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Kodagu District

Kodagu

district

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Kodagu also known


administrative distric
India. It occupies an
square kilometres
theWestern Ghats of
Karnataka. In 2001
was 548,561,
which resided in the
centres, making it
populous of the 30
Karnataka.[3] The
bordered
Kannada district to
northwest, Hassan
north,Mysore
east, Kannur
district of Kerala to
and the Wayanad
to the south.
the most important
upholds the
Kodagu and the
cultivated in this
and coffee. Coorg is
resources which
and
spices. Madikeri (En
is the headquarters
Coorg is a tourist
known for its coffee
warrior people. The
are its indigenous
other ethnic groups
Kodava subgroups).
(freehold farmers,
miltiamen), and
(farmers)
from Sullia region
freeholder farmers in
Kodagu in the 17th
centuries) moved
after the massacare
(Through Treachery
Hyder ali)in
Bagamandala,
parts of Piryapatna
mysore region

district
from Coorg)

Nickname(s): Coorg Country

as Coorg, is an
t in Karnataka,
area of 4,102
(1,584 sq mi) in
southwestern
its population
13.74% of
district's urban
the least
districts in
district is
by Dakshina
the
district to the
district to the
the southwest,
district of Kerala
Agriculture is
factor that
economy of
main crops
region are rice
rich in natural
included timber
glish: Mercara)
of Kodagu.

Location of the district in Karnataka

attraction,
and its ethnic
dominant group
(Kodavas) and
(Arabasha and
Kodavas
rulers and
offlate arabasha
also, who were
sulia (a part of
and 18th
towords Kodagu
of kodavas
by Tippu and
Somavaerpet,
Kushalnaga and
(Presentday
founded and

ruled by a kodava paryaraja,Parya meaning elder in kodava)for agricultural activities in kodagu due
to wars with Tippu and Hyderali before there death in recent past. The chief languages presently
spoken in Kodagu are Kodava, Are Bhashe,kannada, Kasaragod Malayalam, Yerava, Kuruba,
Konkani, Urdu, Tulu and English. Kodagu is home to the native speakers of the Kodava language.[4]
Contents
[hide]

1 Geography

2 History

3 Kodagu Culture
o

3.1 Traditional costume

3.2 Festivals of Kodagu

3.2.1 Kailpoud

3.2.2 Kaveri Sankramana

3.2.3 puttari
4 Economy

4.1 Agriculture

4.2 Tourism

5 Flora and fauna

6 Demographics
o

6.1 Kodava people

6.2 Other Kodava speakers

6.3 Jungle-dwellers

6.4 Kodagu Gowdas

6.5 Muslims and Christians

6.6 Others

7 Notable people

8 Representation

9 Transport

10 Education

11 References

12 Further reading

13 External links

Geography[edit]

A waterfall on the way from Madikeri to Sullia

Kodagu is located on the eastern slopes of theWestern Ghats. It has a geographical area of
4,102 km2 (1,584 sq mi).[5] The district is bordered by Dakshina Kannada district to the
northwest,Hassan district to the north, Mysore district to the east, Kasaragod district in west
and Kannur districtof Kerala to the southwest, and Wayanad district of Kerala to the south. It is a hilly
district, the lowest elevation of which is 900 metres (3,000 ft) above sea-level. The highest
peak, Tadiandamol, rises to 1,750 metres (5,740 ft), with Pushpagiri, the second highest, at 1,715
metres (5,627 ft). The main river in Kodagu is the Kaveri (Cauvery), which originates atTalakaveri,
located on the eastern side of the Western Ghats, and with its tributaries, drains the greater part of
Kodagu.
In July and August, rainfall is intense, and there are often showers into November. Yearly rainfall
may exceed 4,000 millimetres (160 in) in some areas. In dense jungle tracts, rainfall reaches 3,000
to 3,800 millimetres (120 to 150 in) and 1,500 to 2,500 millimetres (59 to 98 in) in the bamboo district
to the west. Kodagu has an average temperature of 15 C (59 F), ranging from 11 to 28 C (52 to
82 F), with the highest temperatures occurring in April and May. The principal town, and district
capital, is Madikeri, or Mercara, with a population of around 30,000. Other significant towns
include Virajpet (Virarajendrapet), Kushalanagara, Somwarpet and Gonikoppal. The district is
divided into the three administrative talukas: Madikeri, Virajpet and Somwarpet. Virajpet is the
largest Taluk and comprises the towns Virajpet, Gonikoppal, Siddapura, Ponnampet, Ammathi,
Thithimathi etc.

History[edit]
Main articles: History of Kodagu, Captivity of Kodavas at Seringapatam, Coorg War and Coorg State

Map of South Indian states prior to the States Reorganisation Act, 1956. Kodagu (then called Coorg) is in dark
green.

Kodavu was the native name of Kodagu. The Kodavas were the earliest agriculturists in Kodagu,
having lived there for centuries. Being a warrior community as well, they carried arms during times of
war and had their own chieftains. TheHaleri dynasty ruled Kodagu between 1600 and 1834. Later
the British ruled Kodagu from 1834, after the Coorg War, until India's independence in 1947. A
separate state (called Coorg State) until then, in 1956 Kodagu was merged with the Mysore State
(now Karnataka).

Kodagu Culture[edit]

Dolls dressed in Kodava attire

The Kodavas are the dominant community of Kodagu. Kodava oral traditions are very rich, some of
the traditional folk songs have been compiled into the Pattole Palome . The Kodavas revere
ancestors, arms and worship a number of deities, besides the River Kaveri, some of them being
[[]], Igguthappa, Bhagwathi, Muthappa, Mahadeva, Bhadrakali, Subramani and Ayyappa. Very
similar to the Kodavas in religion, culture and language are the Kodava Peggade (Kodagu
Heggade), the Amma Kodava, the Airi (artisans), the Meda (craftsmen and drummers) and the
Kembatti (labourers).
The Kodava language speakers, other than the Kodavas, include the Kodava Heggade (cultivators
of Malabari origin), the Amma Kodava (a mixed race), the Airi (smiths and carpenters), the Thatta

(jewellers), some of the Male-Kudiya, the Kembatti Poleya (Holeya), the Maringi, the Kapala
(of Siddi origin), the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers), the Kanya, the Banna, the
Malaya (astrologers of Malayala origin), the Kodagu Golla (cowherds of Mysorean origin), the
Kodagu Ganiga (oil-makers), the Kolla, the Kavadi, the Koleya, the Koyava and others.

Traditional costume[edit]
Most of the Kodagu natives, including the Kodavas, the Kodava speakers and the Kodagu
Arebhashe Gowdas, wear the traditional Kodava costume. These men wear Kupyas (knee-length
half-sleeved coats) over a full-sleeved white shirt. Chale i.e. a maroon and gold sash is tied at the
waist and an ornately carved silver dagger known as Peechekathi is tucked into it. Odikathi is yet
another knife that is tucked into the Chale at the back. Furthermore, a chain with a minuscule gun
and a dagger hanging onto it give them a martial look. The saris worn by women folk are pleated at
the back and the pallu fixed with a brooch is also wrapped in a very unique way where as Kodagu
Arebhashe gowdas women folk are pleated at front and the pallu fixed witb a brooch is also wrapped
in a very unique way. They wear either a full-sleeved or three-quarter sleeved blouse and cover their
head with a scarf. A traditional gold beaded necklace (Jomalae) and a gem-pendant (Kokkethathi) is
widely worn by the women of Kodagu.

Festivals of Kodagu[edit]

Kodava Thirrale or daiva theere(called Theyyam in Malayalam), similar to another ceremony called the Kola in
Kodava ,arebhashe,Kannada and Nema in Tulu

Kailpoud[edit]
Kailpoud, celebrated on 3 September, signifies the completion of "nati", or the transplantation of the
rice crop. Officially, the festival begins 18 days after the sun enters the Simha Raasi (the western
sign of Leo). Kail means weapon or armoury and poud means Brighten.
The festival signifies the day when men should prepare to guard their crop from wild boars and other
animals, since during the preceding months, during which the family were engaged in the fields, all
weapons were normally deposited in the '()"kanni kombare"(in kodava takk), or the prayer room.
Hence on the day of Kailpoud, the weapons are taken out of thePooja room, cleaned and
decorated with flowers. They are then kept in the Nellakki Nadubade, the central hall of the
house and the place of community worship. Each member of the family has a bath, after
which they worship the weapons before feasting and drinking. The eldest member of the
family hands a gun to the senior member of the family, signifying the commencement of the
festivities. The whole family assembles in the mand (open ground), where physical contests
and sports, including marksmanship, are conducted. In the past the hunting and cooking of
wild game was part of the celebration. Now shooting skills are tested by firing at a coconut
tied onto the branch of a tall tree.

Traditional rural sports, like grabbing a coconut from the hands of a group of 810 people (thenge
porata)or("ambu kai"), throwing a stone the size of a cricket ball at a coconut from a distance of 10
15 paces (tenge eed)or("kaai kal"), lifting a stone ball of 3040 cm lying at one's feet and throwing it
backwards over the shoulders, are now conducted in community groups called Kodava Samajas and
Kodagu Gowda Samajas in towns and cities.
Kaveri Sankramana[edit]

Talakaveri, origin of the river Kaveri

Kaveri in Bhagamandala (in Kodagu)

Kaveri near Kushalnagar (in Kodagu)

The Kaveri Sankramana festival normally takes place in mid-October. It is associated with the
river Kaveri, which flows through the district from its source at Talakaveri. At a predetermined time,
when the sun enters Tula Rasi (Tula sankramana), a fountain from a small tank fills the larger holy
tank at Talakaveri. Thousands of people gather to dip in this holy water. The water, called tirtha, is
collected in bottles and distributed to every home throughout Kodagu to be preserved. A spoonful of
this water is fed to the dying, in the belief that they will attain moksha (spiritual emancipation) and
gain entry to heaven.
On this day, married women wearing new silk saris perform puja to a vegetable, symbolising the
goddess Kaveri. The vegetable is usually a cucumber or a coconut, wrapped in a piece of red silk
cloth and decorated with flowers and jewels (mainly 'Pathak' (Kodava Mangalasuthra)). This is called
the Kanni Puje. Kanni refers to the goddess Parvati, who incarnated as Kaveri. Three sets

of betel leaves and arecanut are kept in front of the goddess with bunches of glass bangles. All the
members of the family pray to the goddess by throwing rice and prostrating themselves before the
image. The elder members of the family ceremonially bless the younger. Then an older married
woman draws water from the well and starts cooking. The menu of the day is dosa and vegetable
curry (usually pumpkin curry (kumbala kari)) and payasa (sweet dish). Nothing but vegetarian food is
cooked on this day, and this is the only festival among the Kodavas where only vegetarian food is
prepared and served. Where as Kodagu Arebhashe gowdas take a bath early in near by stream or
river prepare dosa with out baked rice.The house leader takes five dosa with banana ,ghee ,honey
and places it in paddy field calling pandava ooo..oiy three times .later the few persons from family go
to kaveri to leave the "pinda"the burnt ash in water and offer kunkum archane for kaveri.later they
get holy water to homes.The elderly person "pattedara" lights holy lamp serves holy "kaveri
theertha"to all his family members and the elder person ceremonially bless the younger .later the
offerings are kept to "gurukarnav"(eldest person of family)aling with "kaveri theertha"
puttari[edit]
puttari means new rice and is the rice harvest festival (also called puttari in the adjacent Kodavaspeaking community). This takes place in late November or early December. Celebrations and
preparations for this festival start a week in advance.
On the day of huttari, the whole family assembles in their ain mane (the common family house),
which is decorated with flowers and green mango leaves and banana leaves. Specific foods are
prepared: tambuttu, puttari kalngi, kesa gende hudka and pache puttuand "rice kheer". Then the
eldest member of the family hands a sickle to the head of the family and one of the women leads a
procession to the paddy fields with a lit lamp in her hands. The path leading to the field is decorated.
A gunshot is fired to mark the beginning of the harvest, with chanting of Poli Poli Deva (prosperity)
by all present. Then the symbolic harvesting of the crop begins. The rice is cut and stacked and tied
in odd numbers and is carried home to be offered to the gods. The younger generation then light
firecrackers and revel, symbolising prosperity. Groups of youngsters visit neighbouring houses and
boast their dancing skills and are given monetary gifts. A week later, this money is pooled and the
entire village celebrates a communal dinner called """ooramme". All family members gather for this
meal. Dinner normally consists of meat dishes, such as pork and chicken curry. Alcoholic beverages
are also served at such feasts.

Economy[edit]
Agriculture[edit]

Gambooge orKachampulior"Kachulli" (Coorg vinegar)

Kodagu is a rural region with most of the economy based on agriculture, plantations and forestry, as
well as one of the more prosperous parts of Karnataka. This is due primarily to coffee production and
other plantation crops. Rice and other crops are cultivated in the valleys. Coffee plantations, situated
on hillsides too steep for growing rice, and taking advantage of shade from existing forests, became
characteristic of the district in the 20th century. Coffee is now a major cash crop. Coffee processing

is also becoming a major economic contributor. In recent years tourism has also begun to play a role
in the economy. Eco-tourism, such as walking and trekking tours, take advantage of plantation
buildings converted into guest-houses
Much of Kodagu is used for agriculture. Characteristically and historically, paddy fields are found on
the valley floors, with Coffee and pepper agroforestry in the surrounding hills mainly near Madikeri.
The most common plantation crop is coffee, especially Coffea robusta variety. Kodagu is the second
coffee production region in India, after the Baba Budangiri hills in Chikkamagaluru district. Coffee
revenue helped Kodagu to become one of the richest districts in India. Coffea arabica is also grown
in some parts of southern and western Kodagu, the historical area of coffee production. One can go
to see the coffee plantation and can understand how sophisticated coffee plantation is and how
much perfection and precision it requires it is mandatory to grow coffee in shade so it is grown with
the eucalyptus trees and the vanilla. The coffee agro-forestry systems of Kodagu are one of the
richest agro-forest in the world, with about 270 species of shaded trees inventoried (see publications
of CAFNET project). But the trend is now to replace the native shade trees by exotic ones (such as
the Grevillea robusta). In those coffee agro-forests are also cultivated spices like black
pepper, cardamon, vanilla. Besides, the other famous agricultural produce of Kodagu is Kodagu
Oranges (Citrus sinensis) known for its distinctive taste and shrunken nature. Kodagu is also known
for its forest honey. Many other crops are also cultivated, including para rubber, teak, and cocoa.
There are also large areas of natural forest, especially in the forest reserves in the south and east.

Tourism[edit]

Kaveri River in Kushal Nagar

Tibetan Buddhist Golden temple, near Bylakuppe and in Kushalnagar

Kodagu is rated as one of the top hill station destinations in India. Some of the most popular tourist
attractions in Kodagu include Talakaveri, Bhagamandala, Nisargadhama, Abbey Falls, Dubare,
Nagarahole National Park, Iruppu Falls, and the Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple.
Talakaveri is the place where the River Kaveri originates. The temple on the riverbanks here is
dedicated to lord Brahma, and is one of only two temples dedicated to Brahma in India and
Southeast Asia. Bhagamandala is situated at the Sangam (confluence) of two rivers, the Kaveri and
the Kanika. A third river, the Sujyothi, is said to join from underground, and hence this spot is called
the Triveni Sangam. Iruppu Falls is a sacred Kodagu Hindu spot in South Kodagu in the Brahmagiri
hill range. The Lakshmana Tirtha River, with the waterfalls, flows nearby and has a Rameshwara
temple on its banks.

Omkareshwara Temple is a beautiful temple built in the Indo-Sarcenic style in Coorg. A legend is
associated with the temple, built by Lingrajendra II in 1820 CE. The king put to death a pious
Brahmin who dared to protest against his misdeeds. The spirit of the dead man began to plague the
king day and night. On the advice of wise men, the king built this temple and installed a shivlinga
procured from Kashi, North India.
Dubare is mainly an elephant-capturing and training camp of the Forest Department at the edge of
Dubare forest; on the bank of the river Kaveri along the Kushalanagara Siddapura
road. Nagarahole is a national park and wildlife resort. Nisargadhama is a man-made island and
picnic spot near Kushalanagara, formed by the river Kaveri.
Abbey Falls is a scenic waterfall 5 km from Madikeri. Mallalli falls is 25 km from Somwarpet, downhill
of the Pushpagiri hills. Mandalapatti is 28 km from Madikeri. On the way to Abbey Falls, before 3 km
from Abbey Falls take right, from there 25 km.
The Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple is at Bylakuppe near Kushalnagar of Kodagu district, in the
Tibetan refugee settlement.

Flora and fauna[edit]

View of Tadiandamol

Kodagu is considered rich with wildlife and has three wildlife sanctuaries and one national park:
the Brahmagiri, Talakaveri, and Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuaries, and the Nagarhole National Park,
also known as the Rajiv Gandhi National Park.
The flora of the jungle includes Michelia champaca, Mesua (Ironwood), Diospyros(ebony and other
species), Toona ciliata (Indian mahogany), Chukrasia tabularis,Calophyllum angustifolium (Poon
spar), Canarium strictum (Black
Dammar),Artocarpus, Dipterocarpus, Garcinia, Euonymus, Cinnamomum, Myristica,Vaccinium, Myrt
aceae, Melastomataceae, Rubus (three species) and a rose. In the undergrowth are
found cardamom,Areca, plantains, canes, wild black pepper, Cyatheales and other ferns,
and arums.
In the forest of the less thickly-wooded bamboo country in the west of Kodagu the most common
trees are the Dalbergia latifolia (Black wood), Pterocarpus marsupium (Kino tree), Terminalia
tomentosa (Matthi), Lagerstroemia parviflora(Benteak), Anogeissus latifolia (Dindul), Bassia
latifolia, Butea monosperma, Nauclea parvifiora, and several species
ofacacia. Teak and sandalwood also grow in the eastern part of the district.
The fauna include: the Asian elephant, tiger, leopard, dhole, gaur, boar, and several species of deer.
Kodagu also offers a wide variety of birds, roughly around 300 birds have been sighted and reported
over the years.

Demographics[edit]

Kodavas, 1875, From "The people of India: A series of photographic illustrations..."(New York Public Library).

According to the 2011 census of India, Kodagu has a population of 554,762,[3] roughly equal to
the Solomon Islands[6] or the US state of Wyoming.[7] This ranks it 539 out of 640 districts in India in
terms of population.[3] The district has a population density of 135 inhabitants per square kilometre
(350/sq mi).[3] Its population growth rate over the decade 20012011 was 1.13%.[3] Kodagu has a sex
ratio of 1019 females for every 1000 males,[3] and a literacy rate of 82.52%.[3]
Kodava is the spoken language native to Kodagu. Are Bhashe, a dialect
of Tulu and Kannadainfluenced by malayalam language, is native to Sulya in Dakshina Kannada and
now has a significant number of speakers in Kodagu. However, both use the Kannada script for
literature.[8] According to Karnataka Kodava Sahitya Academy (Karnataka's Kodava Literary
Academy), apart from Kodavas, and their related groups, the Amma Kodavas, the
KodavaPeggade (Kodagu Heggade) and the Kodava Maaple (Kodava Muslims), 18 other smallernumbered ethnic groups speak Kodava Takk in and outside the district including the Iri (Airi, or the
carpenters and the village smiths), the Koyava, the Banna, the Kodagu Madivala(washermen), the
Kodagu Hajama (barber, also called Nainda), the Kembatti Poleya(household servants and
labourers) and the Meda (basket and mat weavers and drummers).[9]
Besides Kodavas and Kodava speakers, other large communities that now reside in Kodagu District
are the Kodagu Gowdas(who speak Are-bhashe dialect and originally from Sulya) and
the Muslims (who speak Malayalam, Urdu or Kodava). The main hunter-gatherer forest dwellers of
Kodagu are the Kudiya, the Yerava (also called Adia) and the Kuruba. There are also families of
the Brahmin community, most of whom were brought here for the purpose of offering poojas at
various temples.
Less frequent are Tulu speakers Billavas, Mogaveeras, Bunts, Brahmins. [9]

Kodava people[edit]
Main article: Kodava people
Kodagu is home to many communities with diverse ethnic origins, with the dominant Kodavas being
the main ethnic group. Despite the native Kodavas, forming only one-fifth of the total population of
Kodagu as most of them have moved to the cities, like Bangalore and Mysore, and even abroad, to
regions like North America, they are however still the largest group in Kodagu. The Kodavas owned
their farms, growing paddy in the fields, pepper, areca, coconut, cardamom, coffee and other crops
in their hill orchards and woods. Guns and swords are essential for their religion, as ritual cult
objects, and they hold rights to carry light arms.
The Kodavas Hindus are traditionally ancestor worshippers with a martial tradition, hence may be
called Kshatriyas. In Kodagu, the Kodavas were owners of land, the caste of Kembatti Poleya, were
the farm labourers who worked for them. They are not vegetarians, but they do not eat beef. They

are polytheists and believe in a number of deities. The chief deities are Bhagwathi (Parvati),
Mahadeva (Shiva), Muthappa, Bhadrakali (a form of Parvati as Kali or Durga), Subramani
(Subramanya) and Ayyappa. Igguthappa, the most important local god, is an incarnation of
Subramani, the god of snakes, rain, harvest and rice.

The Dravidian Languages: notice Kodava/ Kodagu language (rough estimates)

The ancient folk songs (some of them are compiled in the Pattole Palome) sing of the numerous
Kodavas and the much lesser-numbered other communities. It also speaks of the social
relationships of the Kodavas with the other communities who were the natives of Kodagu and spoke
the Kodava language. Airi, Male-Kudiya, Meda, Kembatti, Kapala, Maringi, Heggade, Kavadi, Kolla,
Thatta, Koleya, Koyava, Banna, Golla, Kanya, Ganiga, and Malaya are other castes native to
Kodagu who speak Kodava. Many of these communities had originally migrated into Kodagu from
the Malabar Coast region during the rule of the Haleri dynasty (1600-1834).

Other Kodava speakers[edit]


Amma Kodavas, originally a backward caste of mixed Kodava origin, live in the southern parts of
Kodagu and follow some of the Brahmin customs. Unlike other Kodavas they are vegetarians, they
abstain from alcohol, wear the sacred thread and study the Vedas. They were the progeny of
intercaste marriages between Brahmins and Kodavas during former times. They belong to 44 family
names and two gothras. Otherwise they follow the Kodava habits and customs, dress like other
Kodavas and speak Kodava Takk. They were also known as the Kaveri Brahmins by the British.
Among other Kodava speaking communities are: the Heggades, cultivators from Malabar; the Ayiri,
who constitute the artisan caste; the Medas, who are basket and mat-weavers and act as drummers
at feasts; the Binepatta, originally wandering musicians from Malabar, now farmers; and the Kavadi,
cultivators settled in Yedenalknad (Virajpet). All these groups speak the Kodava language and
conform generally to Kodava customs and dress.[8]

Jungle-dwellers[edit]
The Kudiya lived in the Western Ghats along Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu and some of them
were toddy-makers. While most of them spoke the Kudiya language, some of the Male-Kudiya (a
Kudiya sub-caste) speak a variation of the Kodava language. The Yerava also live in adjacent
Kerala, where they are known as the Adiya, and are primarily Hindu farm-labourers. They speak their
own Yerava dialect. The Kurbas were forest hunter-gatherers who are now farm-labourers. They
speak their own dialect and belong to two subcastes Jenu, who are honey-gatherers, and Betta,
who are hill-dwellers and good elephant captors, trainers and mahouts.

