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Recuperated Micro-turbine versus Gas Turbine Range Extender case

study for Heavy duty diesel engine

School of Engineering and Design


MEng Mechanical Engineering
At

Brunel University
West London

BY BILAL SHEIKH
Supervised by Dr Apostolos Pesiridis.

Abstract
For many years the continual usage of internal combustion engines in vehicular applications has
caused a dramatic increase in fuel consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases. As of today the
need of reducing fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions has paved way for the
development in using alternative power generation systems, such as gas turbines. To determine
whether this powertrain shall replace the diesel engine, an investigative case study titled gas turbine
range extender vs the recuperated microturbine diesel-fuelled heavy duty truck application was
carried out. The specifications of the two types of gas turbines used in trucking industry to be tested
are: a single spooled gas turbine range extender, and an intercooled recuperated microturbine.
GasTurb, was used to perform parametric studies simulations. It investigates parameters like
pressure ratio, burner exit (combustor exit) temperature, and air inlet temperature, which was
varied, by inputting a range of values into the system for four cycles. The tested cycles are: one
spooled recuperated cycle, three spooled intercooled, three spooled recuperated, and three spooled
intercooled recuperated cycle was tested. Diesel engine parameters like 43% efficiency and
0.2kg/kWh fuel consumption was used for benchmarking. The results of the parametric studies for
the one spooled recuperated cycle are 30% 0.26kg/kWh fuel consumption at a pressure ratio of 3:1,
burner temperature ranged from 1200-1300k for the one spooled recuperated cycle. For the three
spooled microturbine at pressure ratio 15:1 and burner temperature of 1447: Intercooled cycle
results in 37% thermal efficiency and 0.2275 kg/kWh fuel consumption; Recuperated cycle results in
42.5% efficiency and 0.2 kg/kWh fuel consumption; Intercooled-Recuperated cycle results in 48%
efficiency and 0.175 kg/kWh. Overall the intercooled recuperated three spooled cycle was decided
as a clear powertrain alternative to the heavy duty diesel fuelled cycle.

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Acknowledgements
Firstly, I would like to thank my dearest supervisor, Dr Apostolos Pesiridis, for his continued support
and guidance throughout this project. Also, my gratitude goes out to Dr Jie Chen and Prof. Alasdair
Cairn who pointed me in the right direction during difficult times, especially in the initial stages.
Secondly, I appreciate my beloved mother, Samina Sheikh, for helping me make sense of things,
while proof reading my final draft, during her own busy schedule.
But most importantly, I would like to praise Almighty Allah for answering my prayers when I was
struggling with the write up of my initial draft. He has helped me to think clearly and overcome my
disability.

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Contents
Abstract ............................................................................................................................................ii
Acknowledgement ................................................................................................................................iii
Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................iv
List of Nomenclature ..........................................................................................................................vi
List of Figures and Tables.....................................................................................................................viii
i.
List of Figures..viii
ii.
List of Tables..xii
1. Chapter 1: Introduction.1
1.1. Brief History1
1.2. Aims and Planning.2
2. Chapter 2: Literature Review.3
2.1. Gas Turbines in Automobile applications..3
2.2. Micro-turbines in Automobile applications.9
3. Chapter 3: Basic theory of Gas Turbine and its types16
3.1. Brayton Cycle and its components..16
3.2. Recuperated and Non-recuperated cycles.18
3.3. Intercooled Recuperated Cycle.20
3.4. Gas Turbine Range Extender and a Micro turbine22
4. Chapter 4: GasTurb 12 programme ..24
4.1. Brief Features of GasTurb 12..24
4.2. Tested parameters and simulation procedure ..24
4.3. 4.3. Hypothetical theories and predictions25
5. Chapter 5: Testing Gas turbines26
5.1. Capstone C 3026
5.2. ICR Tec 350..30
6. Chapter 6: GasTurb 12 Simulation Results ..34
6.1. Capstone C30: Varying Pressure ratios from 4-2 at constant Recuperator Effectiveness of
0.8..34
6.2. Capstone C 30: Varying pressure ratio from 4-2 and Burner temperature from 14501112.5K..38
6.3. ICR TEC 350: Intercooled cycle varying pressure ratios from 15-943
6.4. ICR Tec 350: Recuperated Cycle varying pressure ratios from 15-9 46
6.5. ICR TEC 350: Intercooled-recuperated cycle varying pressure ratios from 15-9.48
6.6. ICR Tec 350: Varying recupertor effectiveness at optimal conditions for Intercooledrecuperated Cycle51
7. Chapter 7: Discussion of Results, Comparison and Selection ....52
7.1. Issues of GasTurb Software .52
7.2. Discussion of Results: One spool recuperated cycle with constant heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness of 0.852
7.3. Discussion of Results: One spool recuperated cycle with varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness..54
7.4. Discussion of Results: Three spool intercooled cycle 56

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7.5. Discussion of Results: Three spool recuperated cycle and intercooled-recuperated cycle in
comparison with the intercooled cycle ..58
7.6. Discussion of results: Matching up results with the specifications of Tested Gas Turbines..60
7.7. Comparison: Gas Turbine range extender and recuperated micro turbine61
8. Chapter 8: Conclusion and Future Works..64
8.1. Conclusion64
8.2. Future Works..64
Reference..66
Appendix.69
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.

Appendix A.69
Appendix B....69
Appendix C.70
Appendix D.71
Appendix E.71
Appendix F.72

List of Nomenclature
Thermodynamic Terms
Rate of Work done in to the system via compression through process 1 to 2 (kW)
Rate of Heat transfer in to the system via combustion through process 2 to 3. (kW)
Rate of Work done by the system via expansion through process 3 to 4 (kW)
Mass flow rate.(kg/s)
Specific Heat capacity.(kJ/K)
Enthalpy of the system at state 1 of a system . (kJ/kg)
Enthalpy of the system at state 2 of a system .(kJ/kg)
Enthalpy of the system at state 3 of a system (kJ/kg)
Enthalpy of system state at 4 of a system.(kJ/kg)
Temperature/Total temperature via GasTurb of the system at state 1 of a system (inlet air
temperature)..(K)
Temperature of the system at state 2 of a system(K)
Temperature of the system at state 3 of a system(K)
Temperature of the system at state 4 of a system . (K)
T8 Exhaust temperature of the gas turbine(K)
Temperature of the system after expansion at state 5 of a system...................... (K)
Temperature of the system after recuperation at state 6 of a system. (K)
Thermal Efficiency.(%)
Pressure of the system at state 1 (bar)
Pressure of the system at state 2 (bar)
Pressure of the system at state 3 (bar)
Pressure of the system at state 4 (bar)
Volume of the system at state 1 (m3)
Volume of the system at state 2 (m3)
Pressure ratio.(Numerical ratio)
Mass flow rate of air. (kg/s)
Mass flow rate of exhaust gases.. (kg/s)
Specific Heat capacity of air (kJ/K)
Specific Heat capacity of exhaust gases. (kJ/K)
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Rate of heat transfer out of the system via cooling through process 2 to 3 (kW)

Sum of Rate of Work done throughout all the process (kW)

Sum of Rate of Work done by the system. (kW)

Sum of Rate of Work done in to the system (kW)


Gross rate of Work done by the system (kW)
Rate of Heat transfer in to the system ..(kW)
Density of air(kg/m3)

Abbreviations
WR Work Ratio
HEE Heat Exchanger Effectiveness
LP Low Pressure
HP High Pressure
FPT Free Pressure Turbine

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List of Figures and Tables


List of Figures
1. Figure 1.1: Block diagram for project planning pg.2
2. Figure 2.1: Cross section of the VT3000 engine (A. Olssson et al, 2005) .pg.5
3. Figure 2.2: Gas turbine manufactured by the Volvo Company (R.Gabrielsson, 2005).pg.7
4. Figure 2.3: Three turbine-staged gas turbine range extender (B.D. Fijalkowski, 2010.pg.8
5. Figure 2.4: Schematic of the microturbine alternator (K.Sim et al, 2012) Section 2.2 pg. 14
6. Figure 3.1: Gas Turbine used to rotate a generator or a gearbox (O. O. Omatete et al, 2000)
..........................................................pg.16
7. Figure 3.2: Air Standard Brayton Cycle portrayed in the T-S and P-V diagrams (H. Cunha,
2011)pg.17
8. Figure 3.3 (a) and (b): (a) Recuperated gas turbine used to rotate a generator or a gearbox
symbolised as the load (O. O. Omatete et al, 2000). (b) The T-S diagram indicates the
thermodynamic processes involved in this cycle (H. Cunha, 2011)pg.19
9. Figure 3.4: Schematic of a double- shafted intercooled recuperated cycle of a gas turbine
used in automobile applications (R. Mackay, 2001)..pg.21
10. Figure 3.5: Schematic of the Gas Turbine acting as a range extender for a hybrid vehicle
(M.A.R. Nasciemento et al, 2010)..pg.22
11. Figure 3.6: Schematic of a recuperated micro turbine as a sole powertrain Vehicles (R. McKay
et al, 2005)..pg.23
12. Figure 5.1: Schematic of the Capstone C 30 turbine (Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2002)
.pg.26
13. Figure 5.2: Gas turbine with a rectifier and an inverter (Environmental Protection Agency
USA et al, 2008)pg.27
14. Figure 3.3: Graph of net electrical efficiency against the ambient temperature of the air
(Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2010)pg.27
Figure 5.4: Schematic of engine layout of the ICR Tec 350 micro turbine (F.Trotter et al,
2013)pg.30
15. Figure 5.5: A thermodynamic cycle as well their components of ICR 350 (F. Trotter et al,
2013).pgs.31
16. Figure 5.6: location of the Combustor within the recuperator (D. W. Dewis, 2012).pg.32
17. Figure 5.7: Comparison of size and volume of a diesel engine and the ICR Tec 350 (D.W.
Dewis, 2012).pg.32

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18. Figure 5.8: Efficiencies of the two versions of the ICR Tec 350 and a typical Modern Diesel
engine (F. Trotter, 2013)..pg.33
19. Figure 6.1: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4pg.34
20. Figure 6.2: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 4..pg.34
21. Figure 6.3: Contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4pg.35
22. Figure 6.4: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3pg.35
23. Figure 6.5: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 3...pg.36
24. Figure 6.6: Contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3pg.36
25. Figure 6.7: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2pg.37
26. Figure 6.8: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 2 Section 6.1..pg.37
27. Figure 6.9: Contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2pg.38
28. Figure 6.10: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying heat exchanger (recuperator)
effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4 and
burner temperature of 1450K.pg.38
29. Figure 6.11: Contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 4 and burner temperature of 1450K..pg.39
30. Figure 6.12: Contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 4 and burner temperature of 1450K.pg.39

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31. Figure 6.13: Contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 3 and burner temperature of 1225K..pg.40
32. Figure 6.14: Contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 3 and burner temperature of 1225....pg.40
33. Figure 6.15: Contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 3 and burner temperature of 1225K..pg.41
34. Figure 6.16: Contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 2 and burner temperature of 1112.5K.pg.41
35. Figure 6.17: Contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 2 and burner temperature of 1112.5K.pg.42
36. Figure 6.18: Contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 2 and burner temperature of 1112.5K.pg.42
37. Figure 6.19: contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15 of an
intercooled cycle.pg.43
38. Figure 6.20: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 15 of an intercooled cycle..pg.43
39. Figure 6.21: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 12 of an
intercooled cyclepg.44
40. Figure 6.22: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 12 of an intercooled cycle.pg.44
41. Figure 6.23: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9 of an
intercooled cycle..pg.45

42. Figure 6.24: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 9 of an intercooled cycle.pg.45
43. Figure 6.25: Graphical plot of thermal efficiency and power specific fuel consumption against
varying combustor burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a
constant pressure ratio of 15 of an intercooled-recuperated cycle .pg. 46
44. Figure 6.26: Graphical plot of thermal efficiency and power specific fuel consumption against
varying combustor burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a
constant pressure ratio of 15 of an intercooled-recuperated cycle.pg. 46
45. Figure 6.27: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9 of a
recuperated cycle.pg.47
46. Figure 6.28: contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 9 of a recuperated cycle.pg.47
47. Figure 6.29: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.pg.48
48. Figure 6.30: contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 15 of an intercooled-recuperated cycle.pg. 48
49. Figure 6.31: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 12 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.pg. 49
50. Figure 6.32: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying
combustor burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant
pressure ratio of 12 of an intercooled-recuperated cyclepg. 49
51. Figure 33: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.pg.50
52. Figure 34: Contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio
of 9 of an intercooled-recuperated cycle.pg. 50

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53. Figure 35: Contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying heat exchanger (recuperator)
effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15 and
burner temperature of 1447Kpg.51
54. Figure 36: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure
ratio of 15 and burner temperature of 1447K..pg.51

List of Tables
1. Table 1: Table of output parameters of the Capstone C 30 while using liquid fuel (Capstone
Turbine Corporation, 2010)pg.28
2. Table 2: Table 2: Table of electrical performance ratings operating at ISO conditions.
(Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2010)pg.29

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Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1. Brief History
Rotating machines have been initially been incorporated particular in the 12th to 15th in Islamic
world as part of water milling and water carrying devices in various Muslim occupied lands of Syria
and Spain. Their significance is what made the Muslim world a renowned super power in history
because of their able to extract rotational power as power output (A. Shabbir 2002). In terms of
turbine use, the steam turbine has been utilised in 1551 by Taqi Al-Din a mechanical engineer as
prime mover for a rotating spit. The result was high rotational power output. As a result of its high
extraction and rotational power output, gas vehicles are introduced several centuries later.
Gas turbine vehicles have been introduced into the middle of the twentieth century by various
vehicle manufacturers like Ford, Rover, and Chrystler (D.W. Dewis, 2012). As gas turbine vehicle
development proceeds further so does the conventional vehicle as well, with it introducing the
catalytic converter in the combustion chamber. This new improvement reduces the emission level
considerably more than the gas turbine vehicle, which henceforth forces several vehicle
manufacturers to halt and abandon the current research in gas turbine vehicle (A. Olsson et al, 2005,
R. Gabrielsson, 2005).With this new problem being outlined, it is required restart the research of gas
turbine vehicle but this time as a range extender.
The function of a range extender is to increase the driving range of a vehicle so that it can be able
drive on the highway much more easily than it did before, with less time of recharging the batteries.
This project in particular focuses on heavy duty truck of which its powertrain is designed to travel
longer distances. The use of a range extender to charge up the batteries inside the truck can be
advantageous to the heavy duty truck, as it cover thousands of kilometres without any need to stop
for recharging. The gas turbine range extender reinforces the performance of the hybrid vehicle,
making it an ideal competitor for the conventional diesel engine. Further research into gas turbine
technology in the late nineties has resulted in a rise of a new kind of gas turbine known as the
microturbine. The microturbine has now got a much higher power density for its much shorter size
than the gas turbine and is available with a recuperator as well. The function of the recuperator is to
basically increase the thermal efficiency of the powertrain by allowing a heat transfer of exhaust gas
to the inlet air prior combustion, reducing the amount of fuel required for combustion.
Various manufacturers like Capstone and Bladon jets incorporated microturbine as a use of an
alternative powertrain compared to the ordinary internal combustion engine, for example the new
Jaguar CX-75 (D. Walker, 2013).

1.2. Objectives and Planning


The objectives are: 1) investigate the current microturbines or gas turbines currently on the market.
2) Use their specified values and input them to the GasTurb software for parametric studies
simulations based upon: Variation in pressure ratio, inlet temperature and burner exit temperature.
3) Find similar efficiencies and fuel consumption from the contour plots after completing parametric
studies for specified cycles, which are similar to that stated in the product specification. 4) Conduct a
methodological analytical analysis based upon thermodynamic performance materials,
manufacturing design. 5) From these comparisons select the suitable vehicle power train. These
objectives are formulated from the project plan block diagram in figure 1.
Application: Heavy duty diesel truck: Powertrain candidates

Recuperated, inter cooled


microurbine or both

Gas Turbine range Extender

Diesel Engine

Obtain specifications of these Powertrains

Diesel Engine
Microturbine

Insert these specifications into GasTurb Software and run the programme

Obtain the results the results from GasTurb in the from parametric studies

With This Model do a Comparative Analysis of these Powertrains:


Truck with
Diesel Engine

Truck withGas Turbine range Extender

Compare

Comparison

Truck with a Recuperated,


intercooled Microturbine or
both

Compare

Suggest Improvements to the selected powertrain based upon: Materials and


Manufacturing and Design.

