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Unit Vocab 1-6

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Buckley v. Valeo (1976)- Upheld federal limits on campaign contributions


even as it ruled that spending money to influence elections is a form of
constitutionally protected free speech
Defamation- is the communication of a false statement that harms the
reputation
Federalism- Federalism is a system based upon democratic rules and
institutions in which the power to govern is shared between national and
provincial/state governments, creating what is often called a federation
judicial review- is the doctrine under which legislative and executive
actions are subject to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review
power may invalidate laws and decisions that are incompatible with a
higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution.
McConnell v. FEC (2003)- 2003 supreme court case upheld
constitutionality of most of BCRA but said money is property not speech
and not all speech protected by the 1st amendment from government
infringement
national chairman- usually acts as the head of the party's permanent
organization and has general direction of party
national convention- a convention held every four years by each major US
political party to choose its presidential candidate
Popular sovereignty- the people is the principle that the authority of the
government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through
their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of
all political power.
Twenty-Fourth Amendments (1964) - prohibits both Congress and the
states from conditioning the right to vote in federal elections on payment
of a poll tax or other types of tax.
Twenty-Third Amendment (1961)- extends the right to vote in the
presidential election to citizens residing in the District of Columbia by
granting the District electors in the Electoral College, as if it were a state
Virginia Plan- The plan was drafted by James Madison while he waited for a
quorum to assemble at the Constitutional Convention of 1787.[2][3] The
Virginia Plan was notable for its role in setting the overall agenda for
debate in the convention and, in particular, for setting forth the idea of
population-weighted representation in the proposed national legislature.
yellow journalism- journalism that is based upon sensationalism and crude
exaggeration.
503(c)(4)s- A tax code classification that applies to most interest groups;
this designation makes donations to the group tax-deductible but limits
the group's political activities.
527s -A tax exempt group formed primarily to influence elections through
voter mobilization efforts and issue ads that do not directly endorse or
oppose a candidate. Unlike political action committees, 527s are not
subject to contribution limits and spending caps.

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Above or Below the fold stories- Above the fold is the upper half of the
front page of a newspaper where an important news story or photograph
is often located. on the bottom part of a newspaper page or web page
Activist- Actively participates in all forms of political participation.
Adversarial Press- The tendency of the national media to be suspicious of
officials and eager to reveal unflattering stories about them.
Advice and Consent- Under the Constitution, presidential nominations for
executive and judicial posts take effect only when confirmed by the
Senate, and international treaties become effective only when the Senate
approves them by a two-thirds vote.
Alexander Hamilton- the founder of the nation's financial system, and the
founder of the Federalist Party, the world's first voter-based political party.
As Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton was the primary author of the
economic policies of the George Washington administration.
Amicus curiae (Friend of the Court) briefs- is someone who is not a party
to a case, who offers information that bears on the case but who has not
been solicited by any of the parties to assist a court. This may take the
form of legal opinion, testimony or learned treatise (the amicus brief) and
is a way to introduce concerns ensuring that the possibly broad legal
effects of a court decision will not depend solely on the parties directly
involved in the case.
Antifederalists- ere a diverse coalition of people who opposed ratification
of the Constitution. Although less well organized than the Federalists, they
also had an impressive group of leaders who were especially prominent in
state politics. George Mason and Patrick Henry
Appellate Jurisdiction- The review of a lower courts decision by a higher
court.
Apportionment- is the process by which seats in the United States House
of Representatives are redistributed amongst the 50 states following each
constitutionally mandated decennial census. Each state is apportioned a
number of seats which approximately corresponds to its share of the
aggregate population of the 50 states.
Articles of Confederation- Established a league of Friendship. Gave most of
the power to the states
Associated Press This is a wire service that provides most of the national
news that local papers use.
Astroturf lobbying- are typically people-poor but cash-rich.
Australian ballot- also called secret ballot, the system of voting in which
voters mark their choices in privacy on uniform ballots printed
Ballot fatigue- also called voter fall-off, or roll-off, which refers to a voter
completing only the first part of a ballot
Bandwagon effect- people do something primarily because other people
are doing it, regardless of their own beliefs, which they may ignore or
override.

