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September 2014

AND THE
WINNER IS...
Who won what at this
years International Engine
of the Year Awards?
Plus, the powertrains
to look out for
next year!

Plastic
surgery

Pioneering new research could change the face


of self-regenerating technology and impact engine
component development like no other breakthrough

DETROIT DOWNSIZING

TALK TORQUE

The sixth-generation Ford Mustang has


a new turbocharged four-cylinder engine
but this is no ordinary four pot

Fords new head of powertrain


engineering, Bob Fascetti, on
what the propulsion future holds

www.enginetechnologyinternational.com

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CONTENTS

In this issue...

Septemb er 2014

AND THE
WINNER IS...

Who won what


years Internatio at this
nal Engine
of the Year Awards?
Plus, the powertra
ins
to look out for
next year!

Plastic

SEPTEMBER 2014

surgery

Pioneering new
research could
change the face
of self-regenerati
ng
component develop technology and impact
engine
ment like no
other breakth
rough

DETROI T DOWNS
IZING

The sixth-gen
eration Ford
Mustang has
a new turbocha
rged four-cylin
but this is no
der engine
ordinary four
pot

TALK TORQU
E

Fords new head


of powertrain
engineering,
Bob
what the propulsioFascetti, on
n future holds

www.enginetechn

ologyinte rnational

.com

52

WHATS NEW?
04. History repeating
Mirroring a feat it
accomplished 30
years ago, Ford has
rolled out its most
powerful in-line fourcylinder engine to date.
And, once again, its
finding a home in
the new Mustang
09. Modern family
With its all-new
Ecotec project, GM
is embracing the
downsizing trend
utilizing high-end
technology and
materials to create a
family of engines for a
multitude of vehicles
12. Top cat
In creating the new
Challenger Hemi
Hellcat, Dodge has
not only unveiled
its first-ever factory
supercharged V8, but
has also lifted the lid
on the most powerful
muscle car in existence

14

REPAIR REVOLUTION
52. Researchers at the
University of Illinois
have developed a material
that has the potential to
repair itself when used in
extreme environments

18. Engines on test


ETi casts a discerning
eye over the 2-liter
four-cylinder in the
Mercedes A 45 AMG,
and the 1.7-liter four in
the Alfa Romeo 4C

09
28

14. Pick me up
Ford reveals how
lessons learned from
previous projects, plus
innovative materials
and processes, shaped
its 2.7-liter EcoBoost
V6 the new heart for
the F-150 pickup truck

20. Personality profile


Karim Mokaddem,
executive engine
technology manager at
PSA Peugeot Citron

FEATURES
28. Awards season
A look at the winners
and losers from this
years International
Engine of the Year
Awards, and what the
results might mean for
the industry in 2015

REGULARS

04

22. Johnson
24. Taylor
104. Last word

32

32. Winning team


As Fords 1.0 EcoBoost
continues its industry
domination, global
vice president of
powertrain engineering
Bob Fascetti discusses
what makes this
engine so special

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 01

CONTENTS
The word wizards
Editor: Dean Slavnich
Deputy editor: Matt Ross
Assistant editor: John Thornton
Production editor: Alex Bradley
Chief sub editor: Andrew Pickering
Deputy chief sub editor:
Nick Shepherd
Proofreaders: Aubrey JacobsTyson, Christine Velarde

38
86

38. Get your coat


As emissions standards
tighten, engine coatings
are playing an increasingly
prominent role in improving
fuel economy and efficiency
44. Show season
A look ahead to the must-see
exhibitors and technologies
at Engine Expo North
America 2014, which will
take place on October 28,
29 and 30 in Novi, Michigan
50. Leading the resistance
ETi looks at how Solvay
is using the latest highperformance polymers in
engine applications

Contributors from all corners


Farah Alkhalisi, Nargess Banks,
Philip Borge, Josh Bentall, John
Challen, Brian Cowan, Matt Davis,
Rachel Evans, Adam Gavine,
Dan Gilkes, Max Glaskin, Burkhard
Goeschel, James Gordon, Graham
Heeps, John Kendall, Andrew
Lee, Mike Magda, Jim McCraw,
Max Mueller, Bruce Newton,
John OBrien, Greg Offer, Keith
Read, Rex Roy, John Simister,
Michael Taylor, Adam Towler,
Karl Vadaszffy, Saul Wordsworth

71
PRODUCTS & SERVICES
59.
63.
66.
68.
71.
74.
76.
78.
80.

AVL
BorgWarner
CoreTechnologie
Hauzer Techno Coating
Sonceboz
Sandvik
Lubrizol
HEF USA
Plasmatreat North
America
82. WHB Brazil
84. Federal-Mogul
86. Nemak

88. Micro-Epsilon
89. Critt M2A
90. Indo-MIM
91. IASYS
92. Hollingsworth & Vose
93. Moving Magnet
Technologies
94. Senior Flexonics
96. Citadel Plastics
98. ContiTech
100. Schaeffler
102. Products & Services
in brief

78

02 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Production people
Head of production and logistics:
Ian Donovan
Deputy production manager:
Lewis Hopkins
Production team: Carole Doran,
Cassie Inns, Frank Millard,
Robyn Skalsky
Circulation manager:
Suzie Matthews
Commercial colleagues
Sales director: Mike Robinson
Publication director: Abu Tayub
Publication manager: Paul Adam
International sales: Damien de
Roche, Chris Richardson

EDITORS NOTE
If you had said to me a few years ago that a downsized 125ps
motor with a mere 999cc displacement would go on to win
the overall International Engine of the Year Award for three
consecutive years something that no other powertrain has
done, including those brilliantly smooth six- and eight-cylinder
creations from BMW, as well as the wonderfully engineered
1.4 TSI TwinCharger from Volkswagen Id have smiled
politely and then asked how much youd had to drink. Add to
the mix that said sub 1-liter record-breaker was Fords firstever attempt at creating a production three-cylinder design,
and my courteous, somewhat appeasing smile probably
would have soon morphed into a hooting youre kidding me,
right?! kinda laugh.
But the jokes on me. Ladies, gentlemen, powertrain
engineers the world over and dear ETi readers, for the first
time in the rich 16-year history of the awards, an engine has
claimed the overall accolade for three successive years. And
this marvel is better known as the Ford 1.0 EcoBoost.
Before I continue, however, let me set a few things straight.
My guffawing in the opening paragraph was not directed at a
Ford motor creating such history, but rather that a time would
come when a 1-liter triple could consistently outgun larger
IC beasts that perhaps spark more emotion within four-,
six- and, hey, even eight-cylinders that fizz, pop and bang
while churning out anything north of 300, 500, even 700ps
and Nm. I really never envisaged a time when a 1-liter unit,
so economical and so green, from one car maker, would take
first place at the International Engine of the Year Awards for
three years on the spin. And just to illustrate my point further:
in 2012, 1.0 EcoBoost won the overall title with 401 points,
113 points more than VWs TSI engine; in 2013, the threecylinder scored 479 points, a tally of 71 greater than the turbo/

The ones who make it look nice


Art director: Craig Marshall
Art editor: Ben White
Design team: Louise Adams,
Andy Bass, Anna Davie,
Andrew Locke, James Sutcliffe,
Nicola Turner, Julie Welby

supercharger VW competitor. And then this year it secured


first place with 351 points, 70 points more than Ferraris V8
in the 458 Speciale. The conclusion? 1.0 EcoBoost has set
the benchmark without fail, year after year. It has become
the engine to beat. And its doing this not only against those
emotive, heart-thumping performance powertrains, but also
during a time when economical downsized IC developments
are being squeezed by the EV movement, stunning all-electric
and hybrid units from the likes of Tesla, Nissan, Renault, VW
Group and BMW, to name just a few. With Fords triple having
done the treble, 1.0 EcoBoost has not only cemented itself in
the history books, but is also proof that this is one of the finest
examples of powertrain engineering ever created.
What does such success mean for Ford? Well, just ask
BMW, whose new engines including a 3-liter twinturbo
for M3/M4, 1.5-liter three-cylinder units for Mini, a highperformance four-cylinder for the 2 Series, and the i3s
e-powertrain all got overlooked. Ford has, in my opinion,
used the marketing potential of the International Engine of the
Year Awards better than any other car maker. Dont believe
me? Well, Ill leave you with some facts that really do show the
power of the awards. Fresh from completing the International
Engine of the Year Awards treble, 1.0 EcoBoost has become
Europes best-selling turbocharged petrol engine for the first
six months of the year. One in five all-new Ford vehicles sold in
Europe in the first half of 2014 were equipped with the threecylinder motor. Drill down into that stat further, and customers
opt for the 1.0 unit in one-third of Focus and Fiesta models.
And capping all this off, compared with the first six months of
2013, Ford this year sold 15% more vehicles equipped with
1.0 EcoBoost. Well done, Ford with such a great engine, you
deserve all the success!
Dean Slavnich

Those in charge
CEO: Tony Robinson
Managing director:
Graham Johnson
Editorial director: Anthony James
How to contact us
Engine Technology International
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Dorking, Surrey, RH4 1DF, UK
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WHATS NEW? FORD 2.3 ECOBOOST

Exactly 30 years ago, Ford stunned the Detroit


auto scene by ushering out the then fastest
Mustang to date, the SVO high-performance
coupe, which was powered not by a typically
large American muscle car V8 but rather a
compact 2.3-liter inline four. Now, some three
decades on, history is repeating itself for Ford and
its iconic pony car, although the new 2,300cc
four-cylinder in the sixth-generation Mustang
realizes more power, torque and fuel economy
than would have been possible just a few years
ago, let alone back in 1984.
As with all new Ford turbocharged engines,
the new Mustang four falls within the car makers
EcoBoost branding family and has been under
intense development for the past three years.
From day one, the motor has been engineered for
use in either front-wheel drive or rear-wheel drive

applications, so its no surprise that it will make


its production debut simultaneously in the FWD
Lincoln MKC and the RWD Mustang.

Fantastic four

It might be the Mustangs base engine, but that


doesnt mean the 2.3 EcoBoost lacks power:
theres 310ps along with 434Nm torque, making
this the highest-output four-cylinder ever created
by Ford. The engine will initially roll out of the
car makers plant in Valencia, Spain, although a
production line at Fords Cleveland, Ohio, base
will eventually be added as the orders start
ramping up.
The challenge with this engine was to do
more with less, explains Scott Makowski, Fords
global four-cylinder engine boss. We wanted to
put a four-cylinder engine back in the Mustang

My little pony
It would seem that even Detroit muscle cars are downsizing, but
for the all-new sixth-generation Mustang, Fords powertrain team
has created its most powerful four-cylinder engine to date
WORDS: JIM McCRAW

04 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

WHATS NEW? FORD 2.3 ECOBOOST

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 05

WHATS NEW? FORD 2.3 ECOBOOST


with no excuses for power, and the horsepower
number has to start with a three that was what
we needed.
Speaking exclusively to ETi at a recent
Mustang tech day, Makowski says that the
team spent around 20% more time undertaking
computer analysis before parts were made,
particularly on the induction and combustion
systems, because the compression ratio is higher
(9.5:1), the stroke (94mm) is longer, and the bore
is smaller (87.55mm). The minute you do that,
youve changed the in-cylinder air flows, so that
means an all-new injector spray pattern in the six
holes, he adds.
Like all Ford EcoBoost developments, the 2.3
features twin independent variable cam timing,
high-pressure direct fuel injection running at 163
bar (2,400psi) and high-pressure turbocharging
at 1.7 bar (25psi). The fuel pump and fuel injectors
come from Bosch, and although the injectors
have been mapped for up to two shots per cycle
on cold start and at low rpm, the engine normally
operates with one.
According to Makowski, the new Mustang
EcoBoost shares bore centers (96mm) and
deck height (231mm) with the previous Duratec
four unit, but every other part of the engine has
been changed, starting with the bore and stroke
and incorporating a new high-pressure die-cast

Three decades after


Ford put a four-cylinder
2.3-liter engine in
the Mustang, the new
twin-scroll turbocharged
EcoBoost four powers
the sixth generation
of the iconic pony car

We wanted to put a four-cylinder engine


back in the Mustang with no excuses for
power, and the horsepower number has to
start with a three that was what we needed
High-flow cylinder head with
integrated exhaust manifold
moves air in and exhaust out
for better performance

Light weight, high-strength pistons with


low-friction skirt coating, steel ring carriers
and increased compression ratio

High-performance
valve seat materials

High-strength forged steel


connecting rods with full
floating pins

Piston cooling jets


for durability

High-pressure die-cast aluminum


cylinder block and structural
ladder frame with integrated main
bearing caps
Balance shaft for smoother
operation at all speeds
Forged steel crankshaft with
premium bearing materials

06 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Deep-sump structural die-cast aluminum


oil pan with baffles to help maintain oil
delivery during spirited driving

aluminum block with cast-in steel cylinder liners


and a whole series of external reinforcing ribs to
add powertrain stiffness.
The engine carries a four-bolt main bearing
saddle instead of individual bearing caps, and the
oil pan is carefully baffled to retain oil pressure
under high g loadings. The internal cooling jackets
around the cylinders and in the cylinder head are
larger, and the water pump has been upsized to
cope with the higher heat loads.
The bottom end features a steel crankshaft,
forged steel connecting rods and forged
aluminum pistons with a cast-in steel insert to
carry the top compression ring. The piston crowns
are machined with valve reliefs and a combustion
area, and each piston has its own oil cooling jet.
The new cylinder head features an integrated
exhaust manifold, which helps with heat and
pressure losses to the turbocharger, plus larger,
sodium-filled exhaust valves and upgraded
steel valve seat inserts. The intake manifold is a
carefully molded nylon piece for weight saving
and noise reduction, and carries a single 60mm
throttle body.

Changing the charger

For Makowski and his team, a major change


for this EcoBoost program has been the first
use at Ford of a new Honeywell twin-scroll
turbocharger, in the process having to make sure

WHATS NEW? FORD 2.3 ECOBOOST

VITAL STATISTICS
Displacement: 2,300cc in-line four
Power: 310ps at 5,500rpm
Torque: 434Nm at 3,000rpm
Valvetrain: DOHC, four valves per cylinder,
twin independent variable camshaft timing
Compression ratio: 9.5:1
Bore x stroke: 87.55mm x 94mm
Turbocharger: Honeywell twin-scroll
Transmission: Getrag 6-speed manual
Construction: Aluminum block and
head with integrated
exhaust manifold

In addition to the new


2.3-liter inline four, the
all-new Mustang also
gets a 3.7 V6 and a
range-topping 425ps
5-liter V8. Expect more
extreme powertrain
developments to follow

that every exhaust pulse from the


engine is used productively to make
boost through the firing order. As such, the
2.3 effectively operates as two two-cylinder
turbocharged engines joined at the crankshaft.
This allows us to deliver higher pulse energy
to the wheels, so rather than getting an average
exhaust pulse from a single outlet turbo, when
you go to a dual scroll you preserve that strong
energy, so youre really hammering that wheel.
It helps us a lot with transient low-end response
and we dont have to give anything up. We also
got better pulse separation, so you dont get any
crosstalk when you go to longer cam events.
The intake and exhaust camshaft timings
are controlled by oil pressure-fed controllers
and are allowed up to 50 crankshaft degrees of
freedom. When you push compression up in a
direct-injection engine, you are limited as to when
pistons can hit valves, explains Makowski. The
oil pump for engine lubrication and cam timing is
a conventional full-time unit.
Although the Ford engineer doesnt speak
in specific terms about the valve events in the
new 2.3, he does add: When you go from a
single-scroll turbo to a twin-scroll turbo, you
get more flexibility. Theres no crosstalk, so you
can leave the exhaust valves open a bit longer
and make your overlap window a little bigger.
It just gives you more flexibility. We are able
to use internal EGR. The four-valve valvetrain
uses conventional flat tappets in lieu of more
expensive roller finger followers.
Like almost all modern four-cylinder engines,
the 2.3 EcoBoost uses a balance shaft bolted to
the bottom of the block, but the new one in this
engine is made of aluminum instead of traditional
steel, which saves around 5kg.
In addition to the balance shaft, Makowski says
that the new Mustang four also benefits from a
set of fuel rail and fuel injector isolators, and a
Darth Vader black plastic fuel pump cover and
other noise-abatement covers/shields for much
improved powertrain NVH. If youre really careful
in how you do it the ribbing, structure and
response of a surface you can get away from a
lot of that isolation and save weight, complexity
and cost, he sums up.

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 07

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WHATSNEW?
NEW?MERCEDES
GM ECOTEC
FAMILY
WHATS
ENGINES

Numbers
game

Having seen what Ford has achieved with its three- and
four-cylinder EcoBoost program, GM has shed light on a
radical new Ecotec downsized engine family that benefits
from high-end technology and premium materials
The new Ecotec three- and four-cylinder program
from General Motors signals huge, headlinegrabbing numbers. To start with, there will be no
fewer than 11 engine variants ranging from 1-liter to
1.5-liters in size. Some 27 different GM small car
applications will benefit from the new IC family by
2017, and this includes models from five different
brands Buick, Chevrolet, Holden, Opel and
Vauxhall. If thats not enough, maximum output
of 2.5 million new engines per year from five GM
plants around the world has been set, with the
new powertrains rolling out of Flint, Michigan;
Shenyang, China; Szentgotthrd, Hungary; Toluca,
Mexico; and Changwon, South Korea.
First up from the Ecotec project will be an
all-new 1-liter turbo for the Opel Adam a hip
The new Ecotec small engine
portfolio will include 11
derivatives, with three- and
four-cylinder variants ranging
from 1-liter to 1.5-liters
including turbocharged
versions and power ratings
from 76ps to 167ps. Pictured
here (from left) are the
1.4-liter turbocharged unit, the
1.5-liter offering and the 1-liter
turbocharged three-cylinder

urban IC offering that Opel/Vauxhall hope will


be propelled into the same league as other chic
three-cylinder city car models. This will then
be followed by a 1.5-liter naturally aspirated
motor and a 1.4-liter turbo four-cylinder that will
power the next-generation Chevrolet Cruze for
China, which launches later this year. The threecylinder turbo and the charged four-cylinder will
also feature in the new fourth-generation Corsa
line-up in Europe.
Across the board, the huge program includes
port fuel injection, direct injection, turbocharging
(but not supercharging), and bi-fuel, E100, CNG
and hybrid propulsion capability. The new engines
will replace three existing GM engine families over
the next three to five years.

Three years in the making

Work first began on Ecotec three years ago


and was undertaken by a core team of 300 GM
engineers around the world in key R&D facilities
in Pontiac, Michigan; Russelsheim, Germany;
Bangalore, India; Shanghai, China; and Seoul,
South Korea. The brief was to have a varied
power rating and in this respect its mission
accomplished for the Ecotec project so far, with
the new engines starting from 76ps and 95Nm
through to 167ps and 250Nm. That said, there is
expected to be plenty more power to come from
the new powertrains, and going north of 200ps
and 300Nm should be a realistic possibility.
Most of the new engines, which will easily
meet Euro 6 and SULEV emissions regulations
using 87 octane regular gasoline, feature
technologies such as central direct fuel injection
at 200 bar, continuously variable valve timing
with up to 65 crankshaft degrees of authority,
fixed-vane turbocharging and variable intake
manifold airflow.

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 09

WHATS NEW? GM ECOTEC FAMILY

1. The direct injection


system in the 1-liter
three-cylinder Ecotec
2. The next-generation
Chevrolet Cruze will house
a 1.4-liter four-cylinder
turbocharged Ecotec
3. A representation of the
airflow in the new 1-liter
and 1.4-liter GM engines

The entire new GM family is built around a


modular architecture featuring a common 74mm
bore on 81mm bore centers. The cylinder block
is precision die-cast, open-deck design, featuring
A380 T5 aluminum alloy using cast-in ADC-10
T5 iron cylinder sleeves. The block has been
designed for optimum crankcase breathing,
and uses a direct-mount accessory drive for
simplicity, low noise production and stiffness. The
design also features an ADC-10 T5 precision-cast
aluminum bedplate, which incorporates nodular
iron inserts and a windage tray to keep lubricating
oil away from the rotating assembly.
According to GM, the Ecotec engines have
been repeatedly tested for crankcase venting
and continuous lubrication using both racetracks
for 1.2g side loadings and GM Powertrains
gimballed dynamometer that can produce
engine tilting in any direction up to 50. The
engines use a variable-displacement oil pump
with a true off-on controller for the piston
lubricating jets dependent on load and rpm. On
the three-cylinder versions, the balance shaft
is integrated into the oil pump assembly using
a chain drive system.
The various direct-injection engines will feature
forged steel crankshafts, while the PFI derivatives
for emerging markets will use cast nodular iron
crankshafts. The four-cylinder motors will all
have eight crankshaft counterweights and
low-friction bearings.
Each 74mm piston has a specially cast
and machined fuel bowl built into it to match
the chamber in the cylinder head, with a
tapered, floating piston pin and low-tension
compression and oil control rings. The
connecting rods will all be powdered metal,
and the oil-cooling jets will be used for both the
underside of the pistons and the bores.
The Ecotecs 356 T7 four-valve aluminum
cylinder head designs feature sodium-filled
exhaust valves; integrated water-cooled exhaust
manifolds; and four-into-one shorty exhaust
headers to minimize joinings and hardware, and to
locate the single-volume, close-coupled catalyst
as close to the exhaust valves as possible.

The head has been designed for central direct


injection with six-hole injectors flowing 10g/s
at 10MPa pressure, using three-lobe electric
pumps for the threes, and four-lobe pumps for the
fours. Injectors that are suspended and isolated
for minimal noise production breathe through a
composite intake manifold. The head uses tumble
ports, with a range of compression ratios from
10:1 to 12.5:1 depending on the market and fuel.
All Ecotec offerings will be fitted with 241,000km
(149,700 miles) spark plugs and camshaft drive
belts using inverted tooth designs for low noise, as
well as built-in stop/start capability.
The cooling system for the new engines uses
an electronically controlled thermostat for the
water pump, with inlet-side flow control preferred
over a return-side flow control setup.
Each of the five turbocharged versions will
use a single-stage, single-scroll charger sized
specifically for the application, using austenitic
stainless steel housings, and pressure-controlled
wastegates rather than vacuum-controlled, with
lubricated and water-cooled turbo bearings.

The 11 variants in the


Ecotec engine family will
go into 27 GM small car
applications, including the
new Opel/Vauxhall Corsa

10 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Test running

Chief GM engineer Tim Sutter told ETi that the


US car maker built more than 110 experimental
engines during the Ecotec development
program, and accumulated more than 3.2 million
kilometers (1.98 million miles) of testing. Some
270 engines were run at wide-open throttle at
full load, 24 hours a day, for four consecutive
weeks, and some of those units were then
installed in a fleet of 735 vehicles that were
tested on four GM tracks around the world.
Sutter says the new engines are class leaders in
brake specific fuel consumption, real-world fuel
economy, weight, quietness and smoothness
when tested against competitive engines from
Ford, VW, Audi and other manufacturers.
The new 1.4-liter turbo for the next-generation
Chevrolet Cruze in China and Opel/Vauxhall
Corsa in Europe is said to have 150ps and
235Nm of torque. Meanwhile, the 1.5-liter will be
rated at an estimated 114ps and 146Nm torque.
And, as previewed in last years Transmissions
Technology International, GMs modern Ecotec
engine family will also receive a range of all-new
transmissions, including a high-tech 6-speed
manual gearbox.

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WHATS NEW? HEMI HELLCAT V8

Over 90% of components in


the new Hemi Hellcat engine
are different to those found in
the 6.4-liter 392 powertrain

Hell on wheels
Dodge has put its first factory supercharged V8 under
the hood of the new Challenger Hemi Hellcat. The
result is the most powerful muscle car in the world
As car makers continue to navigate the industrywide paradigm shift toward engine downsizing,
hybridization and economy, there are certain
staples of automotive history that even the most
ardent petrolheads might expect to see struggle in
an increasingly environmentally conscious world.
Detroit muscle cars, for example, seem to be in
a particularly tricky situation as more and more
consumers pay close attention to sustainability.
But thats not a school of thought that Dodge
appears to fully subscribe to. The new Challenger
SRT Hemi Hellcat goes on sale later this year, and
under the hood youll find the most powerful V8
that Dodge has ever developed for a passenger
car a supercharged 6.2-liter Hemi V8. As the
Detroit-based manufacturer rather gleefully points
out, to find a more powerful Chrysler V8, youd
have to look inside a bona fide race car or a tank.
In all, the Hemi Hellcat produces 717ps and
881Nm of torque. Those mind-boggling stats
break all kinds of Dodge records and come
courtesy of the manufacturers first factory
supercharged engine and also make the Hellcat
the most powerful muscle car youll find on the
planet. And thats a characteristic that comes with
its own set of consequences.
The challenge of highly stressed components
jumps to mind, says Gregg Black, chief engineer
on the Hemi Hellcat project. There are multiple
issues that arise when you are dealing with such
high pressures, loads, torques and temperatures.

All change

Supercharging the Hellcats V8 via an ICI


screw-type unit required more than just a few,
carefully designed tweaks. Dodge estimates
that 91% of the Hellcat engines components are
different from those found in the 6.4-liter offering,
and such a highly loaded unit created challenges
throughout the drivetrain. The whole bearing
interface is a particular challenge on an engine
such as Hellcat, explains Chris Cowland, director
of SRT and advanced powertrain engineering.
A considerable amount of time was spent
optimizing the bearing materials, as well as the
microgeometry and tolerance improvements of
the journals and pins, to ensure durability under
adverse conditions. The forged steel crankshaft
has a reduced stroke to that of the 6.4-liter,
naturally aspirated Apache [the codename for
the 392 Hemi engine] in order to increase the
stiffness and fatigue strength to withstand the
high firing loads.
The increased output also meant a new base
alloy and heat treatment for the cylinder heads
to combat the firing loads and thermal loading, as
well as a premium high strength and temperatureresistant alloy for the pistons. Tellingly, Chrysler
had to upgrade its in-house dynamometers in
order to be able to test the engine at full load over
a sustained period.
And making the powerhouse Hemi driveable in
the Challenger was another particular hurdle that

12 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

engineers faced: The challenge is to generate


the required power output while still maintaining
the tractability for everyday use, adds Cowland.
On the Hellcat, the choice of a relatively large
displacement engine in combination with
supercharging is ideal to produce both sets of
characteristics and not result in a peaky engine
that may be fine for the track, but is difficult to
live with every day. Advanced electronic control
systems help marshal the Hellcats power, to
a degree, as well as providing a nice marketing
angle a new Hellcat comes with a black key fob,
which limits the engine output to 507ps, and a red
fob, which does no such thing.
Fuel economy figures, although not yet available,
are respectable, according to Black. But the
Hellcat is not a car designed with such matters
high on the agenda you wont find stop/start
functionality either. We didnt believe it fitted
with the character of the vehicle we were trying
to produce, Cowland confirms. One of the
characteristics desired for the engine was the
right amount of idle feedback, so that the potency
of the engine was apparent while at the stop
lights. This would be impossible with the engine
switched off.
At the end of the day, the Hellcat sprints a
quarter mile in just 10.8 seconds. Simply put,
muscle cars are fun, says Black. This vehicle
is meant to be a race-bred product that can be
enjoyed on the street and on the track.