Figure 1.1: Shows a block diagram indicating the main activities involved. The movement of the
single arrows indicate a completion of an activity, which the arrow head points towards the next
activity. The double arrows are only shown for methodological comparison.

Chapter 2: Literature Review


The whole aim of this literature review is to explore the past, present and future development in gas
turbine technology within the automotive industry.
2.1. Gas Turbines in Automobile applications
A Gas Turbine range extender has the advantage of being more lightweight than the average hybrid
vehicle (K.P. OConnell, 1992). This article discussed two gas turbines of rated power output 14.20
and 28 kW, which act as a range extender for hybrid vehicles. The typical thermodynamic cycle it
follows is known as the Brayton cycle. The advantages the gas turbine has over the Otto cycle is that
lower pressure ratio is required to reach an efficiency of 74% with maximum cycle temperature of
1530 degrees Celsius. Yet future trends show that using ceramic materials in turbine engines by
configuring ceramic plates in compression, higher cycle temperatures can be achieved. It is essential
to take note that when the batteries are being charged fully by the range extender, they must be
discharged immediately, to avoid risk of serious battery damage. The conclusion of these various
tests indicates that there has been a significant improvement in fuel emission and economy with
hybrid vehicles. However, for gas turbines this article is lacking tests done at part load and idle load
which questions the gas turbines ability to produce lower fuel consumption than the average piston
engine, even though gas turbines have a huge flexibility in fuel choice, drive range and sound
acceleration.
The objectives of developing a highly efficient gas turbine engine range extender arise from these
Suggestions below (R. Mckay, 1993):

Single Shaft design: the use of the single shaft eliminates the requirement of further
bearings, turbine wheels and gearbox. The end results in a highly simplistic design.

Centrifugal compressor and radial turbine are both connected in one shaft with a cobalt
magnet generator which rotates at a speed of 96000 rpm. This generator can be used to
charge up the battery while the vehicle is slowing down or at rest.

The exhaust gas components are pressurised 3 times in line with the compressor inlet
highlighting a pressure ratio of 3:1.

The recuperator must be 85% effective with a prime surface and counter flow configuration
so that 65% of the heat from the exhaust gases can be transferred to the air at combustor
inlet. A prime surface recuperator is chosen because of its intricate folding pattern which
increases the surface area allowing more heat to be transferred at a faster rate. With this

design, the combustor fuel consumption drops to 45% thereby increasing the generator
efficiency from 14-30%.

Catalytic combustors with no flame are mixed with vaporised unleaded gasoline and air
which results in a chemical reaction at less than 1066 degrees Celsius at an air to fuel ratio of
153:1. This results in lower emissions in unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, which
therefore improves atmospheric air quality. Gasoline was preferred over natural gas because
gasoline reacts three times faster than natural gas. As a result emission is lower.

McKay suggested that increasing the inlet turbine temperature from 816 to 871 degrees
Celsius could increase the efficiency by 1.6 points with an extra 3kW. On the other hand, this
temperature increase at a constant cycle pressure ratio will bring about change in material
use because metal alloys may become soft and flexible. This problem can be solved by
increasing the overall cycle ratio.

The output power by the generator is 24kW with a fuel consumption of 2.99-3.59l/hr, when
attached to a bipolar led battery pack.

Abiding by the suggestions listed above, the overall result of the gas turbine system is that the
manufacturing costs are low as well as the need for maintenance. Furthermore a reduction in weight
and volume is achieved, which is highly ideal for a hybrid power plant.
Another article mentions buses in Santa Clara California use electric powertrain as their engines. Due
to the hot climate, the necessity of an air conditioning system is vital, therefore a 24 kW generator
has been proposed as an alternative power train (R. McKay, 1994). Operating using gasoline fuel, the
inlet air at 35 degrees Celsius enters the single stage centrifugal compressor via the permanent
cobalt magnet generator and is compressed through a ratio of 3:1. Note this is a single shaft gas
turbine engine. The recuperator is utilised to exchange heat from the exhaust to the compressed air
raising the temperature to 540 degrees. This saves 60% of fuel and increases the efficiency by a
factor of 2.5 so it is ideal because the pressure ratio is low enough to ensure that low temperature
exhaust gases are produced. Its coiled configuration around the generator system makes the system
more compact and its increased surface area maximises the rate of heat transfer. The combustor
type is catalytic and the air to fuel ratio of combustion is 134:1. The exhaust gas at 816 degrees
enters the radial turbine and the resultant rotation is 96000 rpm which is then used to rotate the
generator. This is used to power a 336V battery pack. It has been noted that 30 units was tested with
an average efficiency of 30%. The overall cost of the generator system is low only when they are
mass produced for bus companies in California, settling for low capital costs as well.

In the years 1993-2000, the Swedish car manufacturer Volvo, started to introduce a new concept
within the field of automotive engineering, that is gas turbine heavy duty trucks, the VT300 (A.
Olsson et al, 2005). This new concept consists of: a two stage centrifugal compressor, an intercooler,
a recuperator, a lean premix pre-vaporisation combustor and a radial turbine with power-turbine
connected in between. Furthermore the overall thermodynamic cycle pressure ratio was 9:1, output
power: 350kW, 53500-280280rpm engine speed and 214-281 g/kWh fuel consumption. At the inlet,
temperature of the exhaust products was 1350K, which indicates that a suitable material is required
to withstand such high temperatures and thermal stress at the same time when the thermodynamic
cycle is initiated. As a result of this, Volvo introduced High temperature alloys such as Inconel and
Hastelloy X into their powertrain system. The theoretical efficiency was 35-45% but several tests
indicated that these values were still achieved even when the inlet turbine temperature was 1270 k.
This stimulated the fine tune-up of their engines which was ready for the truck demonstration.
Unfortunately these results were not collected due to lack of data. All the benchmark values were
reached but the main problem with gas turbines is their fuel consumption is much higher compared
to diesel engines; for this reason Volvo terminated its programme.

Figure 2.1: Shows a cut cross section of the VT3000 engine (A. Olssson et al, 2005)
Another form of obtaining data is by using a computer simulation programme based on numerical
methods. Here, gas turbine data is typed into the computer programme and the results are obtained
for gas turbine testing. (L.Liebenberg et al, 1994). The following results of fuel consumptions for gas
turbines with power outputs ranging from 20-70kW is a range of 7-10.l/100km. With reference to
typical diesel engine, the results are very high. This can only occur when the vehicle is idle or
operating at a part load. But with a range extender with power output values ranging from 20-50kW,
the fuel consumption generally increases. Whereas with battery capacity of 5-20kWh, the opposite
trend is shown. Increasing the battery capacity actually decreases the requirement of a bigger gas
turbine, resulting in a lower fuel consumption. An example stated is the Volkswagen 60kW gas
turbine which has the highest fuel consumption of 9.l/100km than that of a gas turbine range

extender with fuel consumption of 5.5l/100km. The paper concludes that a gas turbine range
extender is favoured to that of the sole gas turbine engine.
Past and present gas turbine vehicles have both been tested and tried out but fail to meet to the
standards of several energy legislation, so this paper discusses the improvements to be made to
these models (D.G. Wilson, 1997). This paper introduces the significance of a selective recuperator
with effectiveness of 96% to lower the compressor ratio of 2-3:1. This is because a recuperator will
ease the work of the compressor hence lower maintenance will be required and a reduction in the
amount of fuel to be required will already be pre-heated prior to combustion. The use of a
recuperator also increases the cycle efficiency to 50%. It has been stated that multi stage axial
turbine configuration is being preferred because radial turbines would require longer ducting, which
will lead to excessive losses and the blade tip will not be of the correct size due to its complexity in
design. Furthermore it has been stated that running the turbines at low peripheral speeds enhances
their capability to be multi-staged on the same shaft. Tests have been carried out on two models;
the results are as follows: 1) Air temperature: 288k, 2) Air flow rate: 0.31 and 0.47 kg/s, 3)
Compressor type: centrifugal, 4) Stages: 1 and 3, 5) Pressure ratio: 5.5:1 and 2.4:1, 6) Turbine type:
radial and axial, 7) Turbine inlet temperature 1650k. 8) Power output: 100kW, 9) Efficiency: 59% and
48% 10) Shaft speed: 158000rpm and 32000rpm. These test values indicate that a multistage and
axial gas turbine with a low pressure ratio, can achieve substantial results. However the inclusion of
a recuperator for a low speed and multi-shaft carries extra weight making the overall design bulkier.
For this reason, research into development of ceramic recuperators and other components like
carbon fibre compressors and ceramic turbines has been carried out to counter this problem. If this
development research is successful, the future design will be lighter and more compact than a spark
ignition engine with the same power.
NASA introduced a new software in analysing gas turbine performance known as the BRMAPS (A.J.
Juhasz, 1997). This numerical tool has been specifically developed for numerical analysis only via a
scientific programming language VSAPL. This tool can calculate thermodynamic performances at a
quick rate indeed. A gas turbine engine with a fuel mixture of gasoline and air is computed into this
programme. The results for optimal performance are as follows:
1. Air inlet temperature 293K,
2. Turbine inlet temperature 909K,
3. Pressure ratio 2.38,
4. Miles per gallon 39.3972
6

5. Compressor outlet temperature 385.42K


6. Turbine outlet temperature 937K
7. Work output 25kW.
This shows that lowering pressure ratio from 3:1 to 2.38:1 results in an improvement in fuel
economy.
The Volvo company has been a pioneer in creating innovative gas turbines in the past (R.
Gabrielsson, 2005). Specifically environmentally friendly vehicle models like the VT100 for example
here below. A typical gas turbine model annotated in figure 2.2.

Figure 2.2: Illustrates a typical gas turbine manufactured by the Volvo company (R.Gabrielsson,
2005).
A pressure of 4-6 bars in adequate for a gas turbine cycle as long as it includes a recuperator. An
involvement of a recuperator can raise the turbines efficiency to 42% or with a combined cycle it
can raise it even more to 60%. However, the main problem causing the decline of Volvo gas turbine
development was a very high fuel consumption, which did not meet the standards required.
An improvement in Volvos KTT gas turbine can be initiated by transforming it to a range extender
for a hybrid electric vehicle (B.D. Fijalkowski, 2010). The layout is a single shaft with a compressor
and 3 turbines with a combustor tank filled with methane and oxygen, including a recuperator as
well. The air is taken in, compressed and pre-heated before it is combusted with an oxygenmethane. The result is a 1200k of heat ejected to the multi stage turbine to be rotated to give a high
power output to the battery generator motor, at an efficiency of 53%. The materials used in this
powertrain are mainly ceramic with high temperature alloys included as well. Also a carbon dioxide
recirculation has been added to aid condensation of exhaust gases, so that the extra heat can be
used to heat up air even more.

Figure 2.3: Shows an overall cycle for 3 turbine-staged gas turbine range extender (B.D. Fijalkowski,
2010)
Another software which can be used to analyse thermodynamic performance is the GasTurb
software (D. Etcheverria, 2012). This software uses sophisticated yet fast iterative stages so any
thermodynamic problem can be solved in minutes. The result of this would be a graph which can be
accessed through Microsoft excel. The values that were inputted into the software were the air mass
flow rate 0.5kg/s, the ambient temperature and a compressor pressure ratio 3:1. Furthermore a
target range of electrical output was set to 50-70kW. Note: this gas turbine is a single shaft. The
results are as follows: Compressor outlet temperature of 417k, optimal turbine inlet temperature of
1200k, turbine pressure ratio 2.5, and an efficiency of 12.5%, for a chosen power output of 60kW.
This efficiency is lower than IC engines. So second tests were done with a recuperator and the
efficiency was improved significantly to 26%. The material suggested was Inconel ceramic compound
for the turbine blades as it can withstand high temperature and also the thermal stress propagation
is at a slower rate than it was before. The yield stress of 1100MPa at a temperature of 453k, but the
temperature of the turbine inlet is 1200k, this shows that yield stress can decrease with
temperature, and can increase the probability of the material being vulnerable to fracture via crack
propagation. The concluding remarks of this thesis is that more work is to be done on manufacturing
micro-scaled axial gas turbines as it can challenge the IC engines in the future.
This thesis deals with using again the GasTurb software in analysing thermodynamic cycles as a
whole, via an accelerated iterative process (H.Cunha, 2011). The initial tests were done on a
Chrysler GT engine with fuel of a gasoline-kerosene mixture. Initially the engine specs were as
follows: air flow rate 1 m/s, max power output 97kW at 35154 rpm, maximum generator speed
44600 rom. The compressor type is centrifugal single stage with a pressure ratio of 4:1, the turbines
are axial and two-staged on a single shaft. These specifications have been inputted into software and
the results were then accessed through MATLAB software, giving only the fuel consumption values:
56.5-65.1/100km. When this is compared to an IC engine, the values are lower with its maximum
being around 10.l/100km. This is a ground-breaking result. Yet in this thesis it has been proposed to
8

introduce a heat-exchanger (recuperator) to see if the fuel consumption value changes. With the
recuperator the fuel consumption is decreased by roughly 62%. Using a recuperator therefore allows
the combustion to use fuel with the air already pre-heated, resulting in improved efficiency and fuel
consumption. The data collected can be used to create a MATLAB vehicle model via a QSS toolbox.
This model shows aspects of control theory to illustrate the relationship with each block from the
input to the output.
2.2. Micro-turbines in Automobile applications
The outline of this thesis is an overview of different combinations of micro turbine powertrain
designs: recuperated and intercooled cycles with different shaft configurations (R. McKay et al,
2005). Initially this report includes a calculation already done on a typical micro turbine: Air
temperature of 15 degrees, 0.5 kg/s of air mass flow, compressor pressure ratio of 4:1, turbine inlet
temperature of 875 degrees, turbine pressure ration of 3.76:1, obtaining a power output of 74.3kW
and an efficiency of 31.5%. Here the role of the recuperator is to transfer heat from the exhaust gas
to heat the compressed air to a temperature of 682 degrees. Using this configuration it is noted that
51% of the fuel temperature is decreased cutting the fuel consumption by half. The Second
configuration is the intercooled plus recuperated cycle. The intercooled cycle was introduced by the
Ford Company. The cycle consists of 2 shafts and 2 stages of the compressor and the turbine, an
intercooler in between the compressor and two combustors. The thermodynamic parameter for this
cycle: same air temperature, turbine inlet temperature of 975 degrees and a power output of both
shafts 145.2kW and an efficiency of 35%. The paper states that doubling the number of shafts can
definitely double the power output and the use of an intercooler raises the efficiency by 5%.
The design benchmark for majority of micro turbines is that they must be compact and lightweight
indeed. Including an intercooler and doubling the number of shafts with individual combustors,
makes the overall design complicated, heavier, bulkier, and cost expensive in terms of manufacture.
The small size of the micro turbine allows testing to be done in a laboratory environment.
The gas turbine that was chosen for testing was a 30kW rated diesel single shaft micro turbine
(M.A.R. Nasciemento et al, 2010). The apparatus includes: Annular combustor and radial turbo
machineries. The main fuels used is ethanol and diesel. The results of the laboratory tests are: Air
flow rate of 15Nm/min, a pressure of 4:1, a turbine exit temperature of 600 degrees, power output
of 30kW, output shaft rotation of 96000 rpm, and a an efficiency of 26%. The same experiment was
tested with natural gas and the results are roughly the same, however the only difference was that
liquid fuel emits 350 ppm more NOx than natural gas. This sort of gas is hazardous to human health
and the environment itself.
9

Nowadays researchers are working on the development of smaller micro turbine for mobile devices,
therefore the power density must be higher than that relative to a typical IC engine. Researchers in
Korea are in the process of developing a 500W ultra-micro turbine (J.Seo et al, 2010). This new
powertrain has been designed to produce a turbine inlet temperature of 1200k and 400,000rpm
output rotation at a cycle pressure ratio of 3:1, using nitrogen gas as the inlet fluid. The gas turbine
components are: One Shaft, centrifugal compressor, radial turbine, an annular combustor, and six
recuperators. The material of the shaft and turbine are Inconel and the rest is aluminium alloy. A
Pre-test run was made to see if the design rpm and turbine inlet temperature can be achieved.
Unfortunately, the researchers cannot obtain the temperature due to the lack of a combustor and
therefore cannot maintain a higher pressure. As a result 420k was obtained with an increased cycle
pressure ratio of 5:1, and the new power output was calculated as 4.5kW. Using these parameters
the test was done and the result of data collected was 60% of the rotational speed obtained. The
designed speed could not be reached due excessive vibration and clearance loss. To overcome this a
dampening device must be installed as well as more clearance control.
The use of a micro turbine as power source can give rise to two problems that need to be solved.
Firstly, turbine inlet temperature and pressure ratio contributed a direct effect on the turbine
exhaust temperature. That exhaust temperature has a limited range of temperature which directly
affects the recuperator temperature. Henceforth, the turbine inlet temperature will also have
limited range, reducing both the efficiency and the output. The second problem is cost of the
recuperator. This is the bulkiest and the most expensive component. With a high effectiveness the
cycle efficiency will increase, so will the manufacturing cost and weight. For this reason it is best that
the microturbine becomes a range extender (R. McKay et al, 2001). The recuperated intercooled,
two-shafted cycle is proposed for a power output of 240kW to drive the generator. With this system,
it can easily obtain 40+% efficiency with a cycle pressure ratio of 16:1 and a turbine inlet
temperature of 2000 degrees, climbing or accelerating. On the contrary, this efficiency will decrease,
worsening the fuel economy, when the vehicle is above sea level, cruising and idling. To counter this
problem a variable nozzle turbine is included when the decrease in power output and the pressure
ratio by four, has occurred. That will maintain the efficiency to be over 40%.
A Capstone C-60 typical micro turbine of which the output is rated 30-250kW has a configuration
consisting of a centrifugal compressor with pressure ratio of 3-4:1, an annular combustor, and a
radial turbine with pressure ratio of 3:1 all on one shaft (J.Latkovic et al, 2003). Connected to this will
be a generator and an inverter, so the direct current can be used to recharge the battery, while
idling or at rest for a hybrid. Micro turbines are very flexible with various fuels for combustion. As a
result the efficiency stated is 26% power generation but the total thermal efficiency is 60-80% with a
10

recuperator included, with that the turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures are 900 degrees Celsius
and 500-600 degrees Celsius respectively. Usually the recuperator is connected to small regenerative
heaters and air conditioning absorption chillers.
The stated maintenance cost for a micro turbine is $700-1000 per kW which is higher than that for a
diesel engine which costs $500 per kW. This is very costly for the manufacturer unless the gas
turbines can be mass produced. Capstone has stated that 2,400 units are sold under 3,300,000 hours
but the sales were not reported in 2002. This is a clear example of a unit which was not mass
produced, resulting in increasing the cost of installation and maintenance. Henceforth, consideration
into choosing materials for micro turbines in conjunction with alternative manufacturing process
including the micro turbine components which may have to be removed or altered with possibly a
totally new shaft design.
The Capstone micro turbine range extender has two different types of turbine configurations: one
single shaft with a radial compressor, an expansion turbine, a permanent magnet generator,
inverter, rectifier, which can be fuelled by various types of fuels. The only difference with the second
configuration is that the extra shaft with the power turbine is now attached to the expansion
turbine. This power turbine is then used to rotate the same generator, producing alternating current
which is then rectified and inverted to direct current for a suitable battery pack. These two
configurations both produce a power output of 30+kW depending on the rotational speed, for
example a 30kW micro turbine can produce 96,000 rpm, whereas a 75kW produces 80,000 rpm. Yet
the required generator rotational speed is actually 3600 rpm. The more the power output increases
the lower the output rotational speed. The ideal compression pressure ratio ranges from 3-6:1. The
research paper notes when the turbine firing temperature increases from 1550 to 1750 Fahrenheit,
the efficiency and the specific power output increases (Environmental Protection Agency USA et al,
2008).
At full load micro turbines are operating at their peak efficiency. However, at part load the efficiency
drops by half, due to low mass flow, resulting in reduced power output. The second factor that
influences both the efficiency and the power output is ambient temperature. As the ambient
temperature increases the mass flow rate plummets, so the compressor requires more power to
compress the air. As a consequence, both of these parameters are subtracted by 40% of the original
values at standard air temperature at 69 Fahrenheit. The third factor is the altitude above sea level.
When gas turbines are functioning above 7,000ft the air pressure drops. That drop in air pressure
results in cycle lower pressure of which the full load drops to 70%. Operating at this load, with lower
pressure ratio, the power output will decrease along with the cycle efficiency. On the contrary,

11

intercoolers and multi-pressure nozzles can ease this problem by keeping the efficiency at around
40% (McKay et al, 2005).
The average cost to buy a plant is around $2,750, with roughly $20 of maintenance. Additionally,
major repair overhaul ranges from $550-$800. All of these costs stated in the paper are dependent
on the type of fuel, and the way the parts are configured and designed (J.Latkovic et al,
Environmental Protection Agency USA et al, 2008). Liquid fuels and waste gas are the main fuel type
for combustion, and are most common to maintenance inspection, which depending on the severity
of the component damage may lead to replacement. The reason why a high number of inspections is
required is because of material corrosion due to chemical interaction with the fuel itself.
The frequent material damage of the micro-turbine recuperators, as a result of corrosion, erosion,
fatigue, and thermal stress and strain, stimulated a new research carried out on material
development (O. O. Omatete et al, 2000). The common types of material which are regularly used in
manufacture of micro- turbine recuperators are ceramics and metal alloys. Recuperators are critical
in maintaining 50-250kW rated micro turbines at an efficiency of 40+%, leading to lower fuel
consumption. This is because they transfer heat from the turbine exhaust gases to the compressed
air, thus less fuel is required for combustion. The paper clearly states three categories of
recuperators currently used are: Shell-and-tube, plate-fin, and primary surface recuperators. Micro
turbines do not use the shell-and-tube configuration in designing recuperators, as they are bulky and
too big. So therefore, two categories of recuperators must be used in micro turbine design.
Researchers concluded that primary surface recuperator design is most ideal due its high surface to
volume ratio, taking up 5.2 average volumes of plate-fin and 11.8 volumes of shell-and-tube. As a
result it is currently the most prevailing recuperator category. Furthermore the most efficient flow
design is the counter flow design. Utilizing it gives a maximum effectiveness of 90% for 40% thermal
efficiency.
Fabrication of this recuperator is done by repeated folding, such that the surface foil becomes
corrugated. Two pieces of foil are then welded to form air cells, the fundamental building block
which is piled up and again welded in between the air cells. This type of fabrication ensures high
flexibility and mobility as a whole unit. This gives rise to high thermal shock and fatigue resistance.
The most common metal alloy in use today is stainless steel. Using this metal alloy for a pressure
ratio of 4:1 at a turbine inlet temperature of 700 degrees Celsius will give a thermal efficiency of
37%. But cobalt alloy recuperator, operating at the same pressure ratio as the stainless steel at
higher turbine inlet temperature of 900 degrees Celsius, gives a huge efficiency of 42%. Anything
above 900 degrees Celsius degrades the performance of the metallic recuperators, because alloying
12

elemlents like chromium or vanadium, react with the exhaust gases to give a corrosive film for high
oxidation. For this reason, investigations of ceramic recuperators must begin. The two most likely
candidates are silicon nitride and cordierite. They are difficult to fabricate into a primary-surface
type, so composites are now being considered to succeed in becoming the most suitable material.
Recuperated micro turbines range extender is a key component of a hybrid vehicle system because it
recharges the battery when in idle or on part load, when the battery power drops below a certain
value (F. Christodoulou et al, 2010). In this paper the vehicle is a series hybrid, where its
performance relies purely on the motor characteristics. The two motors specified in this paper are
heavy on torque than output rotational speed, so therefore when high speeds are reached the
power output is greater. The first motor DC (direct current) three phase brushless permanent
magnet motor is capable of producing 150kW and a torque of 650Nm. The benefits of this motor is
the high value of power density and efficiency. However it is expensive and due to mechanical
properties of the magnet the specified designed torque is difficult to achieve. The second motor is a
three phase induction AC (alternating current) motor, designed to deliver 102 kW and 150Nm of
torque. The main merits of this motor are its simplicity in design, construction, low maintenance and
cost. The demerits of this design is that at high speeds the efficiency plummets. Generally its
efficiency is lower than that of the first motor noted. According to the manufacturer of these two
motors the masses range from 90 to 100 kg.
The paper states the tested hybrid vehicles gas turbine is the 65kW rated C65 Capstone turbine,
using diesel fuel. This gas turbine is coupled to a generator that can deliver 127A, 12.4MJ/kWh net
heat rate at an efficiency of 29%. It should be noted that the overall mass of the powertrain can
affect the vehicles performance as a whole due its centre of gravity position. The two types of
battery used in this hybrid vehicle test are nickel cadmium and lithium ion. The specification of the
first battery is 520V of nominal voltage, 50-150 kWh/L of energy density, 40-60 kWh/kg of specific
energy, 150 W/kg of specific power and 1 hour recharge time. The second power battery
specification is 666V of nominal voltage, 100 A achieving maximum current of 250 A in 30 seconds,
250-360 kWh/L of energy density, 149 kWh/kg of specific energy, 664 kW/kg specific power and 2-3
Hours recharge time. The researchers concluded that lithium ion is the most ideal, because it can
achieve 132.8kW of power output at 200kg whereas nickel cadmium battery needs 885.33kg to
match this power output. The paper states that the second motor is used. Tests have been done on
fuel economy only.

13

The test results reports 4.6 and 5.6/100km where the first value represents 10.5% reduction than a
conventional IC engine powered vehicle when both the vehicles are weighed at 1340 kg. Here the
fuel economy again favours the tested hybrid vehicle rather than the conventional vehicle, saving
23.6% of fuel. This huge improvement indicates a prosperous future for micro turbine range
extenders.
The final paper deals with an alternative micro turbine-linked powertrain and the micro-power pack
i.e. the micro-gas turbine driven automotive alternators (K.Sim et al, 2012). The alternator consists
of a core turbine, power turbine, power shaft, generator and an inverter.

Figure 2.4: Shows a schematic of the microturbine alternator (K.Sim et al, 2012)
The core turbine has a centrifugal compressor, a fuel tank combustor and an axial turbine on one
shaft. The air flows at 0.023kg/s at a temperature of 28 degrees Celsius into the compressor and is
pressurised by a factor of 2.5 with a resulting temperature of 137.9 degrees Celsius. The product
gases flow over the axial turbine at a temperature of 807.1 degrees Celsius, and exit at 710 degrees
Celsius with pressure ratio of 2.37:1.60. The flow then continues on to the next shaft exiting the
exhaust pipe at 619.4 degrees Celsius. That shaft consists of another axial turbine and a gearbox
coupled with the power shaft. The generator and the invertor are connected to the end of the
compressor and the absorption chillers are included. Its power output is 3.1kW with an efficiency of
10.3%, 28V is produced, along with 110Amps, 7000 rpm is delivered with a fuel consumption of
0.8kg/kWh. Even though these numbers show that a significant amount of research needs to be
done, the power density is 120 W/kg and a volume density of 70W/L is more than the diesel and
gasoline generator. As a result there is hope that this device can be applied in hybrid vehicles in the
future
The recently released microturbine vehicle Jaguar CX-75 has pros and cons altogether. The pros are
that the vehicle is economically clean, goes the mile at fuel tank. However after an interview with
the design engineer of Jaguar Land rover and watching the Jay Leno Show, this vehicle cannot be
available mass production as that the economics are very much flawed [D. Walker, 2013 and J.Leno,
2010]. Money has been spent on the most expensive material such that the production line is very
14

limited, and debt has to be paid off. And that is a key aspect when manufacturing cars especially gas
turbine vehicle, because it can disrupt the economic performance and business as well. Mass
manufacturing and choosing cost effective materials could have solved this problem in the long run.
And that this vehicle is to celebrate Jaguars anniversary hence this vehicle is a concept car and it
cannot be sold in the current market.
Wrightspeed a powertrain company in California has been utilising the Capstone C 30 as their part of
their powertrain design for a gas turbine range extender [R.Piellisch, 2012 and I.Wright, 2013]. The
truck in utilisation is a Isuzu truck which is of medium duty kind. This truck is now equipped a pair of
motors driving the rear wheels, a battery pack which can be recharged from the grid. The fuel for
this truck is natural gas LPG. When the truck is out of range the turbine can be imitated as a
generator to charge up the batteries. Capstone Turbines can accept a wide variety of fuels. The
reason gas turbines are used is that for a passenger car all the components are generally expensive.
So for the economics to be controlled enough fuel must be saved to cover the capitol cost for a
reasonable amount of time. These trucks can burn 5000 gallons of fuel per year. Capstone was
chosen as it was available and an approven engine. The generator itself weighs 200lbs with 40,000 of
life. Cleaner air is emitted and abides by the Californian Emissions standards. Low maintenance and
no lubrication is required as it is fitted with air bearings and a cooling system. This truck in particular
is used as rubbish collection and has to stop 1000 times at 2.8 MPG. Using this turbine saves the fuel
economy to 50 MPG. However its average efficiency is 28% which is pretty much the downside of
this gas turbine.
Another trucks utilising capstone micro turbines is the Kenworth trucks for their class 7 and class 8
microturbine range extended hybrid trucks [M. Sumner, 2011 and Green Car Congress, 2011]. These
trucks are actually tested as concept trucks in 2011 only for testing purposes only. The tested
microturbines for these trucks are the Capstone C 65 microturbine which will act as a range extender
for their trucks. Capstone turbines in particular have efficiencies reaching or less than 30% which is
not enough to compete with the diesel engine for trucks. Kenworth trucks are planning to be used as
demo truck for 2013/14 season by Capstones competitor in the same field the ICRTec [F. Trotter,
2013]. ICRTec claims that their recuperated intercooled microturbine, the ICRTEC 350 a three
spooled microturbine has the ability to rival the typical diesel engine. This is because it claims to
have a thermal efficiency more than 44 % at such small volume delivering an output of 350 KW. This
will verified and tested throughout this dissertation. Also this turbine will not act as a range extender
rather this microturbine can be connected to a gear box acting as its sole powertrain.

15

Chapter 3: Basic theory of Gas Turbine and its types


In this section the main thermodynamic theory along with gas turbine theory will be discussed
outlining the major operations behind various types of gas turbines and micro turbines.
3.1. Brayton Cycle and its components
The main thermodynamic cycle that governs the operation of a typical gas turbine regardless of its
application is the Brayton Cycle. The Brayton Cycle is categorised into two types: open and closed
circuit Brayton cycle. The most common type is the open circuit Brayton Cycle for automobile
application as it operates on one open shaft such that any exhaust gases can pass through. This sort
of cycle is more commonly known as the Air Standard Cycle. Typically a gas turbine operates on one
shaft with the turbine on one end which rotates as the product gases pass through, being expanded
in the process. Whereas, on the other end of the shaft, the air from the atmosphere is sucked in and
compressed via the compressor and travels to the combustion chamber to undergo a chemical
reaction and exits as exhaust product gases. Figure 3.1 shows the schematic of an Air Standard Cycle
with its components (H.I.H. Saravanamuttoo, G.F.C. Rogers, H. Cohen, and P.V. Straznicky, 2009).

Figure 3.1: Illustrates the mechanisms behind the gas turbine with work output used to rotate a
generator or a gearbox symbolised as the load (O. O. Omatete et al, 2000).
To illustrate the thermodynamic processes that govern how the gas turbine operates as an Air
Standard Cycle figure 3.2 demonstrates the processes within the cycle, presented as TemperatureEntropy (T-S) and Pressure-Volume (P-V) diagrams.

16

Figure 3.2: An Air Standard Brayton Cycle portrayed in the T-S and P-V diagrams (H. Cunha, 2011)
From figure 3.2, four fundamental thermodynamic processes can be calculated from this cycle. They
are listed as follows: 1) Isentropic compression, 2) Isobaric heating, 3) Isentropic expansion and 4)
Isobaric cooling. The term isentropic is defined as a thermodynamic process which is adiabatic and
reversible, and isobaric is a thermodynamic process which is conducted under constant pressure.
The thermodynamic equations for all of the thermodynamic processes of the Brayton Cycle process
are given by:
(

Equation 1

Equation 2

Equation 3

The fourth equation is not stated because cooling takes place when the exhaust gas is discharged
into the atmosphere. To derive the equation of thermodynamic efficiency, the net work output must
be divided by the heat supplied to the system and equivalent to:

) (
(

Equation 4

If the first process is considered as isentropic then an equation for ideal gas behaviour for a
polytropic process is given as:
Equation 5
When temperature T is included this equation can be rewritten to give the pressure ratio r.
(

17

( )

( )

Equation 6

From the previous equation the efficiency can be derived as:


(

( )

Equation 7

3.2. Recuperated and Non-recuperated cycles


The diagrams of figure 1 and 2 denote the thermodynamic mechanisms and structure of the cycle as
being un-recuperated. The reason for this is that heated exhaust gases of a high enthalpy which have
been discharged to the atmosphere at the end of the expansion process have not been extracted
and re-used again. If this happens then the heat will be transferred on to the compressed air.
However the passage of these gases into the atmosphere results in a huge loss of available energy.
The thermal efficiency of this cycle stated equation 4 that

will not be significantly lower than

as

the product gases are discharged at a high temperature. Furthermore, since the temperature of the
compressed air
denominator (

is greatly lower than the temperature of the product gases, it allows the
) to be of a high magnitude. Unfortunately what this does is that it reduces

the thermal efficiency of the whole cycle. Moreover, if this type of gas turbine is used in automobile
application then the vehicle powertrain performance as a whole will be degraded, especially the fuel
consumption. This is mainly because in the combustion process where the heat is supplied to the
system, the temperature will be highly raised such that high quantity of fuel is required for this
process. This will lead to increased consumption of fuel and a reduction in fuel economy.
The situation of this cycle with an added recuperator will be entirely different as the heat will be
extracted from the expanded exhaust gases heading to the atmosphere, as it will be used to heat the
compressed air at a constant pressure. The function of the recuperator is to simply transfer heat
from the exhaust gases and recover it, such that the compressed air will be heated to a higher
temperature value. This value will be is high enough to allow the combustion to take place with low
amounts of fuel required. This will therefore lead to a smaller temperature rise at the exit of the
combustor. Furthermore, the exhaust gas temperature will be cooler than it was when the
recuperator was not added to the gas turbine system resulting in a lower amount of heat loss to the
atmosphere.

18

(a)

(b)

Figure 3.3 (a) and (b) : Illustrate the mechanisms behind the recuperated gas turbine with work
output used to rotate a generator or a gearbox symbolised as the load (O. O. Omatete et al, 2000).
The T-S diagram indicates the thermodynamic processes involved in this cycle (H.Cunha, 2011).
From figure 3.3 (b) it can be deduced that the cooling effect of the exhaust gases is equal to heat
gain of the compressed air taking account no heat loss from the recuperator into the atmosphere
(T.D. Eastop and A. McConkey 1993) In other words:

Equation 8

Henceforth, the thermal efficiency of this type of gas turbine can be deduced:
(

Equation 9

The thermal efficiency of this type of gas turbine will remain higher that its non-recuperated
counterpart. Also, due to the less amount of fuel and heat required for the combustion reaction to
take place, the fuel consumption will be significantly lower resulting in an improved fuel economy.
The only parameter than can raise the thermal efficiency of the recuperated thermodynamic cycle is
the recuperator effectiveness. The effectiveness is defined as a fraction of heat transfer by the
recuperator to the air over the maximimus possiple heat transfer from the gases in the recuperator
from the exhaust gases. In other words:

Equation 10

A recuperator can only be useful if there is a sufficiently large temperature difference between the
exhaust gases leaving the turbine and the air leaving the compressor, otherwise this operation will
be fruitless with high capitol cost and maintenance required.
19

3.3. Intercooled Recuperated Cycle


For a gas turbine which has many stages or shafts, an intercooler can be introduced to this particular
gas turbine system itself. This is usually situated on the same shaft or spool as of the low pressure
compressor. The main function of the intercooler is to decrease the temperature of the compressed
air such that the work input regardless of the pressure ratio or mass flow is reduced. An equation to
show intercooling in a multi stage process is given by:
(

Equation 11

The negative sign denotes cooling of the system.


The best way to optimise intercooling is by making sure that inter-stage pressure ratio is the same
during each compression process. To optimise minimisation of the net work input the pressure ratio
in each stage must be the same, and the temperature of the cooled air must be same as the air at
the inlet. The work ratio equation is given by

Equation 12

It follows therefore that when the net work input is reduced the work ratio will be increased. After
the combustion process the heat supplied shall be greater because the temperature of the
compressed air is lower than it was when no intercooling took place. Although the net work output
is increased by introducing intercooling into the system, the heat supplied to system will eventually
cause the thermal efficiency of this system to decrease. This is a huge disadvantage of solely using an
intercooler. To counter this problem a recuperator shall be required to be situated after the
completion of the second compression of air. Using the recovered heat transferred from the heavily
expanded exhaust gas, the compressed air temperature will increase, decreasing the temperature
required for the combustion process within the combustor itself. What this does is that not only the
sum of work will be increased raising the work ratio, but most importantly the thermal efficiency
shall be improved hugely, leading to a drop in fuel consumption and therefore an increase in fuel
economy. This improvement of thermal efficiency and fuel consumption will only be observe if the
recuperator performance (recuperator effectiveness) is of a high magnitude; otherwise these cycle
parameters will not bear fruit.

20

Figure 3.4: Portrays a schematic of a double- shafted intercooled recuperated cycle of a gas turbine
used in automobile applications. Note that Cp, T, R, Cb, I and G are written to represent: compressor,
turbine, recuperator, combustor, intercooler and generator/ gearbox (R. Mackay, 2001).
A generalised equation for any gas turbine type whether it is a multi-shafted or multi-staged is given
as:

Equation 13

This equation depends on the quantity of compressors, turbine and combustors that are assembled
as part of a gas turbine, as they can vary hugely. An uneven number of either sum of work out/Input
or heat supplied can be used to deduce the efficiency of such system.
Usually intercooled recuperated cycles have components which are made of such material that can
bear torsion, mechanical and thermal stress for example ceramics. Furthermore, any gas turbine
which is heavily shafted or staged in terms of design can make the gas turbine aesthetically bulkier
and complicated. To mitigate this in the future, the quantity of components used in manufacturing
must be controlled to an extent that the manufacturing and capital costs are kept to minimum
(R.Mckay, 2011).
3.4. Gas Turbine Range Extender and a Micro turbine
There are two types of gas turbine powertrain that have been utilised within the gas turbine
vehicles. These powertrains are known as the gas turbine range extender and the microturbine.

21

The gas turbine range extender is a type of powertrain particularly used in hybrid vehicular
applications. The function of the gas turbine is to recharge the battery when the vehicle is operating
at idle or part load (F. Christodoulou et al, 2010). This is done by the rotation of the turbine, which is
then used to turn the generator, most preferably the permanent magnet generator. A similar design
is shown in figure 3.5

Figure 3.5: Indicates a simple schematic of the Gas Turbine acting as a range extender for a hybrid
vehicle (M.A.R. Nasciemento et al, 2010).
The generator which is attached at the end of the shaft as shown in figure 3.5 generates a magnetic
field inducing an alternating current. In some cases that current can be rectified and inverted to
direct current, which can be fed into a suitable battery pack (Environmental Protection Agency USA
et al, 2008). This battery pack generates enough voltage to run the motor at a certain rpm delivering
a power output to the gearbox transmission. The resultant vehicle has obtained a larger range to
travel on the road saving time and money for refuel.
This is highly beneficial as it can save money on fuel consumption, thus improving the vehicles fuel
economy. But this can only be dependent on motor type, battery and the type of gas turbine used to
make this powertrain for a specified vehicle. Gas turbine range extender component assembly must
be as lightweight and compact as possible so that the centre of gravity can be at its lowest point for
comfortable driving conditions. It is highly essential that when the battery pack is charged to its
peak voltage, the gas turbine must stop recharging the battery otherwise there will be a risk of
serious battery damage leading to failure of the powertrain as a whole.
Microturbines are small compacted gas turbines that are capable of producing a high magnitude of
power output for a smaller volume than the typical reciprocating engine. These types of turbines are
small enough so that the centre of gravity of the vehicle will not be effected whilst driving on the

22

road. They can be categorised as being recuperated or not, but for high quality it is preferable for
the gas turbine to contain a recuperator in its component assembly.

Figure 3.6: Shows a schematic of a recuperated micro turbine acting as a sole powertrain for
vehicular applications (R. McKay et al, 2005).
As shown in figure 3.6, the microturbine is capable of having the complete ability to act as a single
powertrain for any vehicle. This therefore creates a simple small powertrain, cutting down any unnecessary amount of material particularly if a fin-plate recuperator is one of its components (O. O.
Omatete et al, 2000). Manufacturing gas turbines can become an issue when these powertrains are
not mass produced as they can be more expensive than the internal combustion engine if it is
manufactured for a large batch (J.Latkovic et al, 2003).

23

Chapter 4: GasTurb 12 programme


There are many factors that can affect the performance of the gas turbine, they are: pressure loss,
inlet ducting, combustion chamber and outlet ducting. When these factors are taken into account
the accuracy of the results will be increased. By doing so, the complexity of the problem arises and
any hand-written solutions will be time-consuming to produce. These computer softwares are
generally used to solve complex thermodynamic problems such as the commercially available
GasTurb software (H. Cunha, 2011). This section outlines a summary of the GasTurb 12 programme
as well as the main parameters that will be tested while using the software itself to produce viable
results.
4.1. Brief Features of GasTurb 12
The GasTurb software was initially developed in the 90s by the experienced German gas turbine
performance specialist, Joachim Kurzke. Kurzke has been working in the field of gas turbine
simulations and developments for over three decades. The software itself is user-friendly and aids in
calculating and evaluating thermodynamic cycle equation of the most common gas turbines found in
the field of aerospace and power generation, both for engine analysis and off design (H. Cunha,
2011). Along with aiding the user with various calculative evaluations, the solutions are obtained in
quick fashion due its powerful iterative process involved in the calculation of the thermodynamic
cycle. Furthermore the solutions can be presented in a fine graphical format which can be accessed
for any further analysis (D. Etcheverra, 2012). This therefore makes the GasTurb programme a
professional software to be used not only for engine design but for research and development as
well (H. Cunha, 2011).
4.2. Tested parameters and simulation procedure
The parametric studies simulations that will be carried out in order to deduce which type of gas
turbine is suitable for heavy duty truck application are parametric studies and cycle design point
studies. While simulating these studies, the input parameters that will be used are: 1) Pressure
ratio, 2) Burner exit temperature, 3) Total temperature T1. To carry out these simulations, access the
basic thermodynamic cycle on the options menu for four cycles. They are one spooled recuperated,
three spool intercooled, three spooled recuperated and three spooled intercooled cycle. The fuel
required for combustion is diesel for all simulations. Firstly the single spooled cycle simulation was
carried before the three spool cycle simulations. The first step entails accessing parametric analysis
for these cycles and selecting burner temperature ranged from 1450-1180K and inlet temperature
ranged from 288.15-333.15K at a constant pressure ratio. Repeat these simulations three times for

24

pressure ratios ranged from 4:1 to 2:1.The second step is to obtain thermal efficiency, fuel
consumption and exhaust temperature contour plots with the x axis labelled as the burner
temperature in kelvin at different pressure ratios. Various curves will be plotted for each cycle at a
ranged air temperature. Repeat the first step, then create three sets of simulations at pressure ratio
4-2:1 and Burner exit temperature 1450-1112.5K. The parameters selected for this simulation are
Heat exchanger effectiveness and inlet temperature. Use step three but this time ensure that the x
axis is labelled as the heat exchanger effectiveness. For the three types of the three spooled cycle
listed above carry out three simulations at pressure ratios 15:1-9:1. The first step entails accessing
parametric analysis for these cycles and selecting burner temperature ranged from exit 1450-1180K
and total temperature ranged from 288.15-333.15K at a constant pressure ratio. The second step is
to obtain thermal efficiency, fuel consumption contour plots with the x axis labelled as the burner
temperature in kelvin at different pressure ratios. Finally, at pressure ratio of 15:1 and burner exit
temperature 1450K select heat exchanger effectiveness and inlet temperature as your parameters.
Repeat the second step ensuring that the x axis is labelled as the heat exchanger effectiveness.
4.3. Hypothetical theories and predictions
Varying pressure ratios are predicted to have a significant effect on the gas turbines efficiency and
fuel consumption. Burner temperature values are varied to determine what type of turbine material
can bear the output temperature of the product gases exiting the combustor. As this temperature is
increased then hypothetically the turbine should be subjected to high levels of thermal stress even if
the system is operating at high levels of efficiency. However, these high temperatures could lead to
material failure. During the manufacturing process, different materials are used to manufacture gas
turbines so by examining the product specification, the suitable turbine inlet (burner exit)
temperature can be found. Inlet temperatures are basically the temperature of the atmosphere
outside the thermodynamic system boundary i.e. the gas turbine. When the heavy duty truck is
driven at different climates the Total temperature T1 (inlet air temperature) entering the
compressor is supposed to have a huge effect on the thermal efficiency and the fuel consumption.
Because this parameter is predicted to have an effect on the value of the net power input of the
thermodynamic cycle, the net work done throughout this cycle should also vary. Hypothetically this
could lead to variation of thermal efficiency and fuel consumption. These parameters are essential
as they can have a huge effect on the output parameters of the thermodynamic cycles such as
thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption. They are tested to see which output values match
closely with the values of product specification noted of the gas turbine product investigated
throughout this project. Furthermore these parameters were tested to see if the predictions based
on the output parameters as a result of parametric simulations are true or not.
25

Chapter 5: Testing Gas turbines


The gas turbines that shall be tested are the capstone C 30 turbine and the ICR Tec 350. These gas
turbines are specifically used as powertrain components in the trucking industry. As stated before
the capstone C30 has already been used as powertrain for isuzu trucks as part of the Wrightspeed
programme (R.Piellisch, 2012 and I.Wright, 2013). However ICRTEC are planning to have the ICR Tec
350 used as a powertrain for the Kenworth trucks as part of the CEC Kenworth demo programme (F.
Trotter, 2013). This section shall discuss the specifications of these gas turbines, thermodynamic
cycles behind their operation, as well as their components.
5.1. Capstone C 30
The Capstone C 30 turbine is the only microturbine produced to accept liquid fuel as its source of
fuel; in this case it is diesel fuel. This type of microturbine primarily acts as a range extender for
automobile applications. Here it will act as a range extender for the heavy duty truck with motor,
battery pack and possibly a rectifier.

Figure 5.1: Illustrates the general schematic showing the annotated main features of the Capstone C
30 turbine (Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2002).
As clearly shown in figure 5.1, the Capstone C 30 turbine is single shafted with only one stage of
compressor and turbine attached on both sides of the shaft. The Capstone C 30 turbine schematic as
shown in figure 5.1, is shown as a single spool (shaft) thermodynamic cycle, of which the main
components of this cycle are:

26

1. Compressor
2. Combustion chamber
3. Turbine
4. Recuperator
5. Generator

Figure 5.2: Demonstrates the main cycle of this type of gas turbine which also includes a rectifier and
an inverter (Environmental Protection Agency USA et al, 2008).
As well as having a generator which delivers output induced AC current at high rotational speed
typically 96000 rpm, it is preferable that this current should be rectified and inverted into DC current
format. This type of current is particularly useful for battery packs that deliver DC voltage to the
motor which is then used to drive the axles of the vehicle.
Eventhough this microturbine is recuperated, it shall be represented as a range extender for hybrid
heavy duty truck with diesel fuel. The generator shown in figure 5.1 is connected to the end of the
compressor, which means that the turbine which is connected on the other end of the shaft drives
both the compressor and the generator as a whole. The first process is that air is compressed then is
passed through to the combustion chamber. After the product gases are expanded, some of the heat
is recycled via the recuperator to reheat the compressed air.

