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Department of Mechanical Engineering

The University of Iowa

Iowa City, Iowa 522421000, USA

ABSTRACT

Analytical formulas for kinematic and kinetic derivatives needed in multibody system analyses are derived. A broad

spectrum of problems, including implicit numerical integration, dynamic sensitivity analysis, and kinematic workspace

analysis, require evaluation of first derivatives of generalized inertia and force expressions and at least three derivatives of

algebraic constraint functions. In the setting of a formulation based on Cartesian generalized coordinates with Euler

parameters for orientation, basic identities are developed that enable practical and efficient computation of all derivatives

required for a large number of multibody mechanical system analyses. The formulation is verified through application to to a

spatial slider crank mechanism and a 14 body vehicle model. Efficiency of computation using the expressions derived is

compared with results obtained employing finite differences, showing significant computational advantage using the

analytically derived expressions.

1 INTRODUCTION

Three different areas of multibody system analysis are considered. The common requirement for numerical methods used

in these types of analysis is the availability of higher order derivatives of both the differential equations of motion and of the

algebraic constraint equations. The three types of analysis under consideration are as follows:

(1) numerical implicit integration of the differentialalgebraic equations (DAE) of motion for simulation of stiff

mechanical systems;

(2) dynamic sensitivity analysis for design optimization, parameter estimation, and model correlation;

(3) kinematic workspace analysis of mechanisms.

Next, each of these problems is shortly described and required derivatives for numerical solution are identified.

Two forms of equations that characterize the dynamics of a multibody system may be generated, (1) the statespace

representation and (2) the descriptor form. The minimal dimension statespace ordinary differential equation (ODE) form of

the equations of motion occurs when the multibody system is treeconfigured and relative coordinates are used. The presence

of kinematic closedloops results in a DAE form of the equations of motion, called the descriptor form. The focus here is on

the descriptor form, using Cartesian generalized coordinates (Haug, 1989).

For a system described by n generalized coordinates q and m constraint equations, the equations of motion can be written

in the descriptor form

^T

^ ..

(1)

M q q Q

^

(q, t) 0

(2)

..

where q, q, and q are n 1 vectors representing generalized positions, velocities, and accelerations; M(q) is the n n

^

symmetric generalized inertia, or mass matrix; Q(q, q, t) is the n 1 generalized force vector; is the m 1 vector of

^

i(q, t)

q j

the kinematic constraint Jacobian matrix has full row rank. Equations 1 and 2 thus represent an index3 DAE (Brenan et al.,

1989).

The position constraints of Eq. 2 can be differentiated with respect to time to yield the kinematic velocity and acceleration

constraint equations,

^

..

qq t 0

^

(3)

.

qq qq q 2 tqq tt 0

(4)

There are many methods for integrating the DAE of Eqs. 1 through 4. Discussions of such methods are presented by

Brenan et al. (1989), Hairer and Wanner (1996), and Potra (1994). Numerically stiff systems, which often arise due to

bushings and stiff compliant elements, require the use of implicit integration methods. Only these implicit methods exhibit the

required stability to deal with such systems (Haug et al., 1997a, 1997b). Regardless of which implicit integrator is used,

derivatives of all terms in Eqs. 1 through 4 with respect to both generalized coordinates and velocities are required. The

^T

^ ..

..

q q , q q .

^

Numerous problems in multibody mechanical system analysis can be formulated as optimization problems with respect

to dynamic behavior of the system. A nonlinear programming problem must then be solved. Optimization algorithms are most

efficient if accurate derivative information is provided. Dynamic design sensitivity analysis of multibody systems thus

represents the link between optimization tools and modelling and simulation tools.

Two methods are commonly used to generate sensitivity information. The most straightforward approach is the direct

differentiation method, which differentiates the differentialalgebraic equations of motion with respect to parameters

(Krishnaswami et. al., 1983; Chang and Nikravesh, 1985; Haug, 1987). The second method is the adjoint variable method, in

which sensitivities are obtained as solutions of differentialalgebraic equations that are adjoint to the equations of motion. The

adjoint variable method has been extensively applied in both optimal control and optimal design (Haug and Ehle, 1982; Haug,

1987; Bestle and Eberhard, 1992; Bestle and Seybold, 1992). Both methods require derivatives of terms in the DAE of motion

with respect to parameters. Use of the chain rule of differentiation in both methods reduces this problem to finding derivatives

of these terms with respect to generalized states and velocities. Therefore, all derivatives noted above for implicit integration

of the equations of motion are needed to generate the sensitivity equations.