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MERCEDES
ENGINES V6
WHATS NEW? FORD
2.7 ECOBOOST

Six
appeal
ETi takes a look inside Fords remarkable 2.7-liter EcoBoost
F-150 engine the car makers smartest V6 design to date

14 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

WHATS NEW? FORD 2.7 ECOBOOST V6

At the heart of the new 2.7


EcoBoost unit is CGI expertise that
Fords powertrain engineering teams
amassed during the development of
the 6.7-liter V8 diesel powerplant

In the annals of Fords V6 history on both sides of


the Atlantic, there has never been a six-cylinder
as clever and as innovative as the new 2.7-liter
EcoBoost the engine destined to power first the
rear-wheel-drive Ford F-150 pickup truck and then
the front-wheel-drive Ford Edge Sport compact
SUV. In production, the new motor will realize
329ps at 5,750rpm and 508Nm of torque at
3,000rpm, or an impressive 121ps per liter.
Like all previous Ford EcoBoost engine designs,
the 2.7-liter V6 features direct high-pressure
fuel injection, twin independently variable cam
timing (TiVCT) with up to 30 crankshaft degrees
of freedom, and high-pressure turbocharging. But
the new powertrain also benefits from several
lessons learned from the larger 3.5-liter twin-turbo,
as well as a number of manufacturing techniques
never before used at a Ford engine plant.

Heart of the matter

Ed Waszczenko, Fords project manager for


the all-new 2.7 turbo, points to the compacted
graphite iron (CGI) cylinder block as the heart

of the new engines design. With engineering


lessons on the properties and machining of CGI
learned from the engine block of the Forddesigned 6.7-liter diesel V8, the 2.7 EcoBoost
team looked for even more inroads: We put the
structure where we need it, and then we optimize
for weight.
The dimensions of the new engine include a
deck height of 218.3mm, bore centers of 95mm,
an 83mm bore and an 83mm stroke, with a
35mm bank offset.
Taking advantage of a much higher tensile
strength than cast iron, and casting techniques
never before used at Ford, the EcoBoost team
was able to cast the iron block with the engines
main bearing caps and transmission bell housing
support all in one piece. The main bearing caps
are then laser-notched and cracked mechanically
with a mandrel for a perfect fit a first for a CGI
gasoline engine. That gives us an intermolecular
fit between the block and the main bearing cap,
Waszczenko explains. It also enables much
narrower main bearing webs.

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 15

WHATS NEW? FORD 2.7 ECOBOOST V6

VITAL STATISTICS
Layout and valvetrain: 2.7 V6 with
twin independently variable cam
timing
Block and head: Aluminum
Bore: 83mm
Stroke: 83mm
Compression ratio: 10.5:1
Power: 329ps
Torque: 508Nm

The CGI block of the 60 V is very short,


strengthened and stiffened by a die-cast aluminum
ladder frame between the block and the phenolic
composite oil pan that bolts through the main
bearing caps into the block and to the pan rail. The
ladder frame is cast with the bottom two-thirds of
the transmission bell housing support integrated
into it for additional powertrain stiffness and NVH.
On the front side of the engine, there is a
very elaborate, ribbed one-piece cover that
accommodates the crankshaft balancer, coolant
pump for the reverse-cooling system and idler
pulleys, and that mounts the coolant-to-oil oil
cooler and the tiny cartridge-style oil filter. The
engine oil pump is a variable-displacement unit
that reduces pumping losses at low engine speeds
when demand is low on the engines six-quart
lubrication reservoir.

Another Ford first is the use of a bushingless


connecting rod design that helps to shorten
the overall height of the engine by 3mm,
with no loss of long-term durability. The
connecting rod has a conventional bearing
on the crankshaft end, but the pin end is
trumpeted and coated with a molybdenumbased coating for break-in, according to
Waszczenko. On the crankshaft end, the
connected rod is bigger than the engines bore,
so the bearing cap is offset to facilitate installation
on the production line.
Like most recent Ford turbo engines, the
two cylinder heads of the new 2.7-liter unit use
integral, cooled exhaust manifolds to maintain
low temperatures going into the turbine side of
each turbocharger, and to reduce parts count,
junctions and attaching hardware.
The cylinder heads mount the four camshafts,
cam actuators, and two intake and exhaust valves
per cylinder which operate indirectly through
roller finger followers and surround the single
central fuel injector operating at 2,000psi.
The two Honeywell turbochargers are
managed by electronic controls and mechanical
wastegates to deliver a maximum of 30psi boost
against a static compression ratio of 10.0:1, using
air-to-air intercooling.

Fueling creativity

On the subject of lower engine NVH, Waszczenko


says that some clever fuel injector isolation

16 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Fords new 2.7-liter EcoBoost


V6 will power the rear-wheeldrive F-150 pickup and the
front-wheel-drive Edge Sport.
Its also Fords first truck engine
to feature stop/start capability

trickery resulted in lower injector noise being


realized than that on PFI engines, with all of the
engines various covers and shields being made
of isolated nylon or phenolic materials that dont
transmit noise.
Another unique feature of the 2.7-liter
EcoBoost is the first use of stop/start fuel-saving
technology in a Ford truck engine a move
that necessitated upgraded Federal-Mogul
Irox polymer-coated main and rod bearings.
Waszczenko says the coated bearings ensure
that the rotating and reciprocating assemblies will
survive thousands of restarts when lubricating
oil has drained away during stops. Whats more,
Federal-Mogul says the bearings are 15-20%
better in fatigue strength than standard bearings.
The stop/start package includes an upgraded
starter motor for the additional cycles, an
upgraded battery and an upgraded charging
system, as well as an auxiliary coolant pump
that keeps the engine cool and the passenger
compartment warm in cold weather. Waszczenko
says that the engineering team ran 240,000
stop/start cycles during a 900-hour test to
simulate more than 240,000km (149,000 miles)
of customer use in heavy traffic.
The all-new 2.7-liter EcoBoost engine, in both
front- and rear-wheel-drive configurations, will
be manufactured at the Ford engine plant in
Lima, Ohio a long-time center of Ford enginebuilding expertise that has been in operation
since 1957.

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ENGINES ON TEST
Screaming four-pots!

Mercedes A 45 AMG M133

Alfa Romeo 4C 939 B100

Sometimes, just sometimes, an engine is created that leaves one


feeling absolutely dumbfounded in a good way! Granted, these
moments are few and far between, but when it does happen, one
cant help but feel truly amazed at what the powertrain is capable of
doing, and in awe of the engineering team that worked so hard to
create a thing of such beauty. And thats exactly how we felt during
our time with the Mercedes A 45 AMG, and more specifically, its
wonderfully mischievous 2-liter four-cylinder with its fizzing,
popping, banging and cackling ways. Honestly, this IC development
is really difficult to fault hence why it won two International
Engine of the Year Awards this year, including the much coveted
New Engine title. Yet being the worlds most powerful four-cylinder
in series production is one thing, but delivering all 360ps thats
181ps per liter smoothly and in a vehicle thats capable of
handling such power is another thing entirely. Sadly for its
upmarket hot-hatch rivals, the screaming A-Class delivers on both
fronts. In fact, the 148kg four-pot with 450Nm torque sits perfectly
within the smallest Mercedes-Benz passenger car. The M133 really
benefits from many high-end technologies that have graced its
bigger M157 V8 and M279 V12 cousins, including the innovative
Nanoslide breakthrough first seen in the SLS powertrain that
tribologically optimizes piston wall surfaces. And while the use
of a twin-scroll turbocharger ensures high-end performance, the
compact blower boosting the A 45 also helps add efficiency to
whats already a very impressive engineering package. We easily
averaged 8.3 l/100km (34mpg) on combined mode.

If we thought the cackling M133 from Mercedes-AMG sounded


good, in a very cheeky, naughty kind of way, then Alfa Romeos very
own four-pot turbo for the evocative 4C could be heard coming
from miles away its that loud! In fact, the deep, deep rumble of
the highly wound 1,742cc motor drowned out just about everything
else on the road, and with its sleek, beautiful design and the fact
that we had a left-hooker on Italian plates the car literally halted
traffic, as locals stopped to stare, stare some more, and then
proceeded to take photographs. Say what you will about this
featherweight mid-engined racer, but one thing is for sure: it laps
up attention like no other vehicle on the road today. Now, 1.7-liter
fours are aplenty within Fiat Group, but the 4Cs powertrain is no
hand-me-down from another stablemate. Yes, it shares much
hardware and software with the Giulietta heart, but so extensive
have the changes been for project 4C that this 240ps, 350Nm
pusher gets its very own code. Its also 22kg lighter thanks to an
aluminum block being used in place of a cast-iron design. The
wet-sump unit benefits further from new cylinder heads as well as
modifications made to the intake and exhaust manifolds. Central
to all the fun that can be had from Alfas 895kg sports car is a single
variable-vane BorgWarner turbo that delivers up to 21.75psi boost
pressure. On the road, the 4C is a challenging drive its not
perfect, thats for certain, but it offers so much fun and reward
that one cant help but beam when driving it. And just as
importantly, other road users will smile with you. The 4C has
that sort of effect on people.

Cylinders: Four Cubic capacity: 1,991cc


Bore/stroke: 83 x 92mm Compression ratio: 8.6:1
Power output: 360ps Torque output: 450Nm

Cylinders: Four Cubic capacity: 1,742cc


Bore/stroke: 83 x 80.5mm Compression ratio: 9.5:1
Power output: 240ps Torque output: 350Nm

AMG: THE EARLY DAYS

Launched in 1993, the C 63 AMG was


the first vehicle jointly developed as
a result of an engineering cooperation
between AMG and Daimler-Benz

The E 50 AMG was launched


in 1996, in close cooperation
with Mercedes-Benz

Some 20 years ago, AMG succeeded


in giving a sedan sports-car-like
performance with the 300 E 6.0

18 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

In 1999, the
worlds most
powerful
roadster was
created the
SL 73 AMG
Four decades of AMG have seen numerous race wins
and outstanding technological powertrain achievements

PERSONALITY PROFILE

What career did you want when you were


growing up, and what was your first job?
I actually wanted to be a biologist. When I
was studying for my PhD in physics, I was
working on combustion processes in big
furnaces, which is really far away from the
automotive industry. When I finished my
PhD, I presented my work to a congress
and someone from the IFP said it was very
interesting and that they could use this
approach for combustion engines.

PROFILE: KARIM MOKADDEM


Job title: Executive engine
technology manager
Company: PSA Peugeot Citron

PSA advanced and research collaboration. If


you look at my career path from the beginning,
it seems that all the things I have done have
been put together in this last position.

What was your career path to the position


you currently hold?
After four years at IFP, I moved to PSA, where
Ive been for the past 15 years, working in
several different positions. I started in the
scientific department, at the beginning of the
innovation process, looking at innovations
20 years into the future. Then I moved into a
position that was more within the innovation
process, so instead of looking 20 years ahead,
I started looking 10 years ahead. After that,
I moved to the advanced project activities,
where I looked five or six years ahead. I did
this while also being in charge of the Ford-

What are the best and worst elements


of your job?
The best aspects are detecting new
technologies, defining the gates, and
incubating the technology to ensure you
create value. One of the difficult things is
that when you work with an innovation,
you always have to convince, demonstrate
and prove. This is the game of innovation,
especially when you are doing something
radical and new, but its hard convincing
people who are used to thinking in a certain
way, especially when youre doing something
not in the core business of the company.
What car do you currently drive?
We change cars every six months or so, but
Im currently driving the RCZ. What I like about
this car is the performance, the sporty design,
and the fact that I can fit my wife and two kids
inside it! This is really innovative, yknow!

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PERSONALITY PROFILE

I have a 14-year-old son and when I talk to him about cars he doesnt say he
wants to drive a car with the best performance, he doesnt want to drive a
Ferrari. What he wants is something that is differentiating and clean
What would your dream engine specification
be for todays eco-friendly world?
My dream engine is really clean, not just in
terms of emissions, but something that will
be fully recyclable. I cant imagine engine
parts will be thrown away without the next
generation thinking about recyclability. Our
responsibility today is to make something that
will help people to live better in the future. I
have a 14-year-old son and when I talk to him
about cars he doesnt say he wants to drive
a car with the best performance, he doesnt
want to drive a Ferrari. What he wants is
something that is differentiating and clean.
In your opinion, what is the greatest engine
that has ever been produced?
Let me be very honest: I think the electrical
hybrid engine produced by Toyota 15 years
ago is the best. Toyota showed a lot of

audacity promoting something that was not


really needed or expected within the market,
and something that was completely outside
the classical rules and processes of engine
development. We need to thank them for that
because today the automotive industry is fully
oriented toward electrical hybrids.

with questions on how to finance it. Weve


been building a very innovative financial
scheme with the French government. Theyve
played a key role in promoting and investing in
this technology. This role, in general, has to be
enhanced and more focused. Innovation is not
a one-player game, its a multiplayer game.

Which OEMs do you have an engineering


respect for?
Ive got a lot of respect for what Toyota has
done, as well as the outstanding technological
competencies of our colleagues at BMW.

In your opinion, what will be powering a


typical family sedan in the year 2030?
A clean hybrid technology because the only
way to avoid fuel consumption is to stop the
engine. The only way to stop the engine is to
provide another source of energy. To have a
clean alternative energy, you need to have
something that is recyclable, easy to use and
robust, which can be deployed in all markets.
If we go in this direction, we will be able to fuel
a typical family sedan with something totally
different from what we use today.

What could legislators do to make your


working life easier?
Promote innovation. Weve been working on
the Hybrid Air project in a really new way, in a
very constrained timeframe, when questions
of how to develop the technology came about

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Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 21

OPINION

One of my favorite smells in this world is the trail left


by a two-stroke engine. Its not the tang itself that
excites me I doubt a two-stroke-scented plug-in
air-freshener would sell well but rather the emotion that
oily aroma ignites within, because to me, the smell of a
two-stroke reminds me of Rotax go-karting. I used to race
such machines many years ago before I progressed to car
racing, and I loved it. I loved the high-revving nature of the
single-cylinder and I loved its screaming-for-morepunishment sound.
The smell also reminds me of a major investment Ford
once made in two-stroke. It was the early 1990s, and Ford
wanted to launch a small urban car with an innovative,
fuel-efficient, but nippy engine. At that time, Ford had
recently launched the Zetec engine
range, but these four-cylinder units
were hardly cutting edge its
marketing team made much of the
multivalve technology, but in truth, that
Zetec family was only fractionally more
advanced than the rather basic
CVH-branded offerings that preceded
them. Cutting edge they certainly
werent! And so to create this
innovative unit for its pregnant urban
car project, an unlikely partnership was
formed between the US car giant and
a relatively small, unknown Australian outfit, Orbital.
Together, the partners created a 1.2-liter, three-cylinder
two-stroke that featured direct injection, a technology that,
back then, was a long way from being the commercial
success it is today. Millions of
dollars must have been thrown at
the project, but Ford ultimately
walked away and endowed
its urban car, the Ka, with
a 1.3-liter, four-cylinder,
the origins of which
dated back to the
1959 Kent engine!

Ford first
loOked at co
mpact twoway before
stroke desi
the tiny 1.
gn
0 EcoBoOst
was conceive s
d

Orbital continued alone with the two-stroke project for


some years, using the engine to promote the benefits of its
DI technology. As then-editor of this title, I formed a close
relationship with the Aussies, and the company lent me its
two-stroke-engined Ford Festiva prototype for a few
months so Id continue to promote its virtues.
Virtues? For sure: it was a terrific little engine and would
have made the already fun Ka nothing short of bloody
marvellous! For starters, it had the
power of an engine with at least 600cc
more than a motor of that era. And
unlike todays downsized units, no
turbo was required to help achieve its
100ps. It also revved and revved and
revved. In fact, it really thrived on a
damn good thrashing and I was
addicted to it. It could be fuel-efficient
too. Indeed, we took part in the original
Michelin Challenge Bibendum to prove
its economy, although I must confess
that I might have enjoyed the engines
ability to rev a little too much during the official economy
runs, so we only managed around 36mpg! We did at least
dominate all comers in the performance tests.
However, the problems were hard to ignore: a thirst for
two-stroke oil; a tremendous flat-spot at around 3,000rpm
that felt like early turbo-lag applications; and yes, that
less-than-impressive real-world fuel consumption.
In the end, it took Ford two decades to come up with the
fuel-efficient and nippy engine that it so desperately sought
a three-cylinder turbocharged design called 1.0 Ecoboost
and it has won the International Engine of the Year title
three years on the trot. The only downside is that it doesnt
smell as good as that wonderful Orbital two-stroke!

It also revved and


revved and revved.
In fact, it really
thrived on a damn
good thrashing

22 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

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Michael Taylor

OPINION

Up until a few weeks ago, Australias state


governments of Victoria and New South Wales
had a horrid piece of cynical (even by political standards)
legislation aimed at keeping young drivers safe.
More accurately, it was targeted at showing the average
voter that the authorities were keeping young drivers safe
when, in reality, they were doing everything humanly possible
to keep them away from the best fuel economy, the newest
technology and the cheapest five-star NCAP entry points.
It wasnt a complicated process behind it, either. They
simply banned young drivers from driving turbocharged
cars. And not just one or two of the quickest ones, either.
It banned all of them, en masse.
So, a city-based young driver couldnt own
a Smart Fortwo, given its turbocharged,
three-cylinder motor, but they could
cheerfully wander off in a BMW M3
CSL, or a Honda S2000, no problem
with that whatsoever.
The governments who loved this law
(there were four of them) refused to
listen to the car industry, which
provided submissions that the next
wave of turbo engines were something
very different to the ones they
experienced in their own younger
days. It took nearly a decade
of haranguing to mostly overturn this nonsense
(and the largest state, New South Wales, still
hasnt), which is just as well because everybody
could see even then that emissions laws
would give turbos a new life.
BMW, for example, no longer
sells a single naturally aspirated
engine (if you dont count the
two-cylinder scooter motor in
the i3 REEV). It should be
rebadged BTMW to suit its
new positioning, but it
probably wont be.

24 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

M3 was the
last bastio
n of natura
goO dnesS fo
lLy aspirate
r BM W until
d
it got a ne
w turbo engi
ne

And its not all come without pain, either. Most people
still miss the old straight six in the 328i and think the turbo
four to be effective, but so different are the sophistication
levels that the blind could mistake it for a diesel.
Then theres the M3 and its new M4 sibling the last to
go turbo. The final holdout, soldiering on with the atmo V8
(that was, in effect, the atmo V10 from the M5 with two
holes chopped off). And minutes after drive impressions hit
the interweb suggesting M3 was now
a two-character car, delivering both a
great daily cruiser and a sports sedan,
prices of old straight-six M3s began a
climb that has yet to peak. The CSL, in
particular, is on the move, but so is the
E36 Series II, with the 3.2-liter motor,
revised suspension geometry and six
gears. Its almost like the used-car
sector is telling BMW that it, not BMW,
will decide what goes into an M3.
Where turbos have come on is in
huffing unnoticed inside family luggers,
leaving them economical when theyre not needed in
engines that would otherwise be inadequate to the size of
the origami theyre carrying.
And thats the irony. The politicians who made the daft
laws about turbocharged cars made them after playing a
word-association game in the tea room and coming up with
turbo equals speed and, come on, everybody, get with
the picture here, why wont you think of the safety of the
children? They made that link because the turbo cars from
their younger days were quick and, to be fair, unfriendly.
But if the next generation of politician drove any volume
car today, they wouldnt even notice the turbocharger that
almost certainly powers it.

A city-based young
driver couldnt own a
Smart Fortwo given
its turbocharged
three-cylinder motor

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2014
October 28-30, 2014
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POWERTRAIN PRIZES

Its that time of year when the finest powertrains in the automotive
business battle for an International Engine of the Year Award or
two but just who were the winners and losers at this
years industry event, and which developments
are the ones to watch for 2015?

WORDS: DEAN SLAVNICH

28 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

INTERNA
T

YEAR
THE

Driven by
success

L ENGINE OF
IONA

WINNER

POWERTRAIN PRIZES

INTERNATIONAL ENGINE
OF THE YEAR 2014
The favorites: Ford 1-liter EcoBoost; Tesla full-electric
powertrain in Model S; Mercedes-AMG 2-liter turbo

Winner: Ford 1-liter EcoBoost


Should have done better: Such was the momentum
behind Fords all-conquering 2012 and 2013 champion,
which has amassed no fewer than seven trophies in
just three years, that this micro motor was always going
to be a strong favorite for the outright crown. So, rather
than a should have done better, more apt is a the
engine did good recognition, which goes to Ferraris
beautiful 4.5-liter V8. Reincarnated for the screaming
458 Speciale, Maranellos 605ps eight-cylinder beast
surprisingly pushed the Ford 999cc triple all the way,
crucially losing out only in the last six of 82 votes.
Did you know: The 1-liter EcoBoost
is the first engine to win three
consecutive overall International
Engine of the Year Awards, and the
smart betting is that such a feat will
never be achieved again. Across the
awards illustrious 16-year history,
only three engines have recorded
outright back-to-back wins: BMWs
5-liter V10 in 2005/06; the Bavarian
OEMs 3-liter six-cylinder twin-turbo in
2007/08; and Volkswagens 1.4-liter TSI
TwinCharger in 2009/10.

GREEN ENGINE
PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September 2013
issue of ETi, we
predicted that the
BMW i3 powertrain
would win this award!

One to watch for 2015: The BMW i8


powertrain is already being heralded as a
landmark engine development that history
wont forget.

The favorites: Nissan all-electric powertrain in Leaf;


BMW all-electric powertrain in i3; Tesla all-electric
powertrain in Model S

Winner: Tesla all-electric powertrain in Model S


Should have done better: The obvious choice would
be BMW once again, this time specifically for the i3
e-powertrain. However, all-electric developments from
Nissan for the refreshed Leaf and Renault for the new
Zoe didnt even make the top six!
Did you know: Fords 1-liter EcoBoost wasnt the only
record-breaker at this years International Engine of the
Year Awards; Teslas landmark win in this category marks
the first-ever conquest for an all-electric powertrain. It
would seem that EVs have finally arrived!
One to watch for 2015: Therell be new and highly
promising all-electric or plug-in hybrid models from
Mercedes, Volkswagen and Audi all vying for this
accolade, but at the moment Tesla has the edge. In
fact, BMWs i8 powertrain could be the greatest rival to
the Model S. A left-field choice would be the Kia Soul EV.

PERFORMANCE ENGINE
The favorites: Ferrari 6.3-liter V12; McLaren 3.8-liter
V8; Ferrari 4.5-liter V8

Winner: Ferrari 4.5-liter V8

NEW ENGINE
The favorites: BMW full-electric powertrain in i3;
BMW 1.5-liter gasoline three-cylinder turbo;
Mercedes-AMG 2-liter turbo

Winner: Mercedes-AMG 2-liter turbo


Should have done better: No fewer than three all-new
BMW creations failed to live up to expectations: the
all-electric i3 development, the 1.5 Mini motor, and the
3-liter turbocharged six-cylinder powering M3/M4.
Did you know: This stunning victory ends a shocking
half-decade drought for Mercedes-AMG at the
International Engine of the Year Awards.
One to watch for 2015: Several interesting engines are
being prepped for launch during the next 12 months,
including a cousin of this years New Engine champion
a 4-liter biturbo screamer from Mercedes-AMG.
Theres also Ferraris first turbocharged development
since the 1980s in the
California, as well as a
new downsized engine
family from Jaguar
Land Rover. However,
the groundbreaking i8
powertrain is our one
to watch for this very
important category
next year.

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

Should have done


better: Much was
expected of the
superb M838T
from McLaren and
Ricardo, but it fell
over 150 points short
of the 458 Speciale
pusher. But that
wasnt anywhere
near as bad as the two Porsche 911 engines, one of which
failed to amass more than 100 points. There wasnt much
love for the smallblock V8 in the new Corvette either.
Did you know: Remarkably, the Ferrari V8 has won
back the prestigious Performance Engine title,
which it took in 2011 and 2012, from last years
champion and stablemate, the F12 Berlinetta
V12, which finished in second place this year. The
fact that the eight-cylinder has been tweaked for the
458 Speciale to churn out some 605ps at a screaming
9,000rpm might have helped matters.
One to watch for 2015: Itll be a three-way shootout
between Ferraris turbocharged V8 in the California,
Mercedes-AMGs 4-liter V8 biturbo and (yes, once
again!) the revolutionary BMW i8 powertrain. The other
two, previously victorious Ferrari V engines, will also
certainly be in the running.

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 29

POWERTRAIN PRIZES

SUB 1-LITER
The favorites: Ford 1-liter EcoBoost; BMW 647cc
two-cylinder electric range-extender; Renault 898cc
three-cylinder

Winner: Ford 1-liter EcoBoost


Should have done better: We cant keep naming BMW,
so how about V Ws mighty 999cc three-cylinder that
powers the likes of Up, Mii and Citago? No doubting that
its a fine, fine engine, and one that should have won
this category at least once across the years, but beating
Fords wonderful 125ps micro motor was always going to
be a very tall order.
Did you know: Such is the Ford engines dominance in
the Sub 1-liter grade these days that its total points haul
for this year 505 was more
than second and third place
combined, with BMWs twocylinder notching 261 points
and V Ws three-cylinder
achieving 239 points.

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we predicted that the
new family of BMW
three-cylinder engines
would win!

1.4-LITER TO 1.8-LITER
The favorites: BMW 1.5-liter gasoline three-cylinder
turbo; BMW 1.5-liter gasoline three-cylinder turbo; BMW
1.5-liter gasoline three-cylinder turbo!

Winner: BMW/PSA 1.6-liter gasoline turbo


Should have done better: Now really, just how did the
all-new BMW 1.5-liter Mini and 2-Series engine not win
this accolade? Whats more, the 136ps three-cylinder
will eventually replace the jointly developed BMW/
PSA titleholder in all BMW Group applications! So,
this result has to be one of the biggest shocks at this
years International Engine of the Year Awards and
once again it involves a new BMW engine. Hondas
downsized 1.6-liter diesel didnt fare too well either.
Did you know: The 1.4-liter to 1.8-liter contest was
the closest out of all the different categories at this
years International Engine of the Year Awards, with
just 11 points separating first and second place.
One to watch for
2015: There will
be plenty of new
engines in this
field by next year,
including 1.5-liter
four-cylinder
designs from Ford
and Mazda, as well
as BMWs very own
1.5-liter threecylinder diesel for
new Mini. Surely
this, or the petrol
variant, will win?

