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EUFIRELAB

EVR1-CT-2002-40028

D-09-05

http://eufirelab.org

EUFIRELAB:
Euro-Mediterranean Wildland Fire Laboratory,
a “wall-less” Laboratory
for Wildland Fire Sciences and Technologies
in the Euro-Mediterranean Region

Deliverable D-09-07

Fire suppression management and planning:

A state of the art: final version

Sophie SAUVAGNARGUES-LESAGE, Claude PICARD

Sonia VASCONSELOS, Gavriil XANTHOPOULOS

December 2006

The views expressed are purely those of the authors and may not, in any circumstances, be regarded as stating an
official position of the European Commission
EUFIRELAB

SUMMARY

1 General introduction ...........................................................................................................................................1


1.1 Forest fires in the euro-mediterranean basin : regional panorama ...............................................................1
1.2 Interest of the subject and expected objectives ............................................................................................1
1.3 Tables and figures.........................................................................................................................................2
2 National organisations involved in forest fire management in the mediterranean basin....................................3
2.1 Responsibility distribution, interdepartementallogics ....................................................................................3
2.1.1 In France .............................................................................................................................................3
2.1.2 In Greece.............................................................................................................................................6
2.1.3 In Italy ................................................................................................................................................10
2.1.4 In Portugal .........................................................................................................................................13
2.1.5 In Spain .............................................................................................................................................17
2.2 Synthesis : comparable organisations ........................................................................................................20
3 National devices for forest fire suppression .....................................................................................................22
3.1 Classification of resources for fire suppression..........................................................................................22
3.1.1 Ground intervention means ...............................................................................................................22
3.1.2 Aerial intervention means..................................................................................................................28
3.2 Operational assessments: quantitative or qualitative approach ?...............................................................40
3.3 Flexible response capacities: development of bilateral co-operation in forest fire fighting .........................41
4 Conclusion........................................................................................................................................................44
5 Bibliographical references ................................................................................................................................45
6 Figures and illustrations....................................................................................................................................46
6.1 Figures.........................................................................................................................................................46
6.2 Maps............................................................................................................................................................46
6.3 Photos .........................................................................................................................................................46
6.4 Tables..........................................................................................................................................................46
7 Websites ...........................................................................................................................................................47
7.1 Cartography & imagerie ..............................................................................................................................47
7.2 Forest fires...................................................................................................................................................47
7.3 Organisations in charge of forest fire management ....................................................................................47
7.4 Legislation ...................................................................................................................................................47
7.5 European Union...........................................................................................................................................47
8 Glossary............................................................................................................................................................48
9 Appendix: Classification of intervention aerial means in Spain and their distribution on the territory..............50

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1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1 FOREST FIRES IN THE EURO-


With nearly 600.000 km2 of forests, Mediterranean
MEDITERRANEAN BASIN : REGIONAL
countries (France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain)
PANORAMA
are among the most wooded of the EU.
Fire is the principal cause of forest destruction in the Thirty five percent of the total surface of these five
Mediterranean countries. countries is covered with forests.
Approximately 50.000 fires devastate on the Disparities appear among these five countries
average each year about 500.000 hectares (ha) of (Table 1.1).
Mediterranean forest inducing enormous ecological and Spain and Greece, followed by Portugal, register the
economic damages as well as loss of human life [DGE, strongest concentrations on their territories Figure 1.1.
2006]. Most forest fires have occurred in Portugal and
Compared to the previous decades, the problem Spain, with respectively 34% and 30% of the total
increased during the Seventies and even more during number of fires in the five countries.
the Eighties in regard to both the number of fires and Despite the importance of its surfaces vulnerable to
the devastated surfaces (VELEZ, 1990). fires, Greece is far behind with only 3%.
Forest fires in the Mediterranean basin represent a However, it should be noted that this extremely low
significant percentage of all the fires in the world. number for Greece is the result of the definition used to
The total cost for fighting and safety devices is record a fire as a forest fire, so immediate comparisons
estimated at more than one billion dollars (FAO1 data). may be misleading.
Approximately 30.000 men are mobilized every
Fire evolution trends show a continuous increase of
summer in the Mediterranean region to fight fires; in
fire occurrences for Portugal and Spain since 1980,
extreme situations, this number can go up to 50.000
whereas for other countries they have decreased
men - including the participation of the army.
before stabilizing (except for exceptional years).
The stake is gigantic, beyond the indisputable need
These tendencies result mainly from the efforts
to protect people, goods and the environment; it is the
carried out in forest fire management.
socio-economic balance that is threatened by the fires.
However, the average burned surfaces/number of
Mediterranean countries have continuously
fires ratio shows that Greece has undergone a majority
increased their response capacities.
of large fires, contrary to France and Italy (Figure 1.2).
Although these countries are among the most
This, again, is a statistical artefact resulting from the
operational in the world regarding forest fire fighting,
low number of fires recorded in Greece,
this stability is weak.
The continuous deterioration of climatic conditions 1.2 INTEREST OF THE SUBJECT AND
requires to be more alert. EXPECTED OBJECTIVES
Although national policies work according to an
Many research programs, co-ordinated by the
identical system divided into four categories
(prevention, fighting preparedness, fighting and European Commission (EC), are currently developed in
damage repair), each country has its own legal means - order to increase the knowledge on forest fires and
improve response capacities.
financial and technical –, which highlight national
characteristics. Since 1998, the Directorate-General of Environment
Nowadays, national reality itself is not sufficient, as supports the EUFIRELAB project whose first objective
is to improve sciences and technologies on forest fires
sometimes countries cannot face catastrophes alone.
International co-operation for forest fire fighting by creating a “virtual laboratory”, European Research
appears as one of the priorities of the European Union. Area for forest fires (Cf. Appendix 1).
The EU therefore provides technical and financial This study is the continuation of the work carried out
support to its Member States. in 2001 by the Suppression unit of the EUFIRELAB
This globalisation context seems to be a major project on « Wildland Fire Suppression Management
and Planning: a State of the Art » (COLLECTIVE,
advantage for forest fire suppression.
However it is necessary to evaluate the impacts. 2001).
Even if it is unquestionable that the new conditions The objective of this study is to produce a synthetic
document on forest management for European
encourage evolutions in the fighting field, we have to
measure the effects. countries of the Mediterranean basin.
The following question arises « how can we Besides gaining knowledge improvement, the
interest of this study is that it will compare the devices
upgrade forest fire suppression in the Euro-
Mediterranean region? ». and means of all these countries.
The current Community context encourages
It is important to answer this question but it requires
examining the role of the institutions, the existing scientific, technical and operational co-operation and
fighting devices and their efficiency. the EUFIRELAB project wants to be a leader in this
aspect.
The long-term objective is to offer possible
improvements to national devices by using positive
1 Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations elements from neighbouring countries.

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1.3 TABLES AND FIGURES

Sur fac e of the P er cen ta ge of w ood ed N um be r of fire s


2
cou ntr y (K m ) s urfa ce s in the c ountry sinc e 19 80
Fr anc e 67 5 41 7 21,7 12 5 513
G ree ce 13 1 94 0 49,3 3 9 57 0
Ita ly 30 1 23 0 29 26 7 718
Portuga l 92 3 91 36 42 0 573
Spa in 50 4 78 2 51 38 0 551
Table 1-1 - Forests in the Euro-Mediterranean countries and first evaluations of fires
(From Eurostat & DGE, 2005)

80 0 0 0 0
70 0 0 0 0
60 0 0 0 0
50 0 0 0 0

40 0 0 0 0
30 0 0 0 0
20 0 0 0 0

10 0 0 0 0
0
Fra n ce Gre e ce Ita ly P ortu g al S p a in

S u rfa ce o f th e co u n try (K m 2 ) Wo o d ed s u rfa ce s (Km 2)

Figure 1-1 - Importance of wooded surfaces on the national territories

Figure 1-2 - Burned surfaces (ha) since 1980 in the Euro-Mediterranean countries

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2 NATIONAL ORGANISATIONS INVOLVED IN FOREST FIRE MANAGEMENT IN THE MEDITERRANEAN


BASIN

- The Ministry of Territorial Management and


In front of the importance of the forest fire
Environment participates in rural areas and in
phenomenon, Governments of Mediterranean countries
forest management policies (COLLECTIVE, 2001
have created their own crisis management plans.
:2).
This supposes the intervention of public and/or
private actors according to a precise organisation This central organisation is distributed on the French
pattern: preparation (prevention, prevision, planning territory at various administrative levels where the
and formation) precedes crisis management. responsibilities and competences are organised on a
For better comprehension, each national forest fire hierarchical basis.
management system has to be considered in its whole.
The French Civil Protection is structured around
This chapter will present, for each Mediterranean operation command centres:
country, the national organisation for forest fire - National level, the Inter-ministerial Operational
management. Crisis Management Centre (COGIC3) is the
First, we will identify the qualified institutions and Operational Centre of the Civil Protection and
organisations; afterwards we will explain the main Security Department. It offers permanent
policy orientations; and finally the preventive, prevision surveillance and Government decision aid. It informs
and fighting aspects. the Cabinet of the Ministry of the Interior on any
situation requiring emergency measures ;
2.1 RESPONSIBILITY DISTRIBUTION,
- Zonal level: the Civil Security Zone Staff (EMZ4)
INTERDEPARTEMENTALLOGICS
co-ordinates operations. Each of the seven EMZ is
The State has the responsibility of implementing all managed by a headquarter chief (professional
measures necessary to protect citizens, belongings and fireman officer) who is placed under the authority of
the environment. the zonal sub-prefect and the prefect. Under the
Within this responsibility framework, forest fire authority of the chief of the EMZ, the Operational
management is a Public competence. Zone Centres (COZ5) co-ordinate relief operations
Several Ministries share this mission. for several departments or for those requiring
national reinforcements. The zonal headquarter is
2.1.1 In France the interface between the departments of each zone
2.1.1.1 Administrative organisation and command of and the direction of the Civil Defence and Security ;
Civil Protection operations - Departmental level: Civil Protection actions are
managed by the Operational Centre for Fire and
Many administrations and services are involved in Relief Operations (CODIS6). Each department
civil protection. possesses its own Departmental Fire and Relief
Responsibilities are shared between Ministries, Service (SDIS7) managed by a fireman officer
Departments and Communes. (COLLECTIVE, 2001:2).
Civil Protection is based both on actions undertaken
by State structures as well as on facilities set up for Actions carried out by the Ministry of Agriculture for
relief throughout the country. forest fire protection, are taken in charge:
In addition they are supported by decentralised - at the national level by the National Forestry Office
authorities (Cf. Figure 2.1). (ONF8) ;
- at the regional level by the Regional Agriculture and
Forest fire management is organised under the Forest Management (DRAF9) ;
competence of three ministerial departments: - at the departmental level by the Departmental
- The Ministry of the Interior pilots French Civil Management of Agriculture and Forest (DDAF10).
Protection operations and controls the main part of
national rescue means. The Management of
Defence and Civil Safety (DDSC)2 is the central
structure and is in charge of prevention (in
collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture) and
operations - through several operation centres. The
Director of Civil Protection and Security is a high-
rank official (Prefect), appointed by the Ministry of
Interior ;
- The Ministry of Agriculture is in charge of
prevention and forest management ; 3 Centre Opérationnel de Gestion Interministériel des Crises
4 Etat Major de Zone
5 Centre Opérationnel de Zone
6 Centre Opérationnel d’Incendie et de Secours
7 Service Départemental d’Incendie et de Secours
8 Office National des Forêts
9 Direction Régionale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt
2 Direction de la Défense et de la Sécurité Civile 10 Direction Départementale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt

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2.1.1.2 Orientations of the forest fire defence policy 2.1.1.4 Fire prevision
The forest fire defence policy is based on four types Forest fire risks are evaluated on a daily basis by
of actions combining prevention, prevision and fire the metrological unit of each EMZ.
fighting: Risk maps are then sent to all the CODIS of the
- knowledge of risks and fire causes : a strong forest fire zone (Cf. Figure 2.1).
observation network of forest ecosystems, the With this information it is possible to identify high-
evaluation of meteorological risks and systematic risk areas and thus allocate resources (equipment,
researches to identify fire origins upgrade monitoring…) to reduce intervention time in case of fire
prevention and fighting ; ignition.
- forest massif monitoring in order to detect fire The vehicles and personnel of the DDAF and ONF
starts : during the high fire risk season : forest organise patrols in order to monitor the situation.
observation combines lookout towers and mobile
2.1.1.5 Fire fighting
monitoring with different kinds of patrols ;
- forest massif equipment appears as part of the Fire fighting is managed by the Civil Protection.
global management and maintenance policy for It is organised at the department geographic scale
rural and forest areas. Protection plans also by the CODIS.
integrate prevention management (forestry, The CODIS acts in collaboration with the national
agriculture, roads networks, etc.) ; headquarters.
- information and public awareness through Its missions concern :
education in academic environment, professional - alert and means dispatching ;
training, conferences, etc. - requisition of the necessary means located outside
the fire area ;
2.1.1.3 Fire prevention
- assistance to public organisations implied in crisis
In France, prevention is managed by various public management ;
organisations, especially by the ONF and DDAF - real time information to the COGIC and to the
(Ministry of Agriculture) and the CODIS (Ministry of the Prefect.
Interior). Many research organisations such as the
The CODIS provides fire fighting plans and
CEMAGREF or the INRA (research institutes in
supervises their application.
agriculture and environment engineering depending
from Ministry of Agriculture) are also part of the
mechanism.
Within the prevention frame, their missions concern:
- Forest protection: elaboration of prevention plans
for the forest “massif” scale (PIDAF11) or communal
scale (PPRIF12). The PIDAF is a contractual plan
which aims at preventing fire by defining forest
management policies and areas that have to be
cleared in order to prevent fire starts and spread.
The PPRIF is a regulation plan that defines the risk
level and implies security rules and obligations ;
- Elaboration of vegetation cover maps from aerial
pictures and databases ; these maps are updated
every ten years ;
- Forest management: to reduce fire risk ignition and
propagation (fire breaks, etc), or to facilitate fire
fighting (strategic establishments of water tanks for
example) ;
- Public information ;
- Repression if instructions given in forests areas are
not respected (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :3).

11 Plan Intercommunal de Débroussaillement et


d’Aménagement Forestier
12 Plan de Prévention du Risque Incendie de Forêt

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2.1.1.6 Figures

Figure 2-1 - Map of meteorological fire danger forecast in the Southern defence zone
(From Météo France, 07.07.2006)

Figure 2-2 - Synthesis on the French organisation for forest fire fighting
(From DGE, 1999)

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According to law 3013/2002, the GSCP is


2.1.2 In Greece responsible for the planning and implementation of the
2.1.2.1 Administrative organisation and command of national policies for fire prevention, preparation,
Civil Protection operations education of the public, management and reduction of
natural and technological disasters and other major
Civil Protection, in Greece, is organised mainly at risks.
three administrative levels: national, regional and The GSCP ensures the co-ordination of all needed
local. Greece is divided into 13 Regions. state and even private entities for handling all types of
Each Region includes a certain number of disasters, including forest fires.
Prefectures which, themselves, shelter several Within this framework, it provides logistic support -
Municipalities. material and human- to the Fire Services from local
Greece, on the whole, gathers 54 Prefectures and authorities (Regions, Prefectures, Municipalities).
1033 Municipalities. The operations are directed from the Centre of the
Emergency planning is organised throughout the Operations of Civil Protection and Emergencies of
above cited three administrative levels. the GSCP that is permanently active, ready to respond
At the national level, planning is defined by the to all kinds of major disaster emergencies.
Emergency National Plan “XENOKRATES”, However, unimportant incidents such as small
established by the General Secretariat for the Civil localised forest fires of low disaster potential, are
Protection (GSCP). generally handled by the GFS, while the GSCP
The Regions and Prefectures, in agreement with the operations center simply keeps being informed of the
GSCP, establish their own emergency plans, evolution of the event without further action.
respectively at the regional and local level (Cf. Figure
2.4). The pre-1998 top-down structure of the Forest
Service was changed after moving forest fire
The management of forest fires in Greece is based suppression responsibility to the GFS.
on three central organisations that supervise the First, the Forest Service lost its immediate political
operations: head: The General Secretariat of Forests and Natural
Until 1997, all functions of forest fire management, Environment, became a General Direction (called the
including suppression, were in the responsibility of the General Direction for the Development and Protection
Forest Service, which was headed by the General of Forest and Natural Environment (GDDPFNE)) in the
Secretariat for Forests and Natural Environment Ministry of Agriculture (now called “Ministry of
(GSFNE) and was part of the Ministry of Agriculture. Agricultural Development and Foods” (MADF)).
The Greek Fire Service (GFS) (alternatively called Second, it was broken down into a region-based
the “Greek Fire Corps”), which was responsible for structure; while the General Direction now belongs to
urban firefighting and also worked on other incidents the MADF, the regional offices now belong to the
(industrial fires, earthquakes, floods, etc.), supported MIPAD.
the Forest Service in forest firefighting when needed At each of the 13 regions of the country there is a
(e.g. for wildland-urban interface fires). Regional Direction of Forests under the direct authority
On May 25, 1998, a new law transferred the of the General Secretary of the Region.
responsibility for forest fire fighting to the GFS Under this Direction, there is a Forest Direction at
(XANTHOPOULOS 1999), widening its field of every prefecture.
competence. At larger prefectures or at those having extensive
The responsibility for most aspects of fire prevention forests, these Forest Directions have a co-ordinating
remained with the Forest Service. role, while operations are carried out by the local Forest
The GFS is under the responsibility of the Ministry Service offices called “dasarheio”.
of Public Order; it has a semi-military structure and is In the post 1998 period, funding declined, and
headed by its Chief. although most fire prevention functions still remain in
The Chief as well as the top of its management the responsibility of the Forest Service very little can be
structure are situated at the Fire Corps Headquarters in done without the appropriate funds.
Athens. One example is the lack of needed funds to
In regard to forest fires, its duties are focused on fire maintain the network of forest roads.
suppression but it also carries out certain prevention Another example is abandonment of efforts to
functions. control forest fuel built-up, and even abandonment of
active forest management, except in the most
The General Secretariat for the Civil Protection, productive forests.
was set up in 1995.
It belongs to the Ministry of Interior, Public
Administration and Decentralisation (MIPAD) and is
situated in Athens.

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Also, it is not uncommon for the GFS to move


2.1.2.2 Fire prevention
resources from one area to another, especially to the
The fire prevention activities are under the principal Greek islands, in anticipation of a heavy firefighting
responsibility of the Forest Service with the support of load.
the GSCP, GFS, GDDPFNE, and local authorities.
The fire danger prediction map, is made public at
Each organisation ensures specific missions:
the website of the GSCP
The Forest Service is responsible: (www.civilprotection.gr/dailyfire.htm), soon after its
- for the preparation of fire prevention preparation.
infrastructures (water tanks, maintenance of forest The example below (fig. 2.3) is the fire danger map
roads, firebreaks, etc.) and for the 28th of June 2006.
- for forest maintenance in order to reduce the Special announcements for increased alertness of
combustible mass in parallels with the other the public messages, based on this map, are also
forestry activities; foresters carry out patrols so as issued and communicated through the mass media.
to monitor the forest throughout the summer.
2.1.2.4 Fire fighting
- «Furthermore, the Forest Service has the
responsibility of maintaining contacts with the local Forest fire fighting lies under the responsibility of the
people in order to “know” its area and identify GFS, service of the Ministry of Public Order that co-
potential problems. The General Direction, also ordinates the national security forces.
tries to work on publications and organise activities «The GFS has a top-down structure, one of the few
that help inform people about forest fires and state organisations that have not been broken down
make them love and respect the environment » into a regionalized structure in the 1990s. This is a
(COLLECTIVE, 2001 :5); significant advantage for the task of fire fighting as it
allows easy mobility of resources between regions and
The GFS sets up dissuasion patrols that can be
good central co-ordination » (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :8).
combined with the monitoring patrols when the risks
In addition to the Fire Corps headquarters, which
are at their peak.
co-ordinate the activities of the GFS, other offices or
The GFS is also responsible for fire cause
services take part in the organisation of the system :
investigation;
- regional administrations of the Fire Services in the
Since 2001, the GSCP is quite active in the field of 13 Regions of the country ;
forest fire prevention. - administrations of the Fire Services in the 54
prefectures ;
It carries out many activities, most notable being:
- Local Fire Stations, ranked in classes (A, B, C and
- the annual preparation and publication of the D) according to the density of population and nature
national plan of prevention, of the disaster (risk and danger) in their areas of
- monitoring of application of the specific actions responsibility ;
foreseen by the plan (e.g. attendance of garbage - the Operational Co-ordination Centre on forest fire
dumps that are identified as potential fire ignition
fighting (SKED) located in Athens. It is operational
sources), and at all times. It centralises calls of emergencies of all
- collaboration with the mass media for public natures and co-ordinates the forces of fire fighting.
education and sensitisation, as well as for diffusing
«It has direct responsibility for the region of Attica,
information to the public when high fire danger
while it offers help around the country when
levels are predicted for certain areas
incidents exceed local capacity. It has the main
(COLLECTIVE, 2001:6)
responsibility for all the aerial fire fighting means in
2.1.2.3 Fire prevision the country» (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :8).
The GSCP is responsible for the daily preparation of The policy for suppression of forest fire of the GFS
a fire danger prediction map for the country. is organised around the following orientations :
A fire danger map is prepared by 13:00 of each day. - systematic implementation of analysis on large
It is based on evaluation of the meteorological fires so as to identify potential difficulties to be
predictions, vegetation condition (degree of greenness, encountered during the fighting operations ;
water stress) etc., and is valid for the next day. - optimal management of human and material
Fire danger assessment is done at the dasarheio resources ;
level (Cf. Figure 2.3). - collaboration with all the authorities implied in the
The map is immediately forwarded to all the forest fighting operations.
authorities, and to all organisations (GFS, Police, Air The co-ordination Centre of the GSCP involves its
Force, etc) involved in fire suppression where it is resources only on fires of great importance.
diffused to their operational units.
At high danger levels, the Regions, Prefectures and
Municipalities affected are informed and put into alert.
Different mobilisation levels and specific actions,
such as road closures, and increased ground and aerial
patrols, are foreseen for each fire danger level in the
presuppression plan of each prefecture.

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2.1.2.5 Figures

Figure 2-3 - Daily map of fire risk in Greece

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Figure 2-4 - Synthesis on the Greek organisation of the forest fire fighting
(From DGE, 1999)

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2.1.3 In Italy These national centres are in permanent alert and in


co-ordination with the Regional Centres of Controls
2.1.3.1 Administrative organisation and command of (COR17), the Provincial Operational Centres (COP18)
Civil Protection operations and Local Operational Centres (COL19).
In the majority of European countries, Civil 2.1.3.2 Orientations of the forest fire defence policy
Protection is assigned to a particular organisation or to
small public structures. The Law n°353/2000 of November 21st, 2000
In Italy, every organisation of the State is involved in concerning forest fires redefined the axes of the
this function: from the Ministry of Interior to the smallest national policy by underlining the supremacy of
communes, all of the civil society is represented forecasting and prevention in the fighting system and
through the National Service of Civil Protection - and by putting the Regions in charge of programming and
in particular through the Organisation of voluntary planning prevention activities in co-ordination with the
Services - founded by the Law n°225/1992 of 24 local agencies.
February 1992 of organisation of Civil Protection. Defence activities regarding forest fires are
Under this scheme, the responsibilities are divided implemented at the Regional level under the authority
between the services of the Civil Protection on all of the Department of Civil Protection, and by the
administrative levels : regional Plan for the programming of forecast,
- State (responsible: the President of the Council or prevention and active forest firefighting activities
the Minister of Interior Department) ; 20 articulated around four sections: territory
- Region (responsible: the President of the Region) ; presentation, fire hazard analysis and forecast,
- Province (responsible: the President of the implementation of prevention and fighting activities.
provincial Administration) ;
2.1.3.3 Fire prevention
- Commune (responsible: the Syndic).
In Italy, prevention is a responsibility shared by the
The forest fire management system is based on a
Ministry of Agriculture (CFS) and the Ministry of Interior
multi-partnership organisation (Cf. Figure 2-5) :
(CNVF). Theirs missions concern:
- the Department of Civil Protection of the Ministry of
Interior co-ordinates the activities of Civil Protection Fuel reduction and its foreseeable
under the authority of the Prime Minister. The consequences: forestry, forest police, maintenance of
system depends on all the corps which constitute access in forests, etc ;
the State, the National Corps of Fires Monitoring - reduction of fire-hazard origins: reinforcement of
(CNVF13), implied in the activities of fire prevention territory monitoring, information programs for the
and in charge of fire fighting operations; public concerning fire hazard and individual
- the Ministry of Agriculture and the Forestry protection measures against forest fires.
Police intervenes on fire prevention activities
2.1.3.4 Fire prevision
through the State Forest Corps (CFS14) ;
- the Region ensures the implementation forest fire The Fire Risk Service of the Department of Civil
protection plans and deals with the co-ordination of Protection, in collaboration with the meteorological
the Voluntary Corps15 of Forest Fire protection national service, develops -since 2003- an information
AIB of Civil Protection, present all over the system called Ris.I.Co21 (Cf. Figure 2.6), for forest
regional territory. E.g. the Region of Piedmont that fires. It provides –every day- data for fire risk
counts approximately 6200 volunteers subdivided in forecasting and management at the Provincial level.
51 basic sectors. The forecasting model Ris.I.Co is based on three
documents :
The ministerial Corps possesses centres that
- the dynamics of danger planned for the day ;
command the operations for which they are responsible
- a graphic document with fire intensity and spread
for:
maps determined for the main hours of the day,
- the Unified Permanent Operational Room
based on local climatic characteristics ;
(SOUP16) of the CNVF directs all the operations of
- forecasts for the successive days defined starting
Civil Safety for the Department of Civil Protection ;
from localised important meteorological parameters
- the Operational Centre of the CFS co-ordinates
leading to forest fires.
prevention missions and emergency management
for the environment, as well as assistance actions
for Civil Protection.

17 Centri de Controllo Regionale


18 Centri Operativi Provinciale
19 Centri Operativi Locali
13 Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco 20 Piano regionale per la programmazione delle attività di
14 Corpo Forestale dello Stato previsione, prevenzione e lotta attiva contre gli incendi
15 Corpo Volontari boschivi
16 Sale Operative Unificate Permanenti 21 Rischio Incendi e Coordinamento

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2.1.3.5 Fire fighting - identification and monitoring of the sectors where


fire risk is important ;
Fire fighting is under the responsibility of the
- setting off of the alert from the Regional Operational
Ministry of Interior (Department of Civil Protection and
Room ;
CNVF).
- fire suppression on the basis of territorial
Interventions are directed by the Operational
organisation defined by the Regional Plan.
Centres of the territories concerned by the fire.
The fire fighting system is based on complementary
actions:
2.1.3.6 Figures

Figure 2-5: Synthesis of the Italian organisation for forest fire fighting

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Figure 2-6: Model of forecasting Ris.I.Co


(From DPC, 2003)

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2.1.4 In Portugal 2.1.4.2 Orientations of the defence policy of the


forest fires
2.1.4.1 Administrative organisation and command of
Civil protection operations The Portuguese government has defined four
priority areas for forest fire defence:
Civil Protection services are present at the national, - reduce territory vulnerability to forest fires :
regional, district and municipal level. support global management of forest areas and
Their main missions in the field of forest fires relates preventive intervention in strategic sectors ;
to prevention, planning, information, fighting co- - reduce fire occurrences : through public
ordination, etc. awareness campaigns, systematic investigations on
The National Service of Firemen and Civil fire origin, increase dissuasion capacity and
Protection (SNBPC22) depends on the Ministry of repression ;
Internal Administration. - improve fire fighting and fire management
The Ministry is responsible for Civil Protection, efficiency : this requires an articulation of
Prevention and Management of Emergency situations monitoring and detection systems with first
at the national level. intervention means, a reinforcement of intervention
The system is based on three pillars structured capacities and extended attack, the improvement of
according to the Portuguese administrative planning, prevision and decision, etc ;
organisation (Cf. Figure 2.8) : - recover and reorganize ecosystems to regain
- - SNBPC represented in 18 Districts by the District their original condition (DIRECCAO, 2006).
Relief Operational Centres (CDOS23) and placed These political orientations are defined in the
under the direct authority of the Ministry of Internal National Plan for Forest Defence Against Fire
Administration ; (PNDFCI28), updated each year by the DGRF (the
- - the Regional Service of Civil Protection Plan 2006 was approved by Resolution of the Ministers
(SRBPC24) of the autonomous regions (Acores and Council n°65/2006).
Madeira), for which the responsibility is imparted to
the president of these territories: governors assume 2.1.4.3 Fire prevention
this responsibility in their respective departments ;
In Portugal fire prevention activities are under the
- - Municipal Service of Civil Protection
responsibility of the DGRF (Ministry of Agriculture).
(SMBPC25) under the authority of the Mayor.
The DGRF is organised by agricultural regions
The central organisation is structured around which manage public forests (5% of the total),
Operational centre of emergencies and Civil supervise all forest activities in the country and co-
Protection (COEPC26) according to the national ordinate fire detection devices.
administrative organisation. The fire detection system is organised around a
Their purpose is to ensure the direction of Civil network of manually operated fire detection towers that
Protection operations, and the co-ordination of are in communication with the operational centre of the
emergency measures that have to be implemented. SNBPC.
The centres are gradually activated according to the DGCRF also has terrestrial mobile patrols acting 24
nature and intensity of the occurrence. hours per day.
The CNOEPC co-ordinates the operations at the
The other entities involved in fire prevention are :
national level.
- the National Association of Portuguese
At the local level, a centre, in departments
Municipalities29 responsible for promoting fire
(CDOEPC) and municipalities (CMOEPC), receives an
prevention infrastructures (roads, firebreak, water
alert when a major incident breaks out depending on its
sources, watch-towers) and supporting the logistics
administrative region.
of fire suppression activities in their areas ;
Prevention and forest protection missions are - the Cellulose and Paper Pulp Industries that
ensured by the Directorate-General of the Forest globally own 10% of the National afforested area
Resources (DGRF27) of the Ministry of Agriculture, (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :10) ;
via the forest services decentralised in Regions. - the Nature Conservation Institute (ICN30).
These entities have their own watch-tower network.
They also possess terrestrial and “heli-transported”
mobile patrols.
The activity of fire detection has recently become
one of the major missions of the firemen and the
SNBPC.
22 Serviço Nacional de Bombeiros E Civil Protecção
23 Centros Distritais de Operações de Socorro
24 Regional Serviço of Bombeiros E Civil Protecção
25 Serviços Municipais de Protecção Civil 28 Plano Nacional de Defesa da Floresta Contra Incêndios
26 Centros Operacionais de Emergência de Protecção Civil 29 Associação Nacional de Municipios Portugueses
27 Direcção-Geral Recursos Florestais 30 Instituto da Conservação da Natureza

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2.1.4.4 Fire prevision 2.1.4.5 Fire fighting


The Portuguese Meteorological Institute (IM) is in Fire fighting activities are the responsibility of the
charge of the Fire danger evaluation. SNBPC. In each District there is an Emergency
This entity depends on the Ministry of Science and Operation Co-ordination Centre under the direction
Higher Education. of a District Coordinator.
The information provided by the IM through its These centres work in connection with the National
Analysis and Weather Forecast Centre31 includes operations co-ordination centre based near Lisbon.
the following general daily provided information (Cf.
«Fire suppression activities are carried out by Fires
Figure 2.7) :
Brigade Corporations.
- meteorological observation from the national station
Volunteers compose the large majority of these
network ;
Corporations.
- weather chart ;
Almost all cities have their Fires Brigade Unit that is
- national and regional weather forecast bulletins ;
sponsored by a private association, and supported by
- satellite imagery;
population and by Government through the SNBPC »
- wind field forecast for the next 24 hours with 3 hours
(COLLECTIVE, 2001 :10).
intervals.
There is also some Professional Fire fighters
The IM computes and delivers more specific
Corporation.
information such as :
These are usually present in the District capitals.
- the forest fire danger index for about 60
Their respective Municipality generally sponsors
meteorological stations. Since 1998, the IM
them.
information related with fire danger indexes has
Although they are equipped mainly for urban fires,
been based on the Canadian Forest Fire Weather
they have great experience in forest fire fighting.
Index System (FWI), computed between May 15th
and October 15th. Since autumn 2002, the FWI
index is being computed along the whole year ;
- charts with forest fire risk classes by regions. The
classes are computed as a function of the FWI and
take into consideration the number of fires and
burned areas in each region during past years ;
- charts of forecasts and danger index tendencies for
forest fires ;
- weather bulletins for 48 hour forecasts specific for
fire prevention (on a daily routine basis from June to
September) (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :10).
This is an example of a daily map of fire risk in the
country for June 27, 2006.
It is downloadable on the site of the Portuguese
Meteorological Institute:
http://web.meteo.pt/pt/previsao/riscoincendio/risc_class
_conc.jsp

31 Central of Análise E previsão C tempo

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2.1.4.6 Figures

Figure 2-7 - Map of Fire Risk in Portugal

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Figure 2-8 - Synthesis on the Portuguese organisation for forest fire fighting
(From DGE, 1999)

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For example, the implementation of the INFOCA


2.1.5 In Spain Plan of Andalusia (JUNTA, 2004) is based upon the
2.1.5.1 Administrative organisation and command of regional administrative organisation :
Civil Safety operations - the Regional Centre of Operation (COR) co-
ordinates the operations from Seville ;
Spain is divided into 17 autonomous Communities - 8 Province Operation Centres (COP) assist the
that manage, since 198532, the protection of the forest system ;
against fires, with the support of three departments of - at local level, 17 Forest Defence Centres
the government: (CEDEFO) are distributed according to the fire
- Directorate-General of Biodiversity (DGB33) hazard level.
under the supervision of the Ministry of
Environment (MMA34), is responsible for the 2.1.5.2 Orientations of the forest fire defence policy
management of aerial means (planes and Defence activities against forest fires are defined in
helicopters) and equipment planning for all the the Spanish Forester Plan, of the MMA.
territory. The DGB shares responsibilities with the The co-ordination of the activities with the
regional governments, particularly in the co- autonomous Communities is ensured through the
ordination of forest fire fighting (aerial means and Committee of Forest Fires Fighting (CLIF39),
communications). The Service of Nature composed by MMA representatives and the prevention
Protection (SEPRONA35) of the Ministry of and fighting services of the autonomous
Environment collaborates in the prevention Administrations.
activities with the local Authorities ; The annual Plan defines three orientation
- Ministry of Agriculture36 takes part in prevention categories:
and forest management ; - fire planning and co-ordination by updating a fire
- Ministry of Interior is the supreme authority in Civil database (EGIF - Estadística General de Incendios
Protection. The Directorate-General of Civil Forestales), prevision of daily risks, training of
Protection (DGPCE37) is the national corps that professionals and education programs on forest
carries out the programs of emergency intervention. fires ;
The central organisation is structured around the - fire prevention ;
National plan of Civil Protection for Forest Fires (Cf. - fire fighting : support to the autonomous
Figure 2.10) that defines procedures and rules for the Communities is carried out from special bases and
implementation of assistance on national interest, and brigades (DGB, 2002).
reinforces the Plans of the regional governments. The 2.1.5.3 Fire prevention
National plan defines :
- the organisation of the information systems : Prevention activities are implemented by the
national data base, risk maps, meteorological Ministries of Environment and Agriculture (DGB and
prevision and risks, information on potential risks, SEPRONA).
data bases for resources ; Their missions concern :
- the national structure of forest fire fighting ; - information and public awareness campaigns
- the attribution of the national resources in the (media at the national level, creation of Websites,
regional and local Plans ; school programs, etc) ;
- the operational plan according to the fire risk level. - attribution of subsidies to the autonomous
Communities for planned work in the Integrated
Even if the regional governments have the Prevention Plans (PIP) concerning activity
responsibility of forest fire fighting, the structures monitoring, increase of preventive infrastructures
differ from one region to another. and forestry activities;
Each regional government elaborates an - Teams for integral Protection against Forest
"INFOCA38 Plan" that defines the system on its Fires (EPRIF) in collaboration with the autonomous
territory. Administrations located in the regions where fire risk
The resources are unequally distributed. is high. Their missions are : fire cause investigation,
Andalusia concentrates the major part of the public awareness campaigns, promotion of
national information system. controlled burnings ;
The Region represents 18% of the national territory - use of satellite images during forest fire fighting
for 20% of the total population. : during the summer campaign, the DGB Center of
operations uses MODIS systems installed on
TERRA and AQUA satellites of the NASA. It allows
to locate hot spots and to consider surfaces burned
32 Law n°2 of 21 January 1985 which defines the functions by large fires.
and the general organization of Civil Protection
33 Dirección General de Biodiversidad
34 Ministerio de Medio Ambiente
35 SErvicio de PRotección de la NAturaleza
36 Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación
37 Dirección General de la Protección Civil y Emergencias
38 INcendios FOrestales en la Comunidad Autónoma 39 Comite de Lucha contra Incendios Forestales

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2.1.5.4 Fire prevision 2.1.5.5 Fire fighting


In collaboration with the DGB, the National Institute The Directorate-General of Civil Protection
of Meteorology elaborates risk maps for the next day establishes the national Plan of Civil Protection for
and diffuses them to the autonomous Communities. forest fires.
These maps are based on NDVI Index (Normalized Planning is treated on a hierarchical basis :
Difference Vegetation Index) and indicate the quantity - National Plan, approved by the Government upon
of biomass and the water content of living plants (Cf. proposal of the National Commission of Civil
Figure 2.9). Protection (CNPC40) ;
- Plans of the autonomous Communities,
This map indicates the risks for July 7th, 2006: the
approved by qualified organisations from each
risks are graduated in colors classes, the hot colors
Community, from proposals of the Commission of
indicate the strongest risks.
Civil Protection of the Community and approved by
(www.mma.es/images/general/biodiversidad/defens
the CNPC. The Plans of local organisations
a_incendios/ndvi.gif).
(Municipalities, Delegation, etc) are integrated into
the Plans of the Communities ;
- Plans at local level, approved by a corps of
qualified respective Corporations and approved by
the Commission of Civil Protection of the
corresponding autonomous Community. Plans of
Self-protection of the companies, cores of isolated
population, urbanization, etc. are integrated in these
plans ;
- Plans of Self-protection (SARMIENTO, 2001 :5).
In this organisation, the levels of National and
autonomous Communities' planning are fundamental.
To guarantee a good organisation between the
plans, co-ordination and responsibility transfer corps
have been set up (Management Committee, formed of
representatives of the State Administration and each
one of the autonomous Community concerned)

40 Comisión Nacional de Protección Civil

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2.1.5.6 Figures

Figure 2-9 - Daily risks map of the Spanish Meteorological National Institute

Figure 2-10 - Synthesis on the Spanish organisation for forest fire fighting

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2.2 SYNTHESIS : COMPARABLE Additionally, crisis preparation partly relies on an


ORGANISATIONS effective forecast of the incurred risks.
On this subject, scientific and technical
Forest fire management refers to a certain number
improvements carried out these past years have
of common operations set in Mediterranean countries.
contributed to optimise the prevision systems.
Beyond the distinction of the preparatory measures
Even though each country uses its own system,
and fighting, the political choices affirmed by the
their operation principles remain identical.
Governments all follow the same direction.
The national meteorology services logically
Admittedly, the margin of manoeuvre is narrow:
contribute to the daily risk knowledge by the essential
forest fire crisis management answers a certain number
provision of data sources.
of criteria that could not be ignored or circumvented
without dramatic consequences. The complete preparatory measures are under the
Based on their experience, each Mediterranean operational responsibility of various Ministries.
country has an influence on the others, it can be They are in charge of the forest, environment and
assimilated as selected or induced influence. interior policies (Cf. Table 2.1).
Indeed, their similar climatic and environmental Placed under the authority of the Ministry of Interior
characteristics offer an unquestionable advantage for (or assimilated), all the organisations of forest fire
common collaborations. fighting in Mediterranean countries operate according
Therefore a common pathway can be identified for to a system of spatial distribution of their forces based
forest fire management in Euro-Mediterranean on a hierarchy according to territorial organisation.
countries. Each territorial level has an operational command
This postulate is reinforced by the Community's centre. Decentralisation of the resources is organised
action of support exerted by the European Union to from the highest level of the State to the smallest local
Member States. communities.
Among the privileged national actions an effort for If it is seems appropriate to affirm that
fires cause identification can be observed. Mediterranean countries possess a comparable
Brigades are especially trained in national police organisation for forest fire management, specificities
forces (Gendarmerie in France, Guardia Civil in Spain, remains.
etc.). Identifying the considered five countries as only one
Because of the increase of disasters having a entity would be a serious mistake.
criminal origin, repression becomes increasingly more Admittedly, their functioning rests on a common
necessary. In addition, the development of DFCI methodological basis.
equipment has been a priority for a long time. However, the operational fighting rests more
Governments have well understood that DFCI specifically on national characteristics in terms of
equipments are preparatory measures essential to the resources and/or strategic choices.
fighting and that their permanent development is a
main advantage.
Today more than ever, Governments pay attention
to the respect of safety rules: it is often by
carelessness that fires cause the destruction of
infrastructures.
One keeps in memory the images of the fires in the
Var (France) in 2003 or even more recently of fire
fronts in Spain and Portugal where, each summer,
economic damage reaches important levels.
To avoid the worst, Governments implement each
year, important systems for information and public
awareness campaigns.

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Fire Prevision Fire Prevention Fire Fighting


Meteorological national institute Ministry of Agriculture (ONF/DDAF)
France Ministry of Interior (COGIC)
Meteorological Cell of EMZ Ministry of Interior (CODIS)
Ministry of Public Order (GFS)
Helenic National Meteorological Service Ministry of Interior, Public Administration and GFS
Greece
GSCP Decentralisation (GSCP) GSCP
Ministry of Agriculture (GDDPFNE)
DPC/SRI Ministry of Agriculture and Forest Policy (CFS)
Italy DPC/CNVF
Meteorological Service (Ministry of Defence) Ministry of Interior (DPC/CNVF)
Portuguese Meteorological Institute
Portugal Ministry of Agriculture (DGF) Ministry of Internal Administration (SNBPC)
Analysis and Weather Forecast Centre
Meteorological national institute Ministry of Environment (DGB/SEPRONA) DGB
Spain
DGB Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Interior (DGPCE)

Table 2-1 - Synthesis of the national organisations in charge of forest fire management
CFS : State Forestry Corps
CNVF : National Corps of Fires Monitoring
CODIS : Centre of Fire and Help
COGIC : Interministerial Operational Crisis Management Centre
DDAF : Departmental Direction of Agriculture and Forest
DGB : General Direction of Biodiversity
DGF : General Direction of Forestry
DGPCE : General Direction of Civil Protection and Emergencies
DPC : Direction of Civil Protection
EMZ : Civil Security Zone Staff
GDDPFNE : General Direction for the Development and Protection of Forest and Natural Environment
GFS : Greek Fire Service
GSCP : General Secretariat for Civil Protection
ONF : National Office of the Forest
SEPRONA : Service of Nature Protection
SNBPC : National Service of Fire Brigade and Civil Protection
SRI : Service of Forest Fires Risks

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3 NATIONAL DEVICES FOR FOREST FIRE SUPPRESSION

The fighting device is articulated around various 3.1.1.1 Special vehicles


actors that possess shared competences.
This type of vehicle does not directly take part in fire
The fighting system is based on the organisation of
fighting.
the relief operations command chain.
They are all-terrains vehicles.
Its role is essential as it directs and co-ordinates
They are used for command and logistics,
intervention means for the entire national territory.
communications or material transport. Each country is
Even though the tendency shows a diversity of
equipped with this kind of vehicle.
these means within the five countries, their technical
performances and complementarities do not make any Command vehicles can transport up to five people
doubts. and are used by the leaders of the operations.
If they are named differently from one country to
This chapter will present, in detail, the complete
another, their characteristics are almost identical.
resources associated with terrestrial and aerial
For example, France has All-terrain Liaison
interventions for each country.
Vehicle (VLRTT41), equipped with radios and GPS,
The interest lies in the possibility to identify their
when Portugal has Tactical Command Vehicles
characteristics and consider the potential modularity of
(VCOT42).
a country towards another.
On important interventions other vehicles are set up
3.1 CLASSIFICATION OF RESOURCES FOR near the disaster area: an All-terrain Mobile
FIRE SUPPRESSION Command Post (PCMTT43 - France) or Command
and Communications Vehicles (VCOC44 -
Civil Protection services must face different
Portugal). (Photos 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3)
phenomenon that do not have the same material
requirements. During the summer period, the VLRTT-DFCI is
Forest fires can mobilize a variable quantity of mobilized on forest fires.
equipment and human resources according to the
It intervenes at the request of the CODIS for
importance of the phenomenon.
missions of assistance in forest fire fighting (Cf.
During the forest fire season, an important
Figure3.2), using operational cartography (GIS to
preventive device is set up.
identify the intervention zone and its environment,
The resources of each Mediterranean country have
realization of tactical situations - SITAC - with
in common, the «complementarily between the
transmission to the CODIS by GPRS, impression of
ground and the sky » (HAUT, 2006 :12).
maps), GPS statements (real time mapping of fire
Nevertheless, national characteristics emerge as
starts and successive fire out-line - Cf. Figure 3.1 -,
intervention means are preferred to others depending
etc.) and realization of numerical photographs.
on cultural heritage or financial choice.
The established maps can be printed on site. In
Ground and aerial means used in Mediterranean
addition, this work contributes to the development of a
countries can be classified according to technical
cartographic database on the annual balance sheet of
criteria which will be defined in this chapter.
forest fires (GUIRAUD, 2006). Figure 3.2
In all countries, fighting devices are entirely based
Spain has 12 Mobile Units of Meteorology and
on the co-ordination between local and national means.
Transmissions (UMMT45).
The origin and deployment of the means is carried
These vehicles are equipped with an automatic
out at various levels of responsibility within the Civil
meteorological station and radio communication
Society.
systems with aerial and terrestrial bands and the
3.1.1 Ground intervention means capacity of sending and receiving digital and
cartographic images.
Ground devices for fire suppression combines Its principal mission consists in supporting the
human and material resources. Director in charge of the fighting within the autonomous
Suppression mainly relies on the local firemen Community.
corps. These vehicles ensure complementary missions of
Their action is reinforced by national means. vigilance or fire contour drawing with GPS (DGB, 2005
The fighting personnel and their vehicles are the :20). (Photo 3.4)
main element.
Forest fire fighting vehicle are as varied as there are
countries concerned.
It is possible to classify the means according to their
technical specifications and, in particular, their
functions, sizes and water capacities. 41 Véhicule de Liaison Radio Tout Terrain
Accordingly, we separate fighting vehicles 42 Veículo de Comando Táctico
(tankers) from special vehicles used for command or 43 Poste de Commandement Mobile Tout Terrain
liaison. 44 Veículo de Comando e Comunicações
45 Unidades Móviles de Meteorología y Transmisiones

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3.1.1.2 Fighting vehicles France uses special vehicles such as All-terrain


vehicle reel (DATT49) trucks.
Three categories of fighting vehicles may be
This vehicle has not been created for fire attack. It
encountered:
contains 1800 meters of hoses of 110 mm and 800
- light vehicles for initial attack with a water content
meters of hoses of 70 mm and is mainly used in DIH
capacity under 1000 litres (L) ;
(Division of Helitransported Intervention) and DIS
- fighting trucks with water capacities between
(Division of Specialized Intervention) groups.
1500 and 4000 L ;
It carries out establishments on long distances
- fighting trucks with water capacities exceeding
during the forest fire season. Photo 3.7.
10.000 L.
FIGHTING VEHICLES OF AVERAGE CAPACITY
LIGHT VEHICLES FOR INITIAL ATTACK
These vehicles are the most widespread on the
With their small water capacities, these vehicles are
Mediterranean basin because they combine adequate
intended to intervene on starting fires.
water capacity with agility missing from heavier tankers.
The Spanish, Greek and Portuguese fire fighting
Each country has particular models of these
services are equipped with these vehicles.
vehicles.
The models are different and may be either All-
terrain vehicles or trucks equipped with fixed or In this category, France has Forest Fire Medium
dismountable light extinction modules. Tankers (CCFM50) equipped with a water reserve of
These vehicles carry out fire detection missions in 3500 L and a reserve of 500 L for additives specific to
their territory. forest fires.
Subsequently they are able to intervene within a It also has a spraying system to protect it against
short time frame on starting fires. fire heat. Photo 3.8.
At the beginning of the Seventies, the Greek Forest
Italy mainly uses three types of vehicles :
Service acquired its first firefighting vehicles that were
- GIPPONE Iveco 40.10 (reserve of 1100L) and
UNIMOG Mercedes 4WD vehicles having a water
UNIMOG Mercedes U1650 (capacity of 2500 L).
capacity ranging between 1000 and 1300 L.
Their water pump can be activated when the vehicle
Their small size, high clearance from the ground
is running. It covers a distance of 900 L/min for a
and 5-person cabin made them a success.
pressure of 7 bar, and 250 L/min for 30 bar ;
Furthermore two of them could be fitted in a military
- self-pump Iveco 80.17 BARRIBI, equipped with a
C-130 transport plane making it possible to send such
water reserve of 2500 L that is pulverized with
units to support firefighting in islands of the Aegean and
average and strong pressure from a centrifugal
Ionian sea where resident resources are often
pump. Photos 3.9, 3.10 and 3.11.
inadequate to fight fires that escape initial attack.
In 1993, the Forest Service was equipped with Greece uses several models of medium size
Dodge Dakota 4WD vehicles (600 L), that added vehicles for fighting. Among them, the Mercedes
significant patrol and initial attack capacity in spite of Atego (1500 L), the UNIMOG Mercedes 4WD
one characteristic they had that proved to be a (between 1700 and 2500 L), Iveco Ff135 E23 Wr
disadvantage. (2500 L), Steyr (2500 L) and Renault Camiva Ccf
They were gasoline powered instead of using diesel 4000 Type (3000 L) (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :20).
fuel.
These units were passed on to the Greek Fire Corps The Portuguese fighting trucks of Portuguese
when it took the responsibility for forest firefighting in have water capacities between 1500 and 4000 L.
1998. Models vary in size according to their capacity.
Then in the beginning of the new century Fire Corps Fighting services have three main models:
Rural Vehicle for Fire Fighting (VRCI51) and
selected a different vehicle, Nissan Terrano 4WD (600
L) as its new light vehicle for initial attack. Forester Vehicle for Fire Fighting (VFCI52). They are
(COLLECTIVE, 2001 :20). first intervention vehicles equipped with a fire cannon,
water reserves between 1500 and 4000 L, and any
Spain and Portugal respectively use Vehicles of
Vigilance and First Attack (VVPA46) and Light fires other equipment needed for fire suppression ;
fighting vehicles (VLCI47). Special Vehicle for Fire Fighting (VECI53) are
equipped with special extinction means (additive
France uses Forest Fire Light Tankers (CCFL48),
with a water capacity of 600 L. agents) and a capacity of more than 4000 L. Photos
The CCFL is the principal machine used for fire 3.12, 3.13 and 3.14.
suppression in France it is conceived to access all
terrain types. Photos 3.5 and 3.6.

49 Dévidoir Automatique Tout Terrain


50 Camions Citernes Feux Moyens
46 Vehículo de Vigilancia y Primer Ataque 51 Veículo Rural de Combate a Incêndios
47 Veículo Ligeiro de Combate a Incêndios 52 Veículo Florestal de Combate a Incêndios
48 Camion Citerne Feux Léger 53 Veículo Especial de Combate a Incêndios

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HIGH CAPACITY FIGHTING TRUCKS Greece also uses this type of vehicle represented
by : Iveco Tlf 24/120-5 (12 000 L), Magirus Deutz
High capacity vehicles ensure attack or logistical (12000 L) and Steyr (10 000 and 12 000 L)
support missions by providing additional water (COLLECTIVE, 2001 :20).
resources.
Portugal has three high capacity vehicles:
France uses the two following types of vehicles. - Rural Tactical Tank Vehicle (VTTR54) and Forest
The Super Forest Fire Tanker (CCFS) (Cf. Table Tactical Tank Vehicle (VTTF55). They are vehicles
3), with a water capacity that ranges from 8000 to type 4*4, equipped with fire cannons and water
10.000 L, is used for direct attack; the High Capacity reserves of 16.000L;
Tanker (CCGC) (Cf. Table 3.1), water carrier of 14.000 - High Capacity Tank Vehicle (VTGC56), equipped
L, is used in urban area and forest fires. with fire cannon and a water reserve higher than
This vehicle takes an active part among fire attack 16.000 L. Photos 3.17, 3.18 and 3.19
forces during the summer season. Table 3.1 and Photo -
3.15; Table 3.2 and Photo 3.16.

54 Veículo Tanque Táctico Rural


55 Veículo Tanque Táctico Florestal
56 Veículo Tanque Grande Capacidade

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3.1.1.3 Figures, tables and photos

Photos 3-1, 3-2 and 3-3 - VLRTT vehicle (France), VCOT and VCOC vehicles (Portugal)
(From SDIS 30 & www.bombeirosdeportugal.com)

Figure 3-1 - Map of fire out-line in real time for the assistance in the fighting management
(From S. Sauvagnargues-Lesage, 2006)

Figure 3-2 - Role of the VLRTT in the forest fires campaign


(From S. Sauvagnargues-Lesage, 2006)

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Photo 3-4 - UMMT vehicle, Spain


(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

Photos 3-5 and 3-6 - VVPA (Spain) and VLCI vehicles (Portugal)
(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain & www.bombeirosdeportugal.com)

Photo 3-7 - DATT vehicle


France (http://cs.gemenos.free.fr)

Photo 3-8 - CCFM vehicle, France


(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Photos 3-9, 3-10 and 3-11 - GIPPONE Iveco 40.10, UNIMOG Mercedes U1650 and Iveco 80.17 BARRIBI vehicles
(From CFS, Ministry of Agriculture, Italy)

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Photos 3-12, 3-13 and 3-14 - VRCI, VFCI and VECI vehicles, Portugal
(www.bombeirosdeportugal.com)
Identifier CC FS
Tec hnica l ch arac te ristic s S upe r fire tan ke r

Fram e 4*4 , 2 o r 4 place s


W ater ta nk 80 00 to 10 000 L
W ettin g age nt ta nk 40 0 L
E m u lsio n ta nk 60 0 L

C an no n 30 00 L/m in utes - 15 b ar

Table 3-1 - 3 - Technical index of CCFS and Photo 3-15 - CCFS vehicle, France
(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Identifier CCGC
Technical characteristics High fire tanker
Frame 6*4, 2 or 4 places
Water tank 8000 to 14000 L
Table 3-2 - Technical index of CCGC and Photo 3-16 - CCGC vehicle, France
(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Photos 3-17, 3-18 and 3-19 -VTTR, VTTF and VTGC vehicles, Portugal
(www.bombeirosdeportugal.com)

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3.1.2 Aerial intervention means IN FRANCE


Aircrafts of the Civil Safety are divided in two
French Aircraft fleets are gathered in operational
distinct fleets, one for planes, the other for
services of the Sub-directorate of the DDSC, in
helicopters.
Grouping of Aerial Means (GMA59).
Their participation in forest fire suppression varies in
They are responsible for operational conditions of
from one country to another.
both: crews and aircrafts and of carrying out aerial
Indeed, if all Civil Protection aerial means can be
missions for the public service.
used in operations against forest fires, the activity of
« The helicopters and maintenance and support
the helicopter fleet represents only a small part of the
means are reassembled in Helicopters Grouping
device in France, contrary to the situation in Greece.
(GH60), entity forming integral part with GMA, of
On the other hand, the plane fleet is primarily
central administration of Ministry of Interior. Operational
designed for forest fire suppression in complement of
means are at disposal of department Prefects for
terrestrial means.
employment » (HAUT, 2006 :14).
A majority of countries use their aircraft fleets within
The plane fleet is based in Marignane in the Planes
the framework of their armies: Greece, Spain and
Basis of Civil Safety (BASC61).
Portugal.
Although, during fire periods, detachments are sent
This situation has changed in Italy according to the
to the Southern defence zone (Cannes, Carcassonne
French example (HAUT, 2006 :30).
and Corsica). « BASC means are also owned by
Unquestionably aircrafts are a major advantage in
central administration of Ministry of Interior. They are
forest fire suppression activities: in addition to their
implemented on decision of State representative »
fast intervention and high dropping capacities, they
(HAUT, 2006 :18).
jointly ensure surveillance missions (armed aerial
lookout), fires attacks, fighting support, and logistic A water bomber plane fleet is present in the most
transport. sensitive Mediterranean regions (Cf. Map 3.1).
Diversity of aircraft models is important, but it is This localization may be changed when forest fire
possible to classify them according to their technical risks increase in another region.
specifications and in particular their water capacities.
IN ITALY
The following categories are distinguished:
- aerial means for initial attack (light planes and
helicopters) ; The department of Civil Protection co-ordinates the
resources on their national territory, through the
- aerial means for wide attacks (average planes
and helicopters) ; Unified Aerial Operational Center (COAU62).
- aerial means for large fires (heavy planes and Forest fire suppression activities are operated within
helicopters). an aerial fleet of the State in co-ordination with the
Regions (DPC, 2006 :6).
This general classification should not be considered The fleet belongs to the State and to the Regions.
in a rigid and absolute manner as intervention means Aerial means of the State are placed at the disposal
depend on fire position and resource proximity. of the State Forest Corps, the National Corps of Fires
Thus, average and heavy aircraft can intervene on Monitoring, the Navy and the Air Force (Cf. Map 3.2).
starting fires.
IN SPAIN
3.1.2.1 Origin and deployment of aerial means on the
territory The Ministry of Environment possesses 64 aircrafts,
distributed in 34 bases in the 27 Provinces of the
Each country organizes its aerial device according
country.
to precise procedures of means deployment.
It offers a support to the autonomous Communities
The qualified ministerial Directions establish these
for forest fire suppression.
procedures in legal and operational documents.
The Ministry of Environment manages the means,
For example, one will quote the « Forest Fire
with the Aerial Service of Civil Guard for BK-117
National Operations Order57 » (Cf. DDSC/ORDRE,
helicopters, under the terms of a convention signed
2005) or a publication of the Italian Department of Civil
between the Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of
Protection « Operational Procedures for co-operation of
Interior.
the State aerial fleet in the event of forest fires 58» (Cf.
The device plans a different distribution of aerial
DPC, 2006),
means on the national territory during summer and
during the winter (Cf. Maps 3.3 and 3.4).

59 Groupement des Moyens Aériens


57 « Ordre d’Opérations National Feux de Forêt » 60 Groupement Hélicoptères
58 « Procedure operative per il concorso della flotta aerea 61 Base Avions de la Sécurité Civile
dello Stato nel caso di incendi boschiv » 62 Centro Operativo Aereo Unificato

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IN GREECE All aerial means, during the fire season (May-


October) are distributed at bases around the country in
In Greece co-ordination of the aerial means is done an effort to provide effective initial attack.
by the Greek Fire Corps and more specifically by its The main base for the fleet of Canadair water-
“Fire Services Co-ordination Center” (FSCC) that is bombers is at the military airport of Elefsis a few km
situated in Athens. The FSCC controls both the west of Athens where their normal maintenance is also
national firefighting air fleet and the fleet of contracted carried out.
helicopters. The corresponding base for the fleet of PZLs is at
the military airport at Tatoi, a few km north of Athens.
The national fleet consists of
In general there is a plan that specifies the locations
- Fourteen (14) Canadair CL-215 water bombers that
where the aerial means will be situated during the fire
have been built between 1974 and 1989.
season.
- Ten (10) Canadair CL-415 water bombers that have
A number of bases are located necessarily on the
been acquired in the 1999-2004 period.
islands of the Aegean and Ionian sea such as Corfu,
- Eighteen (18) PZL M-18 Dromader aircraft acquired
Rhodes, Crete, Lesvos, and Samos, because this is the
in 1984 and used mainly for initial attack.
only way to offer initial attack support there.
- Three (3) Grumman agricultural aircraft with 700
However, relocations of specific aerial means are
litters load, used for patrol and initial attack
quite often ordered by the FSCC, for one or more days,
- Three BK 117 helicopters used for co-ordination in
in response to next-day predictions for elevated fire
firefighting and other incidents
danger in a specific area (mainly for the islands).
- One (1) Super Puma helicopter
It should be noted that although care is taken to
The airplane fleet above are operated by the Greek
avoid leaving any fire-prone regions of the country
Air Force on behalf of the Greek Fire Corps while the
without aerial support at any time, the management of
four new helicopters (less than 4 years old) are
the aerial fleet by the Greek Fire Corps, a semi-military
operated directly by the Greek Fire Corps.
organisation with a top-down hierarchy and structure,
The fleet of contracted helicopters varies slightly ensures maximum flexibility at relocation of the means
from year to year. For example, in 2005, this fleet both at the prevention phase and for fire fighting
consisted of: purposes, without serious regional pressure.
- Four (4) MIL MI-26 heavy helicopters using “Bambi”
buckets
- Three (3) Sikorsky S-64 helicopters modified and
operated as Erickson “AirCrane” firefighting
helicopters with water refilling capacity through NB. Information was not communicated to us by the
pumping from fresh water boies or scooping from services of Portuguese Civil Protection.
the sea.
- Two (2) MIL MI-8-MTV helicopters
- Three KAMOV KA-32 helicopters

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Map 3-1 - Deployment of aerial means in the Southern defence zone in France
(I. Guiraud, 2006 - From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, 2006)

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Map 3-2 - Deployment of aerial means in Italy


(I.GIRAUD, 2006 - From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, 2006)

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Map 3-3 - Distribution of aerial means by the Ministry of Environment - summer 2005 Campaign
(From MMA, 2005)
NB: nomenclature of means classification is in consultation in Appendix

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Map 3-4 - Distribution of aerial means by the Ministry of Environment - winter 2005 Campaign
(From MMA, 2005)
NB: nomenclature of means classification is in consultation in Appendix

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This plane, initially designed for fire suppression, is


3.1.2.2 Plane fleet: a key device for fire fighting
the most suitable tool for extended attacks in territorial
LIGHT PLANES FOR INITIAL ATTACK zones where the budget allows it.
It could even gradually replace light planes. Photo
Light planes were initially designed for agriculture. 3.25.
They were afterwards adapted for forest fire
HEAVY PLANES SENT ON LARGE FIRES
suppression. They have a water capