum 13 elevator muscle of
) simplex
) scapula
14 caput et crus stapedis
14 bag of the broadest
)
) muscle of back
15 basis ossis sacri
15 middle constrictor
)
) muscle of pharynx
16 corpus adiposum
16 little (the smallest) finger

)
17
)
18
)
19
)
20
)
21
)
22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

)
frenulum linguae
17
)
tunica mucosa tracheae 18
)
segmentum thoracicum 19
lumbale
)
ductus bilifer
20
)
foramen
ischiadicum 21
majus
)
fundus gastris
22
)
chorda tympani
23
)
septum nasi osseum
24
)
linea temporalis superior 25
)

intestinal surface of
uterus
stylohyoid muscle
inferior thyroid tubercle
posterior longitudinal
ligament
gastroduodenal artery
muscular membrane of
small intestine
anterior lacrimal crest
lesser petrosal nerve
fold of duodenum

7
1) tuberculumpharyngeum
2) tegmen tympani
3) foramen venae cavae
4) lobus
hepatis
dexter
(sinister)
5) angulus mandibulae
6) pars squamosa
7) fovea sublingualis
8) crus
anteriuscapsulae
internae
9) stroma ganglii
10 hepar mobile
)
11 appendix fibrosahepatis
)
12 rete venosum
)
13 cortex renis
)
14 musculus longus capitis
)
15 caputossis femoris
)
16 systema
nervosum
) centrale
17 corpus medullare
)
18 plexus
hypogastricus
) superior
19 spatium perivasculare
)
20 ossa cranii
)
21 musculus rectus capitis
) posterior minor

1) posterior superior iliac


spine
2) inferior articular
process
3) anterior gluteal line
4) the longest muscle of
neck
5) inferior laryngeal artery
6) right flexion of colon
7) iliac tubercle
8) superior cervical
ganglion
9) simple joint
10 bottom of uterus
)
11 greater round muscle
)
12 round ligament of
) uterus
13 transverse ligament of
) perineum
14 iliac crest
)
15 right jugular trunk
)
16 depressor muscle of
) lower lip
17 sacral flexion of rectum
)
18 tuberosity of distal
) phalanx
19 canal of uterus neck
)
20 notch of pancreas
)
21 cardiac impression
)

22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

ligamentum
sacrococcygeum
ostium
venae
cavae
inferioris atrii dextri
bursa
trochanterica
musculi glutaei maximi
lineae transversae

22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

right margin of uterus


abdominal part of aorta
lower opening of pelvis
elevator muscle of rib

8
1) tuberculum majus
2) circulus major
3) collum radii
4) caput humeri

1) superior articular
surface
2) joint of rib head
3) groove of occipital
artery
4) short abductor muscle
of thumb
intestini 5) diaphragm of pelvis

5) tunica serosa
tenuis
6) stroma iridis
7) incisurae costales
8) diaphragma urogenitale
9) costae spuriae

6)
7)
8)
9)

roof of tympanum
tip of heart
base of heart
posterior ethmoid
foramen
10 foramen
palatinum 10 posterior nucleus of
) majus
) trapezoid body
11 foveae costales
11 superior thyroid artery
)
)
12 sulcus sinus
12 internal carotid artery
)
)
13 pancreas accessorium
13 frontal bone
)
)
14 caput superius musculi 14 bone of skull
) pterygoidei
)
15 angulus costae
15 superficial lymphatic
)
) vessel
16 glomus pulmonale
16 capsule of pancreas
)
)
17 os digiti
17 greater petrosal nerve
)
)
18 cavitasabdominis
18 vault of stomach
)
)
19 radix dentis
19 canal of greater petrous
)
) nerve
20 systema lymphaticum
20 greater sciatic notch
)
)
21 ren accessorius
21 fundus of stomach

)
22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

incisura mandibulae
corpus fibulae
glomus caroticum
collum costae

)
22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

nasal cavity
anterior iliac spine
posterior fibular surface
superior transverse
ligament

9
1) caput costae
2) canalis profundus
3) facies medialis
4) tuberculum humeri
5) facies
articularis
superior
6) articulatio
capitis
costae
7) sulcus
arteriae
occipitalis
8) basis patellae
9)
10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)
16
)
17
)

vagina musculi
arteria genus
facies maxillae
os cranii
linea transversa
os temporale
processus articularis

1) greater palatine foramen


2) orifice of inferior hollow
vein
3) large occipital foramen
4) anterior surface of ulna
5) greater wing of sphenoid
bone
6) superior head of pterygoid
muscle
7) groove of inferior petrosal
sinus
8) short radial extensor
muscle of wrist
9) greater palatine canal
10 base of heart
)
11 long abductor muscle of
) great toe
12 inferior constrictor muscle
) of pharynx
13 base of right lung
)
14 anterior region of knee
)
15 deep lymphatic vessel
)
16 framework of thyroid gland
)
17 external oblique muscle of
) abdomen

foramen
sacrale
pelvinum
facies
lingualis
coronae dentis canini
inferioris
18 musculus
pronator 18 tip of head of fibula
) teres
)
19 linea nuchae superior 19 interosseal nerves of leg
)
)
20 hiatus canalis nervi 20 the longest muscle of head
) petrosi minoris
)

