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Institut of Materials Engineering

PHD Programme

Fatigue life calculation of welded joints based on fracture


mechanics

Ahmed M. Al-Mukhtar*
MSc. Materials and Manufacturing Engineering
BSc. Aeronatical Engineering

Supervisors:

Prof. Dr.- Ing. habil. H. Biermann*


Prof. Dr.- Ing. P. Hbner**

*Institute of Materials Engineering, Technische Universitt Bergakademie Freiberg, Germany


**Fachhochschule Mittweida, Mittweida, Germany

Outlines
1)

Aim of reaserch (Objectives) - Procedure

2)

Introduction (Why fracture mechanics?)

3)

Finite Element Analysis (FEA)


- Modelling
- Crack path direction

4)

Standard and fatigue design recommendations

5)

Results (benchmarking)
- SIF calculation and comparison for some welded joints
- Fatigue life calculation and comparison for some welded joints
- Case study not presented in the recommendation

6)

Conclusions

1.1.
Aim
andProecdures
Ziel
und Aufgabenstellung

Aim
- Accurate SIF calculation
- Moreover, calculate the fatigue life, and the fatigue strength (FAT) of the welded
joints with different geometries that not presented in recommendations

Procedures
1) FE modeling which give accurate stress intensity factor.
2) With knowledge of the stress intensity factors KI at different crack depths (a), it
was possible to make curve fits for KI(a) for the different loading and use Paris
law to integrate numerically and calculate the expected fatigue life for the
specimens.
3) Case studies can be consulted, and the need for well thought out benchmarking
of analytical results against experimental databases-IIW
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2.1.
Introdcution
- Why
Fracure Mechanics?
Ziel und
Aufgabenstellung
- One of the most important deterioration mechanisms of

Aloha Airlines.1988

Aircrafts, ships and steel bridge structures which occur in


service condition is Fatigue.
- Fatigue Failure, accounts for at least 75% of all machines

and structures failures


- Crack normally existed! But may be accelerated due to

environment and loading condition-A.A. Griffith (18931963)


De Havilland First commercial jet aircraft
fatigue cracks initiated at square windows, 1954

Goal: Calculate ai, which already existed and

crack growth parameters


Fatigue life
calculation and FAT

Safe life and lower cost


consuming for experiments
tests

2. Introdcution - Why Fracure Mechanics?

Seven of the Liberty ships built during the world war II has broken completely in two as a
result of brittle fractures. (1943)

However, larger safety factor !!

Crack normally existed !! How long?

2. Introdcution - Why Fracure Mechanics?


Fontana Dam, North Carolina, USA

Ref.Ingraffea A R. Case Studies of Simulation of Fracture in Concrete Dams. Eng. Fracture Mech., 35, 1/2/3, 1990, 553-564.

3. FRacture ANalysis Code (Finite Element Analysis FEA) Two Dimension


FRANC2D & CASCA (*)

FRANC2D is a FE based simulator for


curvilinear crack propagtion planar
structures. CASCA which used for the
creating the meshes, is a preprocessor for
genrating initial input file for FRANC2D.

Applicatons

Civil Engineering (Dams)


Mechanical Engineering (Welded joints)

Output

Stress intensity fcator,SIF(KIC)

Compare with other FEM sofware


The results have been shown that FRANC2D
has advantages over other simulations to
calculate SIF because there are:

*-Cornell Fracture Group,

No effect of, mesh size, densitry distributon


and those save time and effort.

Also no problem with badly shaped meshes


elements have been disapperad.

http://www.cfg.cornell.edu

3. FRacture ANalysis Code (Finite Element Analysis FEA) Two Dimension


Simulation and prediction crack growth in welded and complex structures

4. Standard and fatigue design recommendations


- International insitute of Welding-IIW
- British standards- BS
- Japanese Society of Steel construction-JSSC

5. Results
SIF calculation and comparison
-Non load carrying joint
-Cruciform joint load carrying

45

800
700

40

Frank,Fisher,Modified
BS.B=T=15,h=6mm

35
SIF (Mpa.m^0.5)

K (Mpa.mm1/2)

600

FRANC2D.B=T=15.h=6

500
400
300

30
25
20
FRANC2D
15

New approach

10

200

100

10

3
Crack length (mm)

a (mm)

10

5. Results
SIF calculation and comparison
-Butt weld (V-Butt,incomplete and complete penetration-machined and non machined flash)

140
FRANC2D

120

Empirical solution.Ref.19

SIF (Mpa.m1/2)

100
80
60
40

20
0
0

Crack length (m m )

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5. Results
Fatigue life calculation and comparison
-Non-load carrying cruciform joint.
-Comparison with IIW. FAT 63 Mpa.

-Butt weld.
-Comparison with IIW. FAT 80 Mpa.
1000

Stress Range (Mpa.)

Stress Rang (M pa.)

1000

100

10

FAT63.IIW

100

10

FRANC2D
1
1,E+04

1,E+05

FAT80.IIW

FRANC2D
1,E+06

Log N (Cycle)

1,E+07

1,E+08

1
1,E+03

1,E+04

1,E+05

1,E+06

1,E+07

1,E+08

Log N (Cycle)

12

1,E+09

1,E+10

5. Results
-New Geometry not presenetd in IIW recommendations
-Fatigue life calculation and comparison
provided a new value of FAT could be considered as the design value or lower bound.
The new case with fillet radius not consider in IIW and in BS. (FAT=71 Mpa.)
1000

Radius Rt

Stress Rang (Mpa.)

100

Experimental

10

FAT63.No toe radius.IIW

FRANC2D.C=5E13.m=3.ai=0.1mm.with toe radius


C=1,85E-13.m=3.mean values

1
1,E+04

1,E+05

1,E+06

1,E+07

Log N (Cycle)

13

1,E+08

6. Conclusions

1) Accurate SIF is calculated through FEM FRANC2D


2) Different weld geometries which are not yet listed in
previous recommendations could be easily modeled to
evaluate the fatigue life strength. Which means that,
2) The new approach saves the time and costs need for
experimental testes

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Thank you for your attention

Vielen Dank fr Ihre Aufmerksamkeit

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