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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES

PRODUCT INFORMATION
VALVES & SOOT BLOWERS

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES

INDEX OF CONTENTS

Section

Product Covered

Page No.

01

INTRODUCTION

03

02

CONVENTIONAL VALVES

04

03

SAFETY & SAFETY RELIEF VALVES

09

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
Section 1.0

INTRODUCTION

BHEL started the manufacture of valves at the Tiruchy complex, along with
the manufacture of boilers in 1965. The conventional Gate, Globe and Check
valves manufactured were initially intended for use in Thermal Power Plants.
Subsequently, the design and production capabilities were systematically
upgraded to include Safety Valves, Safety Relief Valves, Quick closing Nonreturn Valves, HPLP Bypass System and Oil Field Equipment. The scope for
supply of these valves has been extended to industrial markets such as
chemical, petrochemical, fertilizer plants, Refineries, nuclear power plants.
1.1

PRODUCT RANGE:-

The Valve Plant manufactures Cast and Forged Steel Valves for a variety
of applications. The product range under design and manufacture include the
following:

1.2

Gate, Globe and Non-return valves for pressure ratings up-to 3500 class
and temperatures up-to 540'C.
Safety and Safety Relief Valves with set pressures up to 220 Kg/sqcm
and temperature up to 570'C.
HPLP Bypass Control System up to 500 MW.
Full bore valves, Surface Wellheads, X-mas trees up to 10000 psi.
Sub-sea wellheads, Mudline suspension systems up to 10000 psi.
Casing support systems for Oil Exploration and Production.
Quick Closing Non-Return valves (QCNRVs) up to 600 Class.
Soot Blowers
Silencers and Water Level Gauges.
TECHNOLOGY :

BHEL has adopted a two pronged strategy of selective technology


acquisition and in-house R&D based development to introduce contemporary
technology. Technology transfer agreements were entered into with the leaders
in the world in the respective type of valves.

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
Section 2.0 CONVENTIONAL VALVES
Valves are mechanical devices designed to direct, allow, disallow, mix or
regulate the pressure, flow or temperature of a process fluid. The basic function
of a valve is to Isolate Flow as the Value Engineering experts put it in Verb-Noun
form. This article is intended to give a over-view of the general valves being
manufactured at BHEL and also to help the process Engineer to identify the valve
he needs for an application.
Sl.

Valve Type

Valve Category

Application

1
2

Gate Valve
Globe Valve

Isolating Valves

3
4

Swing Check
Piston Lift Check

Non-Return
Valves

Regulating

Regulating Valves

Used to isolate the line. Ie. Fully


Closed
To stop the flow or fully opened
to allow the flow.
Allows the medium to flow in one
direction. When reverse flow
occurs, the valve closes.
Used
for
Flow
Quantity
Regulation

GATE VALVE

GLOBE VALVE

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
2.1

MATERIAL FORM OF VALVE BODY:-

1. FORGED VALVES : Valve sizes of 2 & below are made of forgings.


2. CAST VALVES
: Valve sizes of 2 & above are made of castings.
2.2

VALVE SIZES
Valve sizes are identified by its equivalent nominal pipe size (NPS) of the
piping on which these valves are mounted. In BHEL, valves are manufactured
from 1/4 to 36 of valve sizes. Forged valve category includes 1/4 to 2 and
Cast Valve category includes 2 to 36.
2.3 PRESSURE - TEMPERATURE RATING
Maximum permitted pressure of the medium with respect to its
temperature are given in the Standard ASME- B16.34 for the corresponding
valve body material. These ratings are specified by CLASS NUMBER. The
strength of the material reduces with increase in temperature and the permissible
pressure also reduces with increase in temperature of the medium.
The class ratings identified in ANSI-B16.34 are as follows: Class 150; Class 300;
class 400; class 600; class 900; class 1500; class 2500; class 4500.
Class 800 is non listed rating obtained by interpolating class 600 class 900.
Increase in class number indicates higher fluid pressure with respect to material.
Forged valves are available in class 800, class1500 & class 2500
Cast valves are available in class 150; class 300; class 400; class 600; class
1500; class 2500.
CHECK VALVE GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
2.4

VALVE

BODY MATERIAL :