Kodagu Gowdas[edit]
Main article: Kodagu Gowda

The Arebhashe gowdas,[10] or Kodagu Gowdas, and Tulu Gowdas, are a major ethnic group in some
parts of Dakshina Kannada and Kodagu. They live in Sulya (in Dakshina Kannada) and in parts of
Somwarpet, Bhagamandala and Madikeri. Guddemane Appaiah Gowda along with many other
freedom fighters from different communities revolted against the Britishin an armed struggle which
covered entire Kodagu and Dakshina Kannada. This was one of the earliest freedom movements
against the British[11] called "Amara Sulliada Swantantrya Sangraama"[12] (Amara Sulya
Dhange[11] formally called the 'Coorg Rebellion' by the British) started in 1837. [13][14][15][16]

Muslims and Christians[edit]

The entrance of the Tibetan Buddhist Golden Temple and monastery

Kodagu is home to a sizeable population of Muslims. Those Muslims who are of South Western
Indian origins are known as the maaple, either Malayalam speaking in Kerala and Kodava speaking
in Kodagu. Kodava Hindus converted by Tipu Sultaninto Islam were called Kodava maaple,
or Jamma Maaple. Some of the Kodava maaple (Kodava-speaking) have married with
Malabar Mappila (Malayalam speaking) and Tulu Bearys. A number of Muslims from the Malabar
coast (KeralaMappilas), have settled in Virajpet (the Southern part of Kodagu) as traders. Those who
speak Urdu and are of Persian (or sometimes Arab or Afghan) origins call themselves Sheikhs but
are locally known as the Turks (Turqa). They settled when the Mysore Sultans ruled in Kodagu. [17]
A small number of Mangalorean Catholics are also found in Kodagu. They are mostly descended
from those Konkani Catholics who fled the roundup and, later, captivity by Tippu Sultan. These
immigrants were welcomed by Raja Virarajendra (himself a former captive of Tippu Sultan, having
escaped six years of captivity in 1788) who realising their usefulness and expertise as agriculturists,
gave them lands and tax breaks and built a church for them. [18]

Others[edit]
There is a sizeable population of the Brahmins and the Lingayat people and the majority of them are
in the taluk ofSomwarpet. A large number of the present people of Kodagu, nearly three-fifths, are
mainly agriculturists (Vokkaliga) and labourers (Holeya) who arrive from the Mysore region and
speak Kannada in Kodagu. Those from Hassan District are called the Badaga ('Northern') people.
Also a large number of traders are Muslims (Maaple) from Kerala and speak Malayalam. Besides
Kodava and Kannada, Arebhashe, Konkani, Malayalam, Urdu and Tulu are also spoken in Kodagu.
Kodagu also has a Tibetan Buddhist refugee population as well, mainly settled around Kushalnagar.

Notable people[edit]
Main article: List of Kodavas

Field Marshal K. M. Cariappa, first Indian C-in-C, High Commissioner of Australia and New
Zealand

General K. S. Thimayya, head of Indian Army, chairman of Korean Repatriation Committee,


head of UN Peacekeeping force

Lt Gen Apparanda Aiyappa, head of Signals Corps, later head of Bharat Electronics Limited

Squadron Leader Ajjamada B Devaiah, Maha Vir Chakra (Posthumous), 1965 Indo Pak War,
he was known as 'wings of fire', died in Pakistan.[19]

C B Muthamma, first woman IFS officer

Rao Bahadur P. K. Monnappapolice chief of three states

C. G. Somiah, Comptroller and Auditor General of India (19901996).

Pandyanda Belliappa, freedom fighter and Gandhian.

Diwan Bahadur Ketoli Chengappa, last Chief Commissioner of Coorg

Leefe Robinson, World War II pilot, VC recipient

Frederick Nicholson Betts, ornithologist

Prema, Kannada actress.

