Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 11

Chapter 7

Planar Rigid Body Dynamics:


Work and Energy

Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body


A body can be thought of as a system of particles.
Kinetic energy of each particle is
Ti =

1
mv v
2 i i i

The velocity of each particle


vi = vG + v

where vG is the velocity of the mass center, and v is the velocity of the particle
relative to the mass center.
The total kinetic energy is
T=

1
2

mi vi vi =

1
2

mi ( vG + v ) ( vG + v )

After a mild calculation, we have


T=

1 2 1
mv + I
2 G 2

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 2

Work of a Moment
A
dr1
A

Work of a Force
U1

A2
A1

F dr

B
dr2
dr1 B
B

d
r

Work of a Moment M = Fr
dU = F dr1 F dr1 + F dr2

= F dr2
= Fds2
= Frd
= Md
U1

2
1

M d = M(

)= M

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 3

Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body


T1 + U1

= T2

T1 and T2 are the initial and final kinetic energy of the rigid body.
U1

is the work done of the forces, internal and external.

For rigid bodies, the net work of internal forces is zero.

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 4

Example: Flywheel
For the drum and flywheel, I = 16 kg-m 2 .
The bearing friction is equivalent to a
couple of 90 N m . At the instant shown,
the block is moving downward at 2 m/s.
Determine the velocity of the block after it
has moved 1.25 m downward.

T1 + U1

= T2

1
1
2
T1 = 120 22 + (16)
2
2
0.4

( )

T2 =
U1

v2

1
1
120 v22 + (16)
2
2
0.4

( )

= 120(9.81)(1.25) 90

= 440 J
2

= 110v22

1.25
= 1190 J
0.4

440 + 1190 = 110v22


v2 = 3.85 m s
r = 0.4 m
120 kg

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 5

Example: Gear Pair


The system is at rest when a moment of
M = 6 N m is applied to gear B. Neglecting
friction, determine
(a) the number of revolutions of gear B before its
angular velocity reaches 600 rpm, and
(b) tangential force exerted by gear B on gear A.
rA = 250 mm

T1 + U1

= T2

T1 = 0
B

= 600 rpm = 62.8 rad s


A

62.8rB
rA

= 25.1 rad s

)( )

2
1
1
10 0.22 25.1 + (3 0.082 ) 62.8
2
2
= 163.9 J

T2 =

rB = 100 mm

M
B

U1

=6

0+6

= 163.9

= 27.32 rad = 4.35 rev

mA = 10 kg, k A = 200 mm
mB = 3 kg, k B = 80 mm
Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 6

Example: Gear Pair (Continued)


W

rA = 250 mm

To find the tangential force, take gear A as


free body and apply the principle of work
and energy again.
A

B B

rA

27.32 0.1
= 10.93 rad
0.25

)( )

2
1
10 0.22 25.1
2
= 126.0 J

Rx

T2 =

Ry

0 + (F 0.25)(10.93) = 126.0
F = 46.2 N

F
mA = 10 kg, k A = 200 mm

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 7

Example: Rotating Rod


A 15-kg slender rod pivots about the
point O. The other end is pressed
against a spring (k = 300 kN/m) until
the spring is compressed 40 mm and the
rod is in a horizontal position. If the rod
is released from this position, determine
its angular velocity and the reaction at
the pivot as the rod passes through a
vertical position.

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
1
V1 = (300,000)(0.04)2 = 240 J
2

V2 = 15g(0.75) = 110.4 J
T1 = 0
0.5 m

2.5 m

T2 =

1
15 0.75
2

( )(

0 + 240 = 8.125

2
2

1 1
15 2.52
2 12

+ 110.4 ,

2
2

= 8.125

2
2

= 3.994 rad s (cw)

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 8

Example: Rotating Rod (Continued)


an = 0.75(3.994)2 = 11.96 m s 2
at = 0.75
Moment about O:
0 = I + m(0.75 )(0.75) ,
I

mg

mat

=
man

Rx

=0

Horizontal:
Rx = 15(0.75 ) , Rx = 0
Vertical:
Ry 15g = 15(11.96)
Ry = 32.3 N , Ry = 32.3 N (

Ry

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 9

Lab Exercise 7.1: Crank-Link-Piston Mechanism


T0 + V0 + U 0

Tt = M

= Tt + Vt

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 10

Lab Exercise 7.2: Double Pendulum

T0 + V0 + U 0

= Tt + Vt

Tt + Vt = const

Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 11