Valve body is made of following materials. Type of material selection


depends on the fluid / mediums temperature and /or its corrosive nature.
1. Carbon Steel used upto -425C / 800 F.
2. Alloy steel used upto 550 C (593 C) / 1100 F
3. Stainless steel used upto 600C- mostly used for corrosive nature of medium.
Material type
Carbon Steel
Upto 425 C
Alloy Steel
Above 425 C
Stainless Steel
600 C

(<=2 inch)
Forgings
A105
F11 - 538 C
F22 - 593 C
(304) /
316

(>=2 inch)
Castings
WCB / WCC
WC6 - 538 C
WC9- 593 C
CF8
CF8M

Composition
C-Mn-Si
1 1/4 Cr 1/2 Mo
2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo
18Cr & 8Ni
16Cr 8Ni 2Mo

A217-C12A material (Cr-Mo-V Steel) also developed to cater to Super-critical


boiler applications.
2.5

END CONNECTION

Valve assemblies are mounted on pipe lines by the following means:


1. Socket weld ends
2. Screwed ends
3. Flanged ends
4. Butt welded ends.
Socket welded & Screwed end type of connections are provided for valve sizes
2& below.
Flanged ends and Butt-welded end type of connections are given for valve sizes
2 & above.
2.6

OPERATION:Isolating Valves and regulating valves are operated by one of the following
methods, which depend on the size of the valve & the system requirement.
1. Hand wheel operation - generally provided on many of the valves.
2. Gear operation - higher size valves are provided with gearbox for easy
operation.

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
3. Motor operated - valves are provided with electrical actuators for remote
operation. Higher size valves are generally provided with electrical actuators for
ease of operation.
4. Chain wheel operated - When operating floor level is very much below the
valve (axis) chain wheel with chain is provided for operation.
5. Extension spindle operation - When the operating floor level is very much
above the valve (axis), a stand with hand wheel or electrical actuator is provided
at the operating level & its spindle is connected to valve.
2.7
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

SPECIAL FEATURES :
Gland sealing arrangement,
Limit Switch arrangement,
Locking Arrangement,
Indicator Arrangement,
By-Pass Valve Arrangement,
Pressure Relieving Arrangement,
Balance Hole Arrangement,
Drain Hole Arrangement .

2.7.1

Gland Sealing Arrangement:


Valve stem (operating element) is connected to Wedge / Disc (closing
element) at one end, and connected to handwheel / actuator (actuating element
through yoke bush for opening /closing the valve). Disc / Wedge is kept inside
the pressure part while the actuating elements are kept outside the pressure part.
A Stuffing box is provided at the bonnet of the valve, allows the stem movement
& at the same time arrests the medium from leaking to the atmosphere. In this
arrangement a little amount of leakage can occur over a period of service of the
valve.
When the medium is toxic or like NH3, H2S. Such small leaks thro
stuffing box is avoided by providing a gland sealing arrangement.
Generally a lantern ( a fluid jacket ) is introduced at the middle of the
packings and dissolving medium / water is allowed to circulate. This dissolves the
leaking medium, which is connected thro leaking medium, which is removed thro
connected piping.
When the valve is used in vacuum service, this arrangement eliminates
the outside air getting into the valve body.
2.7.2

Limit Switch Arrangement:

Two limit switches are mounted on a framework, which is connected to the


valve yoke. A lever that is connected to the valve stem actuates the respective
limit switch, when the valve is in fully opened / fully closed position, which in turn
gives signal to the control room for necessary use.
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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
2.7.3

Locking Arrangement:

The valves may be in a location where it is necessary to ensure that the


valves are either in open or close position as desired and this condition shall not
be altered either accidentally or unknowingly. In such a case, the valves are
provided with locking arrangement. The locking arrangement is generally hook
type for cast Gate Valves and it is chain type for other valves.
2.7.4

Indicator Arrangement:

It may be desirable in some cases to know the position of the valve ie.,
whether it is fully open or closed or partially open condition. This is an optional
feature in manual hand wheel operated valves. Generally all BHEL make Gear
operated valves are provided with indicator arrangement.
2.7.5

By-Pass Valve Arrangement:

