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Cisco Mobility

Todd Lammle
President, GlobalNet Training, inc
Sybex Author

Chapter 1
Introduction to Mobile Networks

What are Mobile Networks?


A mobile network is
a stub network or
subnet that uses a
mobile router (MR)
to achieve mobility
Nodes on the
mobile networks do
not need to have a
Mobile IP client
running

FA
HA
MR

Mobile Network

Cisco Mobile Networks Overview


Enables always on roaming IP connectivity
for entire IP networks
Nets and Subnets are mobile without devices
on those subnets being aware
Standards-based solution
- RFC 3344 Mobile IP and others
Mobile Router registers with Home Agent
- through Foreign Agent (FA) routers
- connects directly to the HA when home
- Co-located Care-of Address (CCOA)

The Benefit of Mobile IP

Mobile IP provides an IP node the ability to


retain the same IP address and maintain
uninterrupted network and application
connectivity while traveling across
networks

True Mobility
Maintaining continuous IP connectivity while
crossing network boundaries, e.g. subnets or
between networks
Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet
Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Many Networks Roaming

Internet

Mobile Routers

MobilityMajor Market
Segments
Enterprise/SMB

HQ

Branch

Hospitality

Teleworker

Si

Hotel

Public Access

Si

Airports

Internet/Service
Provider Network

Networks in
Motion
Transportation

Residential

Cellular
Voice/Data

Defense
Public Safety

The Problems & Solutions of


Mobility
There are a few possible ways that mobility can be
achieved when a node changes links:
Host-specific routing
DHCP Release/Renew
Dynamic DNS
Data Link layer solutions
Source Routing

The Routing Table


Every router has an IP routing table which it uses
to make forwarding decisions.
Each route in the table has a possibility of four
columns: destination network, prefix-length, next
hop and interface.
The destination and prefix length fields are used to
match a packet trying to be forwarded

Three categories of entries


In a routing table, there can be three basic
categories of entries:
Host specific
Network prefix
Default

Host Based Routes a mobile


solution
It is a possible solution, but not scalable
When a mobile node moves, host-specific
routes must be added, deleted or modified
each time the mobile host changes links.

DHCP Release/Renew
Certainly a solution used widely today
Loss of connection (nomadicity)

Dynamic DNS
How do we find a nomadic node when it
keeps moving?
Typically, DNS is used to resolve a host
name to an IP address

Data Link Layer Solutions


Cellular
802.11

Cellular is a wide area solution and 802.11 is a local area solution.


These protocols provide homogenous mobility.

Source Routing
Uses the IP header option called the loose
source and record route option
This option lists the actual intermediate
destinations that a packet must visit on the path
to the destination node.
This would actually be a good solution if

Tunneling (Mobile IP)


Mobile IP is a solution for mobility that is
scalable, robust, secure and allows nodes
to maintain application connection when
changing networks.
Mobile nodes keep their existing IP
address when moving from one network
to another.

3200 Mobile Access Router


New Cisco IOS Software router
platform that extends the IP frontier
to Networks in Motion
Secure data, voice and video
communications with seamless mobility
across wireless networks independent
of location or movement
High performance in a compact, rugged
design for use in vehicles
Advanced IP services and
interoperability through Cisco IOS
Software

Seamless Mobility
Cell
coverage

Wireless
LAN
coverage

Police
Band
coverage

Uninterrupted Access = Coverage + Bandwidth

Police
Headquarters

IETF Proposed Standard


Approved by the Internet Engineering Steering Group
(IESG) in June 1996; published proposed standard in
Nov. 1996
Mobile IP is an IETF proposed standard solution for mobility
at Layer 3 IP
RFC3344 - Mobile IP
RFC2003 and RFC2004 - Tunnel encapsulation
RFC2005 - Mobile IP applicability
RFC2006 - Mobile IP MIB

Associated RFCs
RFC1701 GRE Generic Routing Encapsulation
RFC3024 - Reverse Tunneling for Mobile IP

Chapter 2
Mobile IP

The Objective
Maintaining continuous IP connectivity while
crossing network boundaries, e.g. subnets or
between networks
Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

The Objective (Cont.)


Maintaining continuous IP connectivity while
crossing network boundaries, e.g. subnets or
between networks
Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

The Problem with Mobility


Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

The Problem with Mobility


(Cont.)
Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

The Problem with Mobility


(Cont.)
Connect to
171.68.69.24

?
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway A replies to Host B with an ICMP unreachable

The Problem with Mobility


(Cont.)
Connect to
171.68.69.24

?
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Host B

Internet

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

X
SEND

Gateway A replies to Host B with an ICMP unreachable


Gateway C blocks router from joining network

The Problem with Mobility


(Cont.)
Where is 171.68.69.0???

?
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Gateway A
171.68.0.0

Connect to
171.68.69.24
Host B

Internet

Gateway C
140.31.0.0

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

X
SEND

Gateway A replies to Host B with an ICMP unreachable


Gateway C blocks router from joining network
Routing Protocol rejects duplicate network advertisements

Mobile IP Solution

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Home Agent
171.68.60.1

Foreign Agent
COA 140.31.2.1

Mobile IP Solution (Cont.)