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Bill of Attainder- is an act of a legislature declaring a person or group of


persons guilty of some crime and punishing them without privilege of a
judicial trial. Article 1 section 9
Bill of Rights- First ten amendments to the Constitution
Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act (2002)- Banned soft money contributions
to national political parties from corporations and unions, raised the limit
on individual contributions to $2,000 per candidate per election,
independent expenditures by corporations labor unions, trade
associations, and nonprofit organizations are sharply restricted.
Blanket primaries- A primary election in which the names of all the
candidates for all the parties are on one ballot.
Bush v. Gore (2000)- It allowed bush to take Florida and win the majority
thus winning the election
caucus (esp. Iowa caucus)- A meeting of party members to select
delegates backing one or another primary candidate
Caucus- a meeting of the members of a legislative body who are members
of a particular political party, to select candidates or decide policy.
Citizens United v. FEC (2010)- is a U.S. constitutional law case dealing with
the regulation of campaign spending by organizations. The United States
Supreme Court held that the First Amendment prohibited the government
from restricting independent political expenditures by a nonprofit
corporation, for-profit corporations, labor unions and other associations.
Citizens United v. FEC 2010- the majority held that under the First
Amendment corporate funding of independent political broadcasts in
candidate elections cannot be limited.
Civic duty- Duties that citizens are meant to fulfil like jury duty.
Civil disobedience- active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, or
commands of a government, or of an occupying international power.

Clinton v. New York (1998)- is a legal case in which the Supreme Court of
the United States ruled that the line-item veto as granted in the Line Item
Veto Act of 1996 violated the Presentment Clause of the United States
Constitution because it impermissibly gave the President of the United
States the power to unilaterally amend or repeal parts of statutes that had
been duly passed by the United States Congress.
closed primary- A primary election in which only registered members of a
particular political party can vote.
clothespin vote- The vote cast by a person who does not like either
candidate so cotes for the less objectionable of the two
Coalition- an alliance for combined action, especially a temporary alliance
of political parties forming a government or of states.
Coalition- is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups, during which
they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest, joining forces
together for a common cause. This alliance may be temporary or a matter
of convenience.
Coattails- The idea that a popular president can generate additional
support for candidates affiliated with his party on a ballot.

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Conservative- believes in personal responsibility, limited government, free


markets, individual liberty, traditional American values and a strong
national defense.
Constitutional Convention- to address problems in governing the United
States of America, which had been operating under the Articles of
Confederation following independence from Great Britain. Although the
Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, the
intention from the outset of many of its proponents, chief among them
James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, was to create a new government
rather than fix the existing one.
Context effect- are the impact of environmental clues on human
perception.
Critical Elections- an electoral "earthquake" whereby new issues emerge,
new coalitions replace old ones
C-Span- Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and
satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable
television industry as a public service.
Democracy- government by the people; a form of government in which
the supreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly by them
or by their elected agents under a free electoral system
Demographics- are the quantifiable statistics of a given population.
direct primary- A preliminary election in which a party's candidates for
public office are nominated by direct vote of the people
Disfranchisement- to deprive (a person) of a right of citizenship, as of the
right to vote.
Dixiecrats- It originated as a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party in
1948, determined to protect what they portrayed as the southern way of
life beset by an oppressive federal government,
Earmarks- Hidden congressional provisions that direct the federal
government to fund specific projects or that exempt specific persons or
groups from paying specific federal raxes or fees.
Electoral College- The people chosen to cast each state's votes in a
presidential election. Each state can cast one electoral vote for each
senator and representative it has.
Elitist theory- The theory posits that a small minority, consisting of
members of the economic elite and policy-planning networks, holds the
most power and that this power is independent of a state's democratic
elections process.
Enumerated Powers- are a list of items found in Article I, Section 8 of the
U.S. Constitution that set forth the authoritative capacity of Congress.
Environmental Movement- also including conservation and green politics, is a
diverse scientific, social, and political movement for addressing environmental issues.
Equal Time rule- An FCC rule that if a broadcaster sells time to one
candidate, it must sell equal time to other candidates.

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Equality of Opportunity- A belief that everyone deserves the same