The problem of defining achievable sets in the output space of a mechanism is known as kinematic workspace analysis.

Domains of operation (accessible output, operational envelope), domains of interference, and domains of mobility can be

treated in a unified fashion (Haug et al., 1996). Most research has focused on describing mechanism workspaces by defining

their boundaries. Analytical conditions for workspace boundaries in special mechanisms have been used by a number of

authors (Tsai and Soni, 1981; Yang and Lee, 1983; Freudstein and Primerose, 1984). For general mechanisms, Litvin (1980)

used the implicit function theorem to obtain criteria for workspaces, relating them to singular configurations of mechanisms.

Analytical criteria and numerical methods for mapping boundaries of workspaces, using Jacobian matrix row rank deficiency

conditions, have been developed by Jo and Haug (1989), Wang and Wu (1993), Haug et al. (1996), and Adkins (1996). The

following quantities related to the kinematics of the underlying mechanism must be evaluated:

F l , F l a ,

^T

q

^T

q

^T

^

F ql a

q

A common point of departure for many of the intended capabilities of a general multibody analysis tool is the ability to

obtain derivatives of both the differential equations of motion and the algebraic constraint equations. In modelling a multibody

system, the first important choice to be made is that of generalized coordinates to describe its position and motion. The

Cartesian coordinate formulation with Euler parameters for orientation is particularly attractive, from the point of view of

systematic analysis, because of the simple structure of the resulting equations. The form of the orientation matrix in terms of

Euler parameters yields bilinear forms in the Euler parameter vector p for constraint derivatives. Theoretically, this implies

that as many derivatives as desired can be taken. Advantages of Cartesian coordinates can be summarized as follows: (1) the

formulation yields simple forms of the coefficient matrices in the equations of motion, so constraint equations can be

generated in a consistent way; (2) the matrices involved are sparse; (3) position, velocity, and acceleration information for each

body is directly obtained; and (4) the constraints are established at a local level, in the sense that constraint equations for a

given joint involve only the coordinates of the two bodies that are connected by the joint. Therefore, the constraint equations

are independent of the complexity of the system.

In Cartesian coordinates with Euler parameters for orientation, the equations of motion of Eqs. 1 and 2 are (Haug, 1989)

M0 4G 0JGpr ) FF F0 l + 2G n )F 8G JGp

..

..

T

r

T

p

PT

p

. T

(5)

F(r, p, t) + 0

(6)

F P(p) + 0

(7)

where M + diag{m iI3} is a blockdiagonal matrix containing the masses of the n b bodies, J + diag{J i} is the blockdiagonal

inertia matrix of the system, r + {r i} is the vector of body positions, p + {p i} is the vector of Euler parameters, F A is the vector

of applied forces, n A is the vector of applied torques, G is a 34 matrix defined as G(p) + [* e, * e~ ) e 0I] , and F P is the

vector of Euler parameter normalization constraints. Here, e~ is the 33 skewsymmetric matrix defined by

e0

e

e

~

e3 e2

0 e1

e1

0

(8)

As shown in this paper, a relatively small number of basic identities enables computation of all required derivatives of both

kinematic and kinetic terms arising in each of the analyses discussed above. Explicit forms for derivatives of basic quantities

are obtained. Therefore, this approach is expected to be more efficient than using automatic differentiation methods (Bischof et

al., 1996). When evaluating higher order derivatives, automatic differentiation codes differentiate a lower order derivative and

thus cannot take advantage of simplifying identities that may exist, such as Euler parameter normalization constraints.

2 BASIC IDENTITIES

Derivatives of expressions used as basic building blocks in generating required kinematic and kinetic derivatives are

obtained in this section. The identities derived are subsequently applied to obtain higher order derivatives of the constraint

equations and of common force elements. When using Cartesian coordinates with Euler parameters to model a multibody

system, the generalized inertia matrix has a simple blockdiagonal form. Obtaining derivatives of terms involving this matrix

is therefore straightforward.