B D Ganapathy, writer and journalist

Biddu Appaiah, music composer

Maleyanda D Muthappa, First Kodava Hockey player to represent India

M. P. Ganesh, former hockey team captain, Olympian and coach, 1973 Arjuna Award.

B. P. Govinda, team hockey player, 1975 Arjuna Award.

Kodagina Gowramma, Kannada feminist writer

Zulfi Syed, Super model and actor

Sommayya Maneypande (M M Somaiya) former Indian Hockey team player, captain,


Olympian,Arjuna Awardee 1985, Hockey Gold Medalist 1980

Arjun Halappa, hockey player

A B Subbaiah, Indian team hockey player, 1996 Arjuna Awardee

Ashwini Nachappa, athlete, 1988 Arjuna Award

Ganga Lina Chenanda, National hockey player Indian Universities


C.C. Machaiah, (Chenanda Machiah) former boxer,Olympian and coach, 1978 Arjuna
Awardee

Robin Uthappa, international cricket player

Rohan Bopanna, tennis player

Ashwini Ponnappa, badminton player

Joshna Chinappa, squash player

Jagat and Anita Nanjappa, former national rally champions

C M Poonacha, Chief Minister of Coorg State, Member of Parliamentfrom Mangalore,


Governor of Orissaand Madhya Pradesh

Prema Cariappa, former mayor of Bangalore, Rajya Sabha MP

K.G. Bopaiah (Speaker of Legislative Assembly/ Virajpet MLA)[20]

M P Appachu Ranjan, Ex-Minister and Member of Karnataka Legislative Assembly

Charles Davy, cricketer

V. R. Raghunath, Indian team hockey player.

S. K. Uthappa, Indian hockey team player.

Major M C Muthanna, war martyr

Gundugutti Manjunathayya, Freedom fighter, Member of the legislative assembly (19521957), State of Coorg.

Sadguru Appayya Swami, head of Kaveri Ashram (monastery)

Swami Narayanananda, head of a monastery in Denmark

Swami Shambhavananda, a Hindu monk known for his efforts to promote malaria eradication
and beekeeping, head of Ramakrishna Mission, Ponnampet monastery.

Shri. Nidyamale Somana, Member, First Lok Sabha (19521957), Parliament of India,
represented the State of Coorg; MLA (19571958), Karnataka State,
representedPiriyapatna Constituency[21]

Dambekodi S. Madappa (Ex-MLA)[22]

S. V. Sunil, Indian hockey team player.

Nidhi Subbaiah, Kannada actress

Daisy Bopanna, Kannada actress

Harshika Poonacha, Kannada actress

Jai Jagadish, Senior actor in Sandalwood

Ramya Barna, Kannada actress

Nishan K. P. Nanaiah, Hindi and Malayalam actor

Anjana Appachana, novelist

Boverianda Nanjamma and Chinnappa, eminent research scholars

Guddemane Appaiah Gowda, the first freedom fighter of Coorgaround 1834-1837.[22]

Baddana Raj Chengappa - Editor-in-Chief, Printer & Publisher, The Tribune; Chandigarh,
India.[23][24]

Shri. K.P.Poonacha, Fmr. Joint Director General, ASI, Government of India. Author:
Archaeology of Karnataka,(Pre-proto-history-of-south-western-region)

P T Bopanna, author and journalist.

Prof P S Appaiah, eminent scholar

A. T. Raghu, Film and serial director

Dinesh Gundu Rao, politician

N.S.Deviprasad (Sampaje Deviprasad), Film Producer and Cultural activist & Activist for
'Praja Vedike'[25]
B. B. Ashok Kumar, noted police officer.

Sandeep saphalya,Social Work Volunteer

Representation[edit]
Two members of the legislative assembly are elected from Kodagu to the Karnataka Legislative
Assembly, one each from the Madikeri and Virajpet talukas. M P Appachu Ranjan represents the
Madikeri constituency while K. G. Bopaiah represents the Virajpet constituency; they are from
the Bharatiya Janata Party. Kodagu, formerly part of the Kodagu-Dakshina Kannada (Mangalore)

constituency, is now part of the Kodagu-Mysore Lok Sabha parliamentary constituency. Shri Pratap
Simha, from the Bharatiya Janata Party, represents Kodagu-Mysore Parliamentary constituency.
The Codava National Council and Kodava Rashtriya Samiti are campaigning for autonomy to
Kodagu district.[26][27]

Transport[edit]

Road map of the district.