opportunities.
Equality of Results- It describes a state in which people have
approximately the same material wealth or in which the general economic
conditions of their lives are similar
Ethics in Government Act (1978)- United States federal law that was passed in
the wake of the Nixon Watergate scandal and the Saturday Night Massacre. It
created mandatory, public disclosure of financial and employment history of public
officials and their immediate family.
Ex post facto law- is a law that retroactively changes the legal
consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships
that existed, before the enactment of the law. Outlawed by article 1
section 9
Exit polls- is a poll of voters taken immediately after they have exited the
polling stations.
Factions- is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union,
or other group with a common political purpose. A faction or political party
may include fragmented sub-factions, parties within a party," which may
be referred to as power blocs, or voting blocs.
Fairness Doctrine- Required broadcasters that air one side of the story to
give time to opposing pints of view.
Feature Stories- Media stories about events that, though public, are not
regularly covered by reporters.
Fed 51- The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks
and Balances Between the Different Departments, is an essay by James
Madison, the fifty-first of The Federalist Papers.
Federal Communications Commission- Regulates broadcasting and
requires radio to renew their license every 7 years and every 5 years for
tv.
Federal Election Campaign Act (1974)- limits on contributions to federal
candidates and political parties, a system for disclosure and voluntary
public financing for presidential candidates.
Federal Election Commission (FEC)- The government agency that enforces
and regulates election laws; made up of six presidential appointees, of
whom no more than three can be members of the same party.
federal matching funds- Federal money presidential campaigns receive
that match individual amounts has to have raised at least 5k
Federalist Nos. 10- addresses the question of how to guard against
"factions", or groups of citizens, with interests contrary to the rights of
others or the interests of the whole community. Madison argued that a
strong, big republic would be a better guard against those dangers than
smaller republics
Federalist Papers- Paper that were originally printed in a new York
newspaper that tried to convince people that the new constitution is good
Federalists- For the Constitution included James madison

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Feeding Frenzy- when the press relentlessly goes after someone for a lot
of different things.
Feminist Movement
- refers to a series of campaigns for reforms on issues such
as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's
suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label
of feminism
Fifteenth Amendment- prohibits the federal and state governments from
denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or
previous condition of servitude"
Focus groups- a group of people are asked about their perceptions,
opinions, beliefs, and attitudes towards a product, service, concept,
advertisement, idea, or packaging.
Franking privilege- The ability of members to mail letters to their
constituents free of charge.
Free rider problem- refers to a situation where some individuals in a
population either consume more than their fair share of a common
resource, or pay less than their fair share of the cost of a common
resource.
Freedom of Information Act (1974)- is a federal freedom of information law
that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased
information and documents controlled by the United States government.
front-loading - The practice of states moving their presidential primaries or
caucuses to take place earlier in the nomination process, often in the
hopes of exerting more influence over the outcome.
Fugitive Slave Clause- provision in Article Four of the United States
Constitution, Section 2, Clause 3, that required a "person held to service
or labour" (e.g., slave) who flees to another state to be returned to the
owner in the state from which they escaped.
Gender Gap- is defined as the difference, typically in percentage, between
men and women voters. This gap can occur even if both genders support
the same candidate.
General election- An election held to choose which candidates will hold
office.
Gerrymandering- Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts in bizarre
or unusual shapes to favor one party.
Grandfather clause- is a provision in which an old rule continues to apply
to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.
Grassroots lobbying - is an approach that separates itself from direct
lobbying through the act of asking the general public to contact legislators
and government officials concerning the issue at hand, as opposed to
conveying the message to the legislators directly.
Hard money- Political contributions given to a party, candidate, or interest
group that are limited in amounts and fully disclosed. Raising such limited
funds is harder than raising unlimited funds, hence the term hard
money.

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Help America Vote Act 2002- HAVA creates new mandatory minimum
standards for states to follow in several key areas of election
administration.
Hyperpluralist theory- A state in which many groups or factions are so
strong that a government is unable to function.
Ideological interest group- Political Organizations that attract members by
appealing to their political convictions or principles.
Incumbent- The person already holding an elected office.
Insider Stories- Media stories about events that are not usually made
public.
Insider strategies- strategy of lobbyists that work closely with a few key
members of Congress, meeting them privately to exchange information
and favors
Interest group- an organization of people sharing a common interest or
goal that seeks to influence the making of public policy
Iron Triangles- A close relationship between an agency, a congressional
committee, and an interest group.
Issue Networks- A network of people in D.C based on interest groups, on
congressional staffs, in universities and think tanks, and in the mass
media, who regularly discuss and advocate public policies.
James Madison- "Father of the Constitution" for being instrumental in the
drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and
author of the United States Bill of Rights. Wrote the federalist papers with
Hamilton
John Locke- was an English philosopher and physician regarded as one of
the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and known as the "Father of
Classical Liberalism", equally important to social contract theory, Life,
health, Liberty, or Possessions"
K Street- is a major thoroughfare in the United States capital of
Washington, D.C. known as a center for numerous think tanks, lobbyists,
and advocacy groups
Leadership PACs- is a political action committee that can be established by
current and former members of Congress as well as other prominent
political figures. Leadership PACs are designed for two things: to make
money and to make friends.
Libel- Writing that falsely injures another person.
Liberal- is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty
(which is especially stressed in classical liberalism) and equality.
Line-item veto- is a special form of veto that authorizes a chief executive
to reject particular provisions of a bill enacted by a legislature without
vetoing the entire bill.
Linkage institutions- is a structure within a society that connects the
people to the government or centralized authority.
Literacy test- Tests that made it more difficult for African Americans to
vote.

