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Chapter 8

Planar Rigid Body Dynamics:


Impulse and Momentum

Principle of Impulse and Momentum


(Momentum)1 + (Impulse)1

L=

HG =

mi vi

= (Momentum)2

ri mi vi

mi ( vG + vi )

ri mi ( vG + vi )

mi vG +

ri mi vG +

= mvG + 0
= mvG

mi vi

=(
=0+
=I

The momentum of a rigid


body may be reduced to a
linear momentum L
attached to the mass
center, and an angular
momentum H G about the

mi ri ) vG +
mi (ri )2

ri mi vi
mi (ri )

mass center.
2

L = mv
HG = I

Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 2

Example: Gear Pair


=

The system is at rest when a moment of


M = 6 N m is applied to gear B.
Neglecting frictions, determine
(a) the time required for gear B to reach an
angular velocity of 600 rpm, and
(b) the tangential force exerted by gear B on
gear A.

IA

Ft
Ft

IB
Mt

rA = 250 mm
rB = 100 mm

= 62.8 rad s ,

Gear A: 0
M

mA = 10 kg, k A = 200 mm

= 25.1 rad s

Ft(0.25) = (10 0.22 )(25.1)

Gear B: 0 + 6t

Ft(0.1) = (3 0.082 )(62.8)

Solve for F and t,


F = 46.2 N , t = 0.871 s

mB = 3 kg, k B = 80 mm
Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 3

Example: Square Panel

Ay t
Ax t

A
500 mm

400 mm

A 25-g bullet is fired into the side of a 10kg square panel which is initially at rest.
Determine
(a) the angular velocity of the panel
mB v B
immediately after the bullet becomes
embedded and
(b) the impulsive reaction at A, assuming
that the bullet becomes embedded in
0.0006 s.

v B = 450 m/s

Ip

mp v p

Wt

10
(0.52 + 0.52 ) = 0.417 kg m 2
12
Moment about A:
0.025(450) 0.4 = 10 0.25 0.25 + 0.417
IP =

( ) (
= 4.32 rad/s ( ccw )

)(

Solve the other two equations for Ax and Ay .


500 mm

Ax = 750 N (

) , Ay = 98.1 N (

Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 4

Example: Sphere Striking Rod


A 2-kg sphere with an initial
velocity of 5 m/s strikes the lower
end of an 8-kg rod AB. The rod is
hinged at A and initially at rest. The
coefficient of restitution between
the rod and sphere is 0.8.
Determine the angular velocity of
the rod and the velocity of the
sphere immediately after impact.

+
ms vs

=
ms vs

Moment about A:

ms vs (1.2) = ms vs (1.2) + mR (0.6


1.2 m

)(0.6) + I

Energy equation
v vs 1.2
vs
0.8 = B
=
vs 0
5 0
Solution:

vs

mR v R

= 3.21 rad/s (ccw) , vs = 0.143 m/s (

B
Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 5

Lab Exercise 8.1: Crank-Link-Piston Mechanism

Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 6

Conservation of Momentum
When no external forces
L1 = L2
(H O )1 = (H O )2
When the sum of the external forces
passes through O,
(H O )1 = (H O )2

Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 7

Lab Exercise 8.2: Impact of Ball and Bar

Chapter 8. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Impulse and Momentum 8