In the Cartesian coordinate formulation, dependencies on states, velocities, and parameters that appear in the coefficients

of the DAE of motion are well defined. The most complicated terms are those involving the Jacobian of the constraint

equations. Derivatives with respect to Euler parameters are the principal focus, since dependency on position vectors is

straightforward.

A quantity that arises in many terms of interest is representation of a bodyfixed vector relative to the global reference

frame. Let a be a constant bodyfixed vector, represented in the body reference frame, and let p e 0; e T be the vector of

T

Euler parameters that defines the orientation of the body reference frame relative to a global reference frame. Then, the

orientation transformation matrix is (Haug, 1989)

A(p) (2e 20 1)I 2(ee T e 0e~ )

(9)

a A(p)a (2e 20 1)a 2(ee Ta e 0e~ a )

(10)

The derivative of this quantity with respect to the vector of Euler parameters is given by the following sequence of operations:

~

(A(p)a ) 4e a 2a

e

0

e 0

(11)

~

~

(A(p)a ) 2 e Ta I ea T e a

2 a e T ea T (e 0I e~ )a

0

e

(12)

~

(A(p)a) + (A(p)a) ; (A(p)a) + 2 ap T ) (e I ) e~ )a; ea T * (e I ) e~ )a

0

0

p

e 0

e

(13)

B(p, a) 5 (e 0I ) e~ )a; ea T * (e 0I ) e~ )a

(14)

B(p, a) 5 2 ap T ) B(p, a)

(15)

(A(p)a) + B(p, a)

p

(16)

Note that the 33 orientation transformation matrix A(p) involves quadratic terms in p, so it is expected that linear

^

expressions in p will occur after differentiation with respect to p in Eq. 13. Indeed, the matrices B and B are linear in the Euler

parameters. Moreover, these matrices have a commutativity property involving two 4dimensional vectors, p i and p j, namely,

~

(17)

~

and

B(p i, a)p j + 2 ap Tip j ) B(p i, a)p j + 2 ap Tjp i ) B(p j, a)p i + B(p j, a)p i

(18)

B(p , a)p + B(p , a)p + B(p , a)

i

j

j

i

j

p i

p i

(19)

Calculation of the derivative of B T(p, a) with respect to p is also required. Note, from Eq. 14, that

^T

B (p, a) +

a T(e 0I * e~ )

~

(20)

ae T ) a(e 0I * e~ )

^T

B

(p, a) +

e 0

a T

(21)

a

^T

B

(p, a)g +

e

a Tg~

~

ag T ) ag~

(22)

^T

B

(p, a)g +

p

a Tg

a Tg~

ag ag T ) ag~

(23)

Using the result of Eq. 23, together with the definition of Eq. 15,

+ D(a, g)

^T

B T(p, a)g + 2 pa Tg ) B

(p, a)g

p

p

p

(24)

D(a, g) 8 2

2a Tg

a Tg~

ag a TgI ) ag T ) ag~

+2

2a Tg

~

a Tg~

~

ag ag~ ) g~ a ) 2a TgI

(25)

~

T

T

The final form of Eq. 25 shows that D is symmetric, since a Tg~ + g~ a + * g~ a + ag.

Consider the pair of bodies shown in Fig. 1, denoted bodies i and j. Let the generalized coordinate vector corresponding to

the pair of bodies be q ij + r Ti, p Ti, r Tj, p Tj R 14 , where r i and r j are 31 vectors that locate the origins of the body reference

T

frames relative to the origin of the global reference frame and p i and p j are 41 vectors of Euler parameters that define body

reference frame orientations. Let s i be a vector fixed in body i, so s i + A(p i)s i is its representation in the global frame. Define

s j and s j in a similar fashion. Finally, let d ij + r j ) A js j * r i * A is i define the vector between points P i and P j on bodies i and

Four basic conditions on vectors in and between pairs of bodies can be defined, to serve as building blocks for a library of

kinematic constraints between bodies (Haug, 1989). These four conditions are as follows:

(1) orthogonality of a pair of bodyfixed vectors s i and s j on bodies i and j (DOT1 constraint),

F d 1 + s Tis j + s Tjs i + 0

(26)

(2) orthogonality of a bodyfixed vector a i on body i and a vector d ij between bodies i and j (DOT2 constraint),

F d 2 + a Tid ij + d Tija i + 0

(27)

(3) fixed distance between points P i on body i and P j on body j (Distance constraint),

ss d Tijd ij C 2 d Tjid ji C 2 0

(28)

s r j sj r i si 0

(29)

Most kinematic constraints that are encountered in applications can be described in terms of one or more of the above

conditions.

A ball and socket joint (or spherical joint) is defined by the condition that the centers of the ball and of the socket coincide

and is thus equivalent to a basic spherical constraint. The revolute joint of Fig. 2 allows one rotational degree of freedom about

a common axis fixed in bodies i and j and no relative translation along this axis. The five constraint equations that describe this

joint can be written in terms of basic constraints as

s(P i, P j) 0

30

d 1(f i, h j) 0

d 1(g i, h j) 0

The universal joint of Fig. 3 permits relative rotations about two orthogonal axes fixed in the bodies connected. It is described

by the conditions that points P i on body i and P j on body j coincide and that the vectors h i and h j are perpendicular. This can be

written as the following four constraint equations:

s(P i, P j) 0

31

(h i, h j) 0

d1

The translational joint of Fig. 4 has one relative translational degree of freedom along a common axis fixed in the bodies

connected. It is defined by five constraint equations. In terms of basic constraint these are

d 1(f i, h j) 0

d 1(g i, h j) 0

32

d 2(f i, d ij) 0

d 2(g i, d ij) 0

d 1(f i, f j) 0

In a similar way other commonly used physical joints, e.g., cylindrical, screw, or composite joints, can be described in

terms of the four previously defined basic constraints.

In addition to joint kinematic constraints, the Euler parameter normalization constraint,

Pi p Tip i 1 0

(33)

With the formulas derived in Section 2, basic constraint equations and their derivatives can be evaluated. A detailed

derivation of derivatives for the spherical constraint is presented here. Derivatives of the other three basic constraints, using the

same approach, are presented in Appendix A.

Derivatives of F s in Eq. 29 with respect to components of q ij are obtained, using Eq. 16, as

Fs + * I

r i

Fs + I

r j

F s + * B(p , s )

i i

p i

(34)

F s + B(p , s )

j j

p j

With the above relations, the derivative of F s with respect to q ij, with the superscripts i and j suppressed for notational

convenience, becomes

F sq + * I, * B(p i, s i), I, B(p j, s j)

(35)

F sqa + * a 1 * B(p i, s i)a 2 ) a 3 ) B(p j, s j)a 4

(36)

T

F sqa + * a 1 * B(a 2, s i)p i ) a 3 ) B(a 4, s j)p j

(37)

F sqa + 0, * B(a 2, si), 0, B(a 4, s j)

q

(38)

T

T

T

T

With b T + b 1 , b2 , b3 , b 4 R 14, the product F sqa qb is

q

(39)

Since this quantity does not depend on q, its derivative with respect to q is zero; i.e,

F a b

s

q

+0

(40)

F sqq. q. B(p. i, si )p. i B(p. j, sj )p. j

q

(41)

F q q

.

s .

q q

.

(42)

Let l R 3. Then,

B(pl, s )l

F l

l

(p

,

s

)l

B

T

s

q

(43)

00 D(s0 , l) 00 00

F l

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 D(s , l)

T

s

q

(44)

The components of the Euler parameter vector p i used to define the orientation of body i are not independent. They are

constrained by the relation

F Pi p Tip i 1 0

(45)

T

q

(46)

T

F Pia 0, 2a 2 T

q

i

(47)

i l with respect to q i is

0 0

F PT

i l q l 0 2I

4

i

(48)

Derivatives of the right side of the Euler parameter acceleration constraint are computed as

10

Pi q. i

q

Pi q. i

q

qi

qi

0

(49)

qi

and

qi

qi

0, 4p i

.T

50

qi

As Eq. 5 shows, dependency of the generalized inertia matrix on Euler parameters occurs only through the matrix G(p).