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Litigation- law refers to the rules and practices involved in resolving


disputes in the court system
Loaded language- Words that imply a value of judgment, used to persuade
a reader without having made a serious argument.
Lobby and lobbyist- is the act of attempting to influence decisions made
by officials in the government, most often legislators or members of
regulatory agencies.
Lobbyist Disclosure Act (1995)- Under provisions which took effect on
January 1, 2006, lobbyists are required to register with the Clerk of the
House of Representatives and the Secretary of the Senate.
loyal opposition- a minority party especially in a legislative body whose
opposition to the party in power is constructive, responsible, and bounded
by loyalty to fundamental interests and principles
Malapportionment- Drawing the boundaries of legislative districts so they
are unequal in population.
McGovern-Fraser Commission- commission formed at the 1968
Democratic convention in response to demands for reform by minority
groups and others who sought better representation.
Mixed Government- also known as a mixed constitution, is a form of
government that integrates elements of democracy, aristocracy, and
monarchy.
Monarchy- is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or
nominally embodied in 1 or 2 individual(s) (the monarch(s)).
Motor-Voter Law (1993) - A law that allows people to register to vote when
applying for drivers license.
Muckraker- reform-minded journalists who wrote largely for all popular
magazines and continued a tradition of investigative journalism
national committee- day-to-day basis
Natural Rights- John Locke, everyone is born with an equality of certain
rights, regardless of their nationality. Since they come from nature or from
God, natural rights cannot be justly taken away without consent. As the
Declaration of Independence asserts, natural (or inalienable) rights
include life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Other natural rights
are protected in the Bill of Rights, including freedom of speech, religion,
and press.
Necessary and Proper Clause- The Congress shall have Power To ...make
all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution
the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in
the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer
thereof.
New Deal Coalition- is an American political term that refers to the
alignment of interest groups and voting blocs that supported the New Deal
and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late
1960s.
New Jersey Plan- Each state would have equal representation in congress

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New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (1964)- Public officials may not win libel
suit unless they can prove that the statement was made knowing it to be
false or with reckless disregard of the truth.
New York Times v. U.S. (1971)- The ruling made it possible for the New
York Times and Washington Post newspapers to publish the then-classified
Pentagon Papers without risk of government censorship or punishment.
News Leaks- leaks from the government favorable to their interest.
Information given to the media sources that the news sources wouldnt
otherwise have.
Nineteenth Amendment (1920)- prohibits any United States citizen from
being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex
Northwest Ordinance- or the Government of the Territory of the United
States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom
Ordinance or The Ordinance of 1787) was an act of the Congress of the
Confederation of the United States
Off the record- the official says cannot be used.
Oligarchy- a small group of people having control of a country,
organization, or institution.
On the background- What the official says can be used but cant be
attributed to him or her by name.
On the deep background- What the official says cant be attributed to
anyone.
On the record- The reporter can quote the official by name.
Open primary- A primary election in which any registered voter can
participate in the contest, regardless of party affiliation.
Opposition Research- is a term used to classify and describe efforts of
supporters or paid consultants of a political candidate to legally
investigate the biographical, legal or criminal, medical, educational,
financial, public and private administrative and or voting records of the
opposing candidate, as well as prior media coverage.
Original Jurisdiction- a court is the power to hear a case for the first time,
as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a court has the power to review
a lower court's decision.
out party- party not in control in congress
Outsider strategies- Aimed at changing public opinion strategy involves
media advertising designed to educate the public or letter writing phone
and fax campaigns designed to impress public officials
PAC or political action committee- A committee set up by a corporation,
labor union, or interest group that raises and spends campaign money
from voluntary donations.
Pack Journalism- is the characterization of news reporting as having
become homogeneous.
Party dealignment- is a trend or process whereby a large portion of the
electorate abandons its previous partisan affiliation, without developing a
new one to replace it. It is contrasted with realignment.
party platform- Ideas of a party, what they believe in.