27

Parameter

Captone C 30

Net Power Output

29 kW

Net Efficiency

25 2%

Nominal Net Heat Rate

14,4000 kJ/kWh

Table 1: Shows the main output parameters of the Capstone C 30 while using liquid fuel (Capstone
Turbine Corporation, 2010).
Eventhough the Capstone C30 is recuperated, the output parameter values shown in table 1 indicate
that the powertrain is not thermally efficient. Still these values shall be deduced through the
GasTurb programme. Using this software, parametric studies are done in order to find the simulated
thermal efficiency which approximately matches with the real net thermal efficiency of the gas
turbine shown in table 1.

Figure 5.3: Shows a plot of net electrical efficiency against the ambient temperature of the air
entering the compressor (Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2010).
28

Figure 5.3 clearly denotes that when the ambient temperature increases the efficiency of the
Capstone C30 turbine decreases. Generally its performance is affected by the intake air density. At
full load, the optimum conditions for maximum efficiency and power output are when the air
temperature is 15 degrees Celsius (59 degrees Fahrenheit), air pressure is 1.013 bar and when the
relative humidity is low. These conditions are known as ISO (International Organisation of
Standardisation) conditions. Performance degradation may occur due to rise in temperature, or
exceeding any other values of the ISO conditions stated. To determine whether the degradation of
the Capstone C 30 turbine is true, the ambient temperature shall be varied. This is done to confirm
that degradation in performance is due to change in ambient temperature while undergoing
GasTurb simulations.
PARAMETER

GRID CONNECT

STAND ALONE

Nominal Voltage Operating


Range

400 to 480 VAC

400 to 480 VAC

Output Voltage
Connection

50/60 HZ

50/60 HZ

Output Current

3-phase 3 or 4 wire
Wye (grid must be
neutral grounded

3-phase 3 or 4 wire
Wye (neutral must be
solidly grounded)

Output Current

46 Amps RMS maximum


steady state

46 Amps RMS
maximum steady state

Table 2: Shows a table of electrical performance ratings operating at ISO conditions. These electrical
performance parameters are categorised into two types: Stand alone and Grid (Capstone Turbine
Corporation, 2010).
Table 2 illustrates the output electrical parameters of which the generator is delivering at high
rotational speed either at stand alone or by grid connect. The values shown in this table are due to
Alternating Current generated by the motor so rectification and inversion of the current must be
done in order for the battery to operate at Direct Current conditions. This type of gas turbine
produced by Capstone turbines can only act as a range extender for hybrid automobiles; in this case
a heavy duty truck. This is because it has a generator so it cannot act as sole powertrain for gas
turbine powered vehicles. Finally the dimension is 1.79 by 0.76 by 1.52m which is huge for a micro
turbine. Taking the size into account, it is permissible to classify this as gas turbine and not a micro
turbine for range extender applications.

29

5.2. ICR TEC 350


The second gas turbine being tested is the ICR TEC 350 microturbine. This microturbine is multispooled (multi-shafted) and is Intercooled and recuperated, designed especially for heavy duty
trucks (D.W. Dewis, 2012). This microturbine was produced and designed by ICR TEC, an American
company which specialises in manufacturing gas turbine engines in order to rival the traditional
diesel internal combustion engine. This is because diesel engines are lower in fuel consumption and
higher in thermal efficiency than the current microturbines on the market such as Capstone for
example (D.W. Dewis, 2012).

Figure 5.4: Portrays a schematic of engine layout for the ICR Tec 350 micro turbine, showing points of
air intake and exhaustion of the product gases. It also points out where the intercooling and the
recuperating processes take place (F. Trotter et al, 2013).
From figure 5.4 it can be observed that there are several components which are assembled to create
this powertrain, consisting of:

30

1. Intake
2. Low pressure (LP) turbocharger
3. Intercooler
4. High pressure (HP) turbo charger
5. Recuperator and combustor connected as one unit
6. Free power turbine (FPT)
7. Power take-off
The low and high pressure turbochargers are designed as one shaft. Each shaft contains a
compressor and a turbine of the same pressure ratio. The difference being, one shaft has a higher
pressure than the other shaft so the total pressure ratio of the whole cycle is basically a
multiplication of both the low and high pressure ratios. The power take-off is attached to another
shaft. This shaft consists of a free turbine attached to a variable geometry nozzle which is used for
offsetting part load issues of the microturbine, such that the efficiency at part load should be
improved. Also, the material used to manufacture the compressor and turbine on the high pressure
shaft is wholly ceramics. The whole microturbine was constructed to operate in low stress regimes
such that the powertrains reliability can be improved.

Figure 5.5: Demonstrates the thermodynamic cycle with components of ICR 350, along with images
of the turbocharger, the power turbine, the recuperator and the combustor (F. Trotter et al, 2013).

31

From figure 5.5, it can be established that the main thermodynamic cycle behind the operation of
the ICR Tec 350 is the intercooled recuperated cycle. The reason being, compressed air has been
initially intercooled then compressed again for the second time before being recuperated. Three
shafts are used in this operation, consisting of: 1) Low pressure turbocharger, 2) High pressure
turbocharger and 3) Power-turbine shaft.
The Power turbine shaft as shown in figure 5.5 can be attached to a generator or a gearbox. For this
project ICR Tec 350 will be represented as a microturbine, a sole powertrain for a heavy duty truck.
Henceforth, a gearbox needs to be attached to the power-turbine shaft.

Figure 5.6: Illustrates the location of the Combustor within the Recuperator (D.W. Dewis, 2012)
The combustor which is coiled up by the recuperator is known as the silo combustor. This type of
combustor has been designed by applying established formulae and practices incorporated in
modern microturbine technology. This combustor design ensures hot recuperated air undergoes a
lean combustion with the fuel injected. The images of the combustor and the recuperator in figure
5.6 show that combustor can be threaded through the holes of the recuperator, replicating the
position of the combustor shown figure 5.6.

Figure 5.7: Demonstrates the comparison of size and volume of a diesel engine and the ICR Tec 350
(D.W. Dewis, 2012).
32

The thermodynamic pressure ratio of the ICR Tec 350 is operated at 15:1, governed by the
incorporation of the three spools (shafts). It is unusual for microturbines to have such a high
pressure ratio as the typical gas turbine is manufactured to operate at a cycle pressure ratio of 4:1.
But by increasing the pressure ratio to 15:1, the volume of the system can be decreased, which could
lead to lower costs (D.W. Dewis, 2012). The reduction in volume can be illustrated by comparing a
typical diesel engine and with this microturbine shown in figure 5.7, resulting in a high power density
for such a small volume.

Figure 5.8: Demonstrates a comparison of efficiencies of the two generations of the ICR Tec 350 and
a typical Modern Diesel engine (F. Trotter, 2013).
From figure 5.8, it is claimed that the ICR Tec 350 microturbine can possess a higher shaft efficiency
than a typical diesel because of its higher pressure ratio and multi-shafting of the powertrain. The
intercooled-recuperated microturbine will undergo several GasTurb simulations. These simulations
will be based upon the effect of varying burner temperature, pressure ratio and inlet air
temperature on the performance of this type of micro turbine. This is to investigate whether the
claims of high efficiency at higher pressure are true or not. Also, the undergoing parametric studies
simulations shall deduce if an intercooler, a recuperater or both of them involved in the three
spooled thermodynamic cycle really provide the optimal performance for the ICR Tec 350.

33

Chapter 6: GasTurb 12 Simulation Results


This section contains the collection of parametric study results, illustrating whether the hypothesis
stated in section 4 and the product specification in section 5 are true or not.
6.1. Capstone C30: Varying Pressure ratios from 4-2 at constant Recuperator Effectiveness of 0.8
Figures 6.1-6.9, demonstrate results collected from parametric studies via GasTurb. These are
collected in order to deduce if the product specification of Capstone C 30 in section 5 are true or not
at pressure ratios 4:1-2:1. Also, to see if the hypothesis related to variation of parameters stated in
section 4 are true are not for a recuperated one spooled cycle at constant heat exchanger
effectiveness.

Figure 6.1: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1.

Figure 6.2: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1.
34

Figure 6.3: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1.

Figure 6.4: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3:1.

35

Figure 6.5: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3:1.

Figure 6.6: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3:1.

36

Figure 6.7: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2:1.

Figure 6.8: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2:1.

37

Figure 6.9: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2:1.
6.2. Capstone C 30: Varying pressure ratio from 4-2 and Burner temperature from 1450-1112.5K
Figures 6.10-6.19, demonstrate results collected from parametric studies via GasTurb. These are
collected in order to deduce if the product specification of Capstone C30 in section 5 are true or not
at pressure ratios 4:1-2:1 and burner temperature 1450-1112.5 K. Also, to see if the hypothesis
related to variation of parameters, particularly the heat exchanger effectiveness stated in section 4
are true are not for a recuperated one spooled cycle.

Figure 6.10: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying heat exchanger (recuperator)
effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1 and burner
temperature of 1450K
38

Figure 6.11: Shows a contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1
and burner temperature of 1450K

Figure 6.12: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1
and burner temperature of 1450K
39

Figure 6.13: Shows a contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3:1
and burner temperature of 1225K

Figure 6.14: Shows a contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3:1
and burner temperature of 1225K
40

Figure 6.15: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 3:1
and burner temperature of 1225K

Figure 6.16: Shows a contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2:1
and burner temperature of 1112.5K
41

Figure 6.17: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2:1
and burner temperature of 1112.5K

Figure 6.18: Shows a contour plot of power Specific fuel Consumption against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 2:1
and burner temperature of 1112.5K
42

6.3. ICR TEC 350: Intercooled cycle varying pressure ratios from 15-9
Figures 6.19-6.24, demonstrate results collected from parametric studies via GasTurb. These are
collected in order to deduce if the product specification of ICR Tec 350 in section 5 are true or not at
pressure ratios 15:1-9:1. Also to see if the hypothesis related to variation of parameters stated in
section 4 are true are not for an intercooled three spooled cycle.

Figure 6.19: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1 of an
intercooled cycle.

Figure 6.20: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1 of
an intercooled cycle.
43

Figure 6.21: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 12:1 of an
intercooled cycle.

Figure 6.22: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 12:1 of
an intercooled cycle.
44

Figure 6.23: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9:1 of an
intercooled cycle.

Figure 6.24: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9:1 of
an intercooled cycle.

45

6.4. ICR Tec 350: Recuperated Cycle varying pressure ratios from 15-9
Figures 6.25-6.28, demonstrate results collected from parametric studies via GasTurb and from
Microsoft excel via cycle design point. These are collected in order to deduce if the product
specification of ICR Tec 350 in section 5 are true or not at pressure ratios 15:1-9:1. Also to see if the
hypothesis related to variation of parameters stated in section 4 are true are not for a recuperated
three spooled cycle.
Thermal Eff. @
288.15 K
Thermal Eff. @
303.15 K
Thermal Eff. @
318.15 K
Thermal Eff. @
333.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 288.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 303.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 303.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 333.15 K

Thermal Eff.

0.45

Power Sp. Fuel Cons. (kg/kWh)

Thermal Efficiency and power specific fuel consumption against Burner exit
temperature at different inlet air temperatures (T1) at a constant pressure ratio
of 15:1
0.35
0.3
0.4

0.25
0.2

0.35

0.15
0.1

0.3

0.05
0.25
1100

1200

1300
1400
Burner exit temperature (K)

0
1500

Figure 6.25: Shows a graphical plot of thermal efficiency and power specific fuel consumption against
varying combustor burner exit temperature at different inlet air temperatures (T1) tested at a
constant pressure ratio of 15:1 of a recuperated cycle.

0.3
Thermal Eff.

0.4

0.25
0.2

0.35

0.15
0.1

0.3

0.05
0.25
1100

1200

1300
1400
Burner exit temperature (K)

0
1500

Power Sp. Fuel Cons. (kg/kWh)

Thermal Efficiency and power specific fuel consumption against Burner exit
temperature at different inlet air temperatures (T1)at a constant pressure ratio of
12:1
0.45
0.35

Thermal Eff. @
288.15 K
Thermal Eff. @
303.15 K
Thermal Eff. @
318.15 K
Thermal Eff. @
333.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 288.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 303.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 318.15 K
Power Sp. Fuel
Cons @ 333.15 K

Figure 6.26: Shows a graphical plot of thermal efficiency and power specific fuel consumption against
varying combustor burner exit temperature at different inlet air temperatures (T1) tested at a
constant pressure ratio of 12:1 of a recuperated cycle.
46

Figure 6.27: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9:1 of a
recuperated cycle.

Figure 6.28: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9:1 of a
recuperated cycle.
6.5. ICR TEC 350: Intercooled-recuperated cycle varying pressure ratios from 15-9
Figures 6.29-6.34, demonstrate results collected from parametric studies via GasTurb. These are
collected in order to deduce if the product specification of ICR Tec 350 in section 5 are true or not at

47

pressure ratios 15:1-9:1. Also, to see if the hypothesis related to variation of parameters stated in
section 4 are true are not for a intercooled recuperated three spooled cycle at constant heat
exchanger effectiveness.

Figure 6.29: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.

Figure 6.30: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1 of
an intercooled-recuperated cycle.
48

Figure 6.31: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 12:1 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.

Figure 6.32: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor
burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 12:1 of
an intercooled-recuperated cycle.
49

Figure 33: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying combustor burner exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9:1 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.

Figure 34: Shows a contour plot of power specific fuel consumption against varying combustor burner
exit temperature at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 9:1 of an
intercooled-recuperated cycle.
6.6. ICR Tec 350: Varying recupertor effectiveness at optimal conditions for Intercooledrecuperated Cycle
Figures 6.35-6.36, demonstrate results collected from parametric studies via GasTurb. These are
collected in order to deduce if the product specification of ICR Tec 350 in section 5 are true or not at

50

pressure ratio 15:1 and burner temperature 1450K. Also, to see if the hypothesis related to variation
of parameters particularly the increase in heat exchanger effectiveness stated in section 4 are true
or not for an intercooled recuperated three spooled cycle.

Figure 35: Shows a contour plot of thermal efficiency against varying heat exchanger (recuperator)
effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1 and burner
temperature of 1447K.

Figure 36: Shows a contour plot of exhaust temperature against varying heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness at different inlet temperatures tested at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1
and burner temperature of 1447K

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Chapter 7: Discussion of Results, Comparison and Selection


7.1. Issues of GasTurb 12 Software
Eventhough the GasTurb 12 software itself has many advantages such as its user friendliness and its
ability to generate numerical results at a fast pace, it does have some disadvantages. For example,
when generating a contour plot of a recuperated three spooled cycle, a complete contour plot was
not delivered at pressure ratios of 15 and 12:1. What it did create is a torn section of the plot
instead. This shows even if the ICR Tec 350 is not intercooled but just recuperated on its own, the
complete contour plot cannot be shown, as the software itself cannot deduce the solutions to this
thermodynamic numerical problem at high pressure ratios. In order to compensate this, two excel
graphical plots were carried out in an attempt to mimic the format of a contour plot for a parametric
study.
7.2. Discussion of Results: One spool recuperated cycle with constant heat exchanger
(recuperator) effectiveness of 0.8
The contour plots shown in figures 6.1-6.9, illustrate the simulations carried out setting the heat
exchanger effectiveness at a constant value of 0.8. The contour plot shown in figure 6.1 shows a
relationship between a change in thermal efficiency and a change in burner (combustor) exit
temperature at different inlet temperatures set at a constant pressure ratio of 4:1. Generally, as the
burner exit temperature increases to 1450 K the thermal efficiency of the one spool cycle shall
increase to 39%. This is because the temperature difference during this expansion process is so large
that the magnitude of isentropic enthalpy change, results in the Power output of the turbine being
of a high value. Henceforth, the rise in power produced by the system in relation to heat inputted
into the system, results in high thermal efficiency. However, if the inlet air temperature which is
represented as total temperature T1 changes from 288-333.15K the thermal efficiency of this cycle
itself tends to decrease directly to 35%. This drop in efficiency is due to the compressor overworking
to overcome the high temperature of the air thus introducing mechanical losses into system.
Overworking of the compressor leads to higher power input degrading the net power output as a
whole, which directly decreases the thermal efficiency of the system.
The contour plot shown in figure 6.2 signifies the variation of power specific fuel consumption with
change in burner exit temperature at different inlet temperatures set at a constant pressure ratio
4:1. Increasing burner exit temperature to 1450 K leads to lower power specific fuel consumption
value of 0.214 kg/kWh for the one spool cycle. This reduction in power specific fuel consumption is
again due to isentropic temperature difference across the turbine leading to high power output.