By-pass valve arrangement is provided in valves to equalize the pressure


in both the inlet and outlet of the valve so that the valve can be opened easily.
This is also helpful in warming up the outlet pipeline for preventing sudden
thermal shock.
2.7.6

Pressure-relief Arrangement:

Pressure relief valve arrangement is provided in valves to prevent fluid


thermal expansion when the valve is in closed condition. This is carried-out by a
PRV line connecting the inlet / outlet of the valve with the Bonnet above the
Wedge.
2.7.7

Balance Hole Arrangement

The purpose of providing a balance hole arrangement is similar to that of


providing a PRV. Wherever a PRV cannot be provided and a similar chance of
fluid thermal expansion exists, a balance hole is provided by making a small hole
in the wedge to connect the Bonnet and the inlet / outlet.
2.7.8

Drain Hole Arrangement

When the system warrants draining of the valve by removing the sediments
accumulated during service of the valve, a drain hole is provided at location G
(down most part of the valve) with a suitable plug/ pipeline.
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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
Section 2.0

SAFETY & SAFETY RELIEF VALVES

2.1 INTRODUCTION :
Safety and Safety Relief Valves (SV & SRV) are automatic pressure
relieving devices used for relieving the excessive pressure build up in Pressure
Vessels. The basic function of a SV is to prevent the system pressure in a
steam generator from exceeding a predetermined value by automatically
discharging the steam as soon as the set pressure is attained. Besides
operating at the set pressure, the SV should be able to discharge the full
evaporative capacity of the boiler to avoid the possibility of continued pressure
build up. Various National and International codes pay heavy attention
towards the selection,design, manufacture, testing and performance of SV on
boilers and pressure vessels.
Safety valves are used in boilers mainly in the following locations :
Boiler drum, Superheater headers, Reheater inlet & outlet Headers, Soot
blower line, PRDS stations, CBD tank, Deaerator , CRH line to deaerator, etc.
2.2 CLASSIFICATION OF PRESSURE RELIEF VALVES :
Pressure relief valves can be classified as follows :
(a) Safety Valves (b) Relief Valves (c) Safety Relief Valves.
(a) Safety Valves (SV) : SV is an automatic pressure relieving device
actuated by the static pressure upstream of the valve and is characterised by the
rapid full opening or the pop action. It is used for Gas or Vapor service and is
used mainly in Boiler applications.
(b) Relief Valves (RV) : RV is an automatic pressure relieving device actuated
by the static pressure upstream of the valve and open in proportion to the
increase in pressure over the opening pressure. It is primarily used for liquid
service.
(c) Safety Relief Valves (SRV) : SRV is an automatic pressure relieving
device which may be used either as a safety or relief valve depending upon
application and the medium used. SRVs are usually of closed bonnet type
to prevent escape of medium to surroundings. Special design of SRVs are
available for used in back pressure systems.
Pressure relief valves are also classified as Weight loaded pressure relief
valves, spring loaded pressure relief valves and pressure assisted pressure relief
valves based on the loading pattern of the valves. Of these the direct spring
loaded type is the one that is most commonly used in practise for high pressure
applications.
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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
2.3

CODES GOVERNING SAFETY VALVES :

Various National and International codes are available which govern the
design , manufacture, testing and performance of Safety valves. The codes
are based on the past experience in the field and provides safety for
operation and working of boilers and pressure vessels. The important codes
applicable are :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
2.4

Indian Boiler Regulations (IBR),


ASME Section I for Power Boilers,
ASME Section VIII for Unfired pressure vessels,
API Standards 526 & 527,
BS 6759 etc.

SELECTION & SIZING OF SAFETY VALVES :

