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ER-4601

LEGACY REPORT
ICC Evaluation Service, Inc.

www.icc-es.org

Reissued July 1, 2001

Business/Regional Office # 5360 Workman Mill Road, Whittier, California 90601 # (562) 699-0543
Regional Office # 900 Montclair Road, Suite A, Birmingham, Alabama 35213 # (205) 599-9800
Regional Office # 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, Illinois 60478 # (708) 799-2305

Legacy report on the 1997 Uniform Building Code


DIVISION: 03CONCRETE
Section: 03153Concrete Shear Stud Anchors and
Connectors

conforming to the requirements of AWS D1.1 and ASTM A


496 with a minimum yield strength of 70 ksi (485 MPa) and
tensile strength of 80 ksi (550 MPa).

SHEAR CONNECTOR STUDS AND DEFORMED BAR


ANCHORS

2.3.3 Concrete: Normal-weight concrete aggregates must


comply with ASTM C 33. Structural lightweight concrete
aggregates must conform to ASTM C 330, with a minimum
unit weight of 90 pounds per cubic foot (1440 kg/m3).

STUD WELDING ASSOCIATES


41515 SCHADEN ROAD
ELYRIA, OHIO 44035
1.0 SUBJECT
Shear Connector Studs and Deformed Bar Anchors.
2.0 DESCRIPTION
2.1

Shear Connector Studs:

The shear connector studs are designed for shear transfer


between steel and concrete in composite construction as
defined in Section 2209 of the code. The stud anchors are
available in 1/2-, 5/8-, 3/4-, 7/8- and 1-inch (12.7, 15.9, 19.1, 22
and 25 mm) diameters, and meet the dimensional
specifications of American Welding Society (AWS) D1.1.
Studs are automatically end-welded with equipment and
procedures as recommended by Stud Welding Associates.
As an alternative, the studs can be fillet-welded using the
shielded-metal arc process. All welding must comply with
AWS D1.1.
Shear connectors for steel decks and composite beams
must be designed in accordance with the code. Through-steel
deck welding is recognized in this report, as noted in Section
2.4.2.
2.2

Deformed Bar Anchors:

The deformed bars are used to anchor shear keys, bearing


plates, column base plates, and other concrete connections.
Embedment depths range from 12 to 42 inches (305 to 1067
mm). The anchors are available in diameters of 3/8, 1/2, 5/8 and
3
/4 inch (9.5, 12.7, 15.9 and 19.1 mm), and are embedded in
uncracked concrete. Uncracked concrete is defined as
concrete subjected to tensile stresses not exceeding 170 psi
(1170 kPa), induced by external loads or deformations.
2.3

Materials:

2.3.1 Shear Connector Studs: Shear connector studs are


manufactured from ASTM A 108 specification Grades C-1010
through C-1020 (inclusive) cold-drawn steel and conform to
requirements of AWS D1.1.
2.3.2 Deformed Bar Anchors: Deformed bar anchors are
manufactured from cold-rolled, deformed reinforcing bars

2.3.4 Steel Plates: Steel embedment plate material shall


comply with ASTM A 36. Length and width depend on
specification requirements. Minimum thickness is one-half the
stud diameter. The use of base-plate material of lesser
thickness must be application-qualified in accordance with
Section 7.6 of AWS D1.1 to determine application
acceptability.
2.4

Installation:

2.4.1 General: Prior to welding, studs and the surface to


which they are to be welded must be free from rust, scale, oil,
moisture, and other deleterious substances. These areas may
be cleaned by brushing, scaling or grinding. The stud base
shall not be painted, galvanized or plated prior to welding. No
air gaps are permitted within welded areas. Ambient
temperature should be above 32/F (0/C), and welding is not
permitted below 0/F (18/C). Detailed welding instructions in
the Stud Welding Associates manual dated January 1997
must be followed for welding at temperatures between 0/F
and 32/F (18/C and 0/C).
2.4.2 Shear Connector Studs: Studs are typically welded
directly to steel beam or girder flanges (no decking), and set
in normal-weight or lightweight concrete. For automatically
end-welded studs, an adequate amount of expelled metal
must be observed at the stud base. When the studs are
installed with fillet welds, the minimum fillet weld size for the
1
/2-inch-diameter (12.7 mm) studs is 1/4 inch (6.4 mm). A
minimum 5/16-inch (7.9 mm) fillet weld is used for the 5/8-, 3/4and 7/8-inch-diameter (15.9, 19.1 and 22 mm) studs. A
minimum 3/8-inch (9.5 mm) fillet weld is used for 1-inchdiameter (25 mm) studs.
The following through-steel deck welding applications are
permitted:
1. Studs 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) or smaller in diameter can be
welded through one layer of No. 16 gage [0.064 inch (1.61
mm)] or thinner steel deck coated with a maximum
galvanization of 1.25 ounce per square foot (0.04 g/m2).
2. Studs 3/4-inch (19.1 mm) or smaller in diameter can be
welded through two layers of minimum No. 20 gage
[0.035 inch (0.89 mm)] or thinner deck coated with a
maximum galvanization of 0.6 ounce per square foot (0.02
g/m2) per layer of deck.