One to watch for 2015: With


116ps, 116Nm torque and fuel
economy of 4l/100km (70mpg),
GM Europes new 1-liter Ecotec
in Opel/Vauxhall Adam will
certainly be a challenger for
the Ford champion, but for
us here at ETi, we cant see
anything beyond a fourth
successive Sub 1-liter triumph
for the Blue Oval.

1-LITER TO 1.4-LITER
The favorites: Volkswagen 1.4-liter TSI TwinCharger;
PSA Peugeot Citron 1.2-liter turbo; Volkswagen
1.4-liter TSI ACT

Winner: Volkswagen 1.4-liter TSI TwinCharger


Should have done better: PSA will be disappointed
with this result, especially as the French triple is a
very good IC development and far better than its fourthplace finish. However, the real frustration must lie with
V Ws very own ACT motor that seamlessly transforms
from a four-cylinder into a two-pot. Having collected the
New Engine title last year, how it finished in a lowly fifth
place in this class, with just 147 points, is a mystery.
Did you know: In winning this grouping, Volkswagens
1.4-liter TSI TwinCharger is the most celebrated
powertrain in the history of the International Engine
of the Year Awards, collecting no fewer than 12 awards
in just 16 years. Perhaps this (and not the Ford
1-liter EcoBoost) is the greatest engine of
all time?
One to watch for 2015: As its
applications widen, we really do
feel that the PSA 1.2-liter turbo
will move up the rankings, but,
in all honesty, it will be another
V W TSI victory perhaps even one
featuring powertrain electrification.

30 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi, we
predicted that the VW
TSI ACT unit would
win this award!

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

1.8-LITER TO 2-LITER
The favorites: Mercedes-AMG 2-liter turbo; Audi 2-liter
TFSI; BMW 2-liter twin-turbo petrol

Winner: Mercedes-AMG 2-liter turbo


Should have done better: Having invested heavily in
a new family of four-cylinder engines, Volvos torquey,
smooth and frugal 2-liter diesel should have finished
in the top three, but instead could only muster P9 with
63 points.
Did you know: This deserved Mercedes-AMG victory
marks the end of a duopoly in this category enjoyed by
Volkswagen Group and BMW engines, with one or
the other taking first place since 2005!
One to watch for 2015: Like Volvo, Jaguar Land
Rovers Ingenium four-cylinder family is definitely
one to watch for next
year, starting with
a lightweight 2-liter
diesel that promises
to be best-in-class
for economy and
emissions. However,
were betting on
Mercedes-AMG
dominance in this
class for a few years
at least.

POWERTRAIN PRIZES

2-LITER TO 2.5-LITER
The favorites: Mazda 2.2-liter SkyActiv diesel; Audi
2.5-liter five-cylinder; Mercedes-Benz 2.1-liter diesel

Winner: Audi 2.5-liter five-cylinder


Should have done better: When will the Mazda
diesel take this category?! Also, Volvos dieselhybrid finished outside of the judges top five how
did that happen?
Did you know: Audis five-cylinder fighter thats so
reminiscent of quattros 1980s rally heyday remains
unbeaten in this class since 2010. But, perhaps more
amazingly, the Mazda diesel has finished second for the
last two years, being beaten by 37 points in 2013 and
then by just 17 points this year.
One to watch for 2015: Come on Mazda! And Volvo too!

2.5-LITER TO 3-LITER
The favorites: All varieties of BMW six-cylinder
3-liter designs diesel, petrol and hybrids;
Porsche 2.7-liter; Jaguar Land Rover 3-liter
supercharged V6

Winner: BMW 3-liter twin-power turbo gasoline


six-cylinder
Should have done better: A firm ETi favorite, BMWs
M Performance spec turbodiesel in the likes of M550d
and X550d has once again been overlooked, finishing
only in sixth place. Also, the new M3/M4 turbo has really
been shunned by the judges, failing to win any of the
three category classes that it qualified for this year.
Did you know: The king is back! Having lost its
stronghold to Porsche last year, its business as usual in
the 2.5-liter to 3-liter grouping as BMW is first past the
post again meaning that the Bavarian car maker has
won this category 13 times in 16 years!

3-LITER TO 4-LITER
PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we predicted that
the Mazda 2.2-liter
SkyActiv diesel would
win this award

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we predicted that the
M550ds tri-turbo
diesel would win. We
called the wrong
BMW six-cylinder

PREDICTION
What we thought...
In the September
2013 issue of ETi,
we called this
result right!

The favorites: McLaren 3.8-liter V8; Maserati 3.8-liter


V8; Audi/Bentley 4-liter TFSI

Winner: McLaren 3.8-liter V8


Should have done better: We here at ETi love the M838T
from McLaren, so much so that theres no point in
choosing a should have done better powertrain.
Did you know: This is win number two for McLaren
Automotive at the International Engine of the Year
Awards. Meanwhile, the Audi/Bentley V8 with cylinder
deactivation has consistently finished in the top four
since 2012.
One to watch for 2015: While were big fans of the
flexible McLaren engine, which has outputs ranging
from 499ps through to 737ps, it does face a massive
fight next year: Mercedes-AMGs 3,982cc biturbo
V8, with upward of 510ps and 650Nm torque, will
be wanting to secure this award; and the same goes
for the 3,855cc Ferrari turbocharged
V8 with 560ps and 755Nm torque
in the California. Watch this space!

ABOVE 4-LITER
The favorites: Er, Ferrari V8 and Ferrari V12!

Winner: Ferrari 4.5-liter V8


Should have done better: Why no love for the LT1 V8
from GM for new Corvette? Okay, so its no Ferrari beater,
but it deserves better than P10. Theres 466ps, people,
and the Vette is genuinely a very good sports car.
Did you know: The 458 V8s victory in this class means
that Ferrari has now won 10 International Engine of the
Year Awards.
One to watch for 2015: Itll be a Ferrari win. Probably
a one-two, again. It might be dull, but both engines
are head and shoulders ahead of the competition in
this class.

One to watch for 2015: Any BMW engine any one


at all! A true upset could, however, come from Ford
Mustangs new four-cylinder EcoBoost motor.

For a full rundown of this years International Engine of the


Year Awards as well as exclusive interviews with all the
winners visit www.ukipme.com/engineoftheyear

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 31

OEM INTERVIEW: FORD

32 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

OEM INTERVIEW: FORD

Downsized

hero T

Having won the International Engine of the Year


Award for an unprecedented third time, many are
heralding Fords 1.0 EcoBoost as the greatest
powertrain ever developed. And while Bob Fascetti,
the man in charge of powertrain engineering at the
Blue Oval, is somewhat more modest, theres no
denying that hes one proud vice president

WORDS: DEAN SLAVNICH

heres a simple saying within the


powertrain community: a very
good engine wins the overall
International Engine of the Year Award;
an exceptional engine will record back-toback wins, something that only three IC developments
have done in the awards rich 16-year history; and no
engine has ever and will ever win the outright title for
three consecutive years thats just lunacy! Well, its time
for the powertrain community to rethink that mantra
after Fords all-conquering 1-liter three-cylinder EcoBoost
did the unthinkable, collecting the grand accolade in 2012,
2013 and now 2014, leading many to proclaim it as one of
the greatest if not the greatest engine ever created.
Not in Robert (he prefers to be called Bob) Fascettis
wildest dreams would he have even considered that
Fords first-ever three-cylinder product would make such
history, but thats exactly what happened in June of this
year. And Fords new global vice president of powertrain
engineering having taken up the post in November last
year cant help but beam with pride as he sips on his
sparkling mineral water in the VIP room at the Stuttgart
Messe, just 30 minutes before hes due to go on stage to
collect the big trophy in front of a packed audience that
includes peers from the likes of BMW, Volkswagen,
Ferrari, Tesla, Audi, PSA Peugeot Citron, MercedesAMG and McLaren Automotive. We thought it would
be impactful and we thought we had the concept correct,
but no, we never thought wed collect three overall
International Engine of the Year Awards. We never
thought that for one moment, particularly because its
never been done and this is our first three-cylinder.
Fascetti admits that the team did know they had a
very good formula for success even during the early
design stages of baby EcoBoost, although rumor has it
that when Fords then head of powertrain engineering,
Barb Samardzich now COO presented the concept to
the board in Detroit for funding and approval, one very
senior exec asked, This isnt going to sound like a sewing
machine, is it?

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 33

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OEM INTERVIEW: FORD

BUGATTI BEATER
Fords tiny EcoBoost unit isnt just
a three-time International Engine
of the Year Award record breaker;
a new highly tuned derivative
of the three-cylinder has also
ensured it is the most powerful
1-liter motor in volume production.
Developed specifically for the
Fiesta Zetec S Red and Black hot
hatch editions, the tweaked triple
develops an astonishing 140ps,
meaning it boasts more powerper-liter than a Bugatti Veyron!
Such output ensures the Fiesta
models sprint from 0-100km/h
in 9 seconds flat before hitting a
top speed of 200km/h (125mph).
Fuel economy is rated at
4.49l/100km (62.8mpg) while
CO 2 emissions are 104g/km.

To realize the increased


performance and addition of
12% more power, the uprated 1.0
EcoBoost powertrain benefits
from a unique calibration with
new settings for turbocharger
boost control, valve-timings,
intercooler and advanced
throttle management.
The engines compact, lowinertia Continental-developed
turbocharger spins at up to
248,000rpm more than
4,000 times per second and
almost twice the maximum rpm
of the turbochargers boosting
todays F1 race car engines. The
blower also delivers 1.6 bar of
boost pressure with peak firing
pressure being 124 bar.

But joking aside, getting the green light for 1.0 EcoBoost
was a decision not taken lightly: In our minds, it was a
courageous step, for sure, says Fascetti, his body language
now slightly less jovial, because until we put the first
EcoBoost out there the 3.5 in the Taurus it was
unknown territory. That first 3.5 EcoBoost motor wasnt
strictly a downsized development either because there
was another 3.5-liter Ford unit on the market in naturally
aspirated form. So, when we did the 1-liter, it was a true
downsized boosted action, and given that we hadnt seen
the success of downsized engines in the truck segment yet,
we definitely had to take a brave pill to go down this road.

Friction is reduced by specially


coated pistons, low tension piston
rings, low friction crank seals
and a cam-belt-in-oil design. A
variable displacement oil pump
tailors lubrication to demand
and optimizes oil pressure for
improved fuel efficiency.
As with the 125ps development,
the 140ps EcoBoost engine
retains a cast iron block along
with an aluminum cylinder
head with an integrated exhaust
manifold that lowers exhaust
temperatures for optimized
fuel-to-air ratio. An innovative
flywheel and front pulley design
delivers improved refinement
compared with traditional threecylinder designs.

1
1. Despite its current success,
development of the 1.0 EcoBoost
required a leap of faith from the
Ford board as up until that point
the company had never launched
a three-cylinder powertrain

When it comes to getting both performance


and fuel consumption, theres really nothing
like a boosted powertrain application
2. The 1-liter EcoBoost in
Fords Fiesta Zetec S Red
and Black editions delivers
140ps more power-perliter than a Bugatti Veyron

On a charge

With the huge success of EcoBoost and the widespread


adoption of forced induction technology by nearly all car
makers, does Fascetti think naturally aspirated IC designs
are deadwood? Its a good question, he reasons, pulling
straight the sleeve of his sharp, black suit jacket. I do
think there will always be some sort of case for naturally
aspirated products, especially where we dont need the
2

performance, like city areas where the


average speed is very low. In those cases,
theres a lot more technology we could put
on a naturally aspirated engine to make it
more efficient. However, saying that, when it
comes to getting both performance and fuel
consumption, theres really nothing like a
boosted powertrain application.
The next generation of EcoBoost engines
includes the 2.7 V6 in F-150 as well as an
array of four-cylinder developments, such as
the 2.3 in Mustang, the 2.0 in Edge and a 1.5
offering ranging from 150ps to 180ps, for
numerous applications starting with the
Focus. And theres more: Its important for us
to continue to advance the technologies that
weve already put in place so that we can meet
the very aggressive targets for 2025 across the
globe, states Fascetti on EcoBoosts next
chapter. What will define our powertrains
of the future will be how we are able to meet
those challenges in that timeframe.
New rivals

1. Caption style

Having been with the car maker for a quarter


of a century, Fascetti is a Ford man through
and through, but perhaps even more so, at his
very core lies pure engine R&D. His various
roles at the Blue Oval include being director
of engine engineering; head of large gasoline
and diesel engineering; chief of V-engine
engineering; the man in charge of truck

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 35

OEM INTERVIEW: FORD

engineering; and chief engineer of automatic


transmissions. Hes more or less seen it all
during his career but, despite this, he says
now is the most exciting time to be in the
powertrain business, with so many different
technologies and fuels on the development
agenda as well as the emergence of new
pioneers like Tesla and Google. Its great
for the industry that we have these other
companies that are into these types of different
technologies because it really makes you think.
It makes you think about your plans and if
your plans are robust enough to cover every
potential direction that the industry could
take. So, for me, the real challenge is how we
adjust our plan because we know that our
plan in some form or another will change.
Sitting only two tables down from Fascetti
and his Ford colleagues at the Stuttgart Messe
VIP room were senior engineering personnel
from Tesla, which scooped the Green Engine
award for its powertrain in the groundbreaking
Model S. The victory marks the first time
an all-electric development has won an
International Engine of the Year Award and,
whatever ones thoughts might be on the EV
movement, theres no denying that Tesla and
its founder Elon Musk have shaken up the
industry. But is it easier for companies like
Tesla and Google, with blank sheets of paper,
to adopt next-generation all-electric engines
than conventional OEMs like Ford?
Do they have an opportunity to start fresh?
Yes, certainly, reasons the Ford VP. But I
would look at it as weve got an unbelievable
amount of resources at our disposal to do
whatever it is that we need to do. Our strategy
is power of choice, so you can get a Focus in
natural aspirated form, or with an EcoBoost
engine, hybrid, plug-in hybrid and all-electric,
and thats all from the same basic platform. Is
that a challenge to do? Of course it is, but we
have the people and resources that can do that.
So, I think the advantages work both ways.
Last year, Ford confirmed it was teaming
up with Daimler and Renault-Nissan to
jointly develop a fuel cell system, including
not only the stack, but also the tank, motor
and battery. Each company will invest
equally into the project with the end goal
being to launch the worlds first affordable
FCEV as early as 2017. But while the JV
represents an important milestone for
Fascetti, he says cars emitting water vapor
at their tailpipe are not necessarily the
endgame for powertrain development:
I think when it comes to predicting the
endgame at this stage, the one thing I can
tell you is that any predication will be wrong.
So, fuel cells are clearly another robust
technology that were into, but again its
hugely expensive at this point, so that
cost/benefit equation continues to evolve.

3
3. A 1.0 EcoBoost rolls
off the production line at
Fords Cologne plant.
Figures for the first half of
2014 state that the engine
is the bestselling turbo
gasoline in Europe, and is
found in one in five Fords
sold on the continent

4. The highly tuned 140ps


1.0 EcoBoost in the Fiesta
Zetec S Red and Black
editions is the most
powerful 1-liter engine
in volume production

Its great for the industry that we have these other


companies that are into these types of different
technologies because it really makes you think

36 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Having traveled from Dearborn to Stuttgart to personally


collect the overall International Engine of the Year Award,
it seems only right that my discussion with Fascetti should
end not on Tesla or fuel cells, but with the record-breaking
1.0 EcoBoost, which in addition to its three outright wins
has collected a grand total of seven trophies in just three
years (New Engine 2012; Sub 1-liter Engine 2012, 2013
and 2014), the same number as GM and Porsche combined
across the last 16 years! With only a few minutes to spare
before Fascetti needs to collect trophies six and seven, an
amusing idea of a three-cylinder Mustang crosses my mind.
Fascettis deep laugh rumbles through the VIP enclosure.
He smoothes his tie and takes one last sip of water: Look,
I love the three-cylinder, but as you go up in displacement,
it becomes more difficult to do, especially with respect to
the torque pulses associated with rotating mass. So, my
guess is you wont be seeing that anytime soon.

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ENGINE COATINGS

Surfacework

38 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

AUTOMOTIVE
C O AT I N G S
With friction reduction high on the R&D
agenda for many OEMs and suppliers,
coatings are more important than ever
WORDS: SAUL WORDSWORTH

orldwide emissions standards for


the automotive industry are becoming
ever stricter and according to European
Commission Directive 93/116/EC, total
CO2 output in Europe must aim to reach
an average of 130g/km for all new passenger cars by 2015,
and 95g/km by 2020. And such tough regulations are not
only applicable in Europe; countries around the globe are
following suit. At the same time, the use of lower viscosity
lubrication oil and other measures for the reduction of fuel
consumption such as stop/start systems, downsizing of
engines and engine components as well as high-pressure
turbo injection technologies are leading to higher loads
and increased wear. As a result, by modifying the surface
of components in the powertrain by reducing friction and
increasing wear resistance, engine coatings look set to
play an increasingly important role in improving fuel
economy, reducing CO2 emissions and meeting those
tough legislative targets.
According to the 2012 study Global energy consumption
due to friction in passenger cars, adequate friction measures
in combustion engines could result in savings of up to
576bn (US$760bn) per annum, states Thomas Behr,
senior manager and head of tribology, group research and
sustainability at Daimler. The authors predicted a
possible annual saving of 290 million tons of CO2 due to
decreased friction in combustion engines by compact,
lightweight constructions and suitable coatings.

Expertise in volume production.


Worldwide.
With more than 25 years experience in vacuum-based coating technology Ionbond is a dependable and innovative partner to the automotive industry.

Supplier expertise

Low friction DLC and wear protection coatings


Application-specific developments
Volume production capacities
Coating centers in Europe, Asia and North America
ISO 9001 and ISO/TS-16949 certified

Behr isnt the only engineer that thinks coatings will play
an increasingly important role in tomorrows IC designs.
Coatings are needed to improve wear resistance and
friction reduction at higher loading densities, higher
temperatures and with lower viscosity oils, says Dave
Contact wiring

Cylinder wall
Coating spray

Atomizing gas
Wire feed

Nanocrystalline
iron
coating

Arc

Ionbonds capabilities also include decorative coatings for


interior and body parts in plastic and metal.
Visit us at Engine Expo 2014, Novi, MI, USA
October 28th - 30th, Hall A, Booth E130

T H E SURFAC E ENGINEERS

Spray wire

Details of the pioneering Nanoslide application process (above) and in action in a lab (left)

info@ionbond.com | www.ionbond.com

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 39

Plasma Coating Technology for Tribological Applications

Increased engine and component life by reduction of friction and wear


Improved fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions
Best performance / cost ratio
Leading technology for automotive mass production
Worldwide presence and customer support

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ENGINE COATINGS
Doerwald, product manager, tribological
coatings at Hauzer Techno Coating, a leading
coating supplier to OEMs. Solutions are
mainly based on carbon coatings combined in
a system with lubricants. The coatings are
already tuned with the lubricant to obtain the
best-performing tribological system. The
carbon coatings are varied by hydrogen
content [hydrogenated coatings such as a-C:H
and/or hydrogen-free coatings such as ta-C],
dopants and other technologies.
To comply with the current industry trend
in higher temperatures and lower oil viscosity,
Hauzer initiated research into diamond-like
carbon (DLC) and ta-C (hydrogen-free DLC)
coatings. DLC coatings were introduced in
the late 1990s, largely as a result of the
increase in high-pressure diesel injection
systems in Europe. Now that pressure levels
are even higher, coatings are required to lessen
wear on moving components and counterpart
sides. DLC coatings, however, are reaching
their limits. The temperature at the top piston
ring can exceed 400C at the contact area with
the cylinder liner; DLC coatings are typically
stable up to 300C. Traditionally, in these
special cases thick CrN (chromium nitride)
coatings are applied. However, CrN solutions
have a higher coefficient of friction, which
means higher fuel consumption and higher
CO2 emissions.
Another trend is the change to lubrication
materials with fewer additives and reduced
viscosity, says Doerwald. This enhances the

Technologies that give wonderful end results but


are too slow in deposition rate and therefore too
expensive will never make it into mass production
Dave Doerwald, product manager, tribological coatings, Hauzer Techno Coating

MIXING IT UP
Different applications require different coatings because of the different
tribological behaviors of systems, and the ability of certain coatings to
cope with these requirements. As an example, bearings are coated with
Cr+WC-C:H, a relatively soft coating with good rolling contact fatigue
performance. Hard and brittle a-C:H coating does not work in these
applications. Another example is the piston ring. At the top end piston
ring temperatures can be very high, reaching over 350C an
environment that a-C:H coatings cannot survive. In such
situations CrN and (more recently) ta-C and other
carbon-based coatings with higher temperature
resistance than a-C:H are considered. The
type of oil also plays an important role.
Take the valvetrain, where ta-C and/
or Si-DLC application can achieve
the lowest coefficients of
friction in combination
with certain engine oils.
Finally, there is always
the issue of performance
and quality versus expense,
and most automotive
engineering heads agree that
performance should be good
against acceptable cost.

The coefficient of friction of uncoated steel, a-C:H and ta-C, dry, in


standard oil and in oil with additives. Source: M Kano and Y Yushuda

need for wear protection. Doped DLC and ta-C can be an


answer to these challenges.
Andr Hieke is global segment manager for automotive
components at Ionbond, another leading international
supplier of coating solutions. Like Hauzer, Ionbond has
been working principally on DLC technology. There are
already a lot of technological solutions to make cars more
fuel efficient, but if you really want to make a difference,
coatings are key because they help so much with friction
losses, he says. The outstanding properties of DLC are
that they combine great hardness with a low friction
coefficient. We dont use them on all components; it
depends on the dimensions. On crankshafts and
camshafts, it makes no sense to apply this coating because
such components are large and would be very expensive if
you had to coat them. Therefore we typically coat only
smaller components. For high-volume applications we
tend to coat piston pins and piston rings.
According to Hieke, Ionbond adjusts its DLC coatings
for load characteristics depending on the customer and
cost. You have to ask the customer what they really
need. Its not just about performance optimization, but
also cost optimization.
The OEMs speak

Jay Boylard is global piston and connecting rod technical


specialist at Ford, and for him, the use of coatings is key
for preventing scuffing and reducing friction as well as
realizing far improved friction characteristics.
For a long time weve used coatings on piston skirts,
he says. Until two or three years ago, everyone had their
own proprietary coating, but since then each of the major
piston suppliers has generated a next generation of
coating. They are targeted at increasing load-carrying
capability [LCC] and wear resistance. By improving these
properties, were able to reduce the contact patch between
the piston skirt and the bore. Now each piston supplier
has a proprietary coating and each is slightly different
but all are designed to decrease wear and increase LCC.
By doing so we are able to run smaller piston skirts, since
the piston skirt has a hydrodynamic contact with the

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 41

ENGINE COATINGS

There are already a lot of technological solutions


to make the car more fuel efficient, but if you really
want to make a difference, coatings are key
because they help so much with friction losses
Andr Hieke, global segment manager for automotive components, Ionbond

cylinder bore and is a heavy-duty friction problem.


Reducing that friction is all about reducing that contact
area. Things are getting hotter, so coatings need to adapt.
And with space at a premium, any reduction in
materials is a huge plus. Ford is currently working on
the pin-to-connecting rod interface.
Traditionally theres a bushing in that interface, a steel
back with some sort of bronze coating on the inside. That
takes space, more than is necessary for the strength of the
pin end of the rod. If we are able to run that joint without
bushing, it can help with space, compression height,
downsizing engines and so on. As for the bronze materials
themselves, the loading were attempting to place in that
joint is getting more difficult for that kind of copper-based
material to handle. To move to a bushing-less joint not
steel-on-steel, but with some kind of coating between
would enable us to carry a greater load.
At Mercedes-Benz, engineers have created the pioneering
Nanoslide technology, an environmentally friendly thermal
spraying process. So-called twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS)
is used to melt mild-steel wires and spray the molten steel
particles onto the cylinder surfaces of the aluminum
crankcase. An atomizing nitrogen gas flow is used to
accelerate the molten particles. The rapid solidification of
the molten particles on the aluminum substrate results in a
very fine-grained nano-crystalline structure with a high
wear resistance, creating an almost mirror-like, smooth
surface with fine pores as oil retention reservoirs, which

42 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

reduce friction and wear between the piston


assembly and the cylinder wall.
Last year, Nanoslide technology was
extended to the V6 gasoline engines in the
new E-Class Mercedes, says Daimlers Behr.
Thanks to this technology, the V6 gasoline
engine which already featured the lowest
friction in this segment reduced CO2
emissions by more than 2% and saved 2.4kg
in weight. Coatings will become more
important but its also necessary to
implement reliable, environmentally friendly
and economical production processes.
Challenges and the future

Mercedes-Benzs Nanoslide
technology uses twin-wire
arc spraying onto roughened
cylinder barrels, resulting in
a fine-grained nanocrystalline structure. In the
new E-Class V6 engine, this
engineering breakthrough
reduced emissions by 2%
and saved 2.4kg in weight

Doerwald at Hauzer agrees with Behr when


it comes to cost factors influencing future
coating technologies: Costs per component
and viability for mass production influence
the possibilities, he explains. Technologies
that give wonderful end results but are too
slow in deposition rate and therefore too
expensive will never make it into mass
production. Also the design of the coating
machine is an important factor. Technologies
can be very expensive, but when the
productivity of a coating machine is very high,
the cost per coating can still be acceptable.
For Hieke at Ionbond, the main issue for
the future will be to make the coatings more
temperature resistant and adjust them to the
needs of customer.
You cannot simply apply a coating on
a component. You always have to take into
account that its a dry combination of coated
component and counterpart, with lubricants
in-between. We are working on higher
temperature applications because DLC
coatings are limited. The industry is looking
for coatings that will survive above 300C,
but still offer a combination of low friction
coefficient and hyper-resistance.
And Fords Boylard envisages further
advances in current technology, rather than
any industry-changing breakthrough. I
predict more of the same but bigger and better,
smoother, harder, better wear resistance, more
LCC, higher temperature capability, he
explains. I dont see a new physics coming
into play. It will be a gradual evolution.

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continuous and aggressive demand for high-performance engine efciency.

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For over 30 years Nemak has specialized in the


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& commitment to customer satisfaction.

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ENGINE EXPO NORTH AMERICA PREVIEW

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Dreaming in
2014
Novi
Engine Expo North America returns to the Suburban Collection
Showplace in Novi, Michigan, on October 28-30, with more
exhibitors than ever before! Here are some of the must-visit
booths and must-see cutting-edge powertrain technologies
WORDS: KARL VADASZFFY

ADVANCED ENGINE SOLUTIONS


ACS Industries
Booth: E134
Engine Expo North America visitors will be
excited to hear that leading Tier 1 supplier
ACS Industries will present its acclaimed
gaskets and wire mesh components,
which have historically been used in hotend and cold-end applications. And with
engines getting smaller and hotter as the IC
downsizing trend gathers pace across the
globe, the company will also demonstrate
how it is adapting its acclaimed solutions to
help OEMs meet new powertrain challenges.
On display on the ACS booth will be a new
high-temperature gasket for gasoline engines.
Typically used in v-clamped connections
downstream of the turbocharger, it offers a
high sealing rate, low pressure to seal, and
operating temperatures of over 800C. It
can be also used in static or dynamic joint
designs. In addition to the new gasket, a new
vibration isolator for heat shields will also be
showcased and this is a must-see innovation
for all visitors!

