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# Chapter 7

Work and Energy

## Kinetic Energy of a Rigid Body

A body can be thought of as a system of particles.
Kinetic energy of each particle is
Ti =

1
mv v
2 i i i

## The velocity of each particle

vi = vG + v

where vG is the velocity of the mass center, and v is the velocity of the particle
relative to the mass center.
The total kinetic energy is
T=

1
2

mi vi vi =

1
2

mi ( vG + v ) ( vG + v )

T=

1 2 1
mv + I
2 G 2

## Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 2

Work of a Moment
A
dr1
A

Work of a Force
U1

A2
A1

F dr

B
dr2
dr1 B
B

d
r

Work of a Moment M = Fr
dU = F dr1 F dr1 + F dr2

= F dr2
= Fds2
= Frd
= Md
U1

2
1

M d = M(

)= M

## Principle of Work and Energy for a Rigid Body

T1 + U1

= T2

T1 and T2 are the initial and final kinetic energy of the rigid body.
U1

## Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 4

Example: Flywheel
For the drum and flywheel, I = 16 kg-m 2 .
The bearing friction is equivalent to a
couple of 90 N m . At the instant shown,
the block is moving downward at 2 m/s.
Determine the velocity of the block after it
has moved 1.25 m downward.

T1 + U1

= T2

1
1
2
T1 = 120 22 + (16)
2
2
0.4

( )

T2 =
U1

v2

1
1
120 v22 + (16)
2
2
0.4

( )

= 120(9.81)(1.25) 90

= 440 J
2

= 110v22

1.25
= 1190 J
0.4

v2 = 3.85 m s
r = 0.4 m
120 kg

## Example: Gear Pair

The system is at rest when a moment of
M = 6 N m is applied to gear B. Neglecting
friction, determine
(a) the number of revolutions of gear B before its
angular velocity reaches 600 rpm, and
(b) tangential force exerted by gear B on gear A.
rA = 250 mm

T1 + U1

= T2

T1 = 0
B

## = 600 rpm = 62.8 rad s

A

62.8rB
rA

)( )

2
1
1
10 0.22 25.1 + (3 0.082 ) 62.8
2
2
= 163.9 J

T2 =

rB = 100 mm

M
B

U1

=6

0+6

= 163.9

## = 27.32 rad = 4.35 rev

mA = 10 kg, k A = 200 mm
mB = 3 kg, k B = 80 mm
Chapter 7. Planar Rigid Body Dynamics: Work and Energy 6

W

rA = 250 mm

## To find the tangential force, take gear A as

free body and apply the principle of work
and energy again.
A

B B

rA

27.32 0.1
0.25

)( )

2
1
10 0.22 25.1
2
= 126.0 J

Rx

T2 =

Ry

0 + (F 0.25)(10.93) = 126.0
F = 46.2 N

F
mA = 10 kg, k A = 200 mm

## Example: Rotating Rod

A 15-kg slender rod pivots about the
point O. The other end is pressed
against a spring (k = 300 kN/m) until
the spring is compressed 40 mm and the
rod is in a horizontal position. If the rod
is released from this position, determine
its angular velocity and the reaction at
the pivot as the rod passes through a
vertical position.

T1 + V1 = T2 + V2
1
V1 = (300,000)(0.04)2 = 240 J
2

V2 = 15g(0.75) = 110.4 J
T1 = 0
0.5 m

2.5 m

T2 =

1
15 0.75
2

( )(

0 + 240 = 8.125

2
2

1 1
15 2.52
2 12

+ 110.4 ,

2
2

= 8.125

2
2

## Example: Rotating Rod (Continued)

an = 0.75(3.994)2 = 11.96 m s 2
at = 0.75
0 = I + m(0.75 )(0.75) ,
I

mg

mat

=
man

Rx

=0

Horizontal:
Rx = 15(0.75 ) , Rx = 0
Vertical:
Ry 15g = 15(11.96)
Ry = 32.3 N , Ry = 32.3 N (

Ry

T0 + V0 + U 0

Tt = M

= Tt + Vt

T0 + V0 + U 0

= Tt + Vt

Tt + Vt = const