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The most important problems faced are the misusage of electricity and its wastage. Sometimes
due to carelessness of the authorities and the workers lamps are left ON which results in wastage
of electricity. Water wastage is another problem which needs to be dealt with. Our project helps
to overcome all these problems.
This project provides different on and off timings to provide the water supply to the fields. The
system starts the water supply only at preprogrammed timings. As the DS1307 Real Time Clock
chip with battery back-up is used, there will be no disturbances for the programmed on/off
timings even in power failures.
DS1307 is interfaced to the microcontroller for real timing performance. A 3V battery can be
connected to DS1307 to avoid time disturbances caused by power failures. The user may even
change the preprogrammed timings and set his timings according to his requirements.
Firstly the Microcontroller around 4.00pm switches on the water supply once to water the
entire garden few hours before opening of the garden for public. Next the gate is opened by
running the motor which is driven by a motor driver operated by the Microcontroller. At around
6.00pm the lights are switched on depending upon the output of the LDR and the lights remain
functional till the garden remains open for visitors.
The garden remains open for about three hours and so around 8.50 pm a buzzer is sounded to
indicate closure of the garden and alert the visitors. The gate is then closed at 9.00pm and one of
the two lamps is switched off. One lamp is kept on throughout the night. In the morning the
remaining lamp is switched off depending upon the signal sent by the LDR, light dependent
resistor to the Microcontroller. These are the step involved in the operation of the circuit and the

public garden automation. Microcontroller is used to supervise the actions of all other devices
and to control the entire set of operations.

The project intends to control the submersible motor based on the preprogrammed timings
and also the gate and AC loads like bulbs etc. The project uses the Embedded Systems to design
this application. The main objective of this project is to design a system that operate water
supplying AC motor on the time basis by comparing the time from the RTC with the
preprogrammed timing stored in the controllers memory and also control the lights and DC
motor gates based on pre- planned delay.
We are using I2C protocol to provide communication between DS1307 RTC and the 8051
microcontroller. Here 8051 microcontroller is the master and the RTC is the slave,
This project is a device that collects data from all the devices, codes the data into a format
that can be understood by the controlling section. This system also collects the information from
the master and implements the commands directed by the master.
The objective of the project is to develop microcontroller based control system. It consists of
microcontroller, LCD, AC motor, DC motor, RTC and the lights.


The software application and the hardware implementation help the microcontroller
(AT89S52) to monitor all the parameters continuously and display it on LCD. The system is
totally designed using RTC and embedded systems technology. AT89S52 is the microcontroller
and forms the heart of the system.

The Controlling unit has an application program to allow the microcontroller read the
incoming data through the RTC and change the status of the motor accordingly. The performance
of the design is maintained by controlling unit. The RTC consisting of the ON and OFF time of
the motor, this forms the link between user and the system.


In view of the proposed thesis work explanation of theoretical aspects and algorithms used in this
work are presented as per the sequence described below.

Chapter1: Describes a brief review of the objectives and Aim of the project.
Chapter2: Discusses the introduction of embedded systems and specifications and design of
embedded systems in detail.
Chapter3: Describes the Block diagram of the project and its description. The construction and
description of various modules used for the application are described in detail.
Chapter4: Explains the Software tools required for the project, compilation process of the code in
Chapter5: Working procedure and schematic diagram of the hardware.
Chapter6: Overall conclusions of this project along with working procedure are given.

An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job.
Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile
phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor
and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the
embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The
embedded software is also called firm ware. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose
computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word processing,
accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in the embedded systems
is always fixed listed below:
Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do different things. .
Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally, they do not
have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have
to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In
some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a
deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are
constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power
consumption has to be very low.
Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very
high temperatures and humidity.

Application Areas
Nearly 99 per cent of the processors manufactured end up in embedded systems. The embedded
system market is one of the highest growth areas as these systems are used in very market
segment- consumer electronics, office automation, industrial automation, biomedical
engineering, wireless communication,

data communication, telecommunications, transportation, military and so on.

Consumer appliances: At home we use a number of embedded systems which include digital
camera, digital diary, DVD player, electronic toys, microwave oven, remote controls for TV and
air-conditioner, VCO player, video game consoles, video recorders etc. Todays high-tech car has
about 20 embedded systems for transmission control, engine spark control, air-conditioning,
navigation etc. Even wristwatches are now
becoming embedded systems. The palmtops are powerful embedded systems using which we can
carry out many general-purpose tasks such as playing games and word processing.

Office automation: The office automation products using em embedded systems are copying
machine, fax machine, key telephone, modem, printer, scanner etc.

Industrial automation: Today a lot of industries use embedded systems for process control.
These include pharmaceutical, cement, sugar, oil exploration, nuclear energy, electricity
generation and transmission. The embedded systems for industrial use are designed to carry out
specific tasks such as monitoring the temperature, pressure, humidity, voltage, current etc., and
then take appropriate action based on the monitored levels to control other devices or to send
information to a centralized monitoring station. In hazardous industrial environment, where
human presence has to be avoided, robots are used, which are programmed to do specific jobs.
The robots are now becoming very powerful and carry out many interesting and complicated
tasks such as hardware assembly.

Medical electronics: Almost every medical equipment in the hospital is an embedded system.
These equipments include diagnostic aids such as ECG, EEG, blood pressure measuring devices,
X-ray scanners; equipment used in blood analysis, radiation, colonscopy, endoscopy etc.
Developments in medical electronics have paved way for more accurate diagnosis of diseases.

Computer networking: Computer networking products such as bridges, routers, Integrated

Services Digital Networks (ISDN), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), X.25 and frame relay
switches are embedded systems which implement the necessary data communication protocols.
For example, a router interconnects two networks. The two networks may be running different
protocol stacks. The routers function is to obtain the data packets from incoming pores, analyze
the packets and send them towards the destination after doing necessary protocol conversion.
Most networking equipments, other than the end systems (desktop computers) we use to access
the networks, are embedded systems
Telecommunications: In the field of telecommunications, the embedded systems can be
categorized as subscriber terminals and network equipment. The subscriber terminals such as key
telephones, ISDN phones, terminal adapters, web cameras are embedded systems. The network
equipment includes multiplexers, multiple access systems, Packet Assemblers Dissemblers
(PADs), sate11ite modems etc. IP phone, IP gateway, IP gatekeeper etc. are the latest embedded
systems that provide very low-cost voice communication over the Internet.
Wireless technologies: Advances in mobile communications are paving way for many
interesting applications using embedded systems. The mobile phone is one of the marvels of the
last decade of the 20h century. It is a very powerful embedded system that provides voice
communication while we are on the move. The Personal Digital Assistants and the palmtops can
now be used to access multimedia services over

the Internet. Mobile communication

infrastructure such as base station controllers, mobile switching centers are also powerful
embedded systems.

Insemination: Testing and measurement are the fundamental requirements in all scientific and
engineering activities. The measuring equipment we use in laboratories to measure parameters
such as weight, temperature, pressure, humidity, voltage, current etc. are all embedded systems.
Test equipment such as oscilloscope, spectrum analyzer, logic analyzer, protocol analyzer, radio

communication test set etc. are embedded systems built around powerful processors. Thank to
miniaturization, the test and measuring equipment are now becoming portable facilitating easy
testing and measurement in the field by field-personnel.

Security: Security of persons and information has always been a major issue. We need to protect
our homes and offices; and also the information we transmit and store. Developing embedded
systems for security applications is one of the most lucrative businesses nowadays. Security
devices at homes, offices, airports etc. for authentication and verification are embedded systems.
Encryption devices are nearly 99 per cent of
the processors that are manufactured end up in~ embedded systems. Embedded systems find
applications in . every industrial segment- consumer electronics, transportation, avionics,
biomedical engineering, manufacturing, process control and industrial automation, data
communication, telecommunication, defense, security etc. Used to encrypt the data/voice being
transmitted on communication links such as telephone lines. Biometric systems using fingerprint
and face recognition are now being extensively used for user authentication in banking
applications as well as for access control in high security buildings.
Finance: Financial dealing through cash and cheques are now slowly paving way for
transactions using smart cards and ATM (Automatic Teller Machine, also expanded as Any Time
Money) machines. Smart card, of the size of a credit card, has a small micro-controller and
memory; and it interacts with the smart card reader! ATM machine and acts as an electronic
wallet. Smart card technology has the capability of ushering in a cashless society. Well, the list
goes on. It is no exaggeration to say that eyes wherever you go, you can see, or at least feel, the
work of an embedded system!