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This leads to a low amount of fuel being consumed per high net power output, improving the
systems fuel economy. Increasing the total temperature t1 to 333.15 K introduces compressor
mechanical losses in the system due to the compressor overworking to compress hot air from the
atmosphere. As a result, high amounts of fuel are consumed per net power output, increasing the
fuel consumption and hence degrading the fuel economy of the system.
The contour plot shown in figure 6.3 shows a relationship between the exhaust temperature of the
product gases with regards to change in burner exit temperature. Raising the burner exit
temperature to 1450 K increases the exhaust temperature to 610 K of the product gases. This
increase in exhaust temperature is due to the fact that the burner temperature is raised at a higher
value. At high burner exit temperatures, the temperature difference increases as well as the exhaust
temperature, but not to a high extent as the remainder of the heat in the exhaust is reused for
recuperation of the compressed air. The only way to produce a huge increase in exhaust
temperature is to increase the inlet temperature of the air, as shown in figure 6.3. This
demonstrates that, total temperature T1 value of 333.15 K does in fact result in a higher exhaust
temperature of 660 K. This is because the hot air which was compressed requires a lower
temperature rise from recuperation, such that the exhaust temperature drop shall be decreased.
Henceforth, the amount of exhaust temperature will be higher than it was when the total
temperature T1 was inputted at 288.15 K. total
The three types of contour plots are repeated twice for pressure ratio of 3:1 and 2:1. The reduction
in pressure ratio is illustrated through the figures 6.4-6.9 in terms of thermal efficiency, power
specific fuel consumption and exhaust temperature. The patterns of data shown in these figures are
very similar indeed indicating that the drop in pressure ratio is independent of the pattern of data
shown in these plots. However, the drop in pressure ratio to 2:1 actually reduces the thermal
efficiency to 26.25%, increases the power specific fuel consumption to 0.318 kg/kWh and shifts the
exhaust temperatures down to 582 K, regardless of variation in burner temperature and inlet
temperature of air. This is due to the pressure ratio dictating the amount of pressure difference
while undergoing the isentropic rate of work processes for this cycle. By varying the pressure ratio
the temperature difference will directly change, leading to a variation in the enthalpy change of the
system. By Reducing the pressure ratio the enthalpy change for all rates of work processes shall also
be reduced. This directly decreases the magnitude of the net power produced by the system, and
the efficiency of the system as a whole. Since the drop in pressure results in less power generated by
the system, the power specific fuel consumption of the system will increase, plummeting its value of
fuel economy, for this type gas turbine. With regards to exhaust temperature, the recuperator will
have to provide a huge effort in heating up the compressed air of temperature than at a cycle
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pressure of 4:1. It extracts more heat from the exhaust gases and transfers it to the compressed air.
The amount of effort provided introduces additional losses that will contribute to the reduction in
efficiency. But the resulting exhaust gas temperature will be cooler than it was when the cycle was
operating at 4:1.
7.3. Discussion of Results: One spool recuperated cycle with varying heat exchanger (recuperator)
effectiveness
The contour plots shown in figures 6.10-6.18 indicate the variation in thermal efficiency, power
specific fuel consumption and exhaust temperature against heat exchanger (recuperator) effectives
at different inlet temperatures. The simulations were done by varying the pressure from 4-2:1, the
burner temperature was also varied from values of 1450-1112.5K. As illustrated in figure 6.10 the
thermal efficiency of the system shall increase to 39 % with an increase in heat exchanger
effectiveness to 0.8 at burner temperature of 1450K and pressure ratio 4:1. The significance of this
efficiency is influenced by the fact that the recuperator ability to transfer heat from the hot exhaust
gases was at its optimum, allowing the compressed air to be pre-heated before entering the
combustor. Since the air is already hot, a smaller amount of fuel is required to undergo a
combustion process resulting in a lower magnitude of heat transfer into the system. Henceforth, the
heating requirement into the system is lowered, resulting in an improved efficiency. On the
contrary, when the total temperature T1 increases to 333.15 K the thermal efficiency of the cycle
decreases to 35%. When the air is hot the compressor will have great difficulty in compressing the
gas, introducing frictional losses into the system as well as increasing levels of thermal stress applied
on the compressor surface. These losses contribute to the reduction of the cycles net power output
entailing in a degradation in thermal efficiency.
The recuperators ability to extract heat form the exhaust gases allows the compressed air to be preheated before the combustion phase. The fact that small amounts of fuel are utilised in the
combustion process within the gas turbine system itself, requires a small amount of heat added to
the system. This therefore indicates that the power specific fuel consumption of this system is as low
as 0.214 kg/kWh demonstrating high fuel economy, as clearly portrayed in figure 6.11 with the same
settings applied in figure 6.10. The value of heat exchanger effectiveness at 0.8 leads to a decreased
magnitude in power specific fuel consumption. What is coincidental is the fact that thermal
efficiency and the power specific fuel consumption contour data pattern are very much mirror-like.
This also shows that when the system has achieved a high value of thermal efficiency, the power
specific fuel consumption will definitely decrease indicating high values of gas turbine performance.
The increase in total temperature T1 of air entering the compressor at 333.15 K results in more fuel

54

being consumed leading to higher power specific fuel consumption value of 0.236 kg/kWh as shown
in figure 6.11. The emergence of hot air in this thermodynamic process introduces mechanical losses
in the system due to the compressor overworking to compress hot air from the atmosphere. As a
result, high amounts of fuel are consumed per net power output, increasing the fuel consumption
which therefore degrades the value of fuel economy of the system.
The contour plot shown in figure 6.12 shows a relationship between the exhaust temperature of the
product gases with regards to change in heat exchange effectiveness. Increasing heat exchanger
effectiveness to 0.8 decreases the exhaust temperature of the product gases to 610 K. This drop in
exhaust temperature of the product gases was a result of high amount of heat transfer from these
gases in the recuperation process which is used to pre-heat the compressed air. So consequently
the exhaust temperature has become cooler than it was when the heat exchange effectiveness was
at a very low value or without any recuperation at all. On the other hand, an increase in total
temperature T1 from 288.15 to 333.15K actually influences a raise in the exhaust temperature of the
product gases to 662K. After the compression process of the hot air, the mechanical losses such as
friction, raises the temperature of the compressed air. Even if this recuperation process is
undergone with a high value of heat exchanger effectiveness, the air will be too hot to be utilised. So
recuperation process will still be able to extract heat but the exhaust gases will be hotter than it was
when the inlet air temperature was 288.15K.
The next six contour plots show the variation of thermal efficiency, power specific fuel consumption
and exhaust temperature at different inlet temperatures. Here the two pressure ratios and burner
temperature set for each of the three simulations are: 3:1, 2:1, 1225K, 1112.5K. The patterns of data
shown in these figures are very similar indeed indicating that the drop in pressure ratio as well as
burner temperature is independent of the pattern of data shown in these plots. Yet however, the
drop in pressure ratio and burner exit temperature actually reduces the thermal efficiency to 22.5%,
increases the power specific fuel consumption to 0.37kg/kWh and decreases the exhausts
temperature to 502.5K. The decrease in pressure ratio entails a reduction in temperature change
across the isentropic rate of work processes. This therefore results in low values of enthalpy change
for net power output. This reduction in net power output, leads to a huge reduction in thermal
efficiency as the top numerator is significantly lower than that of the bottom denominator. In terms
of fuel consumption, the amount of fuel incorporated in the combustion process will be the same
but the consumption of fuel per net power generated by the system will plummet due to lower
values of net power output by the system. Consequently, the fuel consumption will be increased and
the fuel economy will therefore decrease. The decrease in exhaust temperature is due to the fact
that the exhaust temperature was already cooler than it was when the pressure ratio and the burner
55

exit temperature was 4:1 and 1450K. This reduction in temperature leads to further cooling of the
exhaust temperature as recuperation process is already undergone. After Recuperation, the
resulting exhaust temperature will be significantly cooler. Had this cycle not been recuperated, the
efficiency would be immensely lower, the fuel consumption would be higher as well as the exhaust
temperature. This demonstrates the vitality of including a recuperator in this type of cycle in order
to keep the performance parameters in check.
7.4. Discussion of Results: Three spool intercooled cycle
The contour plots shown in figures 6.19-6.24 demonstrate the results of the simulations carried out
for a three spool intercooled cycle. The plot shown in figure 6.19 shows a relationship between a
change in thermal efficiency and a change in burner (combustor) exit temperature at different inlet
temperatures set at a constant pressure ratio of 15:1. This plot indicates that as the burner exit
temperature increases to 1447 K the thermal efficiency for this type of cycle increases to 37%. Yet
again, by raising the burner temperature, the entry temperature of the high pressure turbine will be
high enough for the isentropic enthalpy change to be of a high magnitude. With additional cooling in
between the compressor stages, the air temperature will be cooler than it was after being
compressed. The entry temperature of the second compression process will low so that the overall
compressor power input will be less than it was without being intercooled. As a result, the net
power output will be more than it was without the intercooling process being carried out, hence the
work ratio will increase. This increase in net power output is caused by intercooling and raising the
burner exit temperature for this type of cycle will definitely increase the cycle thermal efficiency as
shown in figure 6.19. Increasing total temperature T1 to 333.15 K reduces the efficiency to 35.5% as
shown in this contour plot. This is due to the fact that as the air temperature rises the air mass
density of the air entering the low pressure compressor will reduce. The reduction in air mass
density leads to lower work output. This is due to the heavy workload of compressor which leads to
various mechanical losses like friction in the system. The friction is usually dissipated as heat, adding
more heat to the system; leading to a huge reduction in thermal efficiency.
Figure 6.20 shows the variation of burner temperature at different inlet temperatures with regards
to a variation in power specific fuel consumption. The data pattern shows that as the burner
temperature increases to 1447 K the power specific fuel consumption decreases to 0.228 kg/kWh.
This is because the intercooling process allows the work input of the first turbine to decrease. This
allows the total net power input to be reduced so that the net power output will increase
significantly than it would without intercooling at all. Along with raising burner temperature, the net
power output will be increased even more, so that the amount of fuel burnt for the combustion

56

process per net power output shall decrease. This reduces the power specific fuel consumption as
well as improving the systems fuel economy as well. The gain in power specific fuel consumption is
mainly due to a rise in the total temperature T1 of the air to 333.15 K. This gain in fuel consumption
is influenced by the loss in net power output due to mechanical losses dissipating as heat. At high
temperatures, the air mass density is highly reduced, due to the expansion of the hot air before
entering into the stage compressor. This hot expanded air provides great difficulty for the
compressor such that the performance of the compressor is reduced resulting in a far hotter air to
be intercooled than before. Henceforth, the isentropic enthalpy change for net power output will
decrease, increasing the fuel consumption of the system and reducing the systems fuel economy.
The next four contour plots show the variation of thermal efficiency and power specific fuel
consumption at pressure ratios of 12:1 and 9:1 against burner temperature at different inlet
temperatures. A reduction in pressure does not affect the simulation results as the data pattern
maintains its shape. But the thermal efficiency reduces to 31.5% and power specific fuel
consumption increases to 0.27 kg/kWh, as is shown in figures 6.21-6.24. The reduction in pressure
ratio does have an effect on the reduction in thermal efficiency. As the isentropic enthalpy reduces,
temperature differences during compression and expansion processes also reduce. This behaviour is
found within the high pressure turbocharger shaft. This shaft is vital in dictating the net power
output of the whole cycle. If the pressure ratio of this shaft decreases then the resulting net power
output done by the system will plummet, leading to a degradation in the cycles thermal efficiency. A
clear reduction in the net power output will also entail an increase in power specific fuel
consumption, as the amount of fuel consumed per net power output will be of higher value than it
was when the pressure was 15:1.
The combustion process carried out ensures that the heat supplied to this cycle will always be
greater than that with no intercooling involved. This is because the temperature of the compressed
air exiting the high pressure compressor is lower than it was with no intercooling. This suggests that
the heating done during the combustion allows more fuel to be consumed during this process.
Henceforth, the power specific fuel consumption will be of a high magnitude. Although the net
power output is increased by intercooling, (as can be observed by the simulation results in figures
6.19-6.24) the increase in heat to be supplied during the combustion process causes the cycle
thermal efficiency to decrease which is a huge disadvantage indeed. This thermal efficiency
reduction is even worse when the pressure ratio reduction of this type of cycle reduces, along with a
massive rise in power specific fuel consumption. In terms of automobile application, this type of
microturbine will fail in efficiency and fuel consumption against a typical diesel powered heavy duty

57

truck. The only way the three-spooled microturbine can challenge the diesel engine is to either
include recuperation or have intercooling with recuperation of the cycle.
7.5. Discussion of Results: Three spool recuperated cycle and intercooled-recuperated cycle in
comparison with the intercooled cycle
One of the ways in which the three-spooled microturbine can even challenge the diesel engine for a
heavy duty truck application is to include recuperation. The recuperated three-spooled cycle plots
are shown in figures 6.25-6.28. Figures 6.25-6.26 are the only graphical plots generated through
Microsoft excel programme because the GasTurb programme failed to produce the full contour plots
required while simulating results.
The first four lines represent thermal efficiency of the cycle at ranging inlet temperatures from
288.15-333.15 K, whereas the last four lines represent the power specific fuel consumption at
temperatures ranging inlet temperatures (total temperature T1) from 288.15-333.15 K. The
graphical plot shown in figure 6.25, shows that the first four lines are heading upwards on the graph
indicating that increasing burner temperature to 1447 K raises the resultant thermal efficiency. The
first blue line heading upwards, shows an efficiency of 42.5% at 1447 K when the air temperature is
288.15 K. This is simply due to the recuperation process carried out transferring the heat to the
compressed air after the second stage of compression. Also, the increase in burner exit temperature
creates a huge margin in isentropic enthalpy change while undergoing high pressure expansion. This
expansion causes an increased net power output with an improved efficiency; which consequently
leads to a lower power specific fuel consumption. The recorded value of 0.2 kg/kWh represented by
the second blue line is the lowest fuel consumption, heading downwards towards its lowest point on
the graph along with the other three lines. A huge margin in isentropic enthalpy leads to lower fuel
being consumed per net power output. So hence the fuel consumption is low. But increasing the
total temperature T1 to 333.15 K reduces the efficiency to 36% and increases the fuel consumption
of this cycle to 0.245 kg/kWh. This is mainly due to the difficulty arising during the compression of
hot air, which then leads on to mechanical losses. These losses contribute to the reduction in
thermal efficiency and a raise in power specific fuel consumption.
While reducing the pressure from 15:1 to 9:1 the pattern is unchanged. The reduction in pressure
ratio actually raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle to 44% and reduces the power specific fuel
consumption to 0.19 kg/kWh. This is because at higher pressure ratios the air which is compressed
through the second stage compressors requires little recuperation whereas at lower pressure ratio
greater recuperation is necessary. Therefore, at lower pressure ratios the efficiency and the fuel
economy is at its optimum for this type of microturbine. Having a recuperator for cycles of higher
58