The factors to be considered in the sizing and selection of SV for steam


generators for use in India are as follows :
(a) The valves must confirm to the Indian Boiler Regulations of 1950 with
all its amendments.
(b) Spring loaded valves of FULL lift type are preferred.
(c) The total relieving capacity of the drum and superheater svs should be
greater than or at least equal to 100 % of the MCR.
(d) The drum safety valves shall discharge at least 75% of the MCR and
the superheater svs shall discharge around 20 % of the boiler MCR.
(e) Reheater outlet safety valves should relieve at least 20 % of the
reheater flow and combined reheater inlet and outlet valves must discharge at
least the total maximum flow through the reheater.
(f) Generally welded inlet valves are preferred and the final selection of the
SVs is done to yield the best economy.
(g) An electromatic relief valve (ERV) is provided on the superheater outlet /
reheater outlet to take care of the pressure surges in boiler operation. This
valve is set to open prior to the spring loaded SV in the location concerned and
thereby prevents the frequent lifting of the SV. However the discharge capacity
of the ERV cannot be accounted for satisfying the code requirements of the
combined relieving capacities as indicated in clause (c) and (e) given above.
2.5

PRODUCT REQUIREMENTS :

The SV should be designed, manufactured and tested to meet the following


product characteristics. Tests are to be conducted with saturated steam for
acceptance of the product.
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PRODUCT INFORMATION
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(a) The valve, up to the seat, should be hydraulic tested to 1.5 times the
design pressure of the valve.
(b) The valve should be set to the correct set pressure as envisaged in
the design. Tests are to be repeated to assure the valve setting.
(c) The valve should not leak at 94% of set pressure.
(d) The discharge capacity of the valve should be proved by Type testing as
per appendix 'L' of IBR.
(e) The lift of valve should be measured and proved during type testing.
(f) The closing down pressure should also be demonstrated during the
type testing to achieve blow down values with 5% (IBR)
(g) Also the valve details, materials of the parts used and test data are to be
reported in Form-III c and Item 11 of IBR for approval of the product in utility
and industrial boilers.
2.6

CONSTRUCTION FEATURES :
BHEL Safety and Safety relief valves are manufactured in collaboration with
M/s Dresser Industries of USA. For the power boiler applications, the following
safety valve product ranges are manufactured and meets requirements of IBR :
2.6.1

1700 SERIES SAFETY VALVES :


CAP
SPG.ADJUSTER
YOKE
SPRING
SPINDLE
LEVER

GUIDE
DISC HOLDER
UP.ADJ.RING
ADJ.RING PINS
LO.ADJ.RING
DISC
BODY

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This design of valves are mainly used in the Boiler drum, superheater and
reheater circuits.
(a) Inlet nozzle is profiled to give the maximum discharge.
(b) Thermo disc provides extremely tight closure and compensates for
temperature variation around the periphery of the seat in steam service.
Thermal stresses are minimised, seat distortion is prevented and permanent
tightness is achieved.
(c)
Compensated Back pressure assisted closing feature results in
positive and precise closing of the valves to ensure blow down values within
Code requirements.
(d) Independent adjusting means for Blow down (upper adjusting ring) and
clear Popping action (lower adjusting ring) ensures the best setting of the
valves.
(e) Locking arrangements for the spring compression and adjusting rings
ensure undisturbed settings.
(f)
Hydrostatic plugs are provided for hydraulic testing of the boilers with
valves installed in site. The HT plugs are to be replaced with disc prior to
steam testing of the valves.
2.6.2.

1811 SERIES SAFETY VALVES :

This is a low cost safety valve product line with two ring control. The valves
are designed only up to a maximum set pressure of 700 Psi. These valves are
used in the following locations :
(a) Soot blower steam header,
(b) PRDS stations,
(c) CBD tanks etc.
These valves are also available with thermodisc
performance in high temperature applications.

design for better

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PRODUCT INFORMATION
CONVENTIONAL VALVES and SAFETY, SAFETY RELIEF VALVES
SAFETY RELIEF VALVES

CAP
SPG.ADJUSTER
WASHER

SPRING
SPINDLE
GUIDE
DISC HOLDER
ADJ.RING PIN
ADJ.RING
NOZZLE
BASE

2.6.3

1900 / P SERIES SAFETY RELIEF VALVES :

These valves are of the closed bonnet design to all pressure and open
yoke design for use upto 600 psig applications. Thermo discs are used
for better leak tightness of valve seats. These valves are selected for
pipeline applications for boiler PRDS systems, deaearators, Gland seal lines etc.
2.6.4.

1900 SERIES SAFETY RELIEF VALVES :

These valves are mainly used in process industries. Typical application in


power plants are for feed water heaters, oil systems and compressed air
services. These are not covered under IBR scope.

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