Overview of Embedded System Architecture

Every embedded system consists of custom-built hardware built around a Central Processing
Unit (CPU). This hardware also contains memory chips onto which the software is loaded. The
software residing on the memory chip is also called the firmware. The embedded system
architecture can be represented as a layered architecture as shown in Fig.
The operating system runs above the hardware, and the application software runs above the

operating system. The same architecture is applicable to any computer including a desktop
computer. However, there are significant differences. It is not compulsory to have an operating
system in every embedded system. For small appliances such as remote control units, air
conditioners, toys etc., there is no need for an operating system and you can write only the
software specific to that application. For applications involving complex processing, it is
advisable to have an operating system. In such a case, you need to integrate the application
software with the operating system and then transfer the entire software on to the memory chip.
Once the software is transferred to the memory chip, the software will continue to run for a long
time you dont need to reload new software.
Now, let us see the details of the various building blocks of the hardware of an embedded
system. As shown in Fig. the building blocks are;

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Memory (Read-only Memory and Random Access Memory)
Input Devices
Output devices
Communication interfaces
Application-specific circuitry

Central Processing Unit (CPU):

The Central Processing Unit (processor, in short) can be any of the following: microcontroller,
microprocessor or Digital Signal Processor (DSP). A micro-controller is a low-cost processor. Its
main attraction is that on the chip itself, there will be many other components such as memory,
serial communication interface, analog-to digital converter etc. So, for small applications, a
micro-controller is the best choice as the number of external components required will be very
less. On the other hand, microprocessors are more powerful, but you need to use many external
components with them. D5P is used mainly for applications in which signal processing is
involved such as audio and video processing.

The memory is categorized as Random Access 11emory (RAM) and Read Only Memory
(ROM). The contents of the RAM will be erased if power is switched off to the chip, whereas
ROM retains the contents even if the power is switched off. So, the firmware is stored in the
ROM. When power is switched on, the processor reads the ROM; the program is program is

Input devices:
Unlike the desktops, the input devices to an embedded system have very limited capability.
There will be no keyboard or a mouse, and hence interacting with the embedded system is no
easy task. Many embedded systems will have a small keypad-you press one key to give a
specific command. A keypad may be used to input only the digits. Many embedded systems used
in process control do not have any input device for user interaction; they take inputs from sensors
or transducers 1fnd produce electrical signals that are in turn fed to other systems.

Output devices:
The output devices of the embedded systems also have very limited capability. Some embedded
systems will have a few Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) to indicate the health status of the system
modules, or for visual indication of alarms. A small Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) may also be
used to display some important parameters.

Communication interfaces:
The embedded systems may need to, interact with other embedded systems at they may have to
transmit data to a desktop. To facilitate this, the embedded systems are provided with one or a
few communication interfaces such as RS232, RS422, RS485, Universal Serial Bus (USB), IEEE
1394, Ethernet etc.

Application-specific circuitry:
Sensors, transducers, special processing and control circuitry may be required fat an embedded
system, depending on its application. This circuitry interacts with the processor to carry out the
necessary work. The entire hardware has to be given power supply either through the 230 volts
main supply or through a battery. The hardware has to design in such a way that the power
consumption is minimized.

Chapter 3
Hardware Implementation of the Project

This chapter briefly explains about the Hardware Implementation of the project. It discusses the
design and working of the design with the help of block diagram and circuit diagram and
explanation of circuit diagram in detail. It explains the features, timer programming, serial
communication, interrupts of AT89S52 microcontroller. It also explains the various modules used
in this project.

3.1 Project Design

The implementation of the project design can be divided in two parts.

Hardware implementation
Firmware implementation

Hardware implementation deals in drawing the schematic on the plane paper according to the
application, testing the schematic design over the breadboard using the various ICs to find if the
design meets the objective, carrying out the PCB layout of the schematic tested on breadboard,
finally preparing the board and testing the designed hardware.

The firmware part deals in programming the microcontroller so that it can control the operation
of the ICs used in the implementation. In the present work, we have used the Orcad design

software for PCB circuit design, the Keil v3 software development tool to write and compile
the source code, which has been written in the C language. The Proload programmer has been
used to write this compile code into the microcontroller. The firmware implementation is
explained in the next chapter.

The project design and principle are explained in this chapter using the block diagram and circuit
diagram. The block diagram discusses about the required components of the design and working
condition is explained using circuit diagram and system wiring diagram.

Based on the Processor side Embedded Systems is mainly divided into 3 types
1. Micro Processor : - are for general purpose eg: our personal computer
2. Micro Controller:- are for specific applications, because of cheaper cost we will go for these
3. DSP ( Digital Signal Processor ):- are for high and sensitive application purpose


A system designer using a general-purpose microprocessor such as the Pentium or the 68040
must add RAM, ROM, I/O ports, and timers externally to make them functional. Although the
addition of external RAM, ROM, and I/O ports makes these systems bulkier and much more
expensive, they have the advantage of versatility such that the designer can decide on the amount
of RAM, ROM and I/O ports needed to fit the task at hand.
A Microcontroller has a CPU (a microprocessor) in addition to a fixed amount of RAM,
ROM, I/O ports, and a timer all on a single chip. In other words, the processor, the RAM, ROM,
I/O ports and the timer are all embedded together on one chip; therefore, the designer cannot add
any external memory, I/O ports, or timer to it. The fixed amount of on-chip ROM, RAM, and
number of I/O ports in Microcontrollers makes them ideal for many applications in which cost
and space are critical.

CPU platform:
Embedded processors can be broken into two distinct categories: microprocessors (P) and
microcontrollers (C). Microcontrollers have built-in peripherals on the chip, reducing size of
the system.
There are many different CPU architectures used in embedded designs such as ARM, MIPS,
Coldfire/68k, PowerPC, x86, PIC, 8051, Atmel AVR, Renesas H8, SH, V850, FR-V, M32R,
Z80, Z8, etc. This in contrast to the desktop computer market, which is currently limited to just a
few competing architectures.

PC/104 and PC/104+ are a typical base for small, low-volume embedded and ruggedized system
design. These often use DOS, Linux, NetBSD, or an embedded real-time operating system such
as QNX or VxWorks.
A common configuration for very-high-volume embedded systems is the system on a chip (SoC),
an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), for which the CPU core was purchased and
added as part of the chip design. A related scheme is to use a field-programmable gate array
(FPGA), and program it with all the logic, including the CPU.
Embedded systems are based on the concept of the microcontroller, a single integrated circuit
that contains all the technology required to run an application. Microcontrollers make integrated
systems possible by combining several features together into what is effectively a complete
























By integrating all of these features into a single chip it is possible to greatly reduce the number of
chips and wiring necessary to control an electronic device, dramatically reducing its complexity,
size and cost.
* Size & Weight: Microcontrollers are designed to deliver maximum performance for minimum
size and weight. A centralized on-board computer system would greatly outweigh a collection of
* Efficiency: Microcontrollers are designed to perform repeated functions for long periods of
time without failing or requiring service.
MICRO CONTROLLER: is a chip through which we can connect many other devices and
also those are controlled by the program the program which burn into that chip
3.1.1 Block Diagram of the Project and its Description

The block diagram of the design is as shown in Fig 3.1. It consists of power supply unit,
microcontroller, RTC module, TRIAC, LCD. The brief description of each unit is explained as
Block Diagram:


3.2 Power Supply:

The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from
the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output
obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the
output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after
rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc

Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these
voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input
available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This
is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a
required level.
The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C.
The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used
because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification.

Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier
and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and
load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this
point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.
Voltage regulator:
As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an
electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project,
power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812
voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers
05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels.

3.3 Microcontrollers:
Microprocessors and microcontrollers are widely used in embedded systems products.
Microcontroller is a programmable device. A microcontroller has a CPU in addition to a fixed
amount of RAM, ROM, I/O ports and a timer embedded all on a single chip. The fixed amount
of on-chip ROM, RAM and number of I/O ports in microcontrollers makes them ideal for many
applications in which cost and space are critical.
The Intel 8052 is Harvard architecture, single chip microcontroller (C) which was developed by
Intel in 1980 for use in embedded systems. It was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s, but
today it has largely been superseded by a vast range of enhanced devices with 8051-compatible
processor cores that are manufactured by more than 20 independent manufacturers including
Atmel, Infineon Technologies and Maxim Integrated Products.
8052 is an 8-bit processor, meaning that the CPU can work on only 8 bits of data at a time. Data
larger than 8 bits has to be broken into 8-bit pieces to be processed by the CPU. 8052 is available
in different memory types such as UV-EPROM, Flash and NV-RAM.

Features of AT89S52:

8K Bytes of Re-programmable Flash Memory.

RAM is 256 bytes.

4.0V to 5.5V Operating Range.

Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 33 MHzs

Three-level Program Memory Lock.

256 x 8-bit Internal RAM.

32 Programmable I/O Lines.

Three 16-bit Timer/Counters.

Eight Interrupt Sources.

Full Duplex UART Serial Channel.

Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes.

Interrupt recovery from power down mode.

Watchdog timer.

Dual data pointer.

Power-off flag.

Fast programming time.

Flexible ISP programming (byte and page mode).

The AT89s52 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with 8K bytes of
Flash programmable memory. The device is manufactured using Atmels high density
nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard MCS-51
instruction set. The on chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in system or
by a conventional non volatile memory programmer. By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with
Flash on a monolithic chip, the Atmel AT89s52 is a powerful microcomputer, which provides a
highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.