..

For body i, the derivative of G T(p i)J iG(p i)p i with respect to p i must be evaluated. This quantity can be written as

..

G TiJ iG ip i

..

e i0

e Ti

J i[ e i, e~ i e i0I] e..

e i e i0I

i

~

(51)

G(p i)p j G(p j)p i

(52)

G(pi)p j G(pj)

p

(53)

For any 31 vector x, the derivative of the product G T(p i)x with respect to p i is obtained as

(G T(p i)x) p x

(54)

0 xT

x x x~

(55)

..

Using Eqs. 53 and 54, the derivative G T(p i)J iG(p i)p i p is obtained as

i

p

(56)

Dynamic and sensitivity analyses require derivatives of generalized force with respect to generalized coordinates and their

.

time derivatives. For the generalized force vector Q(q, q), the quantities Q q and Q q are calculated in this section.

.

11

.

Consider the term G T(p i)J iG(p i)p i in Eq. 5. Its derivative with respect to p i is

G T(p. i)J iG(p. i)p i + G T(p. i)J iG(p. i)

p

(57)

G T(p. i)J iG(p. i)p i + G T(p. i)J iG(p i) ) J iG(p. i)p i

p

(58)

Derivatives of the generalized force corresponding to a translational springdamperactuator (TSDA) are derived here.

Results for a rotational springdamperactuator (RSDA) are given in Appendix B. The TSDA force element of Fig. 5

consists of a spring (k), a damper (c), and a force actuator (F). It exerts forces on the bodies that are directed along the vector

between points Pi and Pj.

The virtual work of the TSDA force is

dw + * fdl

(59)

.

f + k(l * l 0) ) cl ) F

(60)

l 2 + d Tijd ij

(61)

dl +

d Tij

dr j ) B(pj, s j)dpj * dr i * B(p i, s i)dpi

l

(62)

where Eq. 16 has been used. Substituting this expression into Eq. 59 and identifying the coefficients of virtual displacements

and variations in Euler parameters, the TSDA generalized forces acting on bodies i and j are

Qi +

d ij

f

T

l B (p i, s i)d ij

Qj + *

d ij

f

T

l B (p j, s j)d ij

(63)

12

The focus here is on derivatives of Q i. Derivatives of Q j are obtained in a similar fashion. The generalized force Q i acting

QF

on body i is rewritten as Q i Q N , where Q F (fl)d ij is the linear TSDA generalized force and Q N (fl)B T(p i, s i )d ij is the

angular TSDA generalized force.

Derivatives of the components of Q i of Eq. 60 with respect to q are

fl fl d

Q Fq d ij

(64)

ij q

Q Nq B T(p i, s i)d ij

fl fl B (p , s )d

T

(65)

ij q

Since

q

q

66

Q Nq B T(p i, s i)Q Fq

fl0 ; D(s , d ) ; 0 ; 0

i

(67)

ij

.

(68)

where

ll q dTijdij

,

q

q

l

.

.

.

.

d ijd Tij

d ijv T f

f

N1 k c l

c

I

l

l l2

l

l2

N2 c

(69)

d ijd Tij

(70)

l2

the derivatives of Q F (fl)d ij and Q N (fl)B T(p i, s i )d ij with respect to q can be expressed in compact form as

Q Fq N 1, N 1B(p i, s i ) N 2B(p i, s i ),N 1, N 1B(p j, s j ) N 2B(p j, s j )

.

13

(71)

f

.

Q Nq B T(p i, s i)N 1, B T(p i, s i)N 1B(p i, si ) N 2B(p i, si ) Ds i, d ij,

l

(72)

.

.

fl

Q Fq d ij

.

(73)

.

Q Nq B T(p i, s i)d ij

.

fl B (p , s )Q

T

F.

q

(74)

fl 1l f

c lq

l

(75)

l

l

.

lq

.