44 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

LIVE METAL CUTTING


DMG Mori Ellison Technologies
Booth: E124
Automotive suppliers and OEMs looking
for a robust, high-speed, compact mass
production milling solution should
not miss the DMG Mori Ellison
Technologies exhibit at Engine
Expo North America.
Premiering in the booth will be
the i50 horizontal machining center
from DMG Mori. This new machine
was designed with the automotive
supplier in mind, and is engineered
to be highly reliable during
high-volume aluminum cutting
operations. With one of the most
powerful spindles in its class, the
i50 boasts 37/22kW. Critical axis
components are located behind
the spindle and away from chip
and coolant contamination, greatly
reducing costly maintenance issues and
downtime. A steep in-machine cover design
eliminates chip accumulation and minimizes
heat build-up in the work envelope.
The design allows for shorter travel of
overhead loading solutions to decrease
load and unload time. The loading area of
the i50 is configurable to allow for flexible
and custom work piece loading solutions.
A small footprint, coupled with only 24in
of maintenance space required between
machines, creates a floor space-saving
design that is hard to match.
Pay a visit to the DMG Mori Ellison
Technologies booth to see this advanced
machine and learn about the companys
other automotive capabilities.

ENGINE EXPO NORTH AMERICA PREVIEW

MOLDING MATERIAL UNVEILING


Citadel Plastics Engineered Composites
Booth: E204
Leading materials innovation
company, Citadel Plastics
Engineered Composites,
plans to use Engine Expo
North America to further
promote the use of its
bulk-molding compound
(BMC) in sensor housing and
encapsulation applications.
As visitors to North Americas leading powertrain event will discover,
the proven under-hood durability of BMC, as specified for use in such
application areas as injection-molded electronic throttle controls, valve
and timing chain covers, provides a lightweight and cost-effective
solution when compared with metal and thermoplastic replacements.
At the Engine Expo North America, Citadel Plastics will unveil its
groundbreaking BMC 501F encapsulation molding material a soft
flow, thermosetting composite that can be injection- or transfermolded around sensitive electronics, coils and PCBs without
damage to the product. Furthermore, it is resistant to automotive
fluids, is dimensionally and physically stable at temperatures
ranging from -40C to 200C, and provides excellent low waterabsorption properties.

FLOW EXPERTISE
Tristone Flowtech
Booth: E323
Tristone Flowtech, a leader in the design, engineering and
manufacturing of flow technology systems for engine and battery
cooling, air charge and air intake applications, has confirmed its
presence at this years Engine Expo North America event.
The Tier 1 organization, which takes full advantage of having no
fewer than nine strategic manufacturing sites located in nine different
countries, supplies all major car manufacturers with the latest
innovations and products for complete flow technology solutions.
Visitors to the Suburban Collection Showplace in Novi, Michigan,
on October 28-30, are urged to head to the Tristone booth to discover
more about the companys complete engineering solutions with
advanced material, process and product technology in four key
product segments: engine cooling, battery cooling, air charge and air
intake.
In addition to having a highly comprehensive product and system
portfolio, Tristone Flowtech engineers work hard to realize product
and process innovation in order to meet the changing demands of the
automotive environment and representatives from the company will
be on hand at Engine Expo North America to discuss these very latest
technology advances.

NEW RESEARCH PLATFORM

WORLD-FIRST INSULATION DEBUT


Thermamax
Booth: E220
Thermamax will be at Engine Expo North America to unveil the worlds first waterrepellent insulation solution for high-temperature applications in the automotive,
on-highway and off-highway industries.
The Tmax-DryTec uses hydrophobic fiber elements that work to improve the
performance and durability of high-temperature insulation systems. The innovative
technology also aids OEMs in meeting future emissions regulations, while fuel
consumption is also reduced.
The hydrophobic fiber elements repel salt, dirt and dust particles, along with
the water, and prevent deposits from being formed. The fiber stays clean, therefore
increasing durability levels and the optimum degree of insulation.
Comparative salt spray tests (3 x 72 hours) between the hydrophobic Tmax-DryTec
technology and conventional insulation systems have shown that salt deposits were less
than 2.5g/m when using Tmax-DryTec fibers (7mm thick), whereas deposits of 50g/m
crystallized salt were present in the insulating material of the conventional system.
Furthermore, tests determining the level of water ingress to the insulating material have
shown that the Tmax-DryTec fiber absorbs 400 times less water than traditional fibers.

Anderson Consulting
Booth: E104
Anderson Consulting might have one of
the busiest booths at this years Engine
Expo North America after the company
confirmed plans to introduce a new modular
single-cylinder research engine platform
at the show.
Known as the SC-1, the affordable
mechanical architecture is ready for multiple
fuels, and with Otto/diesel combustion, it
has easy sensor access and multiple head
configuration possibilities.
Highly flexible, SC-1 offers automotivesized changeable bore and strokes, cylinder
liners and balance mechanisms. Its possible
to use stock in-line fourcylinder heads and their
cam drives, as well as
custom single heads.
SC-1, says
Anderson
Consulting,
offers 100%
fully balanced
primary and
secondary forces,
while rpm is not
limited by balance
mechanism unlike
balance shaft
solutions. Balance
forces are resolved
through crank rather than
block bearings, resulting in less
friction. In addition, there are no parasitic
losses of ancillaries (and their variances)
affecting brake data, and initial warm-ups
can happen without engine rotation.

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 45

ENGINE EXPO NORTH AMERICA PREVIEW

ADVANCED COATINGS
Hauzer Techno Coating IHI Group
Booth: E312
Visitors to Engine Expo North America looking for the very latest coatings developments
should stop by the Hauzer Techno Coating IHI Group booth where tribological coatings
produced with physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma-assisted chemical vapor
deposition (PACVD) will be on show.
According to Hauzer, these new coatings innovations offer reduced wear and a decreased
coefficient of friction that can lead to considerable fuel savings in engines. Diesel fuel
injection parts, piston rings, gears, journal bearings, piston pins and valvetrain components
are just a few of the numerous applications in which PVD and PACVD coatings can be
applied full scale.
In addition to the PVD and PACVD innovations presented by Hauzer at Engine Expo North
America will be the companys research results, which it has completed in partnership with
the School of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Leeds. As operating temperatures
and loading densities on components are increasing, classical DLC coatings are reaching
the limits of their capabilities, says Hauzer. So, the coatings pioneer has teamed up with
the University of Leeds to carry out research into the possibilities of adding different doping
materials to hydrogen-free and hydrogenated DLC, to comply with the current trends of
increasing temperatures and lower oil viscosity. The results of the study make for very
interesting reading!

CASTING CREATIONS
Grainger & Worrall
Booth: E142
At Engine Expo North America, Grainger &
Worrall, a global leader in engine casting,
will showcase examples of prototypes
developed from a range of materials
that have been produced by rapid-tooled
and tool-less digital processes at the
companys state-of-the-art facilities.
With an industry focus very much
on vehicle light-weighting and engine
downsizing, exhibits from the UK-based
specialist will include examples of thinwalled, complex engine blocks, cylinder
heads and turbocharger units.

ENGINE BLOCK BONANZA

BRILLIANT BONDING
Plasmatreat
Booth: E120
At the Suburban Collection Showplace on October 28-30,
Plasmatreat North America will present a new, technologically
advanced method of ensuring the permanent bond of RT V
silicone to a contaminated aluminum surface.
At the Plasmatreat booth, visitors to Engine Expo North
America will get the opportunity to see cleaning of a
contaminated aluminum surface down to the molecular level;
stabilization and densification of the aluminum oxide layer;
increase of functional groups on the oxide layer that form bond
sites for the RT V; covalent molecular bonding of the RT V to the
aluminum oxide layer; and full cohesive failure of the RT V to
the aluminum after curing.

46 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Martinrea Honsel
Booth: E148
For visitors coming to Engine Expo North
America in search of a new range of
optimal high-strength engine blocks,
as well as recent advancements in the
field of innovative cylinder bore deposit
technology, be sure to stop by the
Martinrea Honsel booth,
where advanced
solutions will be on
display and ready
for inspection!
By continuous
improvements
in high- and
low-pressure
casting
technologies
for engine
blocks, Martinrea
Honsel has set
new standards with
regard to material and
surface quality. The companys highstrength engine blocks offer excellent
mechanical properties, and lower weight
and emissions, while increasing engine
torque and power density.
Furthermore, with the innovative MRH
Plasma Single Wire Arc (PSWA) solution,
Martinrea Honsel has further developed its
cylinder bore deposit process. The thinsprayed steel layer has a mirror surface
with up to 6% porosity, providing excellent
friction properties, high wear resistance,
and a high insensitivity to aggressive fuels.

ADVANCED ACTUATOR
Sonceboz
Booth: E122
In an effort to
further reduce CO 2
emissions, car and
truck manufacturers
are increasingly
looking to active
air grille shutters
that improve the
aerodynamic
profile of a vehicle. At the core of these shutter systems is an
intelligent actuator thats responsible for processing a signal from
the engine control module and then moving the shutter vanes to the
optimal position, which is dependent on the vehicle speed and/or
powertrain cooling needs.
Soncebozs latest addition to its family of active grille shutter
actuators, the 5877 slim BLDC, will feature at Engine Expo North
America and it offers best-in-class power density in a lightweight
package while optimizing power consumption.
The new 5877 slim actuator offers a peak output torque of
2.5Nm, which is ideal for controlling shutter vanes at high vehicle
speeds and braking through potential ice and mud blockages even
on large shutter systems, such as those used on trucks.
At 37mm wide, the actuator is easy to package in even the
tightest front-end module designs.

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rapid information about
the latest technologies
and services featured
in this issue
VACUUM BREAKTHROUGH
Godfrey & Wing
Booth: E136
Godfrey & Wing has confirmed plans to showcase some of the most
advanced vacuum impregnation equipment in the world at Engine
Expo North America. The HVLV is a lean, front-loading system
that makes use of patented continuous flow impregnation (CFi) and
dry vacuum and pressure (DVP) technology to enable it to process
up to 15 cycles per hour. Whats more, HVLV is the first system
to make in-house vacuum impregnation feasible in advanced
manufacturing environments.
Capable of processing over 70,000 cycles per year, HVLV is a
leading solution for sealing complex, delicate parts that must pass
rigorous pressure test requirements. And as visitors to Engine Expo
North America will find out, the systems compact design enables
manufacturers to locate their impregnation solution directly in or
near their manufacturing cells.

www.ukipme.com/info/etm

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RAPID REVOLUTION
Synergeering Group
Booth: E138
Synergeering Group will showcase its acclaimed
RapidNylon prototype parts at this years leading
North American powertrain fair. Unlike other rapid
parts, RapidNylon components are functional, and
mimic production injection molded parts more than
ever before. These parts, says the company, enable
designers and engineers to prove concepts much
sooner in the development process so that changes
can be made earlier on, therefore resulting in time and
cost savings.
Parts capabilities include being heat tolerant up to
138C; impervious to fuels, oils and brake fluid; being
airtight; and able to withstand up to 140psi.
Synergeering has been supporting many OEMs
with fully functional under-the-hood components,
including oil pans, fuel tanks and coolant caps, and
staff members will be at Engine Expo North America
to demonstrate the companys advanced air intake
manifolds that run for days on a testing dyno and
can even withstand backfires.

OPEN TECHNOLOGY FORUM


Running throughout the three days of Engine Expo North America is the Open
Technology Forum that features leading powertrain engineers and engine
development heads from around the world and thats from the OEM and
supplier sectors. This years presentations promise to cover a wide scope of
powertrain issues and engineering subject areas. For a full program on who is
speaking about what, visit: www.engine-expo.com/usa/

CASTING PROTOTYPE PRODUCTION

ADVANCES IN INJECTION MOLDING


Techpol
Booth: E106
Visitors coming to the Suburban Collection Showplace
in Novi, Michigan, on October 28-30, searching out
the latest innovations in injection molding, should
look no further than the Techpol booth. Besides
being able to design complex parts, the Italian
supplier also offers a mold-designing capability
that enables it to monitor every step of the processing
of a customer order, cutting downtime and increasing
effectiveness.
Techpol specializes in working with several kinds
of material, including PPA, PPS, PBT, PA6.6, PA6,
PEEK and POM. On display at the Techpol booth will
be an array of injection-molding parts, including chain
covers, buffle plates, oil pipes, tension rails, filters and
blow-by valves.

48 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

ACTech
Booth: E226
ACTech, a leader in the design and production of casting prototypes, will
present its state-of-the-art rapid prototyping processes, which, combined with
CNC pattern making and CNC machining, provide for extremely fast production
of prototypes that, from
the very first casting,
are comparable to
series production. As
Engine Expo North
America visitors will
find out, ACTech has
the extensive in-house
capability to provide all
design and production
processes necessary for
the speedy production
of a complete casting
prototype. From the
3D data set, AC Tech
completes castings that
are ready to be installed
and tested.

SURFACE SOLUTIONS
HEF
Booth: E218
HEF has developed a family of surface
engineering technologies that provide an
optimum combination of wear, friction
and corrosion reduction for improving the
performance of powertrain components,
such as piston pins, valves and tappets.
Visitors to the HEF booth at Engine
Expo North America will find these highly
innovative solutions at the forefront of
the companys display, including Arcor
Liquid Nitriding treatments and CERTESS
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NOW!

September 2014

Plastic
surgery

Pioneering new research could change the face


of self-regenerating technology and impact engine
component development like no other breakthrough

DETROIT DOWNSIZING

TALK TORQUE

The sixth-generation Ford Mustang has


a new turbocharged four-cylinder engine
but this is no ordinary four pot

Fords new head of powertrain


engineering, Bob Fascetti, on
what the propulsion future holds

www.enginetechnologyinternational.com

Visit www.ukipme.com/info/etm to
request exclusive and rapid information
about the latest technologies and
services featured in this issue

www.ukipme.com/info/etm

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AND THE
WINNER IS...
Who won what at this
years International Engine
of the Year Awards?
Plus, the powertrains
to look out for
next year!

SUPPLIER INTERVIEW

Plastic

progress
To help OEMs achieve two of their main goals to improve
fuel economy and reduce CO2 emissions one company has
the solution in a range of aromatic materials and fluoropolymers
WORDS: KARL VADASZFFY

s a leading global supplier of high-performance


polymers, Solvay Specialty Polymers is used to
demanding under-hood automotive applications.
The main driver for our products is
high-performance-type applications needing
excellent chemical resistance, thermal performance and,
in some cases, barrier performance against hydrocarbons,
explains Brian Baleno, global automotive business manager.
Polyphthalamides (PPA) outperform standard
polyamides due to their higher strength and stiffness at
elevated temperatures, better retention of properties in
humid environments, and greater resistance to a broader
range of chemicals. Therefore, Solvay offers Amodel PPA for
technologies concerned with downsizing and lightweighting.
Already able to withstand temperatures of 185C, the
Amodel PPA range was recently expanded with the
introduction of high heat (HH) grades that can extend the
service life of components used in high-temperature air
induction applications, such as air cooler housings,
resonators and components for exhaust gas recirculation.
Where temperatures are increasing as the components
around the engine and the engine itself are downsized,
additional technology is required to maintain the same
level of engine performance, explains Baleno. These
technologies, including turbocharging or direct injection,
drive up temperatures in the engine compartment.
The polymers used in these components must retain
their mechanical property performance at temperatures
beyond 210C for long durations (in excess of 3,000 hours).
With the highest strength and stiffness of any
thermoplastic available up to 275C, Torlon polyamide-imide
(PAI) has outstanding resistance to wear, creep and
chemicals. Solvay also offers KetaSpire polyetheretherketone
3

As the components around the engine


and the engine itself are downsized,
additional technology is required to maintain
the same level of engine performance
1

Fueling progress

1. Solvays Brian Baleno


believes that material
advancements are
necessary to maintain
performance in downsized
engine environments
2. Tecnoflon is used in
the manufacture of O-rings
3. Amodel PPA is used in
charge air cooler systems

50 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

(PEEK), a chemically resistant plastic offering excellent


strength, superior fatigue resistance and a continuous-use
temperature of 240C.
Fuel economy in the downsized environment can also be
improved through the use of direct-injection technology
for fuel. Here, the main challenges for polymers are the
operating pressure (260 bar for gasoline and 2,000 bar for
diesel), chemical compatibility with fuels (CE10, CM15,
B30), low-temperature performance (-40C), and sealing
(compression set retention at 200C). To overcome these,
Solvay offers Tecnoflon VPLs. It provides an excellent seal,
which improves performance by assisting with a better
combustion mix, therefore fuel consumption is less, Baleno
states. Users have reported 15% fuel economy savings.
The need for high-performance lubricants is also evolving
with downsizing and electrification. As temperatures start
to exceed 200C, perfluoropolyethers (PFPE) are needed
for various types of bearings. Electrification also requires
PFPE-based lubricants, where the challenge is to maintain
electrical properties while preventing corrosion.
Fomblin PFPE provides temperature performance over
a broad range (-100C to 290C), combined with chemical
resistance and dielectric strength. Its also compatible with
metals, plastics and elastomers.
With the metal-to-plastic conversions that Solvays
products offer comes a means of improving overall fuel
economy. The challenge is to achieve both cost and weight
savings, factoring in that a one-to-one conversion from
metal to plastic is not feasible, says Baleno. The design
process is an iterative one in which CAE is required using
FEA and flow analysis to optimize the design, ensuring
a part can be produced at attractive economics while still
delivering the required performance characteristics.

REGENERATIVE MATERIALS

he industry is often reminded about the advantages


that plastics can offer for automotive development and
specifically powertrain innovation. Supporters of the
technology are only too happy to remind OEMs,
suppliers and developers that plastics are lighter than
most metals and offer the added benefit of allowing seamless
parts integration. Yet the challenge, as those in the steel and
aluminum camp often say, has always been to develop
engineering-grade materials that can stand up to long-term
exposure to heat, chemicals and pressures three factors that
are only going to increase in importance as IC engines get
smaller and hotter.
Since the 1980s, the industry has been aggressively adopting
plastics in place of metal, and today high-performance polymers
are now proven within the powertrain as well as the whole
vehicle. These new plastics facilitate weight reduction that saves
energy, minimizes brake and tire wear and, perhaps most
welcome of all for car makers, cuts emissions. Reducing a cars
weight by 50kg cuts 5g of CO2 per kilometer and increases fuel
economy by up to 2%, or so the equation goes.
Replacing metal components with lighter plastics offers a
positive change in how systems are designed and produced,
points out Jeff Sternberg, DuPont director for global automotive
technology. This is possible in part due to the properties of the
products available, many of which are remarkably durable in
the high-heat, harsh-chemical environments found in
underhood applications that used to be exclusively made with
metal. In addition to reduced vehicle weight, performance
polymers offer more design and tooling flexibility and also
provide an extended tool life and reduced total system costs.

On the

mend

Now boasting self-regeneration capabilities, is


plastic about to land the knockout blow to all
other materials, including steel and aluminum?
WORDS: SAUL WORDSWORTH

52 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

REGENERATIVE MATERIALS

Self-healing plastic material that


can repair complex shapes such as
holes is close to being developed.
Scientists say the impact of such
technology will be great across
many different industries, including
automotive and specifically
powertrain design

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 53

REGENERATIVE MATERIALS

So, a typical injection-molded polymer part


will have a tool life of over one million units,
while die-cast aluminum and magnesium
parts typically have a much shorter tool life
of about 70,000 to 100,000 units.
Today, the use of high-performance
heat-resistant plastics in the engine is
commonplace in areas such as oil pans
and oil systems, air ducts and air induction
systems, turbocharger components, cylinder
head and sealed engine covers, as well as seals
and gaskets. This is all good news for plastic
supporters such as Sternberg, but what
happens if these light, sometimes-hard-toreach components become damaged? And,
as an add-on to this vital question, what if
a system were developed that mimicked
human blood, with liquid forming a scab
over the damaged area to repair the broken
component? It might sound like something
from tomorrows world, but in reality
researchers in the field of plastic technology
have set their sights and are closing in on
developing a self-regenerating material. And
theres no denying that such a creation could
be revolutionary for the automotive industry.

There remains great potential in


the use of self-regenerating plastics
throughout the automobile, not
least within the engine environment
Ryan Gergely, lead scientist, University of Illinois

Healing problems

When I left university 25 years ago, selfhealing plastics were already being written
about in publications, says Jippe van Ruiten,
R&T automotive manager for DSM
Engineering Plastics. The self-healing
concept is nothing new. The challenge has
always been to give them the same properties
as non-healing plastics.
In 2001, research at the University of
Illinois produced revolutionary microcapsules
hard polymer shells that contained a
healing fluid. The microcapsules were mixed
into the polymer along with a catalyst. The
polymer was then cured into a hard material
and cracked. The crack would rupture the
microcapsules, releasing the healing fluid,
which in this case was the liquid monomer
dicyclopentadiene. The fluid would then flow
into the crack and interact with the catalyst
to form a hard polymer, effectively healing
the crack.
As time progressed, this solution found
some minor applications in the automotive
industry but was not seen as a final
engineering solution by OEMs and suppliers,
simply because this type of self-healing
plastic would struggle to mend most kinds of
damage, in particular any kind of bullet hole
shape. In such a scenario, the materials used
would simply fall or bleed out under gravity.
And until recently thats more or less where
things stood.
Then, earlier this year, pioneering new
research was revealed that could change the
face of regenerative technology and perhaps

54 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

REGENERATIVE MATERIALS

in time, engine component development too.


Funded by a grant from the US Air Force
Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the
University of Illinois has devised a system
that can mend larger holes and truly
regenerate the material that has been lost.

True self-regeneration

Historically, when youre looking at selfhealing products youre talking about


mending small cracks or minor damage in
existing material, explains Ryan Gergely, a
lead scientist on the Illinois project. What if
there is a hole? Then you have to generate that
material system from the ground up. Weve
essentially mimicked the blood clotting
formation you see in humans and other
biological systems. The fluids dont bleed out
of the hole but are retained in place on top
until it completely seals up.
To address the issue of gravity, the solution
works on a gelation system, with the gel being
able to remain in place and not bleed out. The
research team has been able to isolate into
very stable channel networks the chemical
components for two separate reactions to
occur simultaneously. When damage occurs,
the two fluid streams come together and start
to mix, entering the hole and folding in on
themselves to fill the gap. Gelation occurs
immediately and the gel hardens over time,
turning into a structural polymer.
One critical feature the team demonstrated
was the ability to tune the kinetics of these
reactions independently in other words, to
speed up or slow down the gelation reaction.
The same is true with the hardening reaction
that recovers the structural materials. This
capacity to essentially tune the kinetics
means that different types of damage can be
addressed. For example, following an impact,
there might be a central hole, but there may
also be tiny cracks that emanate from the
hole. If you have a material system that gels
almost immediately you have no way of
pushing the fluid into that fine network of
surrounding cracks. Regeneration is the first
step toward what the team regard as the
ultimate goal a material system that
continually regenerates itself.

THE NEXT BEST THING


3

1. Two isolated fluid streams (here dyed red


and blue) are delivered to a damaged area

The closest technology to a self-healing material


currently regularly employed within the automotive
industry would be better termed as a self-protecting
solution. DSM Engineering Plastics has developed
such a product under the name Diablo and has grades
in Akulon PA6 and Stanyl PA46. It is a patented
technology that is licensed as well as copied by a
number of materials suppliers, which, says DSMs
van Ruiten, is the best compliment you can get. On
exposure to hot air (up to 230C) a protective skin forms
that prevents further oxidative damage of the part. The
loss in part strength due to exposure is minimal, even
after several thousands of hours. Typical applications for
these materials are found in the air intake tract between
the turbo and the intercooler; injection moldable and
blow moldable grades are also both available.

2. The two materials quickly gel and act


as a scaffold for further fluid deposition
3. The gel transitions to a rigid material
that then restores structural properties

One of the key benefits to self-healing materials is


extended life and the ability to repair damage that would
normally cause catastrophic failure, adds Gergely. In
particular, damage in fiber-reinforced polymers is difficult
to detect. Self-healing technology can be used to repair
damage before it grows into something catastrophic,
thereby enabling inspection frequencies to be extended.
Existing materials lack this ability and must be replaced.
Furthermore, if materials are made self-healing, it can
lead to a reduction in total part weight, since with
traditional materials it is necessary to design to tolerate
damage, whereas self-healing could repair such damage
and restore lost function.
Deployment areas

Replacing metal components with lighter


plastics offers a positive change in how
systems are designed and produced
Jeff Sternberg, director for global automotive technology, DuPont

Gergely and his colleagues see several areas where


self-healing polymers could quickly be incorporated in
the automotive arena with relative ease. Paints could be
replaced with materials that can self-repair scratches;
glass could be made self-healing to repair cracks; and
bumpers, body panels and structural elements could
be replaced with self-healing fiber-reinforced plastics.
Within the driveshaft, fiber-reinforced polymer
composites are already used, so transition to a selfhealing analog could be done more readily. The shaft
is subjected to variable loading and could experience

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 55

REGENERATIVE MATERIALS

Regenerative materials
have the potential to
alter the way in which
engines are designed
and manufactured

Progress has been made but I remain


unconvinced by self-healing plastics
in engines and transmissions
Jippe van Ruiten, R&T automotive manager, DSM Engineering Plastics

fatigue damage and the thinking here is that a


self-healing function has the potential to extend the
life of such a critical subsystem.
While self-healing will be extremely useful for
on-the-spot recovery of critical function, in cases where
the function is less critical, self-healing materials may not
be needed and a traditional replacement would be more
cost-effective, adds Gergely. Similarly, the benefit of
making the part self-healing must be weighed against its
cost. However there remains great potential in the use of
self-regenerating plastics throughout the automobile, not
least within the engine environment.
The other view

Unlike many within the industry who believe it is too


soon to discuss such a developmental technology, DSMs
van Ruiten is one of the few engineers prepared to be
drawn on the subject of self-regenerating plastics. His
view is that they continue to be too vulnerable.
Progress has been made but I remain unconvinced by
self-healing plastics in engines and transmissions for
several reasons, he says. The load cases of engine and
transmission parts is well-understood, or at least better
defined, when it comes to the load ranges you see. If you
have sufficient engineering capability, you should be able
to put a load case for the parts you want to design within
the duty cycle of the engine and transmission. The route
DSM has taken is to focus on ever-improving property
combinations of the materials we have. The presence of
self-repair technology takes up space that cannot be
occupied by material that is intended to deliver the
required strength from the start. Thus the technology
gives you a greater challenge in bringing superior
properties per weight by volume. The challenge is to give

56 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Some skeptics within the


automotive industry believe
the focus of plastic should
remain on increasing initial
component strength, rather
than self-healing materials

self-healing plastics the same properties as


their non-self-healing counterparts.
Metals therefore remain the go-to material
for mechanical loading in IC engines, and
most experts agree that this will continue to
be the case in the future. The challenge with
all polymers, not just the self-healing variety,
is their time and temperature sensitivity. In
order to implement self-healing polymers,
these hurdles must be addressed in all
polymers in general.
And while the reconstituted plastic from
the Illinois research project shows a 63%
return of strength following damage, this may
not yet be enough for full commercial
implementation within an engine environment.
But it is progress in what is still only the very
beginning of what could, in time, become a
self-regeneration revolution. Applications
within the aerospace or military arena could
come first, however, with the potential for
damaged fuel tanks that are able to repair
themselves in just minutes. In fact, the
technology could be applied to everything
from cell phones to space travel.
As Mark Miodownik, professor of
materials and society at University College
London, has observed, technology is moving
toward the self-healing of just about
everything. Work is even being done on
self-healing concrete, and perhaps in time
bridges, aircraft and tunnels will all be able
to heal themselves in some form. Research in
the area of self-healing metals, similar to the
vascular systems in polymers, is also ongoing
at several academic institutions.
We anticipate self-healing technologies
emerging in the market within the next five
years, predicts Gergely. The technology
closest to commercialization is self-healing
coatings and paints, which will be readily
applied to automotive uses. The implementation
of vascular systems in general for fiberreinforced composites is very close to
commercialization, and applications for
cooling will likely be the first to come on line.
Vascular self-healing systems will still require
fundamental advances, as well as translation
to specific applications that we are addressing
in our lab. In comparison with biological
systems, the technology is simplistic, so
we are really only just beginning to
understand how to translate biological
concepts into synthetic systems.
Just as human bones continually
reconstitute, so it is possible that we
are moving toward a world where all
engineering structures down to the seals
deep within an automotive engine will
continually regenerate throughout
their life, perhaps even extending
that life beyond what was
previously thought possible.