pressure ratio just makes the design more bulky and heavier reducing its power to weight ratio,
which explains the reduction in the cycle efficiency and an increase in fuel consumption. However,
the values of efficiencies are above 40% by a slight percentage which is a huge improvement in
comparison to the three spooled intercooled cycle. This shows that this type of microturbine is still
capable of hitting 40% plus thermal efficiency providing a competitive opposition to the diesel
engine.
Lastly the contour plots shown in figures 6.29-6.34 demonstrate a three spooled intercooledrecuperated cycle carried out at pressure ratios ranging from 15:1-9:1. The increase in burner
temperature to 1447K does actually result in a huge increase in thermal efficiency, substantially
more than the three spooled intercooled or recuperated cycle, reaching thermal efficiencies as high
as 48% as clearly shown in figure 6.29. This drastic rise in thermal efficiency is mainly due the
incorporation of intercooling and recuperation in this cycle. Firstly, the intercooling process is
undergone by cooling the air which was compressed by the first stage compressor. This therefore
ensures that the net power input by the compression is reduced, thereby increasing the net power
output of the whole cycle as a whole. Also, at high burner temperatures, the temperature difference
of the isentropic expansion of the high pressure turbine is of a high magnitude. This high
temperature margin ensures high magnitude in net power output as a whole. As stated before,
intercooling alone does not guarantee high efficiency because the heat supplied by the combustion
is more than it was without intercooling, leading to a drop in efficiency. But this disadvantage is
neutralised when the recuperating process is undergone. The air compressed by the second stage
compressor is preheated, reducing the amount of fuel required for the combustion process. The
intercooling and recuperation contribute to the dramatic rise in thermal efficiency. Since the
intercooling ensures the net power output increases, the amount of fuel consumed per net power
output reduces, as can be seen in figure 6.30, with a value of 0.175 kg/kWh, which is the lowest
power specific fuel consumption ever recorded. However, the introduction in mechanical losses such
as friction dissipated as heat, reduces the thermal efficiency and raises the power specific fuel
consumption as a consequence of increasing total temperature T1 to 333.15 K. But this can be
ignored as only 2% efficiency is dropped when 0.01 kg/kWh is consumed which are very low
numbers indeed.
The contour plots shown in figures 6.31-6.34 represent the intercooled-recuperated three-spooled
cycle for pressure ratio of 12:1 and 9:1 and as always the data patterns remain unchanged.
Eventhough there is a reduction in efficiency and a raise in power specific fuel consumption, the
difference is minute because approximately only 2% of thermal efficiency is reduced and
0.025kg/kWh of fuel consumption is increased. Also, the maximum efficiency and the lowest fuel
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consumption at a pressure ratio of 12:1 is slightly smaller than it was when the simulations were
undergone at a pressure ratio of 15:1. This shows that even if the pressure ratio reduces, the
efficiencies and the power specific fuel consumption are still acceptable because they exceed the
diesels thermal efficiency by more than 5% and the fuel consumption is less than 0.2 kg/kWh.
The final two contour plots shown in figures 6.35 and 6.36 show the variation in thermal efficiency
and power specific fuel consumption with regards to variation in heat exchanger effectiveness at
different inlet temperatures. The parameters set were optimised via setting the cycle pressure to
15:1 and a burner temperature of 1447 K. As the heat exchanger effectiveness increases to 0.845 the
result in the thermal efficiency increases to 49.3%, as shown in figure 6.35. The rise in heat
exchanger effectiveness also results in power specific fuel consumption being decreased to 0.171
kg/kWh hence improving the systems fuel economy. The function of the recuperator (heat
exchanger) is to transfer heat from the exhaust gases to the compressed air right before the
combustion process. This preheating actually raises the temperature of the air such that the
temperature difference after the combustion is decreased. This therefore allows a smaller quantity
of fuel to be consumed which decreases the fuel consumption of the system. But most importantly
the efficiency of the system will be raised. As observed in all the plots discussed, increasing the inlet
temperature definitely degrades the thermal efficiency down to 47.2% and increases the power
specific fuel consumption to 0.179 kg/kWh. Mechanical losses are shown as a result of compressing
hot, low density air, which dissipates as heat. This therefore degrades the thermal efficiency of any
cycle simulated while using the GasTurb Programme. Also these mechanical losses force more fuel
to be consumed in order to compensate the losses generated through the compression process, so
hence increasing the fuel consumption of the system.
7.6. Discussion of results: Matching up results with the specifications of Tested Gas Turbines
The collected results in section 6 were shown in order to determine whether the thermodynamic
parameters listed in the gas turbine product specification are true or not. The parameters studied
are efficiency, exhaust temperature and fuel consumption. The first gas turbine tested was Capstone
C 30. The results proved that efficiency of the specified gas turbine can reach approximately 30% as
shown on the contour plots in figures 6.1-6.18. However, this can only be achieved if the burner
temperatures are ranged from 1200-1300K with a pressure ratio of approximately 3:1. The Capstone
C 30 product states that the nominal exhaust temperature is 275 degrees Celsius so the allowable
exhaust temperature range is 540-560K. The materials used to manufacture the Capstone C 30 were
not listed in the product specification. But, by taking into account the exhaust temperature and the

60

burner exit temperature range, it can be deduced that metal alloys are incorporated into the
manufacture of compressor and turbine for a single shaft application.
On the other hand, the materials used to manufacture the ICR Tec 350 turbine have been specified.
The ceramic materials are utilised for the production of the small high pressure turbocharger
components, especially the turbine. The benefit of this material is that it can bear temperatures
beyond 1450K. The incorporation of the ceramic materials allows the high temperature product
gases to flow over the high pressure turbine, leading to efficiency beyond 48%. The value of 48% is
very close to the specified value of 47% (F. Trotter, 2013). Therefore these GasTurb simulation
results confirm that the specified thermal efficiency of the tested gas turbines written in the product
specification is actually correct. Also, the fact that more than one shaft is used in the design of the
ICR Tec 350, means the power output shall be higher, resulting in much improved thermal efficiency.
(R. McKay et al, 2005). The design of the three spooled cycle includes a variable geometry nozzle
within the free turbine itself. The inclusion of the variable geometry nozzle allows the efficiency to
be maintained at 40% with low fuel consumption at part loading conditions. Had the Capstone C 30
included a free variable geometry nozzle, the performance parameters would not be degraded at
part load.
7.7. Comparison and Selection
The Capstone C 30 and the ICR Tec 350 product specifications were used as a benchmark to see if
the GasTurb simulation results actually match. Overall, the simulation results do confirm the
production specifications to be true. By examining the results in this section it can be deduced that
the ICR Tec 350 (intercooled-recuperated) microturbine is far more superior in terms of thermal
efficiency and fuel consumption. This type of microturbine operates at a much higher pressure ratio
of 15:1 resulting in a higher work output than the single shaft gas turbine. Because intercooling and
recuperation are utilised in this cycle, the efficiency is raised to 48%. The ceramic components used
in the production of the high pressure turbocharger components allow hot gas to easily flow over
the turbine. On the other hand, the Capstone C 30 efficiency has a very low burner temperature,
significantly less than the burner temperature of the ICR Tec 350, as well as limited exhaust
temperature of 275 degrees Celsius.
The Capstone C 30 turbine has dimensions of 1.79 by 0.76 by 1.52m. Eventhough this product is
meant to be represented as a microturbine, the size dimension actually shows that the Capstone C
30 is too big and bulky to be considered as one. The cost of manufacture is $700-$1000 per kW and
2,400 units are sold in less than 3,300,000 hours. This shows that the Capstone is not mass
produced as result of its massive dimensions, resulting in increasing the cost of installation and
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maintenance (Environmental Protection Agency USA et al, 2008). On the contrary, the size of the ICR
Tec 350 is much less than a typical diesel engine (D.W. Dewis, 2012). This reduction in size is due to
the fact that a high pressure ratio of 15:1 was specified for operation. The benefit of having a small
size for higher pressure ratio is that it actually reduces the specific cost for manufacture. The
reduction in volume and therefore size, leads to a more power dense microturbine. Such small
products like the ICT Tec 350 lead to 250,000 units to be mass produced hence reducing the cost of
manufacture as a whole and saving $12,000-$30,000 for every truck per year (F. Trotter, 2012). As a
result, this saves a substantial amount in maintenance costs. So in terms of manufacture economics
the ICR Tec 350 is superior.
The diesel engines in the 21st century have been restricted by emission legislations in the USA and in
Europe. The modern diesel engine has undergone a major transition from being the simple diesel
engine to being highly complex in in-cylinder refinement and exhaust after treatment. This major
technological change causes a drop in efficiency. Not only that, the modernisation in technology
results in: the reliability of the powertrain to be degraded, increase the engine cost and most
importantly, the measure of improving efficiency by reducing weight is a hard task ahead (D.W.
Dewis, 2012). These problems of the diesel engine have created space for the ICR Tec 350 to be the
emerging powertrain for the future because of its lightweight design, increased efficiency and cheap
manufacturing processes.
The Capstone C 30 has a lower efficiency and the fuel consumption is higher than that of a diesel
engine. The efficiency of 30% is far less than 43% and 0.2 kg/kWh (W. Eckerle, 2011) is far less than
0.260 kg/kWh simulated through GasTurb programme. Also, the diesel engine is $200 cheaper per
kW during production than the Capstone C 30 (Environmental Protection Agency USA et al, 2008).
Moreover, the fact that this gas turbine is represented as a recuperated hugely- sized microturbine
for a range extender dismisses the fact that gas turbine range extenders are a better powertrain
than the diesel engine in terms of thermodynamic performance, materials used and the
manufacturing economics.
On the other hand, the ICR Tec 350 excels in thermodynamic performance, as its thermal efficiency
is more than 43% and its fuel consumption is lower than 0.20 kg/kWh, i.e. it is greater than the
diesel engine. Furthermore, the materials used ensure optimisation of various parameters and its
lightweight compact design ensures a reduction in specific costs and maintenance cost as well. Even
though this microturbine is eligible to act as a range extender, the inclusion of a generator with
current inversion system, contribute to the higher total cost of manufacturing this type of range
extender. Also by introducing an inverter, a generator and rectification system, the design will be far

62

more complex as a result. Although this may allow the truck to travel further before re-fuelling than
an ordinary heavy duty diesel truck, the extra load carried will cause fuel consumption to rise.
However, the increase in mass and volume shifts the centre of gravity, leading to uncomfortable
driving conditions.
The Capstone C 30 gas turbine range extender will not be able to beat the diesel engine in any
aspect. However, the ICR Tec 350 has the capacity to beat the diesel engine by a large margin. Had
ICR Tec created an intercooled powertrain, the efficiencies at 15:1 would be below 40%, and if it
designed a recuperated cycle, the engine would just manage to climb over the 40% mark with 15:1
pressure ratio. So a recuperated microturbine on its own will be equal to the diesel engine in terms
of engine performance. However, an intercooled recuperated cycle brings out the best of the
microturbine. Taking all these points into consideration, the three spooled recuperated microturbine
is much better than the single spooled gas turbine ranger extender and on the same level as a diesel
engine. But if only the compressed air is cooled, the three spooled intercooled-recuperated cycle is
more preferred. Also, because a multi-shafting is included in designing the ICR Tec 350, a huge rise in
net work output results. So, for any microturbine to excel in the powertrain industry, there are
certain factors that must be considered during the design stage:
1) Smaller and compact design
2) Optimised shafting
3) An inclusion of an intercooler, recuperator or both
4) Range extender or not
5) Free turbine with variable geometric nozzle
6) Manufacturing economics and the total costs
The fact that ICR Tec has considered all these factors shows that their microturbine should be
considered as an alternative to the diesel engine for heavy duty trucks. Overall, the Capstone C 30
has a lower efficiency than diesel engine and a higher fuel consumption. However the ICR Tec 350
has a higher efficiency and lower fuel consumption than that of the diesel engine. The main
objective was to see whether the recuperated microturbine or a gas turbine range extender can
topple the diesel engine. It has been proved that the recuperated microturbine matched the
efficiency of the diesel engine but the intercooled recuperated microturbine paved the way in terms
of thermodynamic performance, choice of materials and manufacturing economics.

63

Chapter 8: Conclusion and Suggestions for Further Work


8.1. Conclusion
The primary aim was to investigate the current gas turbine and microturbine which are currently on
the market to deduce which of these can outmatch the diesel engine for a heavy duty truck
application. The heavy duty truck is classified as a class 8 vehicle. In order to perform this
investigation, a thermodynamic simulation programming was carried out. The GasTurb software was
selected due its user friendliness and its ability to calculate complex thermodynamic calculations at
an accelerated pace. GasTurb was utilised to perform numerical calculations for complex
thermodynamic cycles. The results of these calculations were used to generate contour plots as part
of parametric study analysis. Before this was carried out, two types of gas turbines were selected:
Capstone C 30 and the ICR Tec 350. It was hypothesised from these product specification that the
Capstone turbine will have an efficiency of approx. 30% and the ICR Tec 350 will have an efficiency of
47%. In order to see if this hypothesis was true, GasTurb was used to perform parametric analysis via
generating contour plots. After collecting these plots and analysing them in great detail, it was
observed that the hypotheses shown in the product specification were true. Typical diesel engine
parameters were collected such as efficiency and fuel consumption as a bench mark for investigating
the gas turbines. The Capstone turbine did have a 30% efficiency but only at a pressure ratio of 3:1
with the burner temperature set to 1200-1300K. The ICR Tec 350 for an intercooled recuperated
cycle did manage to achieve 48% efficiency for high burner temperatures. The ICR Tec 350 was
tested for intercooled, recuperated and intercooled-recuperated cycles. The intercooledrecuperated cycle served best, with its recuperated counterpart having the same performance
parameters as the diesel engine, but the intercooled cycle alone performed miserably.
8.2. Suggestions for Further Work
This project was based upon the utilisation of the GasTurb programme as a tool for carrying out
parametric analysis for different types of gas turbines used as range extender and as a sole
powertrain, for heavy duty diesel truck application. It can be been suggested that further work and
research could be carried out on the basis of investigating the performance, manufacturing and
material selection of the various categories within gas turbines.
1. Perform an analysis based upon gas turbine performance via Ricardo wave/ GasTurb and
transfer the results to MATLAB Simulink to generate a vehicle model after several post data
processes. Once this model is generated, various parameters can be pinpointed at different
stages within the vehicular model and analysed to create several plots (H.Cunha, 2011).

64

2. Carry out computational fluid dynamics studies of the compressor and turbine via
Gambit/Fluent in order to study the behaviour of these components while compression and
expansion has taken place at different boundary conditions. These Boundary conditions
may be air density, temperature, pressure and temperature.
3. Undergo a research in the development in improving the manufacturing methods in the
production of the various types of gas turbines for various applications. Also perform an
analysis for gas turbine components based upon material selection. The parameters
investigated for selecting suitable materials for gas turbine components are thermal stress
and mechanical stress. For range extenders perform electrical component analysis.