(76)

d Tij

I, B(p i, s i), I, B(pj, s j)

l

(77)

Q Fq c

.

d ijd Tij

l2

Q Nq cB(p i, s i)

.

d ijd Tij

l2

(78)

(79)

7 NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS

The kinematic and kinetic derivatives obtained in analytical form in this paper are verified using two examples, with

numerical efficiency compared with finite differences. The two mechanisms analyzed are in assembled configurations and

kinematically admissible values for the generalized velocities were used in computations.

The first example is the onedegreeoffreedom spatial slidercrank mechanism of Fig. 6, consisting of three bodies

(slider, crank, and connecting rod) connected by four joints (revolute, spherical, universal, and translational) and a TSDA. The

crank has length l C 2.0 m and the connecting rod has length l CR 5.0 m. All three bodies have unit masses and inertias. The

TSDA has the following characteristic values: k 10.0 Nm, l 0 5.0 m, c 1.0 Nsm. The mechanism is described by 21

14

generalized coordinates, constrained by 17 joint constraints and 3 Euler parameter normalization constraints. The following

.

kinematic derivatives are considered: F q, F Tql q, F qq q , g q, and g q, where F is the array of constraint expressions, l is the

.

.

.

array of Lagrange multipliers, and g F qq qq is the right side of the acceleration constraint equation.

Table 1 presents maximum absolute differences between analytical and numerical values of the kinematic derivatives, for

different values of the perturbation d used in computing finite differences. Analytical Jacobians of generalized force with

respect to generalized coordinates and velocities are also compared to numerical Jacobians obtained with finite differences.

Results are presented in Table 2. Finite difference numerical derivatives are obtained with an accuracy of the order of the

perturbation d. As shown in Tables 1 and 2, they converge to the analytical values as d decreases.

As numerical results show, the perturbation d has a strong influence on computational accuracy using finite differences.

Moreover, selection of d to obtain derivatives within a prescribed accuracy is function of the type of derivative to be computed

and is problem dependent.

Availability of analytical derivatives not only gives more accurate results, but also leads to increased computational

efficiency. Table 3 presents the average CPU seconds required to compute the complete three groups of derivatives (kinematic

derivatives, generalized force derivatives, and generalized mass matrix derivatives) for the slider crank mechanism, using both

analytical and finite difference methods. The numerical experiments were performed on a HP J210 computer. Speedups of

more than 10 were obtained for all derivative computations when using exact analytical formulas.

As a second example consider the 14body, elevendegreeoffreedom model of the Army High Mobility Multipurpose

Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) shown in Fig. 7. Detailed data for this model can be found in Serban et. al. (1998). The same

tests carried out for the slidercrank mechanism were performed on this larger model, which consists of 14 bodies connected

by 21 joints (8 revolute, 8 spherical, 4 distance constraints, and 1 translational). The resulting model has 98 generalized

coordinates, 73 joint constraints and 14 Euler parameter normalization constraints. The 73 kinematic joint constraints used to

described this model translate into the following basic constraints: 16 spherical constraints, 4 distance constraints, 19 DOT1

constraints, and 2 DOT2 constraints. Table 4 presents maximum absolute differences between analytical and numerical

values of the kinematic derivatives, while Table 5 presents a comparison of results for generalized force Jacobians.

For this larger model the computation times obtained when using analytical derivative computations, as opposed to finite

differences, are presented in Table 6. Speedups are even larger than those obtained for the slidercrank example. Analytical

computation of kinematic and generalized force derivatives were about 30 times as fast as finite difference computations,

while the speedup obtained in generating the generalized mass matrix derivatives was about 130.

15

8 CONCLUSIONS

Results presented in this paper enable accurate and efficient computation of higher order derivatives required in multibody

analysis, including implicit numerical integration of the differentialalgebraic equations (DAE) of motion, dynamic

sensitivity analysis of mechanical systems, design optimization, and parameter estimation. A formulation to generate three

derivatives of the terms involved in the DAE of motion required in each of these analyses is presented and verified. This

formulation is extendable to compute higher order derivatives that appear in continuation methods for mapping workspace

boundaries. Derivative computations are developed in the Cartesian coordinate formulation with Euler parameters as

orientation parameters. Similar methods can be applied to generate kinematic and kinetic derivatives when using joint (or

relative) coordinates.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research was supported by the US Army TankAutomotive Command (TACOM), through the Automotive Research

Center (Department of Defense contract number DAAE0794R094).

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16

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Haug, E.J. and Ehle, P.E., 1982, SecondOrder Design Sensitivity Analysis of Mechanical System Dynamics, International

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Haug, E.J., Iancu, M, and Negrut, D., 1997, Implicit Integration of the Equations of Multibody Dynamics in Descriptor Form,

Submitted to the 1997 ASME Design Automation Conference

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Mechanisms, Transmissions, and Automation in Design, Vol. 3, pp. 581589

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17

Yang, F.C. and Lee, T.W., 1983, On the Workspace of Mechanical Manipulators, Journal of Mechanisms, Transmissions, and

Automation in Design, Vol. 105, pp. 6269

Derivatives of DOT1 Constraint

Mathematically, the DOT1 constraint is equivalent to the condition that the scalar product of bodyfixed vectors s i and

s j, on bodies i and j, respectively, represented in the global frame, is zero; i.e.,

F d 1 + s Tis j + s Tjs i + 0

(80)

F dq1 + 0, s TjB(p i, s i), 0, s TiB(p j, s j)

(81)

Partitioning the 141 vectors a and b as in Eq. 37, the derivatives F dq1a q and F dq1aqb

F dq1a

T

are

q

d1

q a qb

q

(82)

+ [0 ,a4 B T(p j, sj)B(b 2, si) ) b 4 B T(a4, sj)B(p i, si) ) b 4 B T(p j, sj)B(a2, si) ,

(83)

2T

2T

2T

Derivatives of the right side of the acceleration constraint equation corresponding to the DOT1 constraint with respect to q

.

and q are

F

F

+ [0 ,p j 2B T(p j, sj)B(p i, si) ) B T(p j, sj)B(p i, si) , 0 , p i 2B T(p i, si)B(p j, sj) ) B T(p i, si)B(p j, sj)

(84)

+ 0 , 2sTjB(p i, si) ) 2p j B T(p j, sj)B(p i, si) , 0 , 2sTiB(p j, sj) ) 2p i B T(p i, si)B(p j, sj)

(85)

.

d1 .

q q qq

q

.

d1 .

q q qq .

q

.T

.T

.T

d1

q

.T

0

00 D(s0, s ) 00 B (p , s )B(p

, s )

F l ++ l0

0

0

0

0

0

B

D(s

(p

,

s

)B(p

,

s

)

,

s

)

(86)

18

The condition for orthogonality of a bodyfixed vector a i on body i and a vector d ij between bodies i and j (DOT2

constraint) is

F d 2 + a Tid ij + d Tija i + 0

(87)

Assuming the orientation matrix A i to be orthonormal, the DOT2 constraint can be rewritten as

F d 2 + r j ) s j * r i a i * s Tia i + 0

T

(88)

The derivative of the constraint of Eq. 88 with respect to q is obtained, using Eq. 16, as

F dq2 + * a Ti, (d ij ) s i) TB(p i, a i), a Ti, a TiB(p j, s j)

(89)

Fdq2a

T

(90)

T

d2

q a qb

q

T

(91)

T

T

Derivatives of the right side of the acceleration constraint corresponding to the DOT2 constraint with respect to q and q are

.

d2 .

q q qq

q

.T

.

d2 .

q q qq .

q

.T

.T

.T

.T

(92)

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

(93)

.T

.T

The derivative of the product F dq2 l with respect to q is obtained, using Eqs. 16 and 24, as

T

* B(p , a )

0

0

* B (p0 , a ) D(a

, d ) s ) B (p , a ) B (p , a )B(p , s )

F l + l 0

B(p , a )

0

0

0

D(s , a )

(p

,

s

)B(p

,

a

)

0

B

d2

q

ij

19

(94)

The condition that the distance vector d ij between points P i on body i and P j on body j is a nonzero constant C is called the

distance (or spherical spherical) constraint, written as

F ss d Tijd ij C 2 d Tjid ji C 2 0

(95)

F ssq 2d Tji, 2d TjiB(p i, s i ), 2d Tij, 2d TijB(p j, s j )

(96)

c a 1 B(p i, s i )a 2 a 3 B(p j, s j )a 4

(97)

(98)

F ssq a 2c T , 2c TB(p i, si ) 2d TjiB(a 2, si ) , 2c T , 2c TB(p j, sj ) 2d TjiB(a 4, sj )

q

F

ss

q a qb

q

T

(99)

(100)

T

T

T

Derivatives of the right side of the acceleration constraint corresponding to the distance constraint with respect to q and q are

F

.

ss .

q q qq

q

.T

.T

(101)

4ri rj p TiB T(p i, si ) p TjB T(p j, sj )B(p i, si ) 2p i B T(p i, si ) p j B T(p j, sj )B(p i, si ) ,

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

4ri rj p TiB T(p i, si ) p TjB T(p j, sj )B(p j, sj ) 2p i B T(p i, si ) p j B T(p j, sj )B(p j, sj )

.T

F

.

ss .

q q qq .

q

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

(102)

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

.T

The derivative of the product F ssq l with respect to q is obtained, using Eqs. 16 and 24, as

T

20

* 2I

* 2B(p , s )

, s )

* 2B (p , s )B(p , s )

2B (p , s )B(p , s )* 2B (p , s )

l + l * 2I

* 2B(p , s )

2I

2B(p , s )

(p

,

s

)

(p

,

s

)B(p

,

s

)

*

2B

*

2B

(p

,

s

)

,

d

)

)

2B

(p

,

s

)B(p

,

s

)

2B

2D(s

ss

q

i i

T

ji

ij

j j

T

(103)

The virtual work approach yields the following forms for the rotational springdamperactuator (RSDA) generalized

forces acting on bodies i and j (Haug, 1989):

0

0

Q i + 2nG Th + 2n G Th

i i

i i

(104)

0

0

Q j + * 2nG Th j + * 2n G Th j

j

j

(105)

where h i and h j are unit vectors along the common axis of rotation, represented in the local frames of bodies i and j,

respectively. The magnitude of the torque n exerted by the RSDA is

.

n + k(q ) 2n revp) ) cq ) N

(106)

Derivatives of the angular component of Q i, Q Ni + 2nG T(p i)h i, with respect to q + r Ti, p Ti, r Tj, p Tj and q + r i , p i , r j , p j

T

.T .T .T .T

are

Q Ni + 2G Tih in q ) 2n[0, h i *, 0, 0]

q

(107)

Q Ni + 2G Tih in q

q

(108)

where the matrix h i * is defined as in Eq. 55 and the components of n q and n q are

.

n+0

ri

(109)

n + k(fTf )fTB(p , g ) * (g Tf )fTB(p , f ) ) cp. TB T(p , f ) @ (fTf )B(p , g ) * (g Tf )B(p , f )) fT(fTf )B(p. , g ) * fT(g Tf )B(p. , f )

i i

i i

j j

i i

i i

i j j

i j j

i j

i j

j i j

j

i j

j

i i

i i

p i

(110)

n+0

rj

(111)

n + k(fTf )g TB(p , f ) * (g Tf )fTB(p , f ) ) cp. T(fTf )B(p , g ) * (g Tf )B(p , f )B(p , f )) g T(fTf )B(p. , g ) * fT(g Tf )B(p. , f )

j j

j j

i i

i i

j j

i j i

i j i

i j

i j

i i j

i

i j

i

i i

i i

p j

(112)

. n + 0

ri

(113)

21

i i

i i

i j j

i j j

p i

(114)

. n 0

rj

(115)

j j

j j

i j i

i j i

p j

(116)

In Eqs. 109 and 113, {f i, g i, h i} and f j, g j, h j are unit vectors along axes of the local frames on bodies i and j, respectively.

.

Derivatives of the angular component of Q j, Q Nj 2nG T(p j)h j, with respect to q and q are computed in a similar way.

22

i

hj

Pj

gi

j

fi

Pi

gj

hi

fj

23

hi

fj

Pi P

j

fi

hj

gi

gj

fj

Pj

j

gi

fi

hj

dij

gj

hi

Pi

24

25

26

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