Untitled-1 1

27/08/2014 10:48

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Rapid prototyping
Predictive calculation of speed, elevation and tractive power for connected
powertrains is providing scope for the optimization of vehicle functions
Terms such as vehicle-to-x
and connected powertrain
services are currently on the minds
of most decision makers in the
automotive, as well as the heavyduty, industry. The basic question
how navigation data, internet- and
infrastructure-information can be
utilized in order to optimize, for
example, fuel efficiency and electric
driving range, and how this
information can provide additional
services to customers and drivers
is keeping the strategic
departments of OEMs busy.
The biggest issue relates to this
fields interdisciplinary nature. It is
difficult and cost-intensive to test
new connected functionalities as,
by their nature, these require the
involvement of a cross-section of
departments and suppliers. For this
reason, AVL has developed a rapid
prototyping platform for connected
powertrain services which runs on
a conventional 7in tablet PC with
appropriate data gateway to the
vehicles CANbus. The software
package, upgrade-E, enables the
predictive calculation of the speed,
elevation and tractive power
requirements of an unknown driving
route. The development platform
exclusively accesses freely available

data formats such as Open Street


Map (OSM) and Shuttle Radar
Topography Mission (SRTM) altitude
profiles in order to be independent
of a supplier. The predicted driving
route provides a plethora of
optimization possibilities for vehicle
and powertrain functions.

Implementing independent data


into simulations of powertrain
requirements allows engineers to
identify optimization possibilities

A comparison
of measured
tractive power
and SOC of the
real speed profile/
elevation profile,
with simulated
results for the
predicted speed/
elevation profile

The idea of using driving route


prediction to optimize fuel
consumption by adjusting the
calibration of a powertrain and
designing new predictive functions
is well established. These predictive
approaches appear quite attractive,
particularly for electrified
powertrains with more than one
traction source, as they offer a
substantial increase in fuel efficiency
by adjusting the operating strategy
of the combustion engine and the
e-motor to match the respective
driving task.
Predictive approaches can also
be used to improve conventional
powertrain concepts. Using
predictive information for controlling
the emission aftertreatment systems
of a conventional truck, especially
the diesel particulate filter (DPF),
for example, offers a significant
potential for increasing fuel
economy. From time to time, the

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 59

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

A functional
overview of the
SW module
velocity profile
generator (VPG)

SW architecture of
the AVL upgrade-E

DPF requires an active regeneration,


which removes the particulates from
the filter, at the cost of fuel. By
informing the DPF function when
a full-load situation is likely to occur
within the next 100km, the system
performance can be optimized over
the expected duty cycles.
Furthermore, the calculation
of the traction power over the
expected driving profile can be
utilized for the electric range
display of an EV or PHEV. Surveys
on electromobility show that an
inadequate range is cited as the
biggest disadvantage of electric
vehicles. Apart from an increase in
range, the precise representation
of the remaining range is one of
the possibilities to reduce rangeanxiety and increase acceptance
by the customer.
The principals for calculating
tractive power are clearly defined by
physics. The energy consumption
of (electrified) vehicles is mainly
affected by the vehicle speed profile

(calculation of the main road load


factors) and the elevation profile
(calculation of the road gradient
effect on road load). How can these
two profiles now be acquired by
navigation data?
The map data in navigation
systems is stored in the form of
nodes and ways. Nodes are defined
by latitude and longitude and
represent route points where a
change of direction occurs or could
occur. The nodes themselves are
connected by ways that contain
information pertaining to the
distance between the nodes and
the road class (country road,
highway and so on). In order to be
able to derive the most realistic
speed profile possible from the map
data, the available average speed
data for each way is connected in
a speed-distance diagram. Taking
driver characteristics (such as
sporty, comfortable, for example)
into account, the acceleration and
stationary times can subsequently

60 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

be considered and the speed-overdistance profile can be transferred


to a speed over time profile.
The resulting velocity profile
needs to be modified and enhanced
with up-to-date information
concerning the traffic situation
and traffic flow. Commercial traffic
situation service providers evaluate
the GPS signals of active navigation
devices and determine the speed of
traffic flow on the roads. Since the
initial speed profile was generated
via distance, the velocity profile
generator can include the additional
information from the traffic flow
service, which is available as v(s),
into the speed profile.
For calculating the elevation
profile, freely available data from the
SRTM is processed into an altitude
over distance characteristic.
Finally, the power requirements
of auxiliary components have to be
considered. The predictive energy
management system predicts these
requirements by using current data,

read via CAN, concerning the


auxiliary components (windscreen
wipers, lights, air-conditioning
compressor, for example), the
external temperature and the
desired internal temperature.
For calculating the tractive power
requirements for the calculated
profiles (velocity over time, altitude
over distance, or electric power over
time), the powertrain and onboard
electrical system architecture of the
respective vehicle is modeled in
1D simulation tool Cruise, which is
compiled for the tablet PCs ARM
processor, Snapdragon.
Powertrain simulation tool Cruise
contains calculation components for
the main road load components, the
onboard load, all inertias and loss
mechanisms (friction, component
losses, warm-up behavior, for
example). Simultaneously, Cruise
permits a comfortable and modular
adaptation of any arbitrary
powertrain architecture and
possible component variants.
In trials to test the functions, AVLs
Coup-e 800 electric vehicle was
used. The results acquired proof
of a remarkable similarity between
real-world measurement data and
the predicted route, as well as the
power profile/SOC characteristics.
Within the scope of currently
intensive but unstructured
discussions surrounding the
vehicle-to-x/connected powertrain
topic, the precise prediction of
elevation, speed and tractive power
requirements provide an interesting
possibility to implement potential
energy savings.
Cruise enables the simulation
model to be adapted to different
powertrain concepts and permits
onboard calculation of tractive
power requirements for passenger
cars and commercial vehicles, with
reasonable calculation speed.
Implemented on a tablet PC with
navigation system, altitude data and
CAN Gateway, upgrade-E realizes
a unique and cost-efficient rapid
prototyping platform for connected
powertrain services.
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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Triple turbocharging

Increased pressure to downsize diesel engines, without compromising performance,


can be addressed by the integration of a high-tech three-turbocharger system

In the drive to satisfy


escalating demand for
increased fuel economy and more
powerful performance, BorgWarner
has engineered a regulated
three-turbocharger system (R3S),
which consists of two small
high-pressure VTG turbochargers
integrated with one larger,
low-pressure turbocharger.
Developed in close collaboration
with BMW, the R3S combines
the benefits of two-stage
turbocharging for a high specific
power output, and parallel
sequential turbocharging for
maximum driveability. The
system is expected to become
a mainstream technology.
With the introduction of twostage turbocharging for passenger
car diesel engines in 2004,
BorgWarner was able to develop
a turbocharging system that
significantly enhanced diesel engine
power density. Todays turbo diesel
engines achieve a rated power of up
to 170kW in the 2-liter four-cylinder
engine and 230kW in the 3-liter
six-cylinder engine, which has been
in series production since 2009
equipped with a R2S (regulated
two-stage) system.
The major objectives for
downsized diesel engines with the
new R3S turbocharging system are
to match the range of power output,
torque and comfort provided by an
engine with more displacement or a
higher number of cylinders, while
equaling the lower fuel consumption
and power-to-weight ratio typical for
existing diesel engines. The new
R3S turbocharging system uses
one large turbocharger in the
low-pressure stage, and two
turbochargers running in parallel in
the high-pressure stage. The intake
air enters the low-pressure stage

compressor. Optionally, the


compressor of the low-pressure
stage can be bypassed as the
intake air is only throttled and not
pre-compressed in this operating
mode. To reduce the charge air
temperature, the intake air passes
through an intercooler integrated
into the low-pressure stage
compressor housing and is
subsequently, depending on the
operating mode, compressed

BorgWarners R3S system increases


power density while improving fuel
economy and reducing emissions
for downsized diesel engines

further in one or both of the


high-pressure compressor stages.
After cooling in the main intercooler,
the charge air is fed into the
combustion chamber via the intake
system. On the exhaust side, at low
speeds and loads, the gas only
flows through one of the highpressure stage turbines. This
ensures spontaneous charge air
pressure build-up and excellent
dynamic response characteristics.

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 63

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

The R3S system uses one


large turbocharger in the
low-pressure stage, and two
(running in parallel) in the
high-pressure stage, in a bid
to match the range of power
output offered by larger
displacement engines

At medium engine speed, there is


enough exhaust gas mass flow to
provide significant boost pressure
in the larger low-pressure stage
compressor in addition to the
high-pressure stage. And at high
exhaust gas throughput rates, a
parallel route passing via the
exhaust gas control flap is opened
to reduce the exhaust gas
backpressure. Subsequently, the
exhaust gas is further relaxed in the
low-pressure stage before it enters
the exhaust aftertreatment system
located close to the engine. To
optimize charge air pressure
control, the wastegate on the
low-pressure stage turbine is
activated in the switchover range
from two to three turbochargers
and in the rated power range.
Applying an R3S to diesel
engines requires some
modifications to the engine. A
new injection system for increased
injection mass, and a new cylinder
head for increased cylinder
pressure, are just two of the
alterations required. On the
turbocharger side, some very
important improvements and
developments have to be
considered when implementing
R3S. The control systems are very
important for providing maximum

performance. For this reason, a


new regulation valve with maximum
sealing behavior is used. For
improved transient behavior,
turbochargers with variable turbine
geometry (VTG) technology are
used in the high-pressure stage.
As one VTG turbocharger in the
high-pressure stage does not
rotate permanently, a special
sealing system is introduced.
Another critical aspect is the
compressor outlet temperature.
A high compressor outlet
temperature may lead to coking of
blow-by gases in the compressor
volute. To reduce the temperature
downstream of the low-pressure
stage turbocharger, a compressor
with water-cooling is used. In
addition, a charge air cooler is
required between the compressor
of the low-pressure stage and that
of the high-pressure stage.
Unlike the R2S system, in which
only the low-pressure stage
turbocharger is used at high engine
speeds, there are always two
turbochargers running in series in
the R3S system, even at the rated
power. The permanent series mode
is required to achieve the targeted
specific power with the chosen
downsizing grade. For high specific
power outputs, an extreme boost

64 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

pressure and pressure ratio are


needed. However, a high-pressure
ratio also leads to a high
compressor outlet temperature.
Oil, which is typically in the fresh
air mass flow due to engine and
turbocharger blow-by, tends to
coke at high temperatures. The
coking layer in the compressor
leads to a reduced power output.
To cope with the high boost
pressures, a cooling system has to
be integrated into the low-pressure
stage compressor housing to
reduce the compressor outlet
temperature and ultimately to
prevent the coking of oil in the
compressor volute and the charge
air cooler. A combination of cooling
in the back wall and cooling in the
contour area even increases the
cooling effects and leads to the
lowest possible compressor outlet
temperature. Water-cooled
compressor housings were
developed and first-to-market
in some diesel R2S applications.
Due to the good results achieved
by lowering the compressor outlet
temperature, this technology was
adapted to the R3S system at the
same time. Compressor cooling is
possible at a standard engine
coolant temperature. The reduction
of the compressor outlet

temperature can be significantly


improved via a lower coolant
temperature. However, much lower
coolant temperatures will require a
second water circuit. The integration
of a water-cooled compressor
housing and an interstage cooler
into the compressor housing was
first-to-market in a BorgWarner
application designed to meet
extreme package restrictions.
BorgWarner developed the R3S
system for ultimate downsizing to
achieve a maximum level of specific
power and a maximum transient
response with large improvements
for fuel consumption. The first R3S
turbocharger technology debuted in
the M performance diesel engine
from BMW. The 3-liter engine has a
maximum output of 280kW and a
maximum torque of 740Nm.
Compared with the 3-liter diesel
engine equipped by an R2S system,
the 3-liter diesel engine with
BorgWarners R3S technology
increases power output by nearly
25% and improves fuel economy
by 18%, while meeting Euro 6
emissions standards.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about BorgWarner, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 502

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Collision detection
Accurate collision data is vital in powertrain and vehicle packaging design. A cross-platform
process can speed up development, protect intellectual property and reduce translation errors
In todays fast-paced product
design environment, it is
essential to ensure that changes
made now are not going to have a
cascading effect on downstream
designs. One way to ensure this is
through an iterative collision
detection and packaging process.
The ability to detect physical
collision points throughout design
iterations can also be used to check
the CAD models for positional
accuracy as well as design intent.
After all, the CAD modeling is not
part of the true engineering
process; the intent of the model is
where the engineering happens. By
ruling out the intentionally modeled
collisions (for example, fasteners,
O-rings) after the first iteration, the
collision-detection processes can
be optimized to present only
collisions between components
that have changed or moved.
When the design of a part is
revised, it is critical to determine
if the fit, form or function has
changed. It would be nearly
impossible for a human interactive
process to detect all the
components that have moved or
changed, nor is it feasible in the
case of a supplier providing models.
Additionally, even if an alteration
were detected, it is impossible to
convey exactly what changed
during the revision. By using a
data-based collision detection
system, the revision can be
automatically checked for a
collision. For example, if a spark

plug supplier changed from an M12


to an M14, this would automatically
be flagged, alerting the engineer to
check that area of the block.
As the design phase progresses,
the collaboration between the
powertrain design teams and vehicle
packaging becomes critical. This is
exaggerated when sharing an
engine across vehicle platforms.
With variants of a single engine
platform occasionally exceeding
50 configurations, performing a
clash analysis is a cumbersome and
computationally taxing activity. By
generating an engine envelope
within the enterprise-level system,
each variant can have a simplified
model that can be passed to the
vehicle packaging groups. This
makes the downstream process less
cumbersome and greatly reduces
the risk of the intellectual property
and design intent leaving the
responsible groups. By completing
these tasks in background
processes, the design and
engineering teams are not burdened
with CAD manipulation, which is
streamlined to the backend IT group.
As joint ventures and
collaboration between powertrain
groups become more prevalent,
the ability to check designs for
packaging clashes, and the need
for rapid feedback, will increase.
This task is complicated when the
two companies are designing on
different platforms and coordinate
systems, for example, explains
CoreTechnologie account executive

An optimized representation of collision points can be refined to ignore intentional


contacts within a vehicle model, streamlining the design process considerably

66 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

A depiction of a
specific collision
between an
oversized bolt and
a clearance hole.
Such data is vital to
design engineers

Kevin OKeefe.
By using a common
database structure
based on tessellation
of the models, the
need to exchange
mathematically defined CAD
is eliminated and the risk of
accidentally releasing IP is
reduced. Software package
3D Evolution uses proprietary
translation algorithms to transform
the mechanical CAD into a highly
compressed lightweight
representation that can easily
be viewed by non-CAD users.
Is there special intelligence in
the algorithm to determine the
neighborhood relationships as soon
as possible among the parts?
Absolutely, says Armin Brning,
CEO of CoreTechnologie, alluding to
the use of voxels for extracting the
flanking components. The term
voxel a portmanteau of volumetric
and pixel names a data point of a
3D raster graphic, and refers to a
pixel in a 2D image. As with the
pixel, the voxel position is typically
not explicitly stored, but implicitly
derived from its position in relation
to other voxels. This is pure integer
information, which results in a very
light data format, says Brning.
CoreTechnologie has developed
functionality to decrease decision
time, helping to generate a change
path as swiftly as possible. When a
collision is detected, images of the
collision zone are generated. These
images are presented to the user,
allowing them to drag-and-drop the
part into the graphic window for 3D

navigation of the assembly. This


functionality means the engineer
can take section cuts, add
annotations, or mark up the collision
for downstream repairs. If the
collision is deemed to be not
relevant in the case of flexible
hoses, for example the user can
declare the instance irrelevant and
the next iteration of detection will
ignore this area. This iterative
process provides a framework for
comprehensive documentation
highlighting particular collisions.
While most CAD companies offer
forms of collision detection, it is
extremely beneficial to be able to
detect collisions between different
CAD file formats. For example, if the
OEM and Tier 1 suppliers are
working in different systems, not
only will being able to perform a
clash analysis on the parts in their
native form streamline the process,
but it will also alleviate the errorprone translation process.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about CoreTechnologie
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 503

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Commitment to quality - Search for excellence in the continuous improvement of its processes.
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WHB.indd 1

28/08/2014 10:01

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Tribological research
Multifunctional research machines are paving the way for studies into
new coating materials, which could supplant conventional DLC coatings
For several years, Hauzer
Techno Coating and the
University of Leeds have
cooperated in the field of tribological
research, with excellent results for
the automotive industry.
The University of Leeds, and
more specifically the School of
Mechanical Engineering, owns a
multifunctional Hauzer Flexicoat
850 with physical vapor deposition
(PVD) and plasma assisted
chemical vapor deposition (PACVD)
coating technology. The machine is
also equipped with technologies
such as unbalanced magnetron
sputtering (UBM), high-power
impulse magnetron sputtering
(HIPIMS) and microwave, and has
recently been upgraded with the
new arc evaporation technology,
CARC+. Combinations of these
technologies can be used within a
single batch to create multilayers
without breaking the vacuum or to
make multicomposite coatings.
With a machine like this, we
will not produce coatings that
have been done before, explains
Anne Neville, chair in emerging
technologies and director of the
University of Leeds Institute of
Functional Surfaces. We can, and
will, be innovative. Our international
reputation is built on our many
years of experience in the field of
tribology and corrosion research.
We produce a lot of diamond-like
carbon (DLC) coatings, with varying
dopants, hydrogen levels and
reactive gases. We treat the
coating and the lubricant as a
system and our work is mainly
application based. With our CARC +
upgrade we can take the research
on CrN and SiN coatings a step
further. At this moment we have
more ideas than time for this
exciting new technology.
Within the automotive industry
the spotlight is on light alloys, such

as titanium, aluminum and


magnesium. Therefore we also
research a lot of hybrid treatments
and oxides on light alloys. The new
CARC+ upgrade will certainly be
used for some next-level research in
this field. The emission legislation
within the automotive industry is
pushing us forward, but luckily the
technologies with which to produce
functional surfaces are also much
stronger than 20 years ago. In the
past year we have carried out a lot
of research on doped DLC and ta-C
coatings. Our conclusion is that
doping of coatings shows good
potential for engine components.
Geert-Jan Fransen, Hauzers
product manager for tribological
coatings, adds, Operating
temperatures and loading densities
on automotive engine components
are getting higher and higher.
The classic DLC coatings are
reaching the limits of their
possibilities, because the limit of
their stability up to 300C, whereas
temperatures of 400C are no
exception now. Traditionally, CrN
coatings are used as an alternative,
but their higher coefficient of
friction makes them undesirable
because of the higher fuel
consumption and more CO2
emissions. Another trend is the
change to lubrication materials with
fewer additives and reduced
viscosity, which enhances the need
for wear protection.
In order to comply with these
current industry trends of rising
temperatures and lower viscosity
oils, Hauzer and the University of
Leeds did research into doping
of DLC and ta-C coatings with
different kinds of elements. Overall,
by adding doping elements,
especially tungsten, the friction
and wear performance can be
positively influenced. It has been
a privilege for us to work with the

68 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Hauzer machinery at the University of Leeds has been vital to the improvement of
DLC coatings, seen here on piston pins, piston rings, tappets and injection needles

University of Leeds on this project,


because it gives us substantial
data to base further developments
on. It closes the gap between
research and real application,
which is, of course, the phase that
our customers are interested in.
The doped coatings are ready for
sampling now.
Neville concludes, For us there
is great advantage in working with

an industrial coating technology


expert. It enables us to do research
that is easy to scale up, and we
can make a real impact in the
automotive market.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Hauzer Techno
Coating, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 504

www.stresstechgroup.com

Grinding and heat


treatment quality control
by Barkhausen noise
Applicable for camshafts, crankshafts,
gears, bearings, rollers, sprockets,
U-joints and many other powertrain
components, large or small.
Providing instruments and
inspection systems
from manual off-line to fully automatic
in-line measurements.
Barkhausen noise meters and sensors
Inspection stands
Data acquisition software ViewScan
30 years experience

ViewScan polar plots

Engine_Technology_2014_final.indd 1

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2014-08-05 10:41:43 AM

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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Performance actuators

As emissions restrictions continue to demand improvements in engine efficiency, actuators


used in advanced valve-manipulation strategies must be compact, reliable and accurate

xxxxxx

The stringent 95g/km CO2


emissions limit demands
maximum engine efficiency, from
the air intake to the exhaust pipe.
Tightening emissions limits have
triggered intensive research to
achieve and refine the best possible
control of air, oil and fluid circuits.
Optimal engine efficiency depends
on precise management of air
volume, velocity and timing to fill the
cylinders to perfection. This cant be
achieved without ultra-fine control of
the engines valvetrain. Overlap
reduction, late intake closing, and
various valve-manipulation
strategies for scavenging are all in
the engineers toolbox to devise the
right engine control strategy.
The overall target is the
optimization of thermodynamic
efficiency under all load and
temperature conditions, thus

providing optimal engine


performance and the lowest
emission levels. Variable valve
timing (VVT), used in over 80% of
the spark-ignition engines that
satisfy the Euro 6 Stage 2 exhaust
emission standard, can cut CO2
emissions by 2%. And variable valve
lift (VVL) offers a CO2 reduction of
2-3%. With forced induction, a
combination of VVL and VVT can
slash CO2 by up to 10%. Other new
technologies, such as variable
compression ratio (VCR) can reduce
CO2 by 4%, and the total reduction
in combination with VVL can be as
much as 12%.
The optimization implemented
to achieve such a reduction is
contingent on the enormous
durability Sonceboz builds into each
actuator to guarantee this optimal
performance over the long run. For

Figure 1: A selection of products from


the Sonceboz BLDC motor family for
VVL or VVT applications, including,
from left, the VVT4 (5612 series),
the Camphaser (flat design) and the
multistage VVL actuator system

example, Sonceboz supplies small,


dependable, strong direct drive
BLDC VVT3 (5642 series) actuators
to BMW and PSA for its EU5 e-VVL
systems. The new, more stringent
CO2 reduction targets and EU6
emission regulations are driving an
engine-downsizing trend. Cylinder
count optimization with regard to
performance is a prominent
challenge as EU6 looms, and the
trend is clear. For example, threecylinder engines have replaced
several four-cylinder engines.
A VVL system can provide two
or three discrete lift stages, or a
continuously variable valve lift, and
permits more efficient regulation of
compression and combustion
chamber temperature, which
translates directly to reduced CO2
and exhaust emissions. The intake
valve stroke, timing and duration

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 71

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

are adjusted dynamically and


precisely to match the power
demand. Additional benefits include
improved engine response and
better low-rpm torque and power.
The equipped engines better
manners are particularly noticeable
in start/stop traffic and when the
engine is idling.
Whether continuously variable or
discrete-staged, the variable valve
actuation task calls for Sonceboz
electric actuators to quickly,
accurately and dependably attain
the best position according to the
engine fire event and load. No
matter what VV system
configuration is chosen, the
actuators must be extremely
compact and reliably positionally
accurate. Solutions must be simple,
compact, reliable and cost effective
for easy application in existing
engine designs without calling for
expensive major retooling. And the
brutal operating conditions in the
engine very high ambient
temperatures and vibration levels
mean Sonceboz brushless DC
(BLDC) motors offer decisive
advantages in that they are
particularly compact, fast and
robust. Exclusive Sonceboz
technology satisfies manufacturers
most demanding requirements with
high flexibility while fitting into tightly
constrained packaging spaces.
The Sonceboz stator-rotor
design principles, shown in Figure
3, can be used for flat or stacked
designs in a wide array of different
electrical actuators. This directdrive BLDC technology is ideal for
realizing VVT and VVL. In each
case, the performance of the
actuators is matched to the
requirements, offering a closely
tailored balance of parameters such
as speed from 6,000rpm to
9,000rpm, dynamic response,
positional accuracy, and torque

Figure 2:
Soncebozs
Camphaser and VVT4
mounted on a cylinder head

Figure 3: The Sonceboz


BLDC direct-drive modular
stator-rotor technology is ideal
for realizing VVT and VVL

from 0.8Nm to 1.4Nm. Driveshaft


position is monitored by an integral
position sensor.
Of course, emissions limits and
tight packaging space arent the
only confining factors in system
design; cost constraints demand a
smart modular design with shared
components across multiple engine
platforms. Key components should
also be as versatile as possible in
packaging and performance. With
that in mind, Sonceboz has been
reviewing its VVT3 design to bring
out a smaller, stronger direct-drive
BLDC motor called VVT4 (5612
series), shown in Figure 1. These
motors boast up to 40% higher
performance while reducing mass
by 20%, all without sacrificing
Soncebozs recognized quality and
dependability. The new smaller,
stronger motors enable BMW the
end customer in this example to
leverage this increased functionality
in its new B family of engines.
What will the future bring beyond
EU6.2 legislation? This is still an
open question. We know from the

72 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

European Commission that Real


Drive Emission (RDE) will be
introduced in 2017-18, and that the
NEDC homologation cycle will
remain in force until 2021. However,
realizing a 95g/km CO2 emission
average by 2021 will be a steep
challenge. This can be achieved
with intelligent, multistage VVL
systems with selective cylinder
deactivation to reduce pumping

losses. Whatever the future holds in


terms of engine technology,
Soncebozs expertise will continue,
as it does today, supporting and
enabling the success of its
customers and partners.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Sonceboz, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 505

Cost efficient and precise external grinding


with Posalux Grind Line
- Compact machine design for grinding high
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- Customized equipment design
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- Latest grinding process technologies
- Modularity including handling systems

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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Stainless steel tube lines


Next-generation GDI engines demand higher fuel pressures for performance combustion.
High-pressure capable, lightweight stainless steel tube lines can provide the solution
In recent years, the principle
of GDI has become an
increasingly attractive option for
car makers looking to manufacture
more compact engines that
produce lower emissions, while at
the same time delivering the right
amount of sustained power.
At the same time, these car
makers need to create an engine
that will still be affordable and
suitable for mass production.
Examples of this new wave of ultraefficient GDI engines include Fords
Ecoboost, GMs Ecotec and
Hyundais Theta Engines.
The green agenda continues to
dominate, which is the main reason
car makers are looking for better
ways to achieve clean power from
smaller combustion engines. While
there is a huge effort going into the
development of electric and hybrid
vehicles, refining the technology to
a point where it will be truly viable
for the majority is still a number of
years away. In the meantime,
improving the performance of

the combustion engine will


continue to be a priority.
This drive to deliver lower
emissions is being dictated by
tougher regulations in Europe, as
well as in the USA and China. In
particular, China has recently
specified GDI as one of the
powertrain technologies of the
future. It is estimated that China has
more than 500,000 GDI-powered
vehicles currently on the road.
To this end, the Chinese
government has stated its intention
to accelerate the development of
direct injection fuel systems. By
2015, China estimates that 30-40%
of new production cars will use
GDI systems to reduce fuel
consumption. Engine sizes, often
smaller than 2-liter or 1.6-liter, are
now all being equipped with this
new, ultra-light technology
Use of stainless steel tube lines
for the fuel lines is an important part
of the construction of these more
compact, lower weight, lowemission engines and there are a

Stainless steel tube lines play an


important role in the design of
compact, light, low-emission engines

74 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

number of key elements the car


maker will seek from the product
and material of choice.
Stainless steel tube needs to
offer superior performance and
safe operation, and be strong and
lightweight, while delivering highpressure capability. This is achieved
through thinner, yet tougher walled
tubes. Resistance to corrosion is
vitally important the use of a
material that delivers this, as well
as one that is optimized for
machinability with consistent
quality, is what the car maker
is ultimately seeking.
The goal is to achieve an ultralean burn within the combustion
chamber through stratified fuel
charges. Gasoline is highly
pressurized and injected via a
common rail, resulting in increased
fuel efficiency. However, the material
within the entire fuel system needs
to be able to handle higher
pressures as well, not to mention
more corrosive blends due to the
increasing use of ethanol in the mix.

Stainless steel tube is one such


material. An example of this material
is available from Sandvik, which has
tube available in two grades:
Pressurfect, which has been
developed for GDI fuel rails and fuel
lines; and Pressurfect XP, which is
a duplex tube for GDI fuel rails.
These materials are optimized
for safe and reliable operation,
machinability and, in the case of fuel
lines, are easier to bend, weld and
shape. The material has also been
optimized for drilling, turning and
other types of machining required
to insert the GDI injector ports and
other fuel rail features.
Selecting the right material to
meet requirements needs careful
consideration. Working with the
manufacturer at the outset of the
process will pay dividends in terms
of delivering the best solution.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Sandvik, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 506

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November 24 26, 2014
Pullman Aachen Quellenhof, Germany

Topics
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NVH Measurement, Analysis, Measurement Technology
Acoustics of Engine, Driveline
Numerical Methods, Simulation, Virtual Reality
Acoustics of Alternative Drives
www.aachen-acoustics-colloquium.com
www.aachener-akustik-kolloquium.de

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Advanced lubrication

Growing efficiency demands on engine lubricants require more than just lowering viscosity.
Examining additive chemistry can help vehicles and equipment meet challenging future targets
There are many forces within
the automotive industry that
drive the need for improved
lubricant performance. The
regulatory landscape, environmental
issues, global emerging markets
and customer demands are shaping
automotive design and engineering.
To meet these requirements, all
those involved in engine and vehicle
design must work together to
further efficiency gains.
The industry has seen the
development of smaller, more
powerful engines with complex and
responsive transmissions systems
that deliver improved fuel economy
and reduced emissions. Lower
viscosity fluids have played a major
role in these improvements.
The benefits reach beyond the
passenger car market; there is a
similar success story in commercial
vehicles. Heavy-duty OEMs are
increasingly specifying high-quality,
lower viscosity lubricants and fleets
are adopting them, says Jim
Puckace, marketing director at
Lubrizol. This is not only due to
environmental concerns, but also
because there are financial benefits
to fleet operators, who are often
operating in a fiercely competitive
industry where small improvements
in operational efficiency can have a
huge impact on the bottom line.
The demands of delivering
efficiency have changed attitudes
to product development. Simply
reducing the viscosity of lubricants
reducing pumping losses to improve
fuel economy is insufficient to
protect more powerful engines while
meeting increasingly strict fuel
economy regulations.
Engine testing run on the WHTC
(World Harmonized Transient Cycle)
demonstrated that, at a given low
viscosity, heavy-duty engines can
see an additional gain of 1% fuel
economy with different lubricant

A comparison of
conventional and
SAAS proprietary
engineered layers

formulations, notes Keith Corkwell,


regional business manager for
heavy-duty diesel engine additives
at Lubrizol. In addition, when low
viscosity formulations operate in
boundary wear conditions, surface
analysis shows formation of thick
protective additive layers.
The outcome of these tests has
presented an opportunity to look
at additive chemistry at the surface
to understand how lubricant
formulations work with new
hardware, in an approach Lubrizol is
pioneering with surface activated
additive systems (SAAS).
Delivering the required
performance is not simply a case of
lower lubricant viscosity. It is about
designing specific additives to
manage the engine surfaces while
working in a formulation that
addresses multiple other issues
and doing this in a low viscosity
fluid to deliver fuel economy and
protection, explains Dave Duncan,
engine oil global technology
manager at Lubrizol.

76 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

SAAS demonstrates that


proprietary combinations of
additives create multilayered
composite protective surfaces that
are built precisely in contact zones.
The resulting durable layers resist
wear and constantly rebuild
themselves. Lubrizol has actively
shown that SAAS performs in the
real world, too these novel additive
systems give real-world efficiency
without compromising durability in
low-viscosity applications.
Repeatability and relevant realworld testing makes demonstrating
fuel economy a challenge. Lubrizol
has invested in the development of
new tests that enable precise
measurements of efficiency under
controlled conditions and are
derived from real-world driving.
Testing development has expanded
beyond engine tests to include
driveline and industrial evaluations
of efficiency.
Greg Huss, driveline global
business manager at Lubrizol,
describes the new testing

capabilities: Lubrizol developed a


test stand capable of reproducing
the severity of grade axle testing.
In these tests, not only did SAAS
formulation deliver improved
efficiency, but also reduced
operating temperatures which
directly improve the durability of
the axles.
The investment in new efficiency
and durability testing to evaluate
lubricant performance has
increased R&D spending by 10%
since 2010. During that period,
Lubrizol has added 67 new test rigs,
developed 44 new chemicals and
launched 750 products.
The understanding of how
lubricants protect at the surface
through real-world testing and
SAAS are helping enable vehicles
and equipment meet future fuel
economy targets.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Lubrizol, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 507

For business processes,


there is ERP

HELLER
For design processes,
there is PLM

Automotive Competence

For validation processes,


is there anything?
There is a PVM way...
Product Validation Management

VALIDATION PROCESS
MANAGEMENT

TEST DATA
MANAGEMENT

PVM way
TEST AUTOMATION
& CONTROLS
TEST BED
ENGINEERING

Integrate flexible turnkey test


solutions and IT infrastructure to
support complete validation process
that lays the foundation for
Model based Development (MBD)

Know more about iASYS at www.iasys.co.in


Know more about PVMsys product at www.pvmsys.com

Size: 250 X 90mm

As an insider, HELLER is familiar with the


complete production and supply process in the
automotive industry. Our Automotive Master
Competence enables us to offer innovative,
comprehensive production solutions for the
machining of automotive components.
Now, HELLER completes the process chain of
machining lightweight aluminium crankcases
with the CylinderBoreCoating process _
an innovative, practical technology
for coating cylinder bore surfaces.
Find out about it at Engine Expo
2013 Booth E208, October 22-24
Novi, Michigan.
www.heller.biz

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Surface engineering

Engineering the surfaces of automotive components can deliver superior wear


and corrosion protection while lowering friction forces to improve overall efficiency
Stringent fuel efficiency
and carbon emission
standards, coupled with demanding
performance requirements, have
positioned surface technologies
in a pivotal role for improving the
durability of powertrain components
and overall vehicle fuel efficiency.
Durability enhancements include
improved wear, fatigue, scuffing
and corrosion resistance. On the
other hand, efficiency is largely a
function of reduced friction between
contacting surfaces. HEF offers
technology options for delivering
enhanced performance for both
these aspects, solving tribology
issues arising from complex wear
and contact modes encountered
by todays mechanically intricate
automotive components.
Arcor Controlled Liquid Ionic
Nitriding (CLIN) is a thermo-chemical
nitriding treatment in which nitrogen
is diffused into the surface of ferrous
materials, by immersing the
components in a 580630C
molten bath composed of nitrogenrich chemicals. This treatment yields
a 10-40 iron-nitride compound
layer with a hardness of 800
1,400HV kg/mm2; 2-10 times greater
wear-resistance than the original
material; and greatly enhanced
corrosion, galling and scuffing
resistance. Beneath the compound
layer is the nitrogen diffusion zone,
which enhances fatigue strength
by 20-100%. CLIN also provides
excellent corrosion resistance,
along with improved wear
resistance. Up to 1,000 hours of
salt spray resistance is possible
with the right selection of a hybrid
nitriding-oxidation treatment and
post-nitriding impregnation of the
surface oxide layer.
These characteristics make
CLIN an ideal option for improving
the wear, scuffing, corrosion and
fatigue resistance of components

Surface engineering can represent a cost-effective performance enhancement


for powertrain components, reducing friction forces and improving efficiency

such as engine valves, differential,


transmission and steering
components. Compared with
chrome/nickel plating, CLIN
delivers higher corrosion resistance,
no issues related to flaking or
microcracking of the plating,
and much better environmental
compatibility. Compared with
gas/plasma nitriding, CLIN offers
excellent corrosion resistance;
better batch-to-batch and part-topart uniformity of the compound
layer; minimal distortion; and
high throughput rate. Specific
nitriding chemistries and process
parameters have been developed
by HEF for treating general-purpose
automotive steels, cast irons,
stainless steels and others. The
CLIN process is also customizable
to the specific performance
requirements expected from the

78 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

treated components including


enhanced surface lubricant
retention capabilities and superior
corrosion resistance, while still
maintaining good fatigue- and wearresistance behavior.
In recent years, there has been
an increased demand for surface
engineering solutions that combine
high surface hardness and an ultralow friction coefficient. With this
objective in mind, the Certess
family of diamond-like, carbonbased PVD coatings from HEF has
been developed to withstand the
internal operating environment of
todays high-performance engines.
These 2-4 coatings have a unique
combination of properties: an ultralow friction coefficient (Dry: 0.100.15); high load bearing capacity;
and micro-hardness of up to
3,200HV kg/mm2.

These DLC coatings are


deposited at temperatures less
than 180C ensuring no physical
distortion and core hardness loss
of the component. To withstand the
tribological conditions encountered
by engine components, HEFs family
of DLC coatings use under-layers
of different base materials, such as
Cr, CrN, WCC with a top layer of
hydrogenated amorphous carbon.
DLC coating properties, such
as hardness, friction coefficient,
adhesion, load-carrying capacity
and so on, depend upon the
deposition parameters/technology
and the structure/morphology of
the coating.
HEFs family of DLC coatings is
widely used across a broad range
of automotive components piston
pins, piston rings, valve tappets
and rocker arm components, fuel
injector components and others.
DLC coatings solve a diverse range
of issues with these components,
including friction reduction,
extension of the hydrodynamic
domain, improved scuffing
resistance and replacement of
non-ferrous rolling elements with
DLC-coated steel elements.
These surface engineering
technologies, coupled with HEFs
high productivity PVD & CLIN
equipment, pre- and post-coat
surface finishing expertise,
automated systems to monitor
and control component and coating
quality, and operational capability
to robotically handle high volumes
of automotive parts, have positioned
HEFs surface engineering
technologies as a cost-effective
performance enhancement option
for powertrain components.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about HEF USA, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 508

Premium Solutions provider of high


quality, high precision and highly
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Value-added One-stop-shop Solutions
Concurrent design, rapid prototype development,
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Leveraging on highly-engineered products
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Contact: sales@improusa.com +1 630-538-6410

Automobile and Engine Technology

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More than 40 international technical presentations showcasing latest
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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Plasma treatment

Using plasma to treat metal substrates before the application of RTV silicone
gaskets enhances the bonding process, and can reduce the likelihood of oil leaks
There are few things as
satisfying as finally having
that new, beautiful, interlocking
driveway completed in front of
your home.
At first, you admire it every
time you step out of the house.
Gradually, your attention to it fades
until one day you cant help but
notice a brand-new, prominent
black stain on the stone. You bend
down over the stain and run your
fingers over it, slowly rub them
together and then sniff them. You
hope youre wrong, but youre not.
Its motor oil.
Your next thought is almost
certainly unprintable. But then,
after you calm down, you start to
wonder whose car is responsible
and if youll ever be able to get
the stain out.
Although Plasmatreat North
America cant help you with the
stain removal, the company is
doing its part to make sure you
never find yourself in this situation
in the first place.
Oil leaks are one of the leading
causes of warranty repairs for
automobile manufacturers.
Recently, changes from hard
gaskets to quicker (and cheaper)
form-in-place extruded room
temperature vulcanized (RTV)
silicone gaskets have provided
some new challenges for
automotive manufacturers.
If the housing onto which the
silicone is being extruded is not
perfectly clean, the gasket will
not adhere properly, creating the
potential for oil leaks. Current
cleaning methods are usually
limited to hand wiping with various
chemicals in an attempt to remove
the contaminants from the surface,
a method that rarely results in
a perfectly clean surface. The
end result? An oily stain on your
gorgeous new driveway.

Openair plasma treats the metal


substrate prior to the application
of RTV silicone gaskets, thus
reducing the likelihood of oil leaks

A new, more reliable process is


now available through Plasmatreat
North America. The process,
developed over five years of
experimentation and numerous
tests, uses Openair plasma to treat
the metal substrate just prior to
applying the RTV.
This method is quickly becoming
an industry standard, as it provides
repeatable, perfectly clean bond

80 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

surfaces using safe, environmentally


friendly technology.
Besides getting the metal
substrate meticulously clean and
ready for optimal adhesion, Openair
plasma has the added advantage of
stabilizing and modifying the oxide
layer on the metal. This enhances
the bond strength of the RTV to the
substrate, something no chemical
wipe can achieve.

The RTV gasket now creates


a stable covalent bond to the
substrate, resulting in a bond so
strong that the RTV will actually tear
before the bond itself fails, leaving
a portion of it stuck to each side
of the substrates. This is defined
as full cohesive failure.
In applications where there is
sufficient cycle time to allow two
passes over the substrate, the
Openair plasma jet can be mounted
to the RTV dispensing robot,
extended to the substrate surface
during plasma treatment, and
retracted during the RTV dispense
cycle. This configuration ensures
that the exact same path is
traversed for both treatment and
dispense. If the cycle time does
not allow two passes, then
a separate station can be used
to treat the substrate before
dispensing the RTV.
A number of automotive engine
manufacturers have recently made
this process a best practice and
have included Openair plasma
treatment as a requirement on all
engine builds. Good news for you
and your new driveway.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Plasmatreat
North America Inc, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 509

AN ENGINE TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL PUBLICATION

SEPTEMBER 2014

Balance of

power
As the auto industry embraces the
EV movement, what does the future
hold for transmission pioneers?

SHOCK AND AWE


Developing a DCT for the most
powerful Ferrari ever was a major
technical challenge for engineers

ALIVE AND SHIFTING

HOME TRUTHS

The games far from over for manuals


and automatics, says Peugeot Citrons
powertrain chief, Christian Chapelle

Fords head of transmissions, Chuck


Gray, on why its crucial to retain R&D
and production expertise in the USA

www.enginetechnologyinternational.com

Transmission Technology International is the worlds


only publication dedicated to the design, development and
manufacture of automotive transmission and drivetrain
systems. Published annually and sent directly to over
12,000 key powertrain engineers and decision-makers
throughout the global OE automotive industry, with
additional distribution at many of the industrys leading
transmission-related events, Transmission Technology
International comprises a unique mix of news, features and
interviews, together with product and company profiles.

www.ukipme.com/info/tr

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Advanced parts machining


Investment in highly advanced machining technology, new facilities and the
development of staff expertise are vital to growth in the automotive parts sector
One of the leading parts
suppliers for the automotive
industry, WHB Brazil is
headquartered in Curitiba, in the
southern region of Brazil. The
company has established a
reputation for entrepreneurship,
continuous investment in
technology and automation,
and having talented staff.
Producing parts using techniques
such as precision machining,
forging, and iron and aluminum
casting, WHB emphasizes quality,
productivity and technological
innovation, earning the respect
of its customers. As a result, the
company has come to be regarded
as a leader in the machining of highprecision components.
The history of WHB began in
1993, when the WHB Machining
unit was established. Today, the
business unit has more than 700
cutting-edge CNC machining
centers. With 20 years of history,
the company has demonstrated
it is prepared to fulfill and exceed
market demands by developing
innovative, creative and specialized
solutions for its customers.
The growth of the company
is a result of investment in highly
technical machines and equipment
for example, the WHB Iron
Foundry unit acquired two

Investing in technology and automation


is key to WHB Brazils business model

WHBs headquarters in Curitiba,


in the southern region of Brazil

82 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Disamatic 240C vertical molding


lines and one fully automated
Kunkel Wagner horizontal molding
line. With an annual capacity
of 250,000 metric tons, this
department is set up to produce
intricate castings, such as engine
blocks, with wall thicknesses
measuring less than 3.5mm. The
use of high-resistance cast iron
alloys also allows for weight
reduction in the products.
The WHB Forging unit invested in
an innovative automated line with a
unique double-forging capability.
This business unit has the capacity
to produce over 10 million parts per
year. Current production includes
parts such as connecting rods,
wheel hubs and axle ends. The
forging unit is also capable of

expanding the product range


according to market demand,
demonstrating WHB Brazils
commitment to the market and
to the future.
A greenfield expansion in 2012
signified the beginning of operations
for WHB Pernambuco a new
factory located in the city of
Gloria do Goit, in the state of
Pernambuco. The plant has fully
automated lines dedicated to the
machining of crankshafts, cylinder
heads and connecting rods. In the
same year, WHB established the
Aluminum Foundry unit, a modern
department with high-pressure
die-casting machines (capable of
performing applications requiring
1,600 and 3,000 metric tons of
clamping force), and gravity pouring.
This department is intended to
become one of the most
competitive aluminum foundries
in the world focusing on the
production of highly complex parts
such as engine blocks, transmission
housings and cylinder heads.
Aiming for global excellence in its
market segments, WHB Brazil faces
the challenges of an extremely
competitive market by utilizing solid
technical know-how, continuously
investing in automation and modern
equipment, by focusing on quality
research and technology, and
through continuous improvement
of processes and people.
The company believes in the
evolution of the global automotive
market and is prepared to offer
strategic partnerships to
customers, increasing production
capacity, developing new
technologies and maintaining
the credibility of its brand.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about WHB Brazil,
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 510

Low Friction Chain

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ADVERTISERS NOW!
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technologies and services featured in this issue

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PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Lead-free bearings

An optimized production process enables the removal of lead from heavy-duty application
bearings, and can improve the overall fatigue life while lessening environmental impact

The use of lead in bearings


poses an array of health
and safety issues. Lead is also
a contaminant that inhibits the
recycling of other metals. Until
recently virtually all modern threelayer engine and transmission
bearings (consisting of a steel back,
softer metal substrate and sliding
layer) had a high proportion of lead
in the substrate and sliding layer.
Growing restrictions from
legislators on the use of lead in
passenger cars and light
commercial vehicles led FederalMogul to anticipate the industrys
move toward more environmentally
friendly bearing products for those
applications. Now the company
has introduced lead-free bearing
materials for engines in the heavyduty sector.
Lead is an extremely effective
material for the brutal operating
conditions encountered in
automotive and commercial
engines. To replace lead as an
alloying element in sliding bearings,
Federal-Mogul scientists had to
develop materials with quite
different tribological and physical
mechanisms. Moreover, these
materials needed to be effective in
a variety of operating environments
(gasoline and diesel engines),
applications (main and connecting
rod bearings) and under a broad
range of load cycles (speed,
temperature, force relationship).
As a result, manufacturing lead-free
bearings required re-optimization
of the complete production process
chain, including production of the
semi-finished material, shaping and
mechanical surface processing.
Federal-Moguls approach to
these challenges was unique,
according to Joachim Hring,
the companys European manager
of application engineering for

Federal-Mogul provides a comprehensive range of lead-free bearings. These products have a reduced impact on the
environment, without compromising on the effectiveness of the component in demanding, heavy-duty engine applications

bearings. By considering the


substrate and the sliding layers,
we identified an array of
complementary material
combinations that enabled us
to provide a complete range of
solutions for the entire global engine
and transmission market, he
explains. Concentrating only on the
sliding layers would have produced
less capable solutions suitable only
for specific applications.
More than 100 copper-based
materials with various chemical
compositions and microstructures
(cast and sintered) were
characterized by their physical,
mechanical and tribological
properties. The optimum
combination was identified as a
copper/nickel alloy substrate, cast
onto a steel backing, with a range
of five alternative sliding layers to
suit particular applications.
The creation of such a variety
of material solutions was made
possible by having the required
manufacturing and process

84 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

technologies in-house to develop


and manufacture the new
products. For example, cast, sinter
and roll-bond processes were used
to produce the lead-free strip
material, and electroplating,
physical vapor disposition (PVD)
and spray coatings played a key
role in applying the sliding layers.
Each of these coating technologies
has individual characteristics that
offer the optimum solution for a
specific application.
Introducing lead-free bearings
into the heavy-duty sector brought
additional challenges. Vehicle
lifetime mileages are much higher,
reaching up to 1.5 million kilometers,
requiring greater wear resistance
and improved durability. The crucial
design step that made lead-free
formulations realistic for heavy-duty
applications was to individually
optimize the materials for the upper
and lower halves of a bearing pair.
Compared with a high-revving,
light-duty engine, in which large
inertia loads act both upward and

downward, the loads in a heavyduty diesel are dominated by the


firing event, so act predominantly
downward through the connecting
rod. This creates the greatest loads
in the lower halves of the main
bearings and the upper halves of
the big ends. By selecting a coated
bearing material with high fatigue
resistance for the bearing shell that
carries the higher loads, and an
aluminum substrate with good
embeddability for the counter shell,
which is highly tolerant of particles
in the engine oil, Federal-Mogul was
able to provide both long life and
high load capacity.
This approach has been so
successful that Federal-Mogul
claims its lead-free products are not
only environmentally superior but
can provide longer bearing fatigue
life, or create the potential for more
cost-effective solutions in some
cases. Our lead-free bearings use
a superior substrate made either
from cast or sintered material,
explains Hring. To provide a

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

robust solution for rod bearing


loads up to 95MPa previously
necessitated a sputtered coating,
but with lead-free materials we can
satisfy such requirements while
using better value alternatives such
as our Irox polymer coating.
There is a clear market trend for
high-strength aluminum to replace
electroplated bearing materials for
the lower main bearing, once
unthinkable in a heavy-duty
application. If needed, Irox can
be used as an upgrade to the highstrength aluminum, optimizing the
load capacity and the wear
resistance, Hring adds.
Heavy-duty engines contain a
much greater variety of bearing
parts than passenger car engines,
extending beyond the crank train to
rocker gear, cam drives and cam
bushings. Satisfying an OEMs
preference to work with a single
supplier requires a comprehensive
system understanding and full
bearing material portfolio.
Successfully applying the
new bearing materials required
sophisticated processes in design,
validation and manufacture. At the
design stage, elastohydrodynamic

Federal-Mogul has invested US$50m


in production technology for
its range of lead-free bearings

studies and finite element methods


were used to optimize bearing
specifications and performance
within the engine structure.

Evaluation and validation testing,


including wear-resistance and
embeddability tests, made use of
state-of-the-art techniques such

A performance comparison of the different bearing materials in Federal-Moguls advanced lead-free bearings product portfolio

as energy dispersive x-ray


spectroscopy and scanning
electron microscopy. As the
products were validated in a
growing number of applications,
they effectively became an industry
benchmark, which in turn enabled
customers to shorten their own
product development times.
Lead-free bearing materials are
developed at Federal-Moguls
Wiesbaden technology center in
Germany. The facility has nearly
120 years of experience in bearing
design and development. Though
stimulated initially by European
demand, Federal-Mogul recently
completed an extension to its
Korean manufacturing plant to meet
growing requirements in the Asian
market, and also recently announced
the acquisition of Russian bearing
manufacturer DZV, intended to
provide a growth platform for
increased presence in the
commercial vehicle and industrial
engine market in eastern Europe.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Federal-Mogul,
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 511

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 85

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Thermal management

Advances in alloy development, casting processes and functional integration


can improve thermal conductivity for greater powertrain thermodynamic efficiency
The automotive industry
is constantly in pursuit of
increased safety, fuel efficiency
and the means to meet strict
emissions demands. There is also
a requirement for materials and
manufacturing processes capable
of delivering high-performance
components. In the particular
case of powertrain applications,
increased engine efficiency can
be achieved through a combination
of several factors, namely mass
and volumetric, mechanical and
thermodynamic efficiency.
Thermodynamic efficiency is
usually tackled via improvements
in material thermal conductivity,
precision targeting cooling
concepts, engine component
integration, slim design and
coatings. These methods can be
grouped under engine thermal
management, where the
fundamental challenge is to handle
heat transfer and temperature
distribution in the engine.
In the case of cylinder heads
and blocks for passenger vehicle
applications, Nemak has addressed
the engine thermal management
challenge on three fronts: alloy
development, casting processes
(including heat treatment) and
functional integration.
Alloy development has been
one of Nemaks main lines of
research, with the focus not only
on achieving notable mechanical
properties at high temperatures,
but with high thermal conductivity
as well. The companys most
recent developments of a new
AlCu system for cylinder head
applications show ultimate
tensile and yield strengths of
150MPa and 100MPa respectively
at 300C (compared with 50MPa
and 40MPa for the premium AlSi
base alloy currently in production).
Thermal conductivity at 300C is

A six-cylinder engine block in a sand core package is manufactured on a production line in a facility in Dillingen, Germany

170W/mK, compared with the


top AlSi alloy for high-output
applications, which achieves
178W/mK.
The combination of high
mechanical properties (three times
greater than the premium alloy
currently used in the industry)
with virtually the same thermal
conductivity level, offers great
opportunities for engine designers
to get more power out of slim and
complex engine architectures, with
no major cost implications.
Thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF)
testing performed at Nemak in
current cylinder heads has proved
that the new alloy systems (AlCu)
present higher resistance to thermal

86 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

loading of at least 20% (relative to


current AlSi alloys). This is achieved
by a mix of strength, ductility and
good thermal conductivity.
Another way to improve engine
efficiency is by having localized or
target cooling in specific zones of
the castings. These imply the need
for thinner and more complex core
geometries. Silica sand cores are
most commonly used to provide
internal geometries and cavities for
casting components. Nemak has
improved current core manufacturing
technologies to produce stronger
and more complex sand cores,
including proprietary inorganic core
binders and their proven glass core
cooling channel.