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Patronage- Giving jobs to those who supported your campaign


personal following- Someone who has a following
Pluralist theory- indicates that power is distributed among many groups.
These groups may include coalitions of like-minded people, unions,
professional associations and business lobbyists.
plurality system- electoral process in which the candidate who polls more
votes than any other candidate is elected.
Political cue
- A signal, frequently provided by interest groups, that
tells a politician what values are at stake in an issue and how that issue
fits into his or her own set of political beliefs
Political Culture- refers to what people believe and feel about government,
and how they think people should act towards it
Political Elite- Political Elites are the best educated, best-informed and
most politically active people nationwide with an outsized influence on
public officials.
Political Ideology- Ideologies are the sets of basic beliefs about the
political, economic, social and cultural affairs held by the majority of
people within as society.
political machine- organization in which an authoritative boss or small
group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses
political party- is an organization of people which seeks to achieve goals
common to its members through the acquisition and exercise of political
power.
Poll tax- A tax that was placed on voting.
Position issues- An issue about which the public is divided and rival
candidates or political parties adopt different policy positions.
Primary- Election in which voters decide which of the candidates within a
party will represent the party in the general election.
Prior Restraint- Censorship of a publication government cant do this.
Progressives- is a broadly based reform movement that reached its height
early in the 20th century and is generally considered to be middle class
and reformist in nature. It arose as a response to the vast changes
brought by modernization, such as the growth of large corporations and
railroads, and fears of corruption in American politics
Proportional Representation- characterizes electoral systems by which
divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.
If 30% of the electorate support a particular political party, then roughly
30% of seats will be won by that party.
Prospective- Voting for a candidate because you favor his or her ideas for
handling issues.
Public-interest lobby- An interest group whose principal purpose is to
benefit nonmembers
Push polls- is an interactive marketing technique, most commonly
employed during political campaigning, in which an individual or
organization attempts to influence or alter the view of voters under the
guise of conducting a poll.

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Question framing- is just the way to ask a question


Ralph Nader- Created many liberal public- interest groups after suing GM
Random sample- Random group of people that are surveyed.
Realignment- is terms from political science and political history
describing a dramatic change in the political system.
Reapportionment- changing in voter district shape happens once every
ten years goes along with the census.
Refusal rate- is the proportion of all potentially eligible sample cases that
declined the request to be interviewed
Republic- is a form of government in which power resides in the people,[1]
and the government is ruled by elected leaders run according to law (from
Latin: res publica), rather than inherited or appointed (such as through
inheritance or divine mandate). In modern times, the definition of a
republic is also commonly limited to a government which excludes a
monarch.[1][2] Currently, 135 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the
word "republic" as part of their official names.
Retrospective voting- Voting for a candidate because you like his or her
past actions in office.
Revolving Door- Employment cycle in which individuals who work for
government agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working
for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
Ross Perot- is an American businessman best known for being an
independent presidential candidate in 1992 and 1996. Perot founded
Electronic Data Systems. Reform party leader
Routine Stories- Media stories about events regularly covered.
Saliency- Having a striking point or feature.
Sampling error- The error which can occur within polling.
Selective attention- Paying attention only to those news stories with which
one already agrees with.
Separated Powers- Under this model, the state is divided into branches,
each with separate and independent powers and areas of responsibility so
that the powers of one branch are not in conflict with the powers
associated with the other branches. The typical division of branches is into
a legislature, an executive, and a judiciary
separation of powers- an act of vesting the legislative, executive, and
judicial powers of government in separate bodies.
Shayss Rebellion- was an armed uprising that took place in
Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787,
which some historians believe "fundamentally altered the course of United
States' [sic] history."
Shield law- s legislation designed to protect reporters' privilege, or the
right of news reporters to refuse to testify as to information and/or sources
of information
Silent Majority- is an unspecified large majority of people in a country or
group who do not express their opinions publicly