21
)
22
)

truncus
jugularis
dexter
valvula
semilunaris
dextra
ventriculi
sinistri
23 musculus
glutaeus
) minimus
24 musculus
rotator
) cervicis
25 caput mandibulae
)

21 left lobe of liver


)
22 interosseous membrane of
) leg
23
)
24
)
25
)

greater round muscle


the broadest muscle of
back
simple gland

10
1) foramen mandibulae
2) plexus periarterialis
3) ligamentum
sacrococcygeum dorsale
profundum
4) facies articularis
5) sutura squamosa
6) linea transversa
7) palatum durum

1) oval foramen
2) middle temporal artery
3) transverse palatine
suture

4) sacral horn
5) groove of occipital
artery
6) iliac tubercle
7) arch of thoracic
passage
8) articular surface
ossis 9) simple alveolar gland

8) cornu sacrale
9) pars
petrosa
occipitalis
10 lamina horizontalis ossis
) palatini
11 ala
major
ossis
) sphenoidalis
12 tuberculum thyroideum
) inferius
13 musculus extensor digiti
) minimi brevis
14 sulcus sinus
)
15 corpus vesicae urinariae
)
16 arcus vertebrae
)
17 vagina
tendinum
) musculorum
flexorum
carpi
18 flexura sacralis recti
)
19 processus
maxillaris
) conchae
nasalis

10
)
11
)
12
)
13
)
14
)
15
)
16
)
17
)

groove of the smallest


tubercle
aperture of frontal sinus
cranial bones
ligament of vertebral
column
osseus nasal septum
round ligament
articular tuber of
vertebra
middle fossa of skull

18 palatal tuber of maxilla


)
19 short adductor muscle
) of forefinger

inferioris
20 pars libera gingivae
)
21 sutura
) occipitomastoidea
22 papilla duodeni major
)
23 musculus palatoglossus
)
24 tuberositas ulnae
)
25 tuberculum costae
)

20
)
21
)
22
)
23
)
24
)
25
)

alveolar foramina
long elevator muscles
of ribs
chiasm of tendons
retinacula of extensor
muscles
iliac spine
medial sacral crest

Appendix
The Role of the Latin and Greek Languages
Greek and Roman cultures are the foundations of western
culture its literature, ideas, art, politics, and conceptions of the
individual. Greek myth is still a shared fund of images and
narratives that express human experience. Latin is the major
source of English vocabulary, and Greek provides scientific
language in many fields. Greek and Roman cultures help us to
understand the relationship between western culture and other
cultural systems and place ourselves better in the world.
The study of Latin and Greek culture provides students with
a better understanding of the roots of their own culture, which has
been so strongly influenced by Roman and Greek art, Medicine,
law, and religion. The pursuit of Latin and Greek language skills
not only provides the broadening experience which comes from
learning how to think and express oneself in another language,
but can also be great aid to building vocabulary and language
skills in English. Latin and Greek literature and mythology
introduce you to classical authors whose excellence is beyond
question and whose works and genres have influenced Western
literature down to our own day.

Greek is the language of Homer, Socrates, Plato,

Aristotle, Diogenes, Plutarch and the Bible.

Latin is the language of Plautus, Terence, Cicero, Vergil,

Horace, Ovid, St. Augustine and St.Francis of Assisi.

After the Roman conquest of Britain under Emperor

Claudius, the native Picts' Celtic language first became infused


with Latin, then merged with the new invaders' Germanic (AngloSaxon) dialects, and finally became English. Thus, Greek and
Latin can be great aids to building vocabulary and language skills
in English.
As the Romans conquered the then known world, Latin
became the universal language of Italy and the provinces. Many
centuries after the fall of Rome, Latin still ruled supreme. To this
very day, Latin is the language of the Catholic Church, and during
the formative period of the western European languages it was
incorporated in every one of them. The Latin language has been
around for more than 2500 years, and throughout the years has
played a leading role in various fields. Not only was Latin the
language of the Romans in antiquity, but at a later stage it also
became the language of administrators, the Catholic Church,
scholars and artists. Even now the Latin language is present in a
prominent way, especially in Medicine.
Science is of international nature. The development of
technical languages in the individual branches of science is
connected with frequent borrowing of foreign language lexical
material which is mostly of Latin or Greek origin. Greek and Latin
represent the traditional language material to be used in medical
terminology.

English medical terminology developed from medieval


Latin terminology, which had absorbed a developed Greek
terminology. Greek medicine migrated to Rome at an early date,
and many Latin terms crept into its terminology. Only a few
medical terms came from the oldest developmental period of the
English language (from Anglo-Saxon). Latin was the language of
science up to the beginning of the 18th Century, so all medical texts
were written in Latin.
Literature
1. ..

/
..
. 4- ., . . :
, 2007. 318 .
2. ..

/
..
. .: , 2007. 448 .: .
(.. . . )
3. Kondratyev D.K. Latin and Fundamentals of
Medical Terminology.For Medical Students / D.K.
Kondratyev, O.E. Vylegzhanina, Y.V. Knyazeva. Grodno:
GrGMU, 2005. 250 p.
4. Kostromina T.A. The Language of Medicine as a
Means of Professional Communication. Guide in the Latin
Language for Foreign Students of the Medical Department
/ T.A. Kostromina. Forth Edition. Kursk: KSMU, 2012.
204 p.


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