Component or functional
integration provides excellent
opportunities not only for weight
reduction, but also for improved
heat management. An example
of this is cylinder heads with
integrated exhaust manifolds,
where Nemak has extensive
experience developing the process
to achieve robust and temperatureresistant components.
Further integration implies new
challenges, with heat management
becoming even more important.
Different zones of the cylinder
head must be kept at different
temperatures (for instance,
keeping combustion gases hot
may reduce emissions).

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

A Nemak engineer analyzing the sand


core temperature levels during filling

Nemak has developed a new


coating process for critical areas
such as the exhaust ports in the
cylinder heads. This coating has
the main objective of insulating the
exhaust port walls of the cylinder
head, allowing combustion gases
to reach higher temperatures.

These gases can be used to


improve engine efficiency and
reduce undesired emissions to
the atmosphere a benefit more
important in diesel engines. For
gasoline applications, the thermal
barrier coatings potentially enable a
reduction in size of the radiator, as

Nemak measures dimensional location and deformation stability of the integrated


exhaust manifold port to ensure effective thermal management in the engine

less cooling power will be required


for the engine.
Currently, coating development
is focused on achieving the highest
possible thermal fatigue properties.
Component testing also shows
a perfect bond between casting
surface and coating. This is a
remarkable result due to the fact
that minimum surface preparation
prior to coating is required.
In recent years, the use of
thermal spray bore coating to
replace gray iron liners with a more
lightweight and better-performing
heat transfer alternative has gained
momentum in the automotive
industry. This technology provides
the engine block with a thin but
resistant layer of ferrous-based
alloy coating the bores. This is
highly wear-resistant with minimum
or no modifications to the existing
piston and ring packages.
Nemak has developed extensive
knowledge, not only with regard
to the leading thermal spray
technologies (PTWA and LDS),
but also in developing the casting
process to address the linerless

block challenges that plasma


technology presents.
These challenges are low
porosity and a minimum amount
of intermetallics coating the bore
walls to ensure good adherence
and heat transfer. By eliminating
the previously utilized gray iron
liner, the gap that is currently
observed in either cast-in or
pressed-in liners is eliminated
leading to a better heat transfer
from bore to water jacket.
In summary, the industry demand
for more powerful and efficient
engines creates the need to handle
higher temperatures. In response,
Nemak has developed a diverse
portfolio of solutions, including
stronger materials, complex
geometries and tailored casting
processes that support its
customers in achieving the
aggressive objectives for highperformance engine efficiency.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Nemak, visit:
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INQUIRY NO. 512

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 87

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Blue laser measurement

Blue-violet laser light is resistant to much of the infrared interference that plagues red laser
measuring techniques, and can play a vital role in observing displacement in engine design
For many years, laser
triangulation has been one of
the most favored technologies for
measuring displacement. From the
very early days, a red laser light was
used as the receiving element as
that wavelength had the highest
sensitivity. For many objects,
however, the red-colored laser
was subject to certain limitations.
In these instances, the different
wavelength blue-violet lasers enable
the measurement of very particular
applications, such as vibrations on
an engine manifold.
Unlike red laser sensors that
operate at a wavelength of 670nm,
the wavelength of a blue laser is at
the opposite end of the visible light
spectrum, at 405nm. This
wavelength is therefore very close to
ultraviolet (UV) light. CCD elements
are more sensitive in the infrared
range than in the UV range. This is
why conventional sensors that use a
red laser light operate close to the
infrared spectrum, which starts at
780nm. This approach works
reliably on most target objects.

However, for some measurement


tasks, conventional red laser
sensors cannot be used. Various
objects, such as glowing hot metal,
emit a high proportion of infrared
radiation, which interferes with a
sensor that is set to red. At a
temperature of approximately
700C, good measurement results
become very difficult to achieve. In
contrast, a blue laser provides
maximum distance from infrared,
meaning that any infrared radiation
does not interfere with the sensor.
This technique is now being
demonstrated in Micro-Epsilons
optoNCDT BlueLaser series.
The light emitted by conventional
red lasers penetrates the target
object. The extent of this
penetration depends on the material
of the measurement object, and is
particularly strong in organic
objects. With a red laser, the light
penetrates deeply into the surface
of the measuring object and is then
scattered due to its wavelength. As
no clear image point on the surface
is generated, it is not possible to

The optoNCDT 1700BL blue laser sensor is unaffected by infrared interference


generated by red-hot objects, and provides a more reliable measurement method

88 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

A blue laser sensor installed for vibration measurement on an engine manifold

define an exact displacement. In


contrast, blue laser light does not
penetrate the measuring object
as deeply, due to its reduced
wavelength. The blue laser
generates a minimal laser point
on the surface and therefore offers
more stable, precise measurements
on target objects.
Triangulation sensors that use
blue laser technology are
completely redesigned. The sensors
are equipped with new high-end
lenses ideal for short wavelengths,
new intelligent laser controls and
innovative evaluation algorithms.
Optimizing the processes within
an internal combustion engine is
becoming increasingly important
nowadays. A whole series of
measurements is vital for engine
management purposes. The
temperature of the exhaust gas is
recorded using a thermocouple
within the manifold. To check the
way it is attached, it is necessary to
examine its propensity to vibrate, as
well as the mechanical rigidity of the
structure. This is an application
where the blue laser comes to the

fore. The high temperatures in the


flow of exhaust gas leads to the
thermocouple self-fluorescing
(becoming red hot). Due to the short
wavelength of the blue-violet laser
employed, the light emitted from the
thermocouple does not dazzle the
sensor, as the long-wavelength
intrinsic incandescence is a long
way off the 405nm wavelength of
the blue-violet laser, and is
effectively blocked by the highquality interference filters used. A
narrow slit provides the free space
needed for the optics. The high
ambient temperatures are reduced
effectively for test operation by
means of a protective plate, while
a blower ensures clean optical
conditions and the cooling required.
The vibrations expected can be
accurately recorded, thanks to the
sensors fast sampling frequency
(2.5kHz) and can be easily evaluated
via an interface to a PC.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 513

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Testing and research


Comprehensive, independent testing facilities provide a platform for automotive
researchers to make advances in engine, turbocharging and NVH technology
Based in northern France,
Critt M2A is an independent
research and development center
dedicated to the automotive
industry, focusing on three main
testing areas: NVH, engines and
turbochargers.
For several years, Critt M2A has
provided a comprehensive range of
testing services for engines, thanks
to the centers seven specific engine
testbeds that are able to run with all
different kinds of fuel. The highly
skilled engineers and technicians
are able to perform specific tests,
including exhaust gas emissions
analysis and standard driving
cycles. The centers NVH expertise
is of particular use in engine
applications. For example, the
company owns one full anechoic
powertrain bench, enabling acoustic
tests on engines and gearboxes.
Critt M2A is also recognized by
customers as one of the leading
turbocharger testing centers, not
only in Europe, but also worldwide.
Indeed, the five high-standard gas
stands which can accommodate
a mass flow of up to 132 lb/min, and
a temperature of more than 1,250C
are used to run a large range of
turbocharger tests for many notable
customers (turbocharger suppliers
and OEMs). Mass flow, temperature
and pressure can be precisely
adjusted to simulate any
turbochargers performance. Thus,
Critt M2A enables engineers to test
turbochargers in isolation, or in
association with upstream or
downstream parts, by offering
complete mapping of turbo systems
for assessment and comparison.
Used to dealing with international
demands, Critt M2A works to the
highest levels of confidentiality. Each
test cell is independent and
secured, with restricted access to
enable customers to have private
workshops and offices.

Critt M2A offers advanced testing facilities


for engine, turbocharging and NVH engineers

To prepare for the future, and to


continue developing its activities,
Critt M2A will add new testing
capabilities for the electrification and
hybridization of vehicles, by creating
an electrical test center, named
C2E. This development is in line
with the centers strategy, which has
always been to anticipate the future
and increase development in
various fields of expertise.
Given that environmental impact
has become one of the main
concerns for the automotive
industry, Critt M2A has spent more
than two years studying the
possibilities for setting up such
equipment, which will complete the
centers engine, turbocharger and
acoustic capabilities.
The project schedule will consist
of two phases, the first of which will
commence in September 2014 with

the progressive arrival of the


equipment: 96 single-cell test
channels and five battery module
testers will be operational by early
2015. The second phase will begin
in the first half of 2015 with the
construction of an extension to the
centers existing building. This will
include an electric engine bench, a
turbocharger bench, a battery pack
bench and a battery simulation
bench. To ensure the centers
continually increasing expertise in
these electric activities, Critt M2A
will hire two expert engineers and
specialized technicians.
Thanks to its extensive testing
capabilities and expert support,
Critt M2A is a flexible organization,
able to adapt to specific customer
requests for experiments dealing
with planning constraints and nonstandardized testing.

Critt M2A is also following


market trends and looking to
increase its worldwide company
profile by participating in several
automotive business events,
including the 19th Supercharging
Conference, which takes place in
Dresden, Germany, in September
2014. The company is also
organizing its own annual technical
symposium, SyTec M2A. This will
take place on October 14, at the
companys HQ, and will enable
Critt M2A to share an overview
of recent testing and research
developments, made in
collaboration with industrial,
academic and institutional figures.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Critt M2A, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 514

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 89

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Machining MIM parts


Equipment selection, in-house expertise and investment in facilities are
vital when implementing fine machining of metal injection molded parts

Indo-MIM has become a leader


in metal injection molded parts

Machining of metals has


always been a challenging
task, and when dealing with metal
injection molded (MIM) parts it
becomes even tougher. The
machining process at Indo-MIM
started with a wide range of
operations. However, a number of
operations that were beyond MIM
tolerances such as turning, drilling,
reaming, tapping and surface
grinding were outsourced during
the companys early years.
Indo-MIM began in-house
machining in 2009, establishing
many critical operations, including:
CNC turning with close tolerances
of up to 6m; CNC milling, third
and fourth axis in machines with
pallet changers; high-production,
single-pass honing at a rate of one
part every 13 seconds; highproduction profile-grinding at one
part every 15 seconds, with 7m
tolerance; multipart surface
grinding; lapping and polishing to
achieve flatness down to 2m; and
ID grinding with 6m requirement.
A number of factors are helping
the company to sustain its
machining process. The first is
selecting the right machine, a
process guided by maximizing the
machine running time. Indo-MIM
opted for VMSs equipped with
pallet changers to shorten the time
lost to loading and unloading. The

company opted for small, compact


and rigid machines with low torque
spindles, which require less material
to be removed an important
feature, as most of the companys
parts are small in size.
Whenever critical tolerances are
to be maintained, machines have
been fitted with probing systems for
automatic tool-offset corrections.
Even for honing and grinding,
Indo-MIM opted for machines with
the facility for parallel loading and
unloading of parts, while operations
are carried out at other stations.
Even though Indo-MIM uses
general chucking and collet
systems in its turning centers, the
company also has custom-built
fixtures for specific parts. Having
an in-house design department
working on both part and fixture
design helps decide the optimum
clamping systems.
All Indo-MIMs milling and surface
grinding fixtures are multipart, which
not only helps increase productivity,
but also grants the advantage of full
machine bed use, irrespective of the
part size.
Most of the small-batch
productions have multiple parts/
operations preset in the machine
bed, therefore virtually zeroing the
changeover time.
Although Indo-MIM as a company
enjoys support from many tooling

90 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

manufacturers and dealers, the


organization works with suppliers to
achieve the lowest possible perpiece rate. Tool cost alone does not
inform the decision-making process
the advantage of higher cutting
parameters and better material
removal rate are also considered
when finalizing the optimal tool
source. Each application is
approached with an open mind,
giving equal opportunity to
established players such as Iscar,
Sandivik and Walter, as to low-cost
tool companies in India.
Indo-MIM is committed to
continuous improvements by
conducting kaizen events
identification and tracking of
improvement projects has helped
the company optimize the use of
man, machine and methods.
The use of statistical process
control is another tool implemented
to establish robust and repeatable
processes. Statistics have proved
useful in the study of tool wear
patterns, and in establishing
automatic offset corrections through
program macros. The macro
programs have reduced the high
variability caused by operator
interventions. Processes where very
close tolerances need to be
achieved have been established in
this way, leading to major reductions
in product scrap levels.

The company approaches


challenges with an open mind,
discussing them with machine tool
suppliers, tool suppliers or work
holding suppliers for optimum
solutions. This helps Indo-MIM not
only arrive at solutions, but arrive
at them quickly. There have been
instances where the outcomes of
such discussions have later become
standard options for the machine
tool manufacturer.
With the establishment of its
investment casting facility at
Tirupati, Indo-MIM has taken on
the challenge of machining bigger
parts, which require more material
removal. The machining of MIM
parts has helped to quickly
establish highly critical machining
projects for investment-cast parts.
The companys primary objective
has been, and always will be, low
operating costs. Indo-MIMs
management is willing to invest in
suitable machines, which, although
expensive, guarantee lower
operating costs in the future. The
companys rapid growth in the
industry has seen an increase from
three machines in 2009 to its
current tally of 60 machines.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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INQUIRY NO. 515

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Test data integration

A results standardization platform for product validation can streamline information


sharing, promoting multidisciplinary research as well as reducing the time to market
In the face of global
competition, and the
increasing complexity of the large
number of electronic controls found
in todays vehicles, OEMs are
looking for ways to minimize time to
market, without compromising on
quality, performance and regulatory
requirements. Since the product
development process is already
optimized for maximum efficiency,
the only possibility is to move
toward model-based development
(MBD) to minimize physical testing
and improve the efficiency of the
overall product validation process.
However, the biggest challenge in
the move toward MBD is importing
real testing data into simulations in
order to prepare models mainly
due to different types of engineering
data often stored in different file
formats without precise description.
PVMsyss integration platform,
based on the ASAM ODS standard,
provides a means for engineering
data from a validation area
to be stored with more precise
descriptions such as the
measurement point, its relative
location on the physical unit under
test, engineering data types (for
example, crank angle-based, time
series, frequency type, ECU data)
and the measurement conditions
under which the data is measured.
The ASAM ODS standard allows
the organization of all validation data
in a uniform manner. This can then
be accessed with standard API
function, irrespective of the source
of the data.
The PVMsys integration platform
also imports data about the unit
under test from an external system
that stores the Testing Bill of
Material (T-BoM) and its attributes.
With this approach, it becomes
easier to bring the test data into the
simulated world, simplifying model
development. Real-world testing

and simulation converge, reducing


the product development time.
It is widely acknowledged that the
complete vehicle validation process
involves many functional groups. On
many occasions, there is a need to
solve a vehicle problem jointly.
For example, if there is a problem
of vibration during on-road testing,
a multidisciplinary team must work
together to identify the root cause
of the problem different teams
are required because the source
of vibration can be either engine
based or structural. When a
multidisciplinary team works
together, there is a need to
exchange data. A vehicle-testing
group, for example, will show the
data logged for vibration. For the
same load conditions, a powertrain
group will check its combustion
data and time series ECU data
regarding engine torque. By
combining the data from these
different teams, its possible for the
group to identify the main source of
vibration which could be the result
of a sudden torque change for that
test condition.
The above example clearly
demonstrates the need for the
exchange of data across vehicle
teams to solve problems quickly
and collaboratively.
The PVMsys integration platform
allows engineers from different
domains to exchange data without
worrying about its source, largely
due to the ASAM ODS standard,
which enables the storage of
heterogeneous engineering data.
The use of this integration
platform contributes to an
improvement in the overall efficiency
of the complete validation process
of between 3 and 6%, and will
reduce time to market significantly.
Another big advantage of the
platform is that it is based on OSGi
web technology, and features a

Product validation management


(PVM) acts as a foundation for efficient
model-based development (MBD).
Standardizing and streamlining
the sharing of information between
project teams can improve efficiency
and reduce the overall time to market

multilayered architecture which


separates the data storage layer,
business layer and user interface
layer suitable for the continuously
evolving vehicle validation process,
because it provides scalability and
flexibility, and protects the project
investment against continually
changing IT technology.
A Japanese OEM has already
investigated the feasibility and
prototyping of the concept, with
plans to extend the platform.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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INQUIRY NO. 516

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 91

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

High-quality fuel filtration


The challenges of meeting strict emissions targets in the design of new diesel
engines can be addressed by the implementation of high-quality fuel filters
Confronted by tightening
emissions standards
worldwide plus demands for
longer engine life and reduced
warranty returns todays diesel
engine designers must hunt
relentlessly for the factors that
make or break their engines
compliance and performance.
Many of these engineers are
zeroing in on a subject that they
may have skipped in school: Filter
media 101.
The logic is clear. Lower engine
emissions require new components
with tighter tolerances. However,
dirty fuel can gum up engine
systems that are finely built to
those tolerances. In fact, it turns
out that one of the best ways to
keep emissions from going out of
the tailpipe is to prevent water and
particulates in the fuel from ever
getting into the engine in the first
place. That takes tightly designed
engine fuel filters.
These days you cant get the fuel
quality your engine needs without
high-quality filtration, says Andrew
Shepard, global marketing director
of engine and industrial filtration at
media maker Hollingsworth & Vose.
And in any fuel filter system, its
the media that does the actual
filtering, which makes media
specification absolutely crucial to
enable engines to live up to all these
new demands.
Engine designers would be welladvised to make sure their filter
suppliers specify precisely the right
media for their exacting engine
performance requirements and
validate that the filter media will
provide the fuel quality required in
real-life conditions. Not all filter
media are created equal.
As fuels and engines differ, so
must media. For each product,
media manufacturers balance
many characteristics, including

efficiency at a given particle size,


dirt-holding capacity and waterseparation capabilities, as well as
processability, cost and desired
service life.
Another important design
consideration: 100% synthetic or
not. As one filter manufacturer
says, All OEMs are pushing for
cleaner fuel. But some are also
challenging filter media scientists
to move to 100% synthetic
designs making the process of
engineering better-performing and
reasonably priced filter materials
even more challenging.
On the other hand, cellulose,
melt-blown and microfiber glass
composites can provide the best
match of high-performance and
value to achieve higher efficiencies,
longer lifespans and other
advantages for the vast majority
of applications. It is critical to
understand and evaluate the total
value of these design options.
As one of the worlds leading
suppliers of high-efficiency fuel
filtration media, Hollingsworth &
Vose often tops the shortlist for
design engineers specifying diesel
filter media solutions. It certainly
has a well-established track record,
having been in the filtration
business since 1843. It leads the
fuel market with advanced
nanofiber materials, including
advanced composites and
100%-synthetic options.
Engine markets in different
geographies often vary in the
features and performance that
each requires. Fortunately,
Hollingsworth & Vose maintains an
organization of over 100 technical
staff located in the USA, Europe
and Asia to formulate specifically
tailored products. Its one supplier
that has the depth and breadth to
deliver regional solutions that
satisfy local demands.

92 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Ultimate tolerance stack: H&V media


enable new diesel engine technologies

The company offers a wide range


of new processes and materials to
meet various market requirements.
Hollingsworth & Vose media are
optimized to deliver maximum life
and performance using given fuels
and conditions. Media are
constructed in carefully designed
layers in order to trap particles of
different sizes and compositions.
The result is the highest possible
dirt-holding capacity, coupled with
the longest possible filter lifespan.
In addition to these benefits,
innovative chemical processes
produce surface layer effects for
maximized water separation.

Hollingsworth & Vose maintains


the industrys most diverse mix of
manufacturing technologies,
including drylaid, wetlaid,
meltblown, nanofiber production,
vertically integrated glass
manufacture and multiple lamination
processes. These offer the
capabilities to make the specific,
highly engineered filter materials
that modern engines require.
Hollingsworth & Voses
innovative new multilayer non-glass
composite media hold 4m
particles with better than 99.5%
efficiency. They set new standards
in their class for fuel cleanliness
and water removal. And where
microglass-free filter materials
have traditionally had problems
with regards to balancing efficiency
and lifetimes, these glass-free
media deliver twice the life of
competitive products.
Hollingsworth & Voses glass-free
media protect the manufacturing
environment from possible fiber
release. In addition, their use in
fuel filters permits todays diesel
engines to reduce emissions and
meet worldwide environmental
targets, thereby contributing to
improved air quality and reducing
the adverse health effects of
airborne particulate matter.
To cut down on engine
emissions, increase the quality
of fuel filtration. Diesel engine
designers who need to achieve
the highest levels of compliance
and performance can rely on
Hollingsworth & Vose to provide
the industrys widest range of truly
innovative media technologies for
high-efficiency fuel filtration.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about
Hollingsworth & Vose, visit:
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INQUIRY NO. 517

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Electromagnetic advances
Electromagnetic vehicle components and subsystems must adapt to ever-changing OEM
requirements, with developers striving to stay at the forefront of technological advances
Founded in 1989 by
Claude Oudet, Moving
Magnet Technologies (MMT)
has accumulated 25 years of
experience, based on its expertise
in developing electromagnetic
solutions in the fields of position
sensors, direct-drive actuators
and electric motors for high-end
mechatronic applications.
The company was started in
Oudets garage, and has been
consistently growing over the past
quarter century. Today, MMT has
about 40 employees, including
30 PhDs and engineers focused
on the development of innovative
electromagnetic solutions.
One of the teams strengths is in
applying the latest finite-element
analysis software tools to magnetic
simulations and dynamic modeling.
MMT also has prototyping and
test capabilities for validating
applications. A team of electronics
engineers develops the necessary
hardware and software to drive the
companys motors and actuators.
MMTs activities are based on
three main pillars: research and
development, engineering and
licensing. The goal of the companys
R&D specialists is the development
of innovative electromagnetic
technologies: MMT holds 200 valid
patents so far, and three to five
new patents are applied for every
year. This includes collaborations
with renowned universities and
high-level technical institutions.
The engineering team explores
new and promising applications
with OEMs, system manufacturers
and engineering companies.
Through licensing, the company
develops and extends its worldwide
technological footprint in massvolume markets by collaborating
with highly valued partners who
are typically leading automotive
Tier 1 and 2 suppliers including

Examples of products utilizing


MMTs electromagnetic structures

Sonceboz (more than 80 licenses


have been sold worldwide so far).
MMT has created many success
stories within the demanding
automotive industry in the areas
of contactless position and torque
sensors (accelerator pedals,
chassis, steering columns,
transmissions, cam and crank
shafts, and so on), electric
actuators (EGR and VGT actuators
for passenger cars and commercial
vehicles, actuators for instrument
clusters in the dashboard, active
grille shutter actuators, HVAC
flap actuators, for example) and
brushless DC motors (variable valve
lift control, electrically driven pumps,
and so on).
In 1995, MMT became an integral
part of the Sonceboz Group, which
has industrialized and manufactured
a whole range of MMT technologybased products in high volumes
ever since. This close collaboration
with Sonceboz has reinforced
the industrial credibility of MMTs
technological innovations and
clearly strengthened the companys
licensing business.
MMTs innovations are driven
by the ever-shifting market
requirements, so the company

Founded in 1989, MMT has amassed


extensive electromagnetic expertise

is constantly listening to the


engineering world, which includes
participating in leading exhibitions
and conferences worldwide. MMT
also contributes to building an
active mechatronics community
in the field of powertrains by
organizing the annual MMT
TechDays, Mechatronics for
Efficient Powertrains.
Innovative electromagnetic
solutions remain MMTs main
development target, and the
company continuously anticipates
and prepares for the future of
its three technology families.
MMT is committed to making
its sensors even more accurate,
and able to operate in several
dimensions (2D, 3D, multi-turn),
while keeping the design simple.

Actuators always have to be more


compact, efficient and dynamic,
and sometimes the company is
tasked with integrating a position
sensor inside, without increasing
the actuator size. MMT motor
designs also face challenging
specifications, such as extreme
rotation speeds (200,000rpm and
above), significantly reducing the
magnet volume while maintaining
performance levels, or to simplify
drive electronics to be compatible
with a controller for conventional
brushed DC motors without any
adaptation of the system.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 518

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 93

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Lean manufacturing

A culture of continuous improvement, coupled with proven development tools, can


streamline factory operations, reducing losses and increasing customer satisfaction
Senior Flexonics has always
been known for highly
engineered products, including
on- and off-highway diesel bellows,
fuel rails, specialty bellows, and
exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)
coolers. Over the last four years, the
company has not only shown how a
culture of continuous improvement
can help make factory operations
better, but also how they can
improve products and services
for their customers.
It is well known that lean
manufacturing is about eliminating
waste in the company. This
waste can be categorized
as Transportation, Inventory,
Motion, Waiting, Overproduction,
Overprocessing and Defects
(TIMWOOD). In Senior Flexonics
Bartlett, Illinois facility, employees
are heavily engaged in doing this
every day, but such practices often
start with a kaizen event. In the
early stages of their lean journey,
a team from the EGR business unit
dedicated three days to a 5S kaizen.
This organization method focuses
on creating a clean, organized area
and disciplined team. The steps
of 5S are: sort, straighten, shine,
standardize and sustain. It is worth
considering how 5S affects a
companys customers beyond its
use as an internally focused tool.
The answer comes from looking
at the steps.
The first three steps are focused
on eliminating non-value added
(NVA) activities. Non-value added
activities consume time and
resources, but are not work
elements the customer would be
willing to pay for. These activities
may also adversely affect the quality
and delivery to the customer. By
focusing on removing these NVA
activities, operators are able to
improve output and reduce lead
time, speeding up the delivery of

the product to the customer.