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Single-member district- returns one officeholder to a body with multiple


members such as a legislature. This is also sometimes called single-winner
voting.
Single-member districts- An electoral system in which every elected
official represents a geographically defined area, such as a state or
congressional district, and each area elects one representative.
Skewed question- A question that pushes someone towards a certain
answer.
Smith v. Allwright(1944)- was a landmark decision of the United States
Supreme Court with regard to voting rights and, by extension, racial
desegregation. Ended the white primary
social contract- is the view that persons' moral and/or political obligations
are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the
society in which they live. John Locke idea.
Social Status (socio-economic status, SES)- is an economic and
sociological combined total measure of a person's work experience and of
an individual's or family's economic and social position in relation to
others, based on income, education, and occupation.
Soft money- Money raised in unlimited amounts by political parties for
party-building purposes. Now largely illegal except for limited
contributions to state or local parties for voter registration and get-outthe-vote efforts.
Sophomore surge- An increase in the votes congressional candidates
usually get when they run for reelection.
sound bites- A radio or video clip of someone speaking.
Split-ticket voting- voter has chosen candidates from different political
parties
Spoils System- after winning an election, gives government jobs to its
supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory,
and as an incentive to keep working for the party
State of Nature- is a concept in moral and political philosophy used in
religion, social contract theories and international law to denote the
hypothetical conditions of what the lives of people might have been like
before societies came into existence.
Straight-ticket voting- Voting for members all in the same party
Strom Thurmond- Thurmond switched parties because of his opposition to
the 1964 Civil Rights Act, disaffection with the liberalism of the national
party, and his support for the conservatism and opposition to the Civil
Rights bill of the Republican presidential candidate Senator Barry
Goldwater
Super PACs- Super PACs may raise unlimited sums of money from
corporations, unions, associations and individuals, then spend unlimited
sums to overtly advocate for or against political candidates. Super PACs
must, however, report their donors to the Federal Election Commission
Super PACs
- Technically known as independent expenditure-only
committees, Super PACs may raise unlimited sums of money from

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corporations, unions, associations and individuals, and then spend


unlimited sums to overtly advocate for or against political candidates.
Came to be because of SpeechNow.org v. Federal Election Commission.
Super Tuesday- refers to the Tuesday in February or March of a
presidential election year when the greatest number of states hold
primary elections to select delegates to national conventions at which
each party's presidential candidates are officially nominated.
super-delegates- are not bound to represent the popular vote of a region
Supremacy Clause- Article VI, Paragraph 2 of the Constitution is commonly
referred to as the Supremacy Clause. It establishes that the federal
constitution, and federal law generally, take precedence over state laws,
and even state constitutions.
Tammany Hall- was the name given to the Democratic political machine
that dominated New York City politics
Tea Party movement- It demands a reduction in the U.S. national debt and
federal budget deficit by reducing government spending and taxes.
Telecommunications Act- allowed one company to own as many as eight
stations in large markets, five in smaller ones, and as many as it wished
nationally.
The Great (or Connecticut Compromise)- It blended the Virginia and New
Jersey Plans as a model for representation in the two houses of Congress:
states would be represented equally in the Senate, and proportionately in
the House of Representatives. Every five slaves would be counted as three
persons for purposes of determining population
The Pentagon Papers- When the federal government sought to prevent the
NYT from publishing the Pentagon papers, a set of secret government
documents stolen by antiwar activist, the court held that the paper was
free to publish them.
Think tanks- Public interest organizations that do research on policy
questions and disseminate their research on policy questions and
disseminate their finding in books, articles, conferences, op-ed essays for
newspaper, and testimony before Congress.
Thomas Hobbes- established social contract theory, the foundation of
most later Western political philosophy.
Tracking poll- is a poll repeated at intervals generally averaged over a
trailing window.
Treason- the crime of betraying one's country, especially by attempting to
kill the sovereign or overthrow the government.
trial balloon- Information leaked to the media to test public reaction to a
possible policy.
Twenty-Sixth Amendment (1971)- 18+ can vote
unalienable rights- as fixed rights given to us by our Creator rather than
by government. The emphasis on our Creator is crucial, because it shows
that the rights are permanent just as the Creator is permanent.
Union Movement- for the development of a collective organization of
working people, to campaign for better working conditions and treatment

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from their employers and governments, in particular through the


implementation of labor and employment law.
Valence issues- An issue about which the public is united and rival
candidates or political parties adopt similar positions
Veto- a constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a lawmaking body. Article 1 section 7
Voting Rights Act (1965)- prohibits racial discrimination in voting
Weighting- Emphasizing one thing more than something else
White primary- primaries were primary elections in the Southern states of
the United States of America in which only white voters were permitted to
participate.
Winner-take-all primaries- During the presidential primaries, the practice
of assigning all of a given state's delegates to the candidate who receives
the most popular votes. Some states' Republican primaries and caucuses
use this system.
winner-take-all-system- is a term used to describe single member district
and at large election systems that award seats to the highest vote getters
without ensuring fair representation for minority groups.