Madikeri is well connected by road


with Mangalore, Hassan, Mysore, Bangalore andKannur, Thalassery, and Wayanad of neighbouring
state Kerala. There are threeGhat roads for reaching Kodagu from coastal regions of Kerala and
Karnataka: theSampajeMadikeri Ghat road from Mangalore, the PanathurBhagamandala Ghat
road from Kasaragod, Kanhangad, Malom and chittarikkal and the MakuttaPerumbadi/Virajpet Ghat
road from Kannur and Thalassery through Iritty.
The nearest railway stations are Thalassery and Kannur in Kerala and Mangalore, Mysore and
Hassan are the nearest in Karnataka. The nearest airports are atMysore and Mangalore. Mysore
Airport is at a distance of 130 km from Madikeri and 115 kilometres (71 mi) from Virajpet. Mangalore
International Airport is located 140 kilometres (87 mi) from Madikeri and 172 kilometres (107 mi)
from Virajpet. Thegreenfield Kannur Airport coming up in Mattanur which is expected to be
operational by December 2015, would be closest to Coorg at about 85 kilometers from Madikeri and
55 kilometers from Virajpet. The nearest seaport for Kodagu is New Mangalore Port at Panambur in
Mangalore, 145 kilometres (90 mi) from Madikeri.

Education[edit]
Some of the notable college institutions of the region are:

Government Engineering College, Kushalnagar.

College of Forestry, Ponnampet, University of Agricultural Sciences (B).

Coorg Institute of Technology, Ponnampet.

Coorg Institute of Dental sciences, Virajpet

Field Marshal K M Cariappa College, Madikeri

References[edit]
1.

Jump up^ "Kodagu district Profile". DSERT. Retrieved 11 January2011.

2.

Jump up^ http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/259-kodagu.html

3.

^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 30


September 2011.

4.

Jump up^ "Kodava-speaking people seek one identity". The Hindu.

5.

Jump up^ "Districts of India". Government of India. Retrieved11 January 2011.

6.

Jump up^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 1


October 2011.Solomon Islands 571,890 July 2011 est.

7.

Jump up^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 30


September 2011. Wyoming 563,626

8.

^ Jump up to:a b K S Rajyashree, Kodava speech community : An ethnolinguistic study

9.

^ Jump up to:a b "Will Kodava find a place in Eighth Schedule". The Hindu.

10.

Jump up^ Herbert Feis (Dec 1926). "The Mechanism of Adjustment of International Trade
Balances". The American Economic Review (American Economic Association) 16 (4): 593
609. JSTOR 1. edit

11.

^ Jump up to:a b [1][dead link]

12.

Jump up^ South Kanara, 17991860 By N. Shyam Bhatt

13.

Jump up^http://www.thehindu.com/2004/10/31/stories/2004103102280300.htm

14.

Jump up^http://www.hindu.com/2005/05/19/stories/2005051901540300.htm

15.

Jump up^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/316458/account-uprising.html

16.

Jump up^ http://www.deccanherald.com/content/316455/fate-insurgents.html

17.

Jump up^ "Indian census data" (PDF). Retrieved 7 July 2012.

18.

Jump up^ Sarasvati's Children: A History of the Mangalorean Christians, Alan Machado
Prabhu, I.J.A. Publications, 1999, p. 229

19.

Jump up^ Correspondent, Special (8 September 2013). "Tributes paid to war hero
Devayya". The Hindu. Retrieved3 January 2014.

20.

Jump up^ "Front Page : Bopaiah set to be elected Speaker". The Hindu. 2009-12-29.
Retrieved 2012-05-22.

21.

Jump up^ "Biographical Sketch Of First Lok Sabha". Parliamentofindia.nic.in.


Retrieved 2012-05-22.

22.

^ Jump up to:a b "Appaiah Gowda memorial to honour freedom fighter". The Hindu (Madikeri).
May 19, 2005. Retrieved2012-05-22.

23.

Jump up^ "India Today Blogs". Blogs.intoday.in. Retrieved2012-05-22.

24.

Jump up^http://www.teri.res.in/dsds2007/doc/cv07/raj_chengappa.pdf

25.

Jump up^ "Minutes Of Meetings Of The National Commission To Review The Working Of
The Constitution". Lawmin.nic.in. Retrieved 2012-05-22.

26.

Jump up^ "Codava National Council sets up global forum". The Hindu.

27.

Jump up^ "Dharna staged for Kodagu State". The Hindu.

Further reading[edit]

Belliappa, C. P. Tale of a Tiger's Tail & Others Yarns from Coorg. English.

Belliappa, C. P. Victoria Gowramma. English.

Bopanna, P. T. Kodagu: Mungaru Maleya Vismayada Nadu/ Discover Coorg. Kannada/


English.

Bopanna, P. T. Coorg State: Udaya-Pathana / Coorg State. Kannada/ English.

Ganapathy, B. D. Kodagu mattu Kodavaru. Kannada. 1962.

Ganapathy, B. D. Nanga Kodava. Kodava. 1973.

Kushalappa, M. Long ago in Coorg. (Long ago in Coorg)

Murphy, Devrala. On a Shoestring to Coorg.

Prabhakaran. N. Kutaku kurippukal (Coorg Notes). Kannur: Kairali Books.