A simple example of an output
from the first three steps is a
shadowboard, shown in Figure 1.
By having all the necessary tools
and equipment at their fingertips,
operators can use shadowboards
to keep equipment running, product
flowing and delivery dates met.
The remaining two steps
highlight how employees
activities affect the business. By
standardizing the activities defined
after the first three steps, all
operators in a given area can
perform the same process. This
creates minimal variation and
improves the quality of product
delivered to the customer. In order
to sustain these improvements, key
performance indicators (KPIs) are
documented on shop floor boards
to monitor customer metrics such
as product quality reject rate and
on-time delivery. By using this and
other lean tools, Senior Flexonics
has been able to achieve 100%
on-time delivery, moved from
Developmental Supplier to
Outstanding Supplier rating and
won the customer Supplier of the
Year award in 2013.
Other teams have also made
significant process improvements
in order to support the growing
demand for these EGR products.
One example was a customerawarded Six Sigma project led by
one of Flexonics quality engineers.
The first-pass yield at the final tester
was not up to world-class
standards, with most failures being
weld defects. This type of defect
was repairable, but required
additional labor and materials. The
project team was set a target of
improving the quality yield by 25%
without affecting the on-time
delivery to the customer.
The project leader followed the
standard DMAIC process: define,

94 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Figure 1: A shadowboard is an example of an output from the first three stages of


a 5S kaizen, with focus on reducing and eliminating non-value-added activities

measure, analyze, improve and


control. In the define phase, he
created his project charter and
defined the team. This team
included manufacturing engineers,
quality engineers, a weld engineer, a
quality technician and arguably the
most important member, a setup
operator from the shop floor. As
with many lean kaizen events, shop
floor engagement is critical. In order
to include voice of the customer

(VOC) input, a customer Six Sigma


Black Belt was added as a sponsor
of the project.
The team narrowed down the
inputs of the process by using the
tools defined in the Six Sigma
methodology (Figure 2). The two
tools in the measure phase that
heavily engaged the team were
process mapping and the cause
and effect (C&E) matrix. While
process mapping, the team walked

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Figure 2: An example of the Six Sigma


process used at Senior Flexonics in
order to narrow down process inputs

the entire process and spoke with


the design team and operators on
the shop floor about this problem.
All contributed valuable information,
while the shop floor operators also
provided practical process
information to the team for the
process map and the C&E matrix.

After completing the measure


phase, the quality engineer worked
with the team to narrow down the
list of variables, using the analyze
tools to identify those that
contributed most to the failure mode
they were trying to eliminate. The
information gathered in the measure

Figure 3: Improvements based on a Six Sigma project compared with baseline data

and analyze phases brought the list


down from 53 to four critical inputs.
Using an action plan to address
these four critical inputs in the
improve phase, the team created
their design of experiments, and
ran samples with each of these
conditions to see which influenced
the final results the most. Statistical
tests were performed and the
optimal settings developed. The
team completed the appropriate
documentation and training as part
of the control phase. To close out
the project, an analysis of the
baseline data, compared with
the improvement process, was
completed and the results
practically and statistically validated
(Figure 3). By improving the yield of
an internal process, a higher quality
product is being shipped to meet
the increasing demand. The team
could then celebrate their success.

To support teamwork in kaizen


events and Six Sigma projects,
Senior Flexonics uses a rewards
program whereby employees are
given points based on participation
and results. These points can be
redeemed for items, ranging from
music downloads to electronics.
The program has become very
popular and has helped reinforce
the behavior Senior Flexonics
desires from its employees.
Senior Flexonics is committed
to providing superior products
and services to its customers.
The company relies on its culture
of continuous improvement to drive
benefits for both its own and its
customers businesses.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 519

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 95

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

ACU housing materials


Composite plastics can match, and even exceed, the performance of metal used in the
housing of airbag control units, providing opportunities for weight reduction and cost saving

A commitment to organic
market growth through the
appropriate replacement of metal
in high-tolerance components has
resulted in another success story
for Citadel Plastics. The companys
Far East unit (located in Chinas
Guangdong province) has supplied
a proprietary grade of BMC 605 for
use in injection molding the
housing of a Takata brand airbag
control unit (ACU). Takata, with
engineering based out of
Farmington Hills, Michigan, is
manufacturing this ACU in China
for automobiles built and sold in
China (brands include SAIC, First
Auto Works, Chery and London
Taxi). This device is the central
control unit for all of the airbag
sensors throughout the vehicle,
and the first ever to use a bulk
molding compound (BMC) as its
housing material.
BMC is a composite material
comprised of unsaturated polyester
resin, mineral filler, long fiberglass
(3mm to 24mm) reinforcement and
specialty additives (including
colorants, release agents and
catalysts). Similar to other
thermosetting technologies, BMC
provides dimensional stability in
elevated temperature/highly
corrosive environments. The
modulus associated with this
technology is exceptional
(1.9 x 106 psi) and the as-molded
shrinkage very low (zero shrink
grades are available). Unlike
popular thermosetting options,
BMC is injection moldable and
cycles with yields similar to (and,
in some cases, greater than)
thermoplastic alternatives.
Available in a variety of colors,
BMC is highly versatile and can be
customized to meet the specific
end-use properties of an
application. The result of this

unique customization process is


molding materials that meet
challenging end-use specifications
while making the most of costeffective, plentiful/price-stable
ingredients. Ultimate value is
achieved when multicomponent
metal assemblies can be combined
into a single BMC part. BMC has
been specified for many automotive
metal replacement applications as
a cost- and weight-saving solution.
Takata began its safety device
business in 1952 with a limited line
of seatbelts for the Japanese
automobile industry. Over time,
through the inventiveness and hard
work of its employees, Takata has
grown to be a major supplier of a
broad range of passenger and
driver safety systems and devices,
serving the automotive community
through extensive global operations.

96 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

The housing of airbag control


units presents engineers with
an opportunity to replace metal
components with plastic alternatives
that can match performance, while
offering reductions in cost and weight

Today, Takatas revenue is divided


almost equally between the
Americas, Europe and Asia. With
over 75 years of success in safety,
Takata continues to meet greater
challenges, establishing itself as a
global leader in the automotive
safety market.
We began working with Takata
in 2004, developing the compound
and part design to meet the
performance criteria, outlines
Craig Carder, manager of technical
services at Citadel Plastics
engineered composites division.
The project began as paper
sketches, gained momentum,
and then progressed through test
plaque evaluations, FEA and, finally,
prototype tooling. Several design
iterations were molded at Citadel
Plastics West Chicago applications
development laboratory.

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

A close-up of BMC 605, which has


been used in injection molding the
housing of Takata airbag control units

During intensive test reviews, the


injection-molded BMC housings
passed all of the same performance
tests required of the aluminum diecast alternative. In fact, the BMC
component was found to be stiffer
than the aluminum incumbent. This
functional advantage was realized
during vibration testing. Stiffness is

Injection-molded BMC housings


passed the same performance tests
as their aluminum equivalents

critical to the performance of an


ACU, as its technology is dependent
upon the accurate conveyance of
forces acting upon a vehicle during
a crash event. The resonant
frequency of accelerometer
assemblies approached 1,000Hz
with BMC 605.
Takata also established BMC
advantages associated with the
assembly and attachment of their
ACUs. Self-threading fasteners
used in aluminum ACU housings
result in scrapped housings if, for
any reason, disassembly is
required. BMC 605 self-tapping
bosses hold fast through 30-plus
cycles, allowing for potential to
rework versus the expense of scrap.
In addition, Takata was able to
directly attach BMC covers without
the cost associated with torque
limiters or inserts another benefit

provided by the uniquely rigid BMC


605 molding material. When a
screw is fastened, it creates a
clamp load. M3 screws, for example
(Takata uses Delta PT 30 M3 x
9.5mm long screws produced by
ATF), will provide almost 200 lb of
clamp load when 0.4Nm of torque
is applied. After thermal cycling, a
fastening system will lose some
clamp load. The BMC system will
retain 80% with a M3 screw tapped
into BMC 605 (this would mean
clamp load is reduced 140 lb).
The retention of 80% clamp load
after thermal cycling is important.
Aluminum with steel screws drops
50% of its clamp load retention. If
clamp load can be retained, smaller
fasteners can be used for weight
saving. More importantly, however,
automotive electronics modules use
less space on expensive PC
boards. Also, clamp load retention
provides better margins for torque
and torque-to-strip ratios as
compared with torque and torqueto-loosen.
Supplementing the many
performance enhancements
mentioned above, BMC 605
furnishes measurable cost
reduction opportunities. Through
the elimination of secondary
operations, Takata saved over 60%
in part cost by replacing aluminum
with BMC 605. This calculation
overlooks the amortized savings
involved with extended tool life.
Well-maintained BMC injection
molds last for millions of accurate
shots. In most cases, manufacturers
will realize less than a quarter of a
million cycles per tool when diecasting aluminum.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 520

Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 97

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

High-temperature hoses
New fuel lines have been designed that offer numerous advantages
over plastic/stainless steel solutions, while also managing to meet
the most stringent cleanliness requirements from around the globe
Innovations from ContiTech
Fluid Technology are helping
to realize new engineering solutions
relating to high-temperature
hoses for turbochargers, with the
companys fuel lines for modern
truck engines also being able
to meet the most stringent of
cleanliness requirements.
The new generation of
high-temperature oil hoses for
turbochargers are enabling us to
venture into 250C temperature
territory, states ContiTech product
developer Klaus Brhne. In
addition, the hose design features
numerous advantages over the
Teflon corrugated tubing and flat
hoses used to date.
Such benefits include the fact
that the hoses have much greater
flexibility, thus enabling tight
bending radii, as well as being
lighter and able to fit into smaller
package spaces. Such advantages
are further amplified by lighter
system integration when combined
with aluminum tubes.
The new sheathed hoses are
used on the supply and return sides
of the turbocharger. The key to
withstanding the high temperatures
in this part of the powertrain is the
braided sheath, made of a plastic that
delivers high temperature and
chemical resistance, that encloses
the FKM with the rubber inner lining,
thus offering excellent stretchability.
The molding process gives the
hoses very tight bend radii and they
can withstand high operating
pressures of 15 bar (218psi).
The hose is part of a kit that the
customer selects for a particular
application, and therefore results
in cost benefits as well. The new
product can be used for lubricating
turbochargers and additional
powertrain applications.
ContiTech has also mastered the
challenge of the increasing demands

Right, inset: Even


though the new
oil hose from
ContiTech looks
like a conventional
item, it is loaded
with the latest
high-tech material
innovations
Below right:
In ContiTechs
pioneering rinsing
unit, a special
cleaning medium
and exceptionally
fine filter ensure
that solid particles
are removed from
the fuel lines

placed on the cleanliness of fuel


lines for modern engines. Even the
smallest particles can damage or
destroy extremely fine injector
nozzles, so ContiTech has invested
just over US$500,000 in a unique
rinsing unit at the companys
Karben site in Germany. A special
cleaning medium and exceptionally
fine filter ensure that no solid
particles, which are not allowed
according the latest stringent purity
requirements of well-known engine
manufacturers, are found in the fuel
lines. This means that we satisfy
the requirements for the latest
generation of engines and are also
ideally equipped for future
developments, adds ContiTechs
head of R&D, Christof Kirsch.
With its extremely resilient fuel
lines for heavy-duty truck engines,
ContiTech is helping OEMs to make
a crucial contribution with regard
to new-generation powertrain
development, relating specifically to
environmental matters. The Karben
manufacturing site currently
produces tens of thousands of

98 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

high-tech lines every week for


customers around the world.
But the issue of cleanliness in this
specific powertrain area is playing
an increasingly important role not
just in relation to trucks, but also in
construction, agricultural machinery,
compressors and machines for
transport of materials. The same
applies to hydraulic lines for
industrial applications that are
manufactured at ContiTechs
Hoppengarten site. Here, too,
ContiTech ensures that the lines
meet customers most stringent
cleanliness specifications.
ContiTech is able to supply parts
to its commercial vehicle and industry
customers worldwide using local
production operations thus working
with the same processes and high

standards as in Europe. For


example, ContiTech supplies truck
manufacturer Paccar with coolant
lines that withstand temperatures up
to 210C. The Tier 1 also provides
the OEM with high-temperature oil
hoses for turbochargers from
locations in Germany as well as
Brazil. The company produces
a variety of lines for Volvo from its
plants in Germany, France, Brazil
and China, and earlier this year
ContiTech began parts production
in Mexico of a range of applications,
from power-steering lines to heated
urea lines for SCR systems.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about ContiTech,
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 521

September 16-18, 2014

Novi | Michigan | USA

The fastest growing exhibition focused on next generation advanced battery technology

FREE TO ATTEND
Register for your free exhibiton hall pass
This is our third year and so far its been
excellent. Already in this show weve
surpassed our number from all three days of
last year and were not through day two!
CHADWICK R. TAYLOR, TE CONNECTIVITY

380

EXH

IBIT

OR

h
ted wit

a
co-loc

ith:

rship w

ne
in part

info@thebatteryshow.com

www.thebatteryshow.com

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

IC engine future

Through further engineering optimization, the IC engine will continue to


be the mainstay of mobility, as one advanced tech demonstrator proves

The automotive industry is


experiencing rapid change,
and part of this evolution includes
new technology innovation and
development, as well as the
implementation of governmental
standards, stringent regulations
and widening consumer choice.
Making things more challenging
for engineers is the fact that todays
technological innovations require
new thinking in terms of how to
measure, rate and achieve vehicle
energy efficiencies and emissions.
As such, future innovation of IC
engines will have a direct influence
in terms of how much fuel will
be saved over the next 20 years
and what quantities of emissions
output can be prevented over
the same time.
As a company, Schaeffler
believes that combustion engines
both with and without the hybrid
option will continue to constitute
the mainstay of mobility for many
years to come. Furthermore, for all
the major e-powertrain advances
that attract widespread publicity,
it is certain that the electric car
will not be able to completely
replace vehicles powered by
the IC combustion engine in
the near future.
As a renowned global supplier to
the automotive industry, Schaeffler
offers a wide range of key
technologies that can reduce a
vehicles fuel consumption and
emissions, as well as improve its
overall energy efficiency. Many
of these individual solutions and
subsystems only reach their full
potential when included as part of
a system, as shown in Schaefflers
latest technology demonstration
vehicle, the Efficient Future Mobility
North America. With this tech
demonstrator development, the
Tier 1 supplier has shown how

The Efficient Future Mobility North


America demonstrator shows how
certain selected products can enable
even one of the most popular SUVs
in the USA to fulfill CAFE requirements
for 2020 in a very cost-effective way

the optimization of the powertrain


based on the IC engine enables
one popular North American SUV
to achieve the values specified by
the CAFE standard for 2020.
For the Efficient Future Mobility
North America project, the experts
at Schaefflers three North American
R&D centers in Troy, Michigan; Fort
Mill, South Carolina; and Wooster,
Ohio, optimized the mid-size
SUV-based concept vehicle for
exemplary levels of efficiency by
carrying out holistic, detailed work
on the powertrain.
The technology platform of the
concept vehicle is based like-for-like
on the current architecture that
underpins the mid-size SUV, which
features an automatic transmission
with a torque converter. The
concept vehicle employs numerous
Schaeffler systems, such as a
thermal management module and
an all-wheel drive (AWD) disconnect

100 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

clutch. The thermal management


module enables the engine to reach
its operating temperature quickly,
as well as precisely controlling the
temperature balance. The AWD
disconnect clutch which
decouples the unused drive axle
from the drivetrain depending on
the driving situation, contributes to
a fuel and emissions saving of up
to 6% on the highway and around
2% in city traffic. Other solutions
on the tech demonstrator include
Schaefflers innovation in engine
stop/start technology the
permanently engaged starter
generator with a wrap-spring
one-way clutch and a latching valve
that enables the vehicle to be driven
for longer periods with the engine
switched off and without the need
for energy-consuming pumps.
Other decisive contributions toward
the impressive overall results of the
concept were also made by the

detailed friction optimization work


carried out on the belt drive, the
valvetrain and the balancer shafts,
as well as the optimization of the
torque converter.
The use and optimization of a
comprehensive range of Schaeffler
technologies and subsystems,
as well as painstakingly detailed
engineering work, has resulted in
the vehicles fuel consumption being
reduced by 15%, which means
a corresponding decline in CO2
emissions. These values were
initially simulated using Schaeffler
calculation programs and verified
by Schaefflers experts in North
America using extensive test cycles
that were then certified by an
independent testing institute.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
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INQUIRY NO. 522

PASSENGER
COMMERCIAL
OFF-HIGHWAY
September 16-18, 2014
Novi | Michigan | USA
Americas first exhibition dedicated to the engineering of hybrid & electric vehicle technology & innovation

FREE TO ATTEND
LE
B
U
O
D
IZE
S
THE

Register for your free exhibiton hall pass


This is our third year and so far its been
excellent. Already in this show weve
surpassed our number from all three days of
last year and were not through day two!
CHADWICK R. TAYLOR, TE CONNECTIVITY

Co-located with

Supported by

www.evtechexpo.com

info@evtechexpo.com

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

DHO retaining rings

Identifying and controlling the quality of gear grinding


Stresstech Groups new
GearScan 500, together with
EasyGear software, solves
numerous challenges relating to
identifying and controlling the
grinding quality of gears.
The GearScan 500 makes testing
of the grinding quality in the spur
and helical gears accurate and
easy, providing immediate feedback
on the grinding operation. First, a
measurement program needs to be
created for the gear type this can
be achieved using special EasyGear
software. Next, the gear can be
installed to the GearScan 500 stand
in order to record the Barkhausen
noise measurements data is
then recorded with ViewScan data
collection software.
The GearScan 500 system
allows for testing of any part of a
gear root and flank and can test
every tooth, or just one. The system
is easy to modify, which makes it
possible to test different sizes of
gears, gear shafts and other special
designs. The compact design holds
all the required hardware together
in one unit.

EasyGear software provides


a virtual environment for easy
programming of measurement
paths on different types of gears.
The software adapts easily to
various types of spur and helical
gears. With EasyGear, a range
of measurement paths can be
programmed: covering the whole
gear (including all teeth); individual
sections or single teeth; and left,
right or both surfaces of the teeth
flanks. Gear data can be entered
from its specification sheet.
Creating measurement paths is
also simple, requiring values for
just a few parameters.
Stresstech Group has been
providing high-quality control
tools for gear grinding for 30
years. The companys extensive
experience has been recognized
by many international automobile,
airplane and wind energy
component manufacturers.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Stresstech Group,
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 523

102 // September 2014 // Engine Technology International.com

Tesla has been giving consumers a glimpse


into the future of environmentally friendly cars
with its Model S a vehicle that offers a highperformance electric motor, doesnt sacrifice
battery life, and maintains luxury standards for
customers who want to travel in comfort. Rotor
Clip is also part of this innovation, supplying
Tesla Motors with DHO retaining rings.
The rings are located on either side of the
Tesla differential which is situated in the rear
of the vehicle. The rings retain the bearings
of the rear axle shafts, which turn the wheels
of the vehicle. Once the DHO ring is installed
into the groove of the differential housing, the
portion of the ring protruding from the groove
(also called a shoulder) holds the bearings in
place securely.
Founded in 1957 in New York, Rotor Clip
manufactures a full line of inch, DIN, ANSI
metric and JIS retaining rings. The company
now located in New Jersey, as well as
operating from facilities in the UK, Germany,
the Czech Republic and China also offers a
complete line of constant section rings, spiral
retaining rings and wave springs.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about Rotor Clip, visit:
www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 524

PRODUCTS & SERVICES

Catalyst testing and evaluation services


ProCat Testing, a catalyst and
emissions evaluation company,
has recently updated its website
and produced a short YouTube
video showcasing the companys
services. While ProCat Testing
enjoys a well-established
customer base, the company felt
that there are many areas within
the emissions industry that were
not yet aware of ProCat Testings
capabilities and how the company
and its personnel can assist in
development programs. The
short video is an excellent way to
demonstrate ProCats emissions
testing and development services

in front of a wider audience. The


30-second video clip provides
visual highlights of the companys
facilities, capabilities and
approach to emissions testing
and development.
Established in 1997 in Metro
Detroit (long-regarded as the
traditional heart of the US
automotive industry), ProCat
Testing is a wholly owned
subsidiary of BASF, situated in
Wixom, Michigan. The company
offers catalyst testing and
evaluation services to industries in
the global automotive, aerospace,
lubricant and off-road sector.

The ProCat facility comprises


a 3,300ft 2 building on a 1ha site.
ProCat employs 25 personnel.
The companys laboratory
services include 22 engine test
cells. ProCats facility features
vehicle and motorcycle chassis
dynamometers capable of testing
all North American, European
and Asian government-mandated
emissions cycles and is capable
of testing gasoline, diesel and
alternative fuels technology.
ProCat Testings facility
operates 24 hours a day, seven
days a week, for 360 days a year,
in order to meet the increasingly

demanding requirements of
the global emissions testing
market. As automotive OEMs
and their suppliers continue
to produce cleaner and more
fuel-efficient vehicles, ProCat
Testing is supporting those efforts
by providing a wide variety of
emission testing services
offering technical, quality, timely
and cost-effective solutions to their
emission challenges.
FREE READER INQUIRY SERVICE
To learn more about ProCat Testing,
visit: www.ukipme.com/info/etm

INQUIRY NO. 525

INDEX TO ADVERTISERS
Aachen Colloquium .......................................75, 79
AB Sandvik Materials Technology .................... 19
Advanced Forming Technology ......................... 61
Advantech International ..................................... 83
Arbomex ................................................................. 62
ASC Industries Inc .................................................75
AVL List GmbH.......................... Inside Front Cover
BorgWarner BERU Systems GmbH. Inside Back
Cover
Busch Clean Air SA................................................21
Citadel Plastics Holdings Inc ..............................57
Contitech GmbH ......................................................11
CoreTechnologie .....................................................17
Cosworth ................................................................... 8
DMG MORI ELLISON TECHNOLOGIES .............13
Electric & Hybrid Vehicle Technology
Expo 2015 ..............................................................101

Engine Expo 2014 North America ...... 23, 25, 26


Engine Technology International Online
Reader Inquiry Service ..........................47, 49, 83
Federal-Mogul Holding Deutschland
GmbH ....................................... Outside Back Cover
Grainger & Worrall Ltd ........................................ 69
Hauzer Techno Coating bv ................................. 40
HEF USA .................................................................73
HELLER Machine Tools .......................................77
Hitchiner Manufacturing Co Inc..........................70
Hollingsworth and Vose ......................................34
Iasys Technologies ...............................................77
Impro (China) Limited ...........................................79
Indo-Mim ................................................................ 65
Ionbond AG ............................................................ 39
Lubrizol ................................................................... 40
Micro-Epsilon Messtechnik GmbH & Co KG ...37

Moving Magnet Technologies SA ......................70


NEMAK Monterrey................................................43
PCB Piezotronics Inc ........................................... 20
Plasmatreat .............................................................. 8
PoSalux SA ............................................................73
Procat Testing ....................................................... 62
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SAS CRITT M2A ................................................... 58
Schaeffler AG ..........................................................51
Senior Flexonics ...................................................... 3
Solvay Advanced Polymers LLC ...................... 58
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Stresstech Oy ....................................................... 69
The Battery Show 2015 ...................................... 99
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Engine Technology International.com // September 2014 // 103

LAST WORD
WORDS: REX ROY

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Brand o
On November 14, 1914, in the Detroit suburb of
Hamtramck, the first-ever Dodge Brothers Touring
Car rolled off the production line. It was a landmark
moment for John and Horace Dodges company, which
had started out as a parts supplier to the nascent
automobile industry, providing components for the
likes of Ford and Oldsmobile, before deciding to go
it alone. Today, 100 years later, Dodge remains one of
the worlds most recognizable vehicle manufacturers.
The Dodge brothers themselves, however, would see
little of their companys success. In 1920, with Dodge
positioned as the second biggest-selling car maker in the
USA, the pair succumbed to influenza John in January
and Horace in December leaving one of the North
American industrys big hitters bereft of both its
founders. In 1925, a consortium of New York bankers
bought Dodge for US$146m the largest cash transaction
ever recorded at the time. In 1928, however, the Chrysler
Corporation acquired Dodge for US$170m, positioning
the brand alongside its Plymouth and DeSoto lines. In
the decades that followed, Dodge enjoyed a number of
milestones the first mass-produced, gravity-type
downdraft carburetor appeared in Dodge vehicles in
1929; automatic over-drive transmissions debuted in
1934; and a Dodge V8-powered vehicle broke 196 stock
car records at the Bonneville Salt Flats in 1953.
Dodge would also become synonymous with the USAs
muscle car era. The 1966 Charger (including a top-spec
option that sported a 431ps, 7-liter Hemi V8) and the
1969 Challenger (Dodges pony car rival to the Camero
and Mustang had nine engine options, the largest of
which required specialist heavy-duty suspension)
quickly became iconic vehicles. The 1970 Challenger, in
particular, became lodged in the public consciousness
after racing across North America in Richard Sarafians
1971 seminal road movie, Vanishing Point.
Landmark vehicles continued to roll off the Dodge
production lines. Some were notable for their enduring

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The Dodge brothers


themselves, however,
would see little of their
companys success

Above: A 1931 advert for


the new Dodge Six and
Eight boasted floating
power, an automatic
clutch, a silent gear
selector and free
wheeling capability
Right: Dodge played a
significant role in the
US war effort, producing
military vehicles at its
Chicago production plant,
pictured here in 1943

practicality the front-wheel-drive, 2.2-liter, 97ps


Caravan launched in 1984, and recently celebrated its
30th birthday; and some for their performance pedigree
the 1983 Shelby Charger saw the famed automotive
maestro add a Garrett AiResearch T3 turbocharger,
multipoint fuel injectors and a close ratio transmission
to the base 2.2-liter engine, resulting in 148ps. The
Viper, another Dodge hallmark, warranted its own
specialist design team, and went on sale to the public in
1992, complete with an 8-liter V10, pumping out 405ps.
But it hasnt always been smooth sailing. A merger
between Chrysler and Daimler in 1998 saw Dodge
positioned as the new groups low-price and performance
division, and marked the start of a period of platform
sharing and cost saving. Daimler and Chrysler parted
ways in 2007 and, just two years later, the financial
crisis saw Chrysler declare bankruptcy on May 1, 2009.
Now owned by Fiat, the modern Dodge portfolio,
quite literally, shows no sign of slowing down. Aprils
New York Auto Show saw the debut of the new Charger
and Challenger and, just months ago, Dodge announced
that the most powerful V8 it has ever produced will find
a home in the Challenger SRT a 6.2-liter, 717ps Hemi
Hellcat engine that spits out 881Nm of torque and can
pull the car to a 10.8 second quarter-mile. The legacy of
the Dodge brothers, 100 years on, is in safe hands.

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