ICC-ES legacy reports are not to be construed as representing aesthetics or any other attributes not specifically addressed, nor are they to be construed as
an endorsement of the subject of the report or a recommendation for its use. There is no warranty by ICC Evaluation Service, Inc., express or implied, as to
any finding or other matter in this report, or as to any product covered by the report.

Copyright 2005

Page 1 of 4

Page 2 of 4

ER-4601

2.4.3 Deformed Bar Anchors: The anchors are welded to


plates in accordance with Chapter 7 of AWS D1.1, using a
stud welding gun. Installation requirements are set forth in
Tables 3 and 4. The anchor must be placed in position before
the concrete is cast, to fully embed these anchors.

9. Sampling materials.

2.5

Allowable Loads:

2.5.1 Shear Connector Studs: Allowable shear loads are


shown in Table 1. Where the studs are embedded in
structural lightweight concrete comprised of rotary-kilnproduced aggregates conforming to ASTM C 330, allowable
shear connector values are determined by the reduction
factors in Table 2. For studs installed through metal decking,
allowable values must be reduced in accordance with the
code.
2.5.2 Deformed Bar Anchors: Allowable loads are set forth
in Tables 5 and 6. For single or grouped deformed bar
anchors subject to combined loading that meet tension
development length criteria in Table 3, and installation
dimensions in Table 4, the following interactive equation
applies:
2

Pu
V
+ u #1
Pt
Vt
where:
Pu =

Applied service factored tension load.

Pt =

Allowable service tension load (from Table 5).

Vu =

Applied service factored shear load.

Vt =

Allowable service shear load (from Table 6).

Where the installation dimension requirements in the tables


are not met, reductions to the factored loads shall be applied
in accordance with Section 1923.3.2 or 1923.3.3 of the code.
As an alternative, Section 1923.3.1 of the code permits the
anchoring system strength to be taken as the average of ten
tests approved by the building official for each concrete
strength used in the anchoring system design.
2.6

10.

Welder qualification.

11.

Weld joint preparation.

12.

Weld procedure and process.

13.

Tolerances.

2.7

Identification:

All shipping containers bear the companys name (Stud


Welding Associates) and address, anchor type and sizes,
heat number, part number, lot number, and quantity. Shear
connector studs are identified by a raised letter X inside an
indented circle on the stud head. The deformed bar anchors
are identified as manufactured by Stud Welding Associates
by one or more instance of the letter X on the linear surface
of the deformed bar.
3.0 EVIDENCE SUBMITTED
Report of tests in accordance with ASTM E 488, calculations,
and installation information.
4.0 FINDINGS
That the Shear Connector Studs and Deformed Bar
Anchors described in this report comply with the 1997
Uniform Building Code, subject to the following
conditions:
4.1

Anchors are produced and installed in accordance


with this report and the manufacturers instructions.
Allowable loads are as set forth in this report.

4.2

Calculations justifying that the applied loads comply


with this report are submitted to the building official
for approval.

4.3

Anchors are not subjected to vibratory loads such


as those encountered by supports for reciprocating
engines, crane loads, and moving loads due to
vehicles, unless the anchor is attached or hooked
around reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated to
effectively transfer forces to reinforcing steel that is
designed to distribute forces and prevent sudden
local failure.

4.4

Anchors are limited to installation in uncracked


concrete unless attached or hooked around
reinforcing steel or otherwise terminated to
effectively transfer forces to reinforcing steel that is
designed to distribute forces and prevent sudden
local failure.

4.5

Anchors are limited to nonfire-resistive construction


unless appropriate data, demonstrating acceptable
anchor performance in fire-resistive situations, is
submitted to the building official.

4.6

Special inspection is provided in accordance with


Section 2.6 of this report.

Special Inspection:

Special inspection during installation is required in


accordance with Sections 1701.5.2 and 1701.5.5 of the code.
The inspectors responsibilities include verifying:
1. Identification of anchors.
2. Concrete mix design.
3. Quality of concrete.
4. Anchor tying and bracing.
5. Anchor clearances between edges, base and adjacent
anchors.
6. Anchor size.
7. Concrete placement.
8. Concrete testing.