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Home Agent
171.68.60.1

Foreign Agent
COA 140.31.2.1

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Mobile IP Solution (Cont.)


Mobility Binding Table:
MR
CoA
171.68.69.1 140.31.2.1

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Home Agent
171.68.60.1

Foreign Agent
COA 140.31.2.1

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Mobile Router sends Registration Request [RRQ] to Home Agent (HA)

Mobile IP Solution (Cont.)


Mobility Binding Table:
MR
CoA
171.68.69.1 140.31.2.1

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Home Agent
171.68.60.1

Foreign Agent
COA 140.31.2.1

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Mobile Router sends Registration Request [RRQ] to Home Agent (HA)


Host B sends information to Mobile Router via its Home Address

Mobile IP Solution (Cont.)


Mobility Binding Table:
MR
CoA
171.68.69.1 140.31.2.1

Host B

Internet
Mobile
Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Home Agent
171.68.60.1

Foreign Agent
COA 140.31.2.1

Mobile Router
171.68.69.0
171.68.70.0

Mobile Router sends Registration Request [RRQ] to Home Agent (HA)


Host B sends information to Mobile Router via its Home Address
Home Agent forwards packets to Mobile Router via Care of Address
[CoA]

Mobile IP Terminology
CN
HA

Internet

FA

Mobile Router (MR)


Home Agent (HA)
MR
Foreign Agent (FA) [1 Hop Away from MR]
Care of Address (CoA) [Tunnel Endpoint]
Correspondent Node (CN)
Security Association (SA) [SPI/Key]
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) [Advertisement]
Registration Request (RRQ)

Mobile Router is a Mobile


Node
Binding Table
Host
COA
65.1.1.1
30.30.30.1

Detects Agents
Registers with HA
Authenticated by HA
Obtains a Care-of Address

HA

FA
FA COA 30.30.30.1
65.1.1.1
MR

100.10.10.1 100.10.10.2

How does HA know about the


Mobile Routers mobile networks?
100.10.10.0/24
network can
be reached by
me!

Mobile Networks statically


configured on home agent
OR sent to HA in RRQ
Mobile Networks injected into home
agents routing table
Routes redistributed to rest of
network
Home agent tunnels packets to
mobile router via foreign agent

HA

FA
FA COA 30.30.30.1
65.1.1.1
MR

100.10.10.1 100.10.10.2

Operation of Mobile Networks

2003, Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved.

38

3 Steps in Operation of
Mobile IP
Step 1 Agent Discovery
Step 2 Registration Request
Step 3 Routing

Step 1: Agent Discovery

FA

MR
1.1.1.7

HA

MR
1.1.1.7

Step 1: Agent Discovery


(Cont.)
FA

MR
1.1.1.7

Src Addr
MR addr

HA

Dest Addr
224.0.0.2

Solicitation

MR sends out advertisement request (Solicitation) to all


router multicast address 224.0.0.2

MR
1.1.1.7

Step 1: Agent Discovery


(Cont.)
Dest Addr
MR Addr

Src Addr
FA Intfc Addr

Advertisement
Includes COA

FA

MR
1.1.1.7

Src Addr
MR addr

Dest Addr
224.0.0.2

HA

MR
1.1.1.7

Solicitation

MR sends out advertisement request (Solicitation) to all


router multicast address 224.0.0.2
FA responds with unicast advertisement to MR
Response includes Care-of Address

FA also advertises periodically

Step 2: Registration Request


FA

MR
1.1.1.7

Src Addr
MR Addr
Src Port
random

HA

Dest Addr
FA Intfc Addr
Dest Port
434

RRQ
Includes COA from FA

MR retrieves CoA from Advertisement and sends in


RRQ

1.1.1.7

Step 2: Registration
Request (Cont.)
HA

FA

MR
1.1.1.7

Src Addr
MR Addr
Src Port
random

Dest Addr
FA Intfc Addr
Dest Port
434

RRQ
Includes COA from FA

Src Addr
FA Intfc Addr
Src Port
434

Dest Addr
HA Addr
Dest Port
434

1.1.1.7

RRQ
Includes COA

MR retrieves CoA from Advertisement and sends in


RRQ

FA checks requested services and either


rejects and replies or forwards the RRQ to
HA

Step 2: RRQ Reply


Dest Addr
FA
Dest Port
434

Src Addr
HA Intfc Addr
Src Port
434

RRQ Reply

FA

HA

MR

1.1.1.7

1.1.1.7

Home Agent
HA authenticates MR
Sends RRQ Reply
Proxy ARPs for MR
Brings up tunnel and adds
host route

Step 2: RRQ Reply


(Cont.)
Dest Addr
MR Addr
Dest Port
Orig Port

Dest Addr
FA
Dest Port
434

Src Addr
FA Intfc Addr
Src Port
434

RRQ Reply

RRQ Reply

FA

MR
1.1.1.7

Src Addr
HA Intfc Addr
Src Port
434

HA

1.1.1.7

Foreign Agent

FA sees MR is
authenticated

Forwards RRQ to
MR

Brings up tunnel

Home Agent
HA authenticates MR
Sends RRQ
Proxy ARPs for MR
Brings up tunnel and adds host
route