65

Reference list
1. Shabbir, A., 2002, The Role of Muslim Mechanical Engineers In Modern Mechanical
Engineering, B-Tech (Mechanical Technology), Faculty of Engineering & Technology,
Dedicate to12th Century Muslim Mechanical Engineer , University of Faisalabad, pgs 1-32.
2. Dewis, D.W., 2012, ICR350-A turbine solution for medium and heavy duty vehicles,
proceedings of the ASME TURBO EXPO 2011, vol 3, pgs. 823 832
3. Nascimento et al, M.A.R., 2011, Micro Gas Turbine Engine: A Review, Intech, Chapter 5,
pgs. 107-143.
4. OConnell, K.P., 1992, Discussion and Model of an Electric/Gas Turbine Power Plant
System for Hybrid Vehicles, SAE Technical Paper No.920729, pgs. 1-13
5. Walker, D., Product development engineer for Jaguar Land Rover, Interview conducted via
Samsung Galaxy S IV mini speaker phone app, mp4, 3.07 MB, 3:23 minutes of time , Brunel
University, 11/11/13.
6. McKay, R., 1993 Hybrid Vehicle Gas Turbine, SAE Technical Paper No.930044, pgs. 1-9
7. McKay, R, 1994, Development of a 24 kW Gas Turbine-Driven Generator Set for Hybrid
Vehicles, SAE Paper Technical No. 940510 pgs. 1-9.
8. Liebenberg, et al, L., 1994, Computer Simulation of Electric, Gas Turbine and Gas Turbine
Hybrid Electric Vehicles, SAE Paper Technical No.941733, pgs.1-15
9. Wilson, D.G., 1997, A New Approach to Low-Cost High-Efficiency Automotive Gas
Turbines, SAE Technical Paper No. 970234, pgs. 1-10.
10. Juhasz, A.J., 1997, Automotive GaS Turbine Power System Performance Analysis Code, SAE
Technical Paper No.970235, pgs. 1-7.
11. Olsson et al, A., 2005, The Volvo Heavy Truck Gas Turbine VT300, SAE Technical Paper No.
2005-01-3504, pgs. 1-19.
12. Gabrielsson, R., 2005, Volvo aero Corporation, Section 1, SAE Slides No. 2005-04-21, slides
1-64
13. Filjalkowski, T.B., 2010, For the Automotive Gas Turbine Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, Institute
for Automotive Vehicles and Combustion Engines, Cracow University of Technology
Krakow Poland, World Electric Vehicle Journal Vol. 4, pgs. 575-587
14. Etcheverria, D., 2012. Gas turbines as range extenders evaluation for low carbon vehicles,
MEng, Imperial College London, pgs. 1-42
15. Cunha, H., 2011. Investigation of the Potential of Gas Turbines for Vehicular Applications.
MSc. Chalmers University of Technology

66

16. Mackay et al, R., 2005, High Efficiency Vehicular Gas Turbines, 2005, SAE Paper Technical
No 2005-01-3461, pgs. 1-9.
17. Omatete, O.O., 2000, Assessment of Recuperator Materials, Metals and Ceramics Division,
Oak ridge national laboratory, Paper Code: ORNL/TM-2000/304, pgs. 1-33.
18. Environmental Protection Agency USA et al, 2008,Technology Characterization:
Microturbines, Energy and Environmental Analysis (an ICF International Company), pgs. 124.
19. Latcovic et al, J., 2003, Micro Gas Turbine, Risks, and Markets, IMIA Conference in
Stockholm, Paper Code: IMIA-WGP31 (03), pgs. 1-26.
20. McKay, R., 2001, Practical Vehicular Gas Turbines, SAE Technical Paper No. 2001-01-2541,
pgs.1-11.
21. Seo, et al, J., 2010, EVALUATION OF 500W ULTRA-MICRO GAS TURBINE COMPRESSOR,
Korea Institute of Machinery & Materials Seoul National University of Science &
Technology, pgs. 1-3.
22. Sim et al, K., 2012, Center for Urban Energy System, Korea Institute of Science and
Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, School of
Mechanical Systems Engineering, Kookmin University, Elsevier, Journal of Applied Energy,
pgs. 309-320.
23. Christodoulou, F., 2010, PERFORMANCE BENEFITS OF A PORTABLE HYBRID MICROGASTURBINE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki,
Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010 Power for Land, Sea, and Air, June 14-18, 2010,
Glasgow, Scotland, UK, pgs. 1-12.
24. Leno,J. et al ,2010 , Jay Leno reviews the Jaguar C-X75 Concept , video, The Auto Channel,
viewed, 14 /11/13 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1vKBk9Gb8s
25. Piellisch, R., 2012 Wrightspeed Promotes The Route Plug-In, Show Times magazine, April
9 issue, [Accessed 16/11/13] http://www.showtimesdaily.com/newsarticles/wrightspeed-promotes-the-route-plug-in
26. Wright, I., 2013, Wrightspeed, California, United States - Capstone Turbine Corporation,
Capstone Turbine, viewed, 16/11/13 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rKsk6hEcNQ
27. Sumner, M., 2011, Capstone Turbine Developing Series Hybrid Concept Trucks, AutoBlog
Green, [Accessed 22/11/13] http://green.autoblog.com/2011/11/07/capstone-turbinedeveloping-series-hybrid-concept-trucks/

67

28. Green Car Congress, 2011, Capstone Turbine working with Kenworth and Peterbilt on
heavy-duty microturbine range-extended trucks, [Accessed 22/11/13]
http://www.greencarcongress.com/2011/10/capstone-20111017.html
29. Trotter, F., 2013, Turbine Engines the path to Near Zero for Heavy Duty Trucks, ICR Tec,
Slides 1-11.
30. Saravanamuttoo, H.I.H., Rogers, G.F.C., Cohen H., and Straznicky, P.V., 2009, Gas

Tubine Theory, Sixth Edition, Harlow: Pearson Education Limited


31. Eastop, T.D. and McConkey, A., 1993, Applied Thermodynamics for Engineering

Technologists, Fifth Edition, Longman


32. Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2002, Capstone MicroTurbine, product specifaction
brochure, pgs. 1-2
33. Capstone Turbine Corporation, 2010, Product Specification Model C30 Capstone
MicroTurbine, pgs. 1-8
34. Trotter et al, F., 2013, Reducing Emmisions with Microturbines, , Green Truck Summit
2013, Slide 1-16.
35. Trotter, F., 2012, ICR350 MICROTURBINE: THE DIESEL ENGINE ALTERNATIVE, ICR Tec,
Slides 1-11

68

Appendix
Appendix A: Gantt chart of the actual project plan via Microsoft excel.
Start date

Gantt Chart

Duration (days)

Dates

16.5.13 30.6.13 14.8.13 28.9.13 12.11.13 27.12.13 10.2.14 27.3.14


Literature Review and background reading
Familiarise with GasTurb
Formulate Aims/Objectives and Problem
Obtain product specification
Perform GasTurb simulations experiment
Obatain contour plots via parametric
Report writing
Prepare draft/edit
Submit draft for comment
Using feedback prepare final draft
Proof read final draft
Print copies
Report submission

27-Sep-13
47.00
18-Nov-13
25.00
18-Nov-13
55.00
13-Dec-13
30.00
15-Jan-14
16.00
17-Feb-14
3.00
01-Feb-14
54.00
01-Mar-14
6.00
07-Mar-14
8.00
15-Mar-14
10.00
15-Mar-14
10.00
24-Mar-14
1.00
25-Mar-14
0.00

Appendix B: Table of the actual project plan via Microsoft excel.


Tasks
Literature Review and background
reading
Familiarise with GasTurb
Formulate Aims/Objectives and Problem
Obtain product specification
Perform GasTurb simulations experiment
Obtain contour plots via parametric
studies
Report writing
Prepare draft/edit
Submit draft for comment
Using feedback prepare final draft
Proof read final draft
Print copies
Report submission

69

Start date

Duration (days)

End date

27-Sep-13
18-Nov-13
18-Nov-13
13-Dec-13
15-Jan-14

47.00
25.00
55.00
30.00
16.00

14-Nov-13
13-Dec-13
13-Jan-14
13-Jan-14
31-Jan-14

17-Feb-14
01-Feb-14
01-Mar-14
07-Mar-14
15-Mar-14
15-Mar-14
24-Mar-14
25-Mar-14

3.00
54.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
10.00
1.00
0.00

20-Feb-14
25-Mar-14
07-Mar-14
15-Mar-14
25-Mar-14
25-Mar-14
25-Mar-14
25-Mar-14

Appendix C: Image of the actual project plan spreadsheet via Microsoft excel. (Note: Due to large
size of the spreadsheet its tabular form could not be shown.)

Familiarise with GasTurb

Possible risks
severity Mitigation
The fact that GasTurb Has not been used
study books on GasTurb, Watch videos of how
before, so the uncertainty of how this
this operation is carried out while doing
programme is operated is unknown.
high
calculation

Formulate Aims/Objectives and Problem

Some of these objectives can be


baseless, indicating poor time
management and organisation.

Tasks

Obtain product specification

high

The quality of the powertrain can affect


the overrall powertrain performance, so
finding an ideal powertrain is pretty
complex.
low

Carry out a further background study in more


depth, than in the literature as well as in log
book portfolio, Break the tasks into bite sized
chunks for efficient time use.
look into car magazines: Top Gear, or Auto Car
to find several reviews of the car and its power
train. As well as various powertrains used in
different fields as well. Find out about
standards as well,Break the tasks into bite sized
chunks for efficient time use.

The problem that could arise is quality


Ask Help from Superviser, Again use Youtube to
of data obtained for one simulation, as
check out videos based on your problem, as see
it might not reach the expectations
how they are done. Read manual carefully
required. The programme supplied
twice. Ask supeviser as to how to install the
Perform GasTurb simulations experiment
maybe faulty.
medium programme from a reilable source.
While using GasTurb it is possible that
the increments used in plotting contour
Ask Help from Superviser, Again use Youtube to
plots can influence the quality of the
check out videos based on your problem, as see
contour plots. Also the placement of
how they are done. Read manual carefully
axis and the co-ordinates shown on the
twice. Ask supeviser as to how to install the
Obtain contour plots via parametric studies plot might not be visible
low
programme from a reilable source.

Report writing

Prepare draft/edit

Submit draft for comment

Using feedback prepare final draft

Proof read final draft


Print copies

70

Accumulating, data can consume time,


and effort in use for one report
Time utilization can be misused.
Organisation skills can assessed here.
Moreover, Superviser might not have
time due to his/her busy schedule.
Depending on arrival time into
university. A heavy queque can
accumulate. So submission timing can
be low. Which means late submission.

Break the tasks into bite sized chunks in shorter


time intervals, Organise folders for data
low
collection based on excel spreadsheet, plots,
Break the tasks into bite sized chunks into
shorter time intervals, in terms of drafting
utilize advice from superviser. If further
medium resource is required then use task1. email the

High

Book taxi cab service in advance.


Break the tasks into bite sized chunks into
Time utilization can be misused.
shorter time intervals, in terms of drafting
Organisation skills can assessed here.
utilize advice from superviser. If further
Moreover, Superviser might not have
resource is required then use task1. Email the
time due to his/her busy schedule.
low
superviser in advance for sure!
Getting someone to proof read can be a
Get my mother or my supervisor. to read my
problem only when they are not around.
report. Split the pages into sections. Proof read
And that can affect time consumption
each section carefully so that less time is
heavily.
medium wasted
Paper consumtion can be high as well as
Before printing, fill the cassette with plenty of
time.
low
paper. That way time can be saved.

Appendix D: Gantt chart of the original project plan via Microsoft excel.

Project Gantt Chart

Start date
Duration (days)

16.5.13 30.7.13 13.10.1327.12.13 12.3.14 26.5.14

Literature Review and background reading


Familiarise with GasTurb
Formulate Aims/Objectives and Problem
Obtain manufacturing thermodynamic
Get lab permisssion statement signed by
Perform GasTurb simulations experiment
Perform MATLAB calculatioms based on
Optimise parameters
Re-run several GasTurb simulations with
Contruct vahivle simulation model,
Report writing
Prepare draft/edit
Submit draft for comment
Using feedback prepare final draft
Proof read final draft
Print copies
Report submission

Appendix E: Table of the actual project plan via Microsoft excel.


Tasks

Start date

Duration (days)

End date

Literature Review and background reading

27-Sep-13

47.00

14-Nov-13

Familiarise with GasTurb

18-Nov-13

25.00

13-Dec-13

Formulate Aims/Objectives and Problem

18-Nov-13

55.00

13-Jan-14

Obtain manufacturing thermodynamic data and paremeters

13-Dec-13

30.00

13-Jan-14

Get lab permisssion statement signed by lab technition

13-Jan-14

0.00

13-Jan-14

Perform GasTurb simulations experiment

15-Jan-14

6.00

21-Jan-14

Perform MATLAB calculatioms based on the results obtained

30-Jan-14

3.00

03-Feb-14

Optimise parameters

04-Feb-14

6.00

10-Feb-14

Re-run several GasTurb simulations with optimised parameters

11-Feb-14

4.00

15-Feb-14

Contruct vahivle simulation model, obatain plots and images

17-Feb-14

3.00

20-Feb-14

Report writing

21-Feb-14

69.00

30-Apr-14

Prepare draft/edit

01-Mar-14

6.00

07-Mar-14

Submit draft for comment

07-Mar-14

8.00

15-Mar-14

Using feedback prepare final draft

15-Mar-14

40.00

25-Apr-14

Proof read final draft

25-Apr-14

3.00

28-Apr-14

Print copies

28-Apr-14

2.00

30-Apr-14

Report submission

30-Apr-14

0.00

30-Apr-14

71

Appendix F: Image of the original project plan spreadsheet via Microsoft excel. (Note: Due to large
size of the spreadsheet its tabular form could not be shown.)

Familiarise with GasTurb

Possible risks
severity Mitigation
The fact that GasTurb Has not been used
study books on GasTurb, Watch videos of how
before, so the uncertainty of how this
this operation is carried out while doing
programme is operated is unknown.
high
calculation

Formulate Aims/Objectives and Problem

Some of these objectives can be


baseless, indicating poor time
management and organisation.

Tasks

high

Carry out a further background study in more


depth, than in the literature as well as in log
book portfolio, Break the tasks into bite sized
chunks for efficient time use.
look into car magazines: Top Gear, or Auto Car
to find several reviews of the car and its power
train. As well as various powertrains used in
different fields as well. Find out about
standards as well,Break the tasks into bite sized
chunks for efficient time use.

Obtain product specification

The quality of the powertrain can affect


the overrall powertrain performance, so
finding an ideal powertrain is pretty
complex.
low

Perform GasTurb simulations experiment

The problem that could arise is quality


of data obtained for one simulation, as
it might not reach the expectations
required. The programme supplied
maybe faulty.

Ask Help from Superviser, Again use Youtube to


check out videos based on your problem, as see
how they are done. Read manual carefully
twice. Ask supeviser as to how to install the
medium programme from a reilable source.

MATLAB Software has not been


performed, for several months. The
Software programming, can be tedious
Perform MATLAB calculatioms based on the results obtained and annoying.

Read lecture notes/slides based on MATLAB, as


well as read books on MATLAB with conjunction
with Thermodynamics, Break the tasks into bite
sized chunks for efficient time use.
Ask Help from Superviser, from resources
obtained extract a piece of theory, which can be
used as a criterion for optimising your values,
like different cycles, temperature range, or
pressure ratio. Break the tasks into bite sized
chunks for efficient time use.

Optimise parameters

high

The results collected could be


disorderly, so parameters optimisation,
may consume a significant amount of
time.
high

Read lecture notes/slides based on MATLAB, as


well as read books on MATLAB with conjunction
with Thermodynamics, Break the tasks into bite
From MATLAB Contour plot code or plot
sized chunks for efficient time use. Switch from
codes cannot be remembered, Since
using MATLAB to micro excel for post processing
MATLAB is very complex, constructing a
data from GasTurb. Contour Plots can also be
Construct vehicle simulation model, obtain plots and images vehicle model is time consuming
low
obtained from GasTurb
Break the tasks into bite sized chunks in shorter
time intervals, Organise folders for data
Accumulating, data can consume time,
collection based on excel spreadsheet, plots,
Report writing
and effort in use for one report
low
MATLAB codes as well.
Break the tasks into bite sized chunks into
Time utilization can be misused.
shorter time intervals, in terms of drafting
Organisation skills can assessed here.
utilize advice from superviser. If further
Moreover, Superviser might not have
resource is required then use task1. email the
Prepare draft/edit
time due to his/her busy schedule.
medium superviser in advance for sure!
Depending on arrival time into
university. A heavy queque can
accumulate. So submission timing can
Submit draft for comment
be low. Which means late submission. High
Book taxi cab service in advance.
Break the tasks into bite sized chunks into
Time utilization can be misused.
shorter time intervals, in terms of drafting
Organisation skills can assessed here.
utilize advice from superviser. If further
Moreover, Superviser might not have
resource is required then use task1. email the
Using feedback prepare final draft
time due to his/her busy schedule.
low
superviser in advance for sure!
Getting someone to proof read can be a
Get my mother/note-taker/or my supervisor. to
problem only when they are not around.
read my report. Split the pages into three both.
And that can affect time consumption
So three of them can read them cutting the time
Proof read final draft
heavily.
medium consumed by approx. 3 times.
Paper consumtion can be high as well as
Before printing, fill the cassette with plenty of
Print copies
time.
low
paper. That way time can be saved.

72

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