This report is subject to re-examination in two years.

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ER-4601
TABLE 1DESIGN STRENGTH SHEAR LOADS FOR SHEAR CONNECTORS FOR DIRECT
ATTACHMENT TO BEAM/GIRDER NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE (kips)1
STUD DIMENSION

Diameter (inch)

STONE-AGGREGATE CONCRETE STRENGTHS, fNc

Minimum Length (inches)

3,000 psi

3,500 psi

$4,000 psi

5.1
8.0
11.5
15.6
20.4

5.5
8.6
12.5
16.8
22.0

5.9
9.2
13.3
18.0
23.6

/2
2
5
/8
21/2
3
/4
3
7
/8
31/2
1
4
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 psi = 6.894 kPa.
1

The tabulated loads may be used for studs longer than shown.
TABLE 2REDUCTION FACTORS FOR USE OF SHEAR CONNECTOR STUDS WITH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETE
SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH OF CONCRETE, fNc

AIR DRY UNIT WEIGHT OF CONCRETE (pcf)


90

#4,000 psi
0.73
$5,000 psi
0.82
For SI: 1 psi = 6.894 kPa, 1 pcf = 16.0 kg/m3.

95

100

105

110

115

120

0.76
0.85

0.78
0.87

0.81
0.91

0.83
0.93

0.86
0.96

0.88
0.99

TABLE 3TENSION DEVELOPMENT LENGTH FOR DEFORMED BAR ANCHORS


CONCRETE
COMPRESSIVE
STRENGTH

MINIMUM EMBEDMENT LENGTH (Ld) FACTOR (F) FOR FULL-STRENGTH DEVELOPMENT, AFTER WELDING 1,2
Bar Diameter, db
3

/8 inch

/2 inch

/8 inch

/4 inch

3,000 psi

38.34

38.34

38.34

38.34

4,000 psi

33.20

33.20

33.20

33.20

29.70

29.70

29.70

5,000 psi
32.00
For SI: 1 psi = 6.894 kPa, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
1

Ld = Fdb.
For minimum embedment lengths in lightweight aggregate concrete, these lengths are multiplied by a factor of 1.3 in accordance with Section
1912.2.4 of the code.
2

TABLE 4INSTALLATION DIMENSIONS FOR DEFORMED BAR ANCHORS1


TENSION LOADS

SHEAR LOADS

Minimum edge distance, single

DIMENSIONS

5db

10db

Minimum edge distance, group

5db

15db

Minimum spacing
Minimum cover at anchor base

3.75db

20db

See Section 1907.7.1 of the code

See Section 1907.7.1 of the code

db = Bar diameter, inches (mm).


TABLE 5DESIGN STRENGTH CAPACITY FOR DEFORMED BAR ANCHORS
WITH MINIMUM DEVELOPMENT LENGTHS AS SHOWN IN TABLE 31
NOMINAL BAR DIAMETER
(inch)

STRESS AREA, At
(square inch)

Based on Yield Strength

Based on Ultimate Strength

0.11

8.36

10.14

0.19

14.14

17.15

0.29

21.40

25.95

31.74

38.48

/8
/2
/8

/4
0.41
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch2 = 645.16 mm2, 1 kip = 4.448 kN.

TENSILE CAPACITY (kips)

1
Applied loads shall be factored in accordance with Sections 1909.2 and 1923.2 of the code. The strength-reduction factor is included in the
tabulated values.

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ER-4601
TABLE 6DESIGN STRENGTH SHEAR CAPACITY (kips) FOR DEFORMED BAR ANCHORS
WITH 10db MINIMUM EMBEDMENT LENGTH AND 10db MINIMUM FREE EDGE DISTANCE1,2,3

NOMINAL BAR
DIAMETER, db
(inch)
3
1
5

/8
/2
/8

STRESS AREA, A1
(square inch)

NORMAL-WEIGHT CONCRETE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH


3,000 psi

4,000 psi

0.11

4.83

5.57

6.24

0.19

8.44

9.71

10.87

0.29

12.94

14.94

16.72

20.96

23.45

/4
0.41
19.15
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 inch2 = 645.16 mm2, 1 kip = 4.448 kN, 1 psi = 6.894 kPa.
1

5,000 psi

Capacity reduction factors:


Sand lightweight concrete = 0.85.
All other lightweight concrete = 0.75.
2
Applied loads shall be factored in accordance with Sections 1909.2 and 1923.2 of the code. The strength-reduction factor is included in the
tabulated values.
3
db = Bar diameter, inches.