In addition, the AT89s52 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and
supports two software selectable power saving modes. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while
allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The
power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip
functions until the next hardware reset.

Pin description:

Pin 40 provides supply voltage to the chip. The voltage source is +5V.

GND Pin 20 is the ground.

Port 0
Port 0 is an 8-bit open drain bidirectional I/O port. As an output port, each pin can sink eight
TTL inputs. When 1s are written to port 0 pins, the pins can be used as high impedance inputs.
Port 0 can also be configured to be the multiplexed low-order address/data bus during accesses to
external program and data memory. In this mode, P0 has internal pull-ups.
Port 0 also receives the code bytes during Flash programming and outputs the code bytes during
Program verification. External pull-ups are required during program verification.
Port 1
Port 1 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 1 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 1 pins that are externally being pulled
low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups. In addition, P1.0 and P1.1 can be
configured to be the timer/counter 2 external count input (P1.0/T2) and the timer/counter 2
trigger input (P1.1/T2EX), respectively, as shown in the following table.
Port 1 also receives the low-order address bytes during Flash programming and verification.

Port 2
Port 2 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 2 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 2 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 2 pins that are externally being pulled
low will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.

Port 2 emits the high-order address byte during fetches from external program memory and
during accesses to external data memory that uses 16-bit addresses (MOVX @ DPTR). In this
application, Port 2 uses strong internal pull-ups when emitting 1s. During accesses to external
data memory that uses 8-bit addresses (MOVX @ RI), Port 2 emits the contents of the P2
Special Function Register. The port also receives the high-order address bits and some control
signals during Flash programming and verification.
Port 3
Port 3 is an 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups. The Port 3 output buffers can
sink/source four TTL inputs. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins, they are pulled high by the
internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs, Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled
low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. Port 3 receives some control signals for
Flash programming and verification.
Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of the AT89S52, as shown in the
following table.

Reset input A high on this pin for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the
device. This pin drives high for 98 oscillator periods after the Watchdog times out. The DISRTO
bit in SFR AUXR (address 8EH) can be used to disable this feature. In the default state of bit
DISRTO, the RESET HIGH out feature is enabled.

Address Latch Enable (ALE) is an output pulse for latching the low byte of the address during
accesses to external memory. This pin is also the program pulse input (PROG) during Flash
In normal operation, ALE is emitted at a constant rate of 1/6 the oscillator frequency and may be
used for external timing or clocking purposes. Note, however, that one ALE pulse is skipped
during each access to external data memory.
If desired, ALE operation can be disabled by setting bit 0 of SFR location 8EH. With the bit set,
ALE is active only during a MOVX or MOVC instruction. Otherwise, the pin is weakly pulled
high. Setting the ALE-disable bit has no effect if the microcontroller is in external execution

Program Store Enable (PSEN) is the read strobe to external program memory. When the
AT89S52 is executing code from external program memory, PSEN is activated twice each
machine cycle, except that two PSEN activations are skipped during each access to external data
External Access Enable EA must be strapped to GND in order to enable the device to fetch
code from external program memory locations starting at 0000H up to FFFFH. Note, however,
that if lock bit 1 is programmed, EA will be internally latched on reset.
EA should be strapped to VCC for internal program executions. This pin also receives the 12volt programming enable voltage (VPP) during Flash programming.
Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit.

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an inverting amplifier that can be
configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be
used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be left unconnected
while XTAL1 is driven. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal,
since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop, but
minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.

Special Function Registers

A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register (SFR) space is shown in
the following table.
It should be noted that not all of the addresses are occupied and unoccupied addresses may not
be implemented on the chip. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data,
and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.
User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations, since they may be used in future
products to invoke new features. In that case, the reset or inactive values of the new bits will
always be 0.
Timer 2 Registers:
Control and status bits are contained in registers T2CON and T2MOD for Timer 2. The register
pair (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the Capture/Reload register for Timer 2 in 16-bit capture mode or
16-bit auto-reload mode.
Interrupt Registers:
The individual interrupt enable bits are in the IE register. Two priorities can be set for each of the
six interrupt sources in the IP register.
Dual Data Pointer Registers:
To facilitate accessing both internal and external data memory, two banks of 16-bit Data Pointer
Registers are provided: DP0 at SFR address locations 82H-83H and DP1 at 84H and 85H. Bit
DPS = 0 in SFR AUXR1 selects DP0 and DPS = 1 selects DP1. The user should ALWAYS
initialize the DPS bit to the appropriate value before accessing the respective Data Pointer
Power off Flag:
The Power off Flag (POF) is located at bit 4 (PCON.4) in the PCON SFR. POF is set to 1
during power up. It can be set and rest under software control and is not affected by reset.
Memory Organization

MCS-51 devices have a separate address space for Program and Data Memory. Up to 64K bytes
each of external Program and Data Memory can be addressed.
Program Memory
If the EA pin is connected to GND, all program fetches are directed to external memory. On the
AT89S52, if EA is connected to VCC, program fetches to addresses 0000H through 1FFFH are
directed to internal memory and fetches to addresses 2000H through FFFFH are to external

Data Memory
The AT89S52 implements 256 bytes of on-chip RAM. The upper 128 bytes occupy a parallel
address space to the Special Function Registers. This means that the upper 128 bytes have the
same addresses as the SFR space but are physically separate from SFR space.
When an instruction accesses an internal location above address 7FH, the address mode used in
the instruction specifies whether the CPU accesses the upper 128 bytes of RAM or the SFR
space. Instructions which use direct addressing access the SFR space.
For example, the following direct addressing instruction accesses the SFR at location 0A0H
(which is P2).
MOV 0A0H, #data
The instructions that use indirect addressing access the upper 128 bytes of RAM. For example,
the following indirect addressing instruction, where R0 contains 0A0H, accesses the data byte at
address 0A0H, rather than P2 (whose address is 0A0H).
MOV @R0, #data
It should be noted that stack operations are examples of indirect addressing, so the upper 128
bytes of data RAM are available as stack space.

Watchdog Timer (One-time Enabled with Reset-out)

The WDT is intended as a recovery method in situations where the CPU may be subjected to
software upsets. The WDT consists of a 14-bit counter and the Watchdog Timer Reset
(WDTRST) SFR. The WDT is defaulted to disable from exiting reset. To enable the WDT, a user
must write 01EH and 0E1H in sequence to the WDTRST register (SFR location 0A6H).
When the WDT is enabled, it will increment every machine cycle while the oscillator is running.
The WDT timeout period is dependent on the external clock frequency. There is no way to
disable the WDT except through reset (either hardware reset or WDT overflow reset). When
WDT overflows, it will drive an output RESET HIGH pulse at the RST pin.
The Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers implement three general purpose, 16-bit timers/ counters. They
are identified as Timer 0, Timer 1 and Timer 2 and can be independently configured to operate in
a variety of modes as a timer or as an event counter. When operating as a timer, the timer/counter
runs for a programmed length of time and then issues an interrupt request. When operating as a
counter, the timer/counter counts negative transitions on an external pin. After a preset number of
counts, the counter issues an interrupt request. The various operating modes of each
timer/counter are described in the following sections.

A basic operation consists of timer registers THx and TLx (x= 0, 1) connected in cascade to form
a 16-bit timer. Setting the run control bit (TRx) in TCON register turns the timer on by allowing
the selected input to increment TLx. When TLx overflows it increments THx; when THx
overflows it sets the timer overflow flag (TFx) in TCON register. Setting the TRx does not clear
the THx and TLx timer registers. Timer registers can be accessed to obtain the current count or to
enter preset values. They can be read at any time but TRx bit must be cleared to preset their
values, otherwise the behavior of the timer/counter is unpredictable.

The C/T control bit (in TCON register) selects timer operation or counter operation, by selecting
the divided-down peripheral clock or external pin Tx as the source for the counted signal. TRx
bit must be cleared when changing the mode of operation, otherwise the behavior of the

timer/counter is unpredictable. For timer operation (C/Tx# = 0), the timer register counts the
divided-down peripheral clock. The timer register is incremented once every peripheral cycle (6
peripheral clock periods). The timer clock rate is FPER / 6, i.e. FOSC / 12 in standard mode or
FOSC / 6 in X2 mode. For counter operation (C/Tx# = 1), the timer register counts the negative
transitions on the Tx external input pin. The external input is sampled every peripheral cycle.
When the sample is high in one cycle and low in the next one, the counter is incremented.

Since it takes 2 cycles (12 peripheral clock periods) to recognize a negative transition, the
maximum count rate is FPER / 12, i.e. FOSC / 24 in standard mode or FOSC / 12 in X2 mode.
There are no restrictions on the duty cycle of the external input signal, but to ensure that a given
level is sampled at least once before it changes, it should be held for at least one full peripheral
cycle. In addition to the timer or counter selection, Timer 0 and Timer 1 have four operating
modes from which to select which are selected by bit-pairs (M1, M0) in TMOD. Modes 0, 1and
2 are the same for both timer/counters. Mode 3 is different.

The four operating modes are described below. Timer 2, has three modes of operation: capture,
auto-reload and baud rate generator.

Timer 0
Timer 0 functions as either a timer or event counter in four modes of operation. Timer 0 is
controlled by the four lower bits of the TMOD register and bits 0, 1, 4 and 5 of the TCON
register. TMOD register selects the method of timer gating (GATE0), timer or counter operation
(T/C0#) and mode of operation (M10 and M00). The TCON register provides timer 0 control
functions: overflow flag (TF0), run control bit (TR0), interrupt flag (IE0) and interrupt type
control bit (IT0).

For normal timer operation (GATE0= 0), setting TR0 allows TL0 to be incremented by the
selected input. Setting GATE0 and TR0 allows external pin INT0# to control timer operation.

Timer 0 overflow (count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s) sets TF0 flag, generating an interrupt
request. It is important to stop timer/counter before changing mode.

Mode 0 (13-bit Timer)

Mode 0 configures timer 0 as a 13-bit timer which is set up as an 8-bit timer (TH0 register) with
a modulo-32 prescaler implemented with the lower five bits of the TL0 register. The upper three
bits of TL0 register are indeterminate and should be ignored. Prescaler overflow increments the
TH0 register.

As the count rolls over from all 1s to all 0s, it sets the timer interrupt flag TF0. The counted
input is enabled to the Timer when TR0 = 1 and either GATE = 0 or INT0 = 1. (Setting GATE =
1 allows the Timer to be controlled by external input INT0, to facilitate pulse width
measurements). TR0 is a control bit in the Special Function register TCON. GATE is in TMOD.

The 13-bit register consists of all 8 bits of TH0 and the lower 5 bits of TL0. The upper 3 bits of
TL0 are indeterminate and should be ignored. Setting the run flag (TR0) does not clear the

Mode 0 operation is the same for Timer 0 as for Timer 1. There are two different GATE bits, one
for Timer 1 (TMOD.7) and one for Timer 0 (TMOD.3).

Baud Rate Generator

Timer 2 is selected as the baud rate generator by setting TCLK and/or RCLK in T2CON. Note
that the baud rates for transmit and receive can be different if Timer 2 is used for the receiver or
transmitter and Timer 1 is used for the other function. Setting RCLK and/or TCLK puts Timer 2
into its baud rate generator mode.
The baud rate generator mode is similar to the auto-reload mode, in that a rollover in TH2 causes
the Timer 2 registers to be reloaded with the 16-bit value in registers RCAP2H and RCAP2L,
which are preset by software.
The baud rates in Modes 1 and 3 are determined by Timer 2s overflow rate according to the
following equation.

The Timer can be configured for either timer or counter operation. In most applications, it is
configured for timer operation (CP/T2 = 0). The timer operation is different for Timer 2 when it
is used as a baud rate generator. Normally, as a timer, it increments every machine cycle (at 1/12
the oscillator frequency). As a baud rate generator, however, it increments every state time (at 1/2
the oscillator frequency). The baud rate formula is given below.

where (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) is the content of RCAP2H and RCAP2L taken as a 16-bit unsigned

Timer 2 as a baud rate generator is shown in the below figure. This figure is valid only if RCLK
or TCLK = 1 in T2CON. Note that a rollover in TH2 does not set TF2 and will not generate an
interrupt. Note too, that if EXEN2 is set, a 1-to-0 transition in T2EX will set EXF2 but will not
cause a reload from (RCAP2H, RCAP2L) to (TH2, TL2). Thus, when Timer 2 is in use as a baud
rate generator, T2EX can be used as an extra external interrupt.
It should be noted that when Timer 2 is running (TR2 = 1) as a timer in the baud rate generator
mode, TH2 or TL2 should not be read from or written to. Under these conditions, the Timer is
incremented every state time, and the results of a read or write may not be accurate. The RCAP2
registers may be read but should not be written to, because a write might overlap a reload and
cause write and/or reload errors. The timer should be turned off (clear TR2) before accessing the
Timer 2 or RCAP2 registers.
The AT89S52 has a total of six interrupt vectors: two external interrupts (INT0 and INT1), three
timer interrupts (Timers 0, 1, and 2) and the serial port interrupt. These interrupts are all shown
in the below figure.
Each of these interrupt sources can be individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing a bit
in Special Function Register IE. IE also contains a global disable bit, EA, which disables all
interrupts at once. The below table shows that bit position IE.6 is unimplemented. User software
should not write a 1 to this bit position, since it may be used in future AT89 products.
Timer 2 interrupt is generated by the logical OR of bits TF2 and EXF2 in register T2CON.
Neither of these flags is cleared by hardware when the service routine is vectored to. In fact, the
service routine may have to determine whether it was TF2 or EXF2 that generated the interrupt,
and that bit will have to be cleared in software.
The Timer 0 and Timer 1 flags, TF0 and TF1, are set at S5P2 of the cycle in which the timers
overflow. The values are then polled by the circuitry in the next cycle. However, the Timer 2
flag, TF2, is set at S2P2 and is polled in the same cycle in which the timer overflows.

The 8051 uses the crystal for precisely that: to synchronize its operation. Effectively, the 8051
operates using what are called "machine cycles." A single machine cycle is the minimum amount
of time in which a single 8051 instruction can be executed. Although many instructions take
multiple cycles. 8051 has an on-chip oscillator. It needs an external crystal that decides the
operating frequency of the 8051. The crystal is connected to pins 18 and 19 with stabilizing
capacitors. 12 MHz (11.059MHz) crystal is often used and the capacitance ranges from 20pF to
A cycle is, in reality, 12 pulses of the crystal. That is to say, if an instruction takes one machine
cycle to execute, it will take 12 pulses of the crystal to execute. Since we know the we can
calculate how many instruction cycles the 8051 can execute per second:
11,059,000 / 12 = 921,583
11.0592 MHz crystals are often used because it can be divided to give you exact clock rates for
most of the common baud rates for the UART, especially for the higher speeds (9600, 19200).


RESET is an active High input When RESET is set to High, 8051 goes back to the power on
state.The 8051 is reset by holding the RST high for at least two machine cycles and then
returning it low. Initially charging of capacitor makes RST High, When capacitor charges fully it
blocks DC.

SIP Resistor
Sip Resistor is a single in pack Resistor (i.e.,) 8 resistors connected in series. Basically SIP
resistor is a 9 pin connector first pin is for power supply to the entire 8 resistors in SIP.
Generally SIP Resistor is used to close the open drain connections of Port 0.


The real time clock (RTC) is a widely used device that provides accurate time and date for many
applications. The RTC chip present in the PC provides time components of hour, minute and
second in addition to the date/calendar components of year, month and day.
The RTC chip uses an internal battery that keeps the time and date even when the power is
One of the most widely used RTC chips is the DS1307 from Dallas semiconductor.

The DS1307 serial real-time clock (RTC) is a low power, full binary-coded decimal (BCD)
clock/calendar plus 56 bytes of NV SRAM. Address and data are transferred serially through an
I2C, bidirectional bus. The clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month,
and year information. The end of the month date is automatically adjusted for months with fewer
than 31 days, including corrections for leap year. The clock operates in either the 24-hour or 12hour format with AM/PM indicator.
The DS1307 has a built-in power-sense circuit that detects power failures and automatically
switches to the backup supply. Timekeeping operation continues while the part operates from the
backup supply.

Real-Time Clock (RTC) Counts seconds, minutes, hours, date of the month, month, day
of the week, and year with Leap-Year Compensation valid up to 2100.
56-Byte, Battery-Backed, Nonvolatile (NV) RAM for Data Storage.
I2C Serial Interface.
Programmable Square-Wave Output Signal.
Automatic Power-Fail Detect and Switch Circuitry.
Consumes Less than 500nA in Battery-Backup Mode with Oscillator Running.
Optional Industrial Temperature Range:-40C to +85C.
Available in 8-Pin Plastic DIP or SO.
The DS1307 is a low-power clock/calendar with 56 bytes of battery-backed SRAM. The
clock/calendar provides seconds, minutes, hours, day, date, month, and year information. The

date at the end of the month is automatically adjusted for months with fewer than 31 days,
including corrections for leap year.
The DS1307 operates as a slave device on the I2C bus. Access is obtained by implementing a
START condition and providing a device identification code followed by a register address.
Subsequent registers can be accessed sequentially until a STOP condition is executed. When
VCC falls below 1.25 x VBAT, the device terminates an access in progress and resets the device
address counter. Inputs to the device will not be recognized at this time to prevent erroneous data
from being written to the device from an out-of tolerance system. When VCC falls below VBAT,
the device switches into a low-current battery-backup mode. Upon power-up, the device switches
from battery to VCC when VCC is greater than VBAT +0.2V and recognizes inputs when VCC
is greater than 1.25 x VBAT.

Oscillator Circuit:
The DS1307 uses an external 32.768 kHz crystal. The oscillator circuit does not require any
external resistors or capacitors to operate. The below table specifies several crystal parameters
for the external crystal. If using a crystal with the specified characteristics, the startup time is
usually less than one second.

Clock Accuracy:
The accuracy of the clock depends upon the accuracy of the crystal and the accuracy of the
match between the capacitive load of the oscillator circuit and the capacitive load for which the
crystal was trimmed. Additional error will be added by crystal frequency drift caused by
temperature shifts. External circuit noise coupled into the oscillator circuit may result in the
clock running fast.

RTC and RAM Address map:

The table below shows the address map for the DS1307 RTC and RAM registers. The RTC
registers are located in address locations 00h to 07h. The RAM registers are located in address
locations 08h to 3Fh. During a multibyte access, when the address pointer reaches 3Fh, the end
of RAM space, it wraps around to location 00h, the beginning of the clock space.
Clock and Calendar
The time and calendar information is obtained by reading the appropriate register bytes. Table 2
shows the RTC registers. The time and calendar are set or initialized by writing the appropriate
register bytes. The contents of the time and calendar registers are in the BCD format. The day-ofweek register increments at midnight. Values that correspond to the day of week are user-defined
but must be sequential (i.e., if 1 equals Sunday, then 2 equals Monday, and so on.) Illogical time
and date entries result in undefined operation. Bit 7 of Register 0 is the clock halt (CH) bit. When
this bit is set to 1, the oscillator is disabled. When cleared to 0, the oscillator is enabled.
It should be noted that the initial power-on state of all registers is not defined. Therefore, it is
important to enable the oscillator (CH bit = 0) during initial configuration. The DS1307 can be
run in either 12-hour or 24-hour mode. Bit 6 of the hours register is defined as the 12-hour or 24hour mode-select bit. When high, the 12-hour mode is selected. In the 12-hour mode, bit 5 is the

AM/PM bit with logic high being PM. In the 24-hour mode, bit 5 is the second 10-hour bit (20 to
23 hours). The hours value must be re-entered whenever the 12/24-hour mode bit is changed.
When reading or writing the time and date registers, secondary (user) buffers are used to prevent
errors when the internal registers update. When reading the time and date registers, the user
buffers are synchronized to the internal registers on any I2C START. The time information is
read from these secondary registers while the clock continues to run. This eliminates the need to
re-read the registers in case the internal registers update during a read. The divider chain is reset
whenever the seconds register is written. Write transfers occur on the I2C acknowledgement
from the DS1307. Once the divider chain is reset, to avoid rollover issues, the remaining time
and date registers must be written within one second.

Control Register
The DS1307 control register is used to control the operation of the SQW/OUT pin.

Bit 7: Output Control (OUT).

This bit controls the output level of the SQW/OUT pin when the square wave output is disabled.
If SQWE = 0, the logic level on the SQW/OUT pin is 1 if OUT = 1 and is 0 if OUT = 0.
Bit 4: Square-Wave Enable (SQWE).
This bit, when set to logic 1, enables the oscillator output. The frequency of the square-wave
output depends upon the value of the RS0 and RS1 bits. With the square wave output set to 1Hz,
the clock registers update on the falling edge of the square wave.
Bits 1, 0: Rate Select (RS1, RS0).
These bits control the frequency of the square-wave output when the square-wave output has
been enabled. The following table lists the square-wave frequencies that can be selected with the
RS bits.

I2C Data Bus

The DS1307 supports the I2C protocol. A device that sends data onto the bus is defined as a
transmitter and a device receiving data as a receiver. The device that controls the message is
called a master. The devices that are controlled by the master are referred to as slaves. The bus
must be controlled by a master device that generates the serial clock (SCL), controls the bus
access, and generates the START and STOP conditions. The DS1307 operates as a slave on the
I2C bus.

Data transfer may be initiated only when the bus is not busy.

During data transfer, the data line must remain stable whenever the clock line is HIGH.
Changes in the data line while the clock line is high will be interpreted as control signals.

Accordingly, the following bus conditions have been defined:

Bus not busy: Both data and clock lines remain HIGH.
Start data transfer: A change in the state of the data line, from HIGH to LOW, while the clock
is HIGH, defines a START condition.
Stop data transfer: A change in the state of the data line, from LOW to HIGH, while the clock
line is HIGH, defines the STOP condition.
Data valid: The state of the data line represents valid data when, after a START condition, the
data line is stable for the duration of the HIGH period of the clock signal. The data on the line
must be changed during the LOW period of the clock signal. There is one clock pulse per bit of
data. Each data transfer is initiated with a START condition and terminated with a STOP
condition. The number of data bytes transferred between START and STOP conditions is not
limited, and is determined by the master device. The information is transferred byte-wise and
each receiver acknowledges with a ninth bit. Within the I2C bus specifications a standard mode

(100 kHz clock rate) and a fast mode (400 kHz clock rate) are defined. The DS1307 operates in
the standard mode (100 kHz) only.
Acknowledge: Each receiving device, when addressed, is obliged to generate an
acknowledgement after the reception of each byte. The master device must generate an extra
clock pulse which is associated with this acknowledge bit. A device that acknowledges must pull
down the SDA line during the acknowledge clock pulse in such a way that the SDA line is stable
LOW during the HIGH period of the acknowledge related clock pulse. Of course, setup and hold
times must be taken into account.
A master must signal an end of data to the slave by not generating an acknowledge bit on the last
byte that has been clocked out of the slave. In this case, the slave must leave the data line HIGH
to enable the master to generate the STOP condition.
Depending upon the state of the R/W bit, two types of data transfer are possible:
1. Data transfer from a master transmitter to a slave receiver.
The first byte transmitted by the master is the slave address. Next follows a number of
data bytes. The slave returns an acknowledge bit after each received byte. Data is transferred
with the most significant bit (MSB) first.
2. Data transfer from a slave transmitter to a master receiver.
The first byte (the slave address) is transmitted by the master. The slave then returns an
acknowledge bit. This is followed by the slave transmitting a number of data bytes. The master
returns an acknowledge bit after all received bytes other than the last byte. At the end of the last
received byte, a not acknowledge is returned. The master device generates all the serial clock
pulses and the START and STOP conditions. A transfer is ended with a STOP condition or with a
repeated START condition. Since a repeated a START condition is also the beginning of the next
serial transfer, the bus will not be released. Data is transferred with the most significant bit
(MSB) first.
The DS1307 may operate in the following two modes:

1. Slave Receiver Mode (Write Mode):

Serial data and clock are received through SDA (Serial data) and SCL (Serial clock). After each
byte is received, an acknowledge bit is transmitted. START and STOP conditions are recognized
as the beginning and end of a serial transfer. Hardware performs address recognition after
reception of the slave address and direction bit. The slave address byte is the first byte received
after the master generates the START condition. The slave address byte contains the 7-bit
DS1307 address, which is 1101000, followed by the direction bit (R/W), which for a write is 0.
After receiving and decoding the slave address byte, the DS1307 outputs an acknowledgement
on SDA. After the DS1307 acknowledges the slave address + write bit, the master transmits a
word address to the DS1307. This sets the register pointer on the DS1307, with the DS1307
acknowledging the transfer. The master can then transmit zero or more bytes of data with the
DS1307 acknowledging each byte received. The register pointer automatically increments after
each data byte are written. The master will generate a STOP condition to terminate the data
2. Slave Transmitter Mode (Read Mode):
The first byte is received and handled as in the slave receiver mode. However, in this mode, the
direction bit will indicate that the transfer direction is reversed. The DS1307 transmits serial data
on SDA while the serial clock is input on SCL. START and STOP conditions are recognized as
the beginning and end of a serial transfer (see Figure 5). The slave address byte is the first byte
received after the START condition is generated by the master. The slave address byte contains
the 7-bit DS1307 address, which is 1101000, followed by the direction bit (R/W), which is 1 for
a read. After receiving and decoding the slave address the DS1307 outputs an acknowledgement
on SDA. The DS1307 then begins to transmit data starting with the register address pointed to by
the register pointer. If the register pointer is not written to before the initiation of a read mode the
first address that is read is the last one stored in the register pointer. The register pointer
automatically increments after each byte are read. The DS1307 must receive a Not Acknowledge
to end a read.

3.5 Switches and Pushbuttons

This is the simplest way of controlling appearance of some voltage on microcontrollers input
pin. There is also no need for additional explanation of how these components operate.

This is about something commonly unnoticeable when using these components in everyday life.
It is about contact bounce, a common problem with mechanical switches. If contact switching
does not happen so quickly, several consecutive bounces can be noticed prior to maintain stable
state. The reasons for this are: vibrations, slight rough spots and dirt. Anyway, this whole process
does not last long (a few micro- or milliseconds), but long enough to be registered by the
microcontroller. Concerning the pulse counter, error occurs in almost 100% of cases.

The simplest solution is to connect simple RC circuit which will suppress each quick voltage
change. Since the bouncing time is not defined, the values of elements are not strictly
determined. In the most cases, the values shown on figure are sufficient.

If complete safety is needed, radical measures should be taken. The circuit (RS flip-flop) changes
logic state on its output with the first pulse triggered by contact bounce. Even though this is more
expensive solution (SPDT switch), the problem is definitely resolved. Besides, since the
condensator is not used, very short pulses can be also registered in this way. In addition to these
hardware solutions, a simple software solution is also commonly applied. When a program tests
the state of some input pin and finds changes, the check should be done one more time after
certain time delay. If the change is confirmed, it means that switch (or pushbutton) has changed
its position. The advantages of such solution are: it is free of charge, effects of disturbances are
eliminated and it can be adjusted to the worst-quality contacts.
Switch Interfacing with 8051:
In 8051 PORT 1, PORT 2 & PORT 3 have internal 10k Pull-up resistors whereas this Pull-up
resistor is absent in PORT 0. Hence PORT 1, 2 & 3 can be directly used to interface a switch
whereas we have to use an external 10k pull-up resistor for PORT 0 to be used for switch
interfacing or for any other input. Figure 1 shows switch interfacing for PORT 1, 2 & 3. Figure 2
shows switch interfacing to PORT 0.

For any pin to be used as an input pin, a HIGH (1) should be written to the pin if the pin will
always to be read as LOW.In the above figure, when the switch is not pressed, the 10k resistor
provides the current needed for LOGIC 1 and closure of switch provides LOGIC 0 to the
controller PIN.

3.6 TRIAC BT136

General Description
Glass passivated, sensitive gate triacs in a plastic envelope, intended for use in general purpose
bidirectional switching and phase control applications, where high voltages sensitivity is required
in all four quadrants.


The MOC301XM and MOC302XM series are optically isolated triac driver devices. These
devices consist of gallium arsenide infrared emitting diodes, optically coupled to silicon bilateral
switch and are designed for applications requiring isolated triac triggering, lowcurrent isolated
ac switching, high electrical isolation (to 7500 VAC peak), high detector standoff voltage, small
size, and low cost. This series is designed for interfacing between electronic controls and power
triacs to control resistive and inductive loads for 115/240V AC operations.


Low input current required (typically 5mA).

High isolation voltage-minimum 7500 VAC peak


TRIAC driver

Industrial controls

Traffic lights

Vending machines

Motor control

Solid state relay

Solenoid/valve controls

Static AC power switch

Incandescent lamp dimmers

Lamp ballasts

3.7 L293D- Current Driver


Wide Supply-Voltage Range: 4.5 V to 36 V

Separate Input-Logic Supply

Internal ESD Protection

Thermal Shutdown

High-Noise-Immunity Inputs

Functionally Similar to SGS L293 and SGS L293D

Output Current 1 A Per Channel (600 mA for L293D)

Peak Output Current 2 A Per Channel (1.2 A for L293D)

Output Clamp Diodes for Inductive Transient Suppression (L293D)

The L293 and L293D are quadruple high-current half-H drivers. The L293 is designed to provide
bidirectional drive currents of up to 1 A at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. The L293D is designed to
provide bidirectional drive currents of up to 600-mA at voltages from 4.5 V to 36 V. Both
devices are designed to drive inductive loads such as relays, solenoids, dc and bipolar stepping
motors, as well as other high-current/high-voltage loads in positive-supply applications.
All inputs are TTL compatible. Each output is a complete totem-pole drive circuit, with a
Darlington transistor sink and a pseudo- Darlington source. Drivers are enabled in pairs, with
drivers 1 and 2 enabled by 1,2EN and drivers 3 and 4 enabled by 3,4EN. When an enable input is
high, the associated drivers are enabled and their outputs are active and in phase with their
inputs. When the enable input is low, those drivers are disabled and their outputs are off and in
the high-impedance state. With the proper data inputs, each pair of drivers forms a full-H (or
bridge) reversible drive suitable for solenoid or motor applications. On the L293, external highspeed output clamp diodes should be used for inductive transient suppression.
A VCC1 terminal, separate from VCC2, is provided for the logic inputs to minimize device
power dissipation. The L293 and L293D are characterized for operation from 0 to 70 degree

This chip contains 4 enable pins. Each enable pin corresponds to 2 inputs. Based on the input
values given, the device connected to this IC works accordingly.
L293D Interfacing with 8051:

The DC motor description is carried out in the next section. The L293D output pins will be
connected to the two motors of Robot. Thus, the output of L293D depends on the input provided
from the microcontroller and the enable pins. It should be remembered that unless the enable
pins are not high, whatever input values given to L293D IC will not be applied to the motors in
any way.

3.9 DC Motors:
Electric motors are used to efficiently convert electrical energy into mechanical energy.
Magnetism is the basis of their principles of operation. They use permanent magnets,
electromagnets, and exploit the magnetic properties of materials in order to create these amazing

DC motors are fairly simple to understand. They are also simple to make and only require a
battery or dc supply to make them run.
A simple motor has six parts, as shown in the diagram below:

Armature or rotor




Field magnet

DC power supply of some sort

An electric motor is all about magnets and magnetism: A motor uses magnets to create motion.
If you have ever played with magnets you know about the fundamental law of all magnets:
Opposites attract and likes repel. So if you have two bar magnets with their ends marked "north"
and "south," then the north end of one magnet will attract the south end of the other. On the other
hand, the north end of one magnet will repel the north end of the other (and similarly, south will
repel south). Inside an electric motor, these attracting and repelling forces create rotational

The armature (or rotor) is an electromagnet, while the field magnet is a permanent magnet (the
field magnet could be an electromagnet as well, but in most small motors it is not in order to save
When you put all of these parts together, here is a complete electric motor:

In the above figure, the armature winding has been left out so that it is easier to see the
commutator in action. The key thing to notice is that as the armature passes through the
horizontal position, the poles of the electromagnet flip. Because of the flip, the north pole of the
electromagnet is always above the axle so it can repel the field magnet's north pole and attract
the field magnet's south pole.
Even a small electric motor contains the same pieces described above: two small permanent
magnets, a commutator, two brushes, and an electromagnet made by winding wire around a piece
of metal. Almost always, however, the rotor will have three poles rather than the two poles as
shown in this article. There are two good reasons for a motor to have three poles:

It causes the motor to have better dynamics. In a two-pole motor, if the electromagnet is
at the balance point, perfectly horizontal between the two poles of the field magnet when
the motor starts, one can imagine the armature getting "stuck" there. This never happens
in a three-pole motor.

Each time the commutator hits the point where it flips the field in a two-pole motor, the
commutator shorts out the battery (directly connects the positive and negative terminals)
for a moment. This shorting wastes energy and drains the battery needlessly. A three-pole
motor solves this problem as well.

It is possible to have any number of poles, depending on the size of the motor and the specific
application it is being used in.
Types of Motors
Split Phase
The split phase motor is mostly used for "medium starting" applications. It has start and run
windings, both are energized when the motor is started. When the motor reaches about 75% of its
rated full load speed, the starting winding is disconnected by an automatic switch.
Uses: This motor is used where stops and starts are somewhat frequent. Common applications of
split phase motors include: fans, blowers, office machines and tools such as small saws or drill
presses where the load is applied after the motor has obtained its operating speed.

Capacitor Start
This motor has a capacitor in series with a starting winding and provides more than double the
starting torque with one third less starting current than the split phase motor. Because of this
improved starting ability, the capacitor start motor is used for loads which are hard to start. It has
good efficiency and requires starting currents of approximately five times full load current. The
capacitor and starting windings are disconnected from the circuit by an automatic switch when
the motor reaches about 75% of its rated full load speed.
Uses: Common uses include: compressors, pumps, machine tools, air conditioners, conveyors,
blowers, fans and other hard to start applications.
Horsepower & RPM
Electric motors are rated by horsepower, the home shop will probably utilize motors from 1/4 HP
for small tools and up to 5 HP on air compressors. Not all motors are rated the same, some are
rated under load, others as peak horsepower and hence we have 5 HP compressors with huge
motors and 5 Hp shopvacs with tiny little motors. Unfortunately all 5 HP compressor motors are
not equal in actual power either, to judge the true horsepower the easiest way is to look at the

amperage of the motor. Electric motors are not efficient, most have a rating of about 50% due to
factors such as heat and friction and some may be as high as 70%.
This chart will give a basic idea of the true horse power rating compared to the ampere rating.
Motors with a higher efficiency rating will draw fewer amps, for example a 5 HP motor with a
50% efficiency rating will draw about 32 amps at 230 VAC compared to about 23 amps for a
motor with a 70% rating.

A quick general calculation when looking at a motor is 1 HP = 10 amps on 110 volts and 1 HP =
5 amps on 220 volts.
The shaft on a typical shop motor will rotate at either 1725 or 3450 RPM (revolutions per
The speed of the driven machine will be determined by the size of pulleys used, for example a
3450 RPM motor can be replaced by a 1750 RPM motor if the diameter of the pulley on the
motor is doubled. The opposite is true as well but if the pulley on the 1750 RPM motor is small it
is not always possible to replace it with one half the size. It may be possible to double the pulley
size on the driven machine if it uses a standard type of pulley, (not easily done on air
compressors for example).

Electronic speed reducers such as the ones sold for routers will not work on induction type
Phase, Voltage & Rotation
Whether or not you can use a motor will likely depend on these factors.

Single Phase
Ordinary household wiring is single phase, alternating current. Each cycle peaks and dips as
shown. To run a three phase motor a phase converter must be used, usually this is not practical, it
is often less expensive to change the motor on a machine to a single phase style.

Three Phase
This is used in industrial shops, rather than peaks and valleys the current supply is more even
because of the other two cycles each offset by 120 degrees.

Many motors are dual voltage i.e., by simply changing the wiring configuration, they can be run
on 110 volts or 220 volts. Motors usually run better on 220 volts, especially if there is any line
loss because of having to use a long wire to reach the power supply.
Motors are available for both AC and DC current, our typical home wiring will be AC. There are
DC converters available which are used in applications where the speed of the motor is
The direction the shaft rotates can be changed on most motors by switching the right wires. The
direction of rotation is usually determined by viewing the motor from the shaft end and is
designated as CW (clockwise) or CCW (counter-clockwise).

Inside the Wipers

The wipers combine two mechanical technologies to perform their task

A combination electric motor and worm gear reduction provides power to the wipers.


A neat linkage converts the rotational output of the motor into the back-and-forth motion
of the wipers.
On any gear, the ratio is determined by the distances from the center of the gear to the

point of contact. For instance, in a device with two gears, if one gear is twice the diameter of the
other, the ratio would be 2:1.
One of the most primitive types of gears we could look at would be a wheel with wooden
pegs sticking out of it.
The problem with this type of gear is that the distance from the center of each gear to the
point of contact changes as the gears rotate. This means that the gear ratio changes as the gear
turns, meaning that the output speed also changes. If you used a gear like this in your car, it
would be impossible to maintain a constant speed you would be accelerating and decelerating
Worm gears
These are used when large gear reductions are needed. It is common for worm gears to
have reductions of 20:1, and even up to 300:1 or greater.
Many worm gears have an interesting property that no other gear set has: the worm can
easily turn the gear, but the gear cannot turn the worm. This is because the angle on the worm is
so shallow that when the gear tries to spin it, the friction between the gear and the worm holds
the worm in place. The worm gear is shown in the below figure.

Motor and Gear Reduction

It takes a lot of force to accelerate the wiper blades back and forth across the windshield
so quickly. In order to generate this type of force, a worm gear is used on the output of a small
electric motor.
The worm gear reduction can multiply the torque of the motor by about 50 times, while
slowing the output speed of the electric motor by 50 times as well. The output of the gear
reduction operates a linkage that moves the wipers back and forth.
Inside the motor/gear assembly is an electronic circuit that senses when the wipers are in
their down position. The circuit maintains power to the wipers until they are parked at the bottom
of the windshield, and then cuts the power to the motor. This circuit also parks the wipers
between wipes when they are on their intermittent setting.

A short cam is attached to the output shaft of the gear reduction. This cam spins around
as the wiper motor turns. The cam is connected to a long rod; as the cam spins, it moves the rod
back and forth. The long rod is connected to a short rod that actuates the wiper blade on the
driver's side. Another long rod transmits the force from the driver-side to the passenger-side
wiper blade.
Operational Specifications of Motors are shown in below Table.

Description of the wiper motors selected

The motor is two pole design having high energy permanent magnets, together with a
gear box housing, having two stages of gear reduction .power from the motor is a transferred by
a three start worm on a extension of the armature shaft through a two stage gear system.
A ball bearing system is provided on the commutator end of the armature to minimize the
friction losses and thereby increase torque of the wiper motor. Power from the final gear arm
spindles .A special inbuilt limit switch ensures in applying regenerative braking to the OFF
Thermal protector is connected in series with armature to avoid burning of armature
under locked position. Consistent parking of the wiper arms and blades in the correct position is
there by ensured. The side on which the arms come to rest is preset to requirements.
Electrical connections are made to the motor via a non-reversible in line plug and socket
assembly .This type of connections ensures that the correct motor polarity is maintained when

the motor is connected to the vehicle wiring. The wiper motor incorporates radio interference


LCD stands for Liquid Crystal Display. LCD is finding wide spread use replacing LEDs (seven
segment LEDs or other multi segment LEDs) because of the following reasons:
1. The declining prices of LCDs.
2. The ability to display numbers, characters and graphics. This is in contrast to LEDs,
which are limited to numbers and a few characters.
3. Incorporation of a refreshing controller into the LCD, thereby relieving the CPU of the
task of refreshing the LCD. In contrast, the LED must be refreshed by the CPU to keep
displaying the data.
4. Ease of programming for characters and graphics.
These components are specialized for being used with the microcontrollers, which means that
they cannot be activated by standard IC circuits. They are used for writing different messages on
a miniature LCD.

A model described here is for its low price and great possibilities most frequently used in
practice. It is based on the HD44780 microcontroller (Hitachi) and can display messages in two
lines with 16 characters each. It displays all the alphabets, Greek letters, punctuation marks,
mathematical symbols etc. In addition, it is possible to display symbols that user makes up on its

Automatic shifting message on display (shift left and right), appearance of the pointer, backlight
etc. are considered as useful characteristics.

Pins Functions
There are pins along one side of the small printed board used for connection to the
microcontroller. There are total of 14 pins marked with numbers (16 in case the background light
is built in). Their function is described in the table below:










Power supply 2





0 Vdd

D0 D7 are interpreted as





D0 D7 are interpreted as



D0 D7 are interpreted as



D0 D7 are interpreted as
Write data (from controller




Read data (from LCD to



to LCD






1 Data/commands

to 0

transferred to LCD



Bit 0 LSB



Bit 1



Bit 2

/ 10



Bit 3




Bit 4




Bit 5




Bit 6




Bit 7 MSB


LCD screen:
LCD screen consists of two lines with 16 characters each. Each character consists of 5x7 dot
matrix. Contrast on display depends on the power supply voltage and whether messages are
displayed in one or two lines. For that reason, variable voltage 0-Vdd is applied on pin marked as
Vee. Trimmer potentiometer is usually used for that purpose. Some versions of displays have
built in backlight (blue or green diodes). When used during operating, a resistor for current
limitation should be used (like with any LE diode).

LCD Basic Commands

All data transferred to LCD through outputs D0-D7 will be interpreted as commands or as data,
which depends on logic state on pin RS:
RS = 1 - Bits D0 - D7 are addresses of characters that should be displayed. Built in processor
addresses built in map of characters and displays corresponding symbols. Displaying position
is determined by DDRAM address. This address is either previously defined or the address of
previously transferred character is automatically incremented.
RS = 0 - Bits D0 - D7 are commands which determine display mode. List of commands which
LCD recognizes are given in the table below:




S W 7 6 5 4

D3 D2

D D Execution
1 0 Time

Clear display

0 0

0 0 0 0 0

0 1 1.64Ms

Cursor home

0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 x 1.64mS

Entry mode set

0 0

0 0 0 0 0


S 40uS

Display on/off control

0 0

0 0 0 0 1

Cursor/Display Shift

0 0

0 0 0 1

Function set

0 0

0 0 1 DL N

Set CGRAM address

0 0

0 1 CGRAM address


Set DDRAM address

0 0

1 DDRAM address


Read BUSY flag (BF)

0 1





Read from CGRAM or
I/D 1 = Increment (by 1)
0 = Decrement (by 1)
S 1 = Display shift on
0 = Display shift off
D 1 = Display on
0 = Display off
U 1 = Cursor on
0 = Cursor off
B 1 = Cursor blink on
0 = Cursor blink off

1 0

1 1



U B 40uS

R/L x x 40uS

x x 40uS

DDRAM address

7 6 5 4
7 6 5 4

D3 D2

D3 D2

1 0
1 0



R/L 1 = Shift right

0 = Shift left
DL 1 = 8-bit interface
0 = 4-bit interface
N 1 = Display in two lines
0 = Display in one line
F 1 = Character format 5x10 dots
0 = Character format 5x7 dots
D/C 1 = Display shift
0 = Cursor shift

LCD Connection
Depending on how many lines are used for connection to the microcontroller, there are 8-bit and
4-bit LCD modes. The appropriate mode is determined at the beginning of the process in a phase
called initialization. In the first case, the data are transferred through outputs D0-D7 as it has
been already explained. In case of 4-bit LED mode, for the sake of saving valuable I/O pins of
the microcontroller, there are only 4 higher bits (D4-D7) used for communication, while other
may be left unconnected.
Consequently, each data is sent to LCD in two steps: four higher bits are sent first (that normally
would be sent through lines D4-D7), four lower bits are sent afterwards. With the help of
initialization, LCD will correctly connect and interpret each data received. Besides, with regards
to the fact that data are rarely read from LCD (data mainly are transferred from microcontroller
to LCD) one more I/O pin may be saved by simple connecting R/W pin to the Ground. Such
saving has its price.
Even though message displaying will be normally performed, it will not be possible to read from
busy flag since it is not possible to read from display.
LCD Initialization
Once the power supply is turned on, LCD is automatically cleared. This process lasts for
approximately 15mS. After that, display is ready to operate. The mode of operating is set by
default. This means that:
1. Display is cleared
2. Mode
DL = 1 Communication through 8-bit interface
N = 0 Messages are displayed in one line
F = 0 Character font 5 x 8 dots
3. Display/Cursor on/off
D = 0 Display off

U = 0 Cursor off
B = 0 Cursor blink off
4. Character entry
ID = 1 Addresses on display are automatically incremented by 1
S = 0 Display shift off
Automatic reset is mainly performed without any problems. If for any reason power supply
voltage does not reach full value in the course of 10mS, display will start perform completely
If voltage supply unit cannot meet this condition or if it is needed to provide completely safe
operating, the process of initialization by which a new reset enabling display to operate normally
must be applied.
Algorithm according to the initialization is being performed depends on whether connection to
the microcontroller is through 4- or 8-bit interface. All left over to be done after that is to give
basic commands and of course- to display messages.

Contrast control:
To have a clear view of the characters on the LCD, contrast should be adjusted. To adjust the
contrast, the voltage should be varied. For this, a preset is used which can behave like a variable
voltage device. As the voltage of this preset is varied, the contrast of the LCD can be adjusted.

Variable resistors used as potentiometers have all three terminals
connected. This arrangement is normally used to vary voltage, for example
to set the switching point of a circuit with a sensor, or control the volume
(loudness) in an amplifier circuit. If the terminals at the ends of the track are
connected across the power supply, then the wiper terminal will provide a
voltage which can be varied from zero up to the maximum of the supply.

These are miniature versions of the standard variable resistor. They are
designed to be mounted directly onto the circuit board and adjusted only
when the circuit is built. For example, to set the frequency of an alarm tone
or the sensitivity of a light-sensitive circuit, a small screwdriver or similar tool
is required to adjust presets.
Presets are much cheaper than standard variable resistors so they are
sometimes used in projects where a standard variable resistor would
normally be used.
Multiturn presets are used where very precise adjustments must be made. The screw must be
turned many times (10+) to move the slider from one end of the track to the other, giving very
fine control.

LCD interface with the microcontroller (4-bit mode):

3.11 Buzzer-Audio Indication

Digital systems and microcontroller pins lack sufficient current to drive the circuits like relays,
buzzer circuits etc. While these circuits require around 10milli amps to be operated, the
microcontrollers pin can provide a maximum of 1-2milli amps current. For this reason, a driver
such as a power transistor is placed in between the microcontroller and the buzzer circuit.

The operation of this circuit is as follows:

The input to the base of the transistor is applied from the microcontroller port pin P1.0. The
transistor will be switched on when the base to emitter voltage is greater than 0.7V (cut-in
voltage). Thus when the voltage applied to the pin P1.0 is high i.e., P1.0=1 (>0.7V), the
transistor will be switched on and thus the buzzer will be ON.

When the voltage at the pin P1.0 is low i.e., P1.0=0 (<0.7V) the transistor will be in off state and
the buzzer will be OFF. Thus the transistor acts like a current driver to operate the buzzer

Chapter 4
Firmware Implementation of the project design
This chapter briefly explains about the firmware implementation of the project. The required
software tools are discussed in section 4.2. Section 4.3 shows the flow diagram of the project
design. Section 4.4 presents the firmware implementation of the project design.
4.1 Software Tools Required
Keil v3, Proload are the two software tools used to program microcontroller. The
working of each software tool is explained below in detail.
4.1.1 Programming Microcontroller
A compiler for a high level language helps to reduce production time. To program the
AT89S52 microcontroller the Keil v3 is used. The programming is done strictly in the
embedded C language. Keil v3 is a suite of executable, open source software development tools
for the microcontrollers hosted on the Windows platform.
The compilation of the C program converts it into machine language file (.hex). This is
the only language the microcontroller will understand, because it contains the original program
code converted into a hexadecimal format. During this step there are some warnings about
eventual errors in the program. This is shown in Fig 4.1. If there are no errors and warnings then
run the program, the system performs all the required tasks and behaves as expected the software
developed. If not, the whole procedure will have to be repeated again. Fig 4.2 shows expected
outputs for given inputs when run compiled program.

One of the difficulties of programming microcontrollers is the limited amount of

resources the programmer has to deal with. In personal computers resources such as RAM and
processing speed are basically limitless when compared to microcontrollers. In contrast, the code
on microcontrollers should be as low on resources as possible.
Keil Compiler:
Keil compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled.
After compilation, the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped
into the microcontroller for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C language code.

Proload is software which accepts only hex files. Once the machine code is converted
into hex code, that hex code has to be dumped into the microcontroller and this is done by the
Proload. Proload is a programmer which itself contains a microcontroller in it other than the one
which is to be programmed. This microcontroller has a program in it written in such a way that it
accepts the hex file from the Keil compiler and dumps this hex file into the microcontroller
which is to be programmed. As the Proload programmer kit requires power supply to be
operated, this power supply is given from the power supply circuit designed above. It should be
noted that this programmer kit contains a power supply section in the board itself but in order to
switch on that power supply, a source is required. Thus this is accomplished from the power
supply board with an output of 12volts.


Supports major Atmel 89 series devices

Auto Identify connected hardware and devices

Error checking and verification in-built

Lock of programs in chip supported to prevent program copying

20 and 40 pin ZIF socket on-board

Auto Erase before writing and Auto Verify after writing

Informative status bar and access to latest programmed file

Simple and Easy to use

Works on 57600 speed

It is simple to use and low cost, yet powerful flash microcontroller programmer for the
Atmel 89 series. It will Program, Read and Verify Code Data, Write Lock Bits, Erase and Blank
Check. All fuse and lock bits are programmable. This programmer has intelligent onboard
firmware and connects to the serial port. It can be used with any type of computer and requires
no special hardware. All that is needed is a serial communication ports which all computers have.
All devices have signature bytes that the programmer reads to automatically identify the
chip. No need to select the device type, just plug it in and go! All devices also have a number of
lock bits to provide various levels of software and programming protection. These lock bits are
fully programmable using this programmer. Lock bits are useful to protect the program to be read
back from microcontroller only allowing erase to reprogram the microcontroller. The
programmer connects to a host computer using a standard RS232 serial port. All the

programming 'intelligence' is built into the programmer so you do not need any special hardware
to run it. Programmer comes with window based software for easy programming of the devices.

Programming Software
Computer side software called 'Proload V4.1' is executed that accepts the Intel HEX format file
generated from compiler to be sent to target microcontroller. It auto detects the hardware
connected to the serial port. It also auto detects the chip inserted and bytes used. Software is
developed in Delphi 7 and requires no overhead of any external DLL.


This project provides different on and off timings to provide the water supply to the
fields. The system starts the water supply only at preprogrammed timings. As the DS1307 Real
Time Clock chip with battery back-up is used, there will be no disturbances for the programmed
on/off timings even in power failures.

In this project we are maintain the public garden according to the time scheduling.
The garden maintenance process includes watering the plants, opening the main doors of the
garden, controlling the lights, after the closing time inform the people about that and closing the
main doors and switch off the lights etc. We were done the same job in this project but
automatically. To implement the same we are using 8051 microcontroller, DS1307 RTC,
submersible motor, DC motor, and AC bulbs.
By switch ON the kit it asks for ON time and OFF time for the submersible motor. To give
ON/OFF timings we are providing four switches. After setting the ON and OFF time, the motor
will ON at ON time and the saplings and trees get the water supply. At the OFF time, the motor
will off. After stopping of the motor the gates of the garden will open automatically by rotating
the DC motor clockwise and lights in the park will ON. After some time it gives alarm for the
indication of closing time of the garden. After some time the door the gates will be closed and
lights will be OFF.
To perform all this action automatically we were writing the embedded C program in the Kiel
compiler and the created hex file is dumped into the header file using Preload software.

Chapter 6
Results and Discussions
6.1 Results
Assemble the circuit on the PCB as shown in Fig 5.1. After assembling the circuit on the
PCB, check it for proper connections before switching on the power supply.
6.2 Conclusion
The implementation of public garden automation is done successfully. The communication is
properly done without any interference between different modules in the design. Design is done
to meet all the specifications and requirements. Software tools like Keil Uvision Simulator,
Proload to dump the source code into the microcontroller, Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram
have been used to develop the software code before realizing the hardware.

Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. The

performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design. The total circuit
is completely verified functionally and is following the application software.
It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability,
flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption.


wiki.answers.com ... Engineering Electronics Engineering
www.dnatechindia.com TUTORIAL 8051 Tutorial

1. This small scale project can be implemented in any public garden with minimum cost and
2. This helps in proper utilization of the available resources and helps in avoiding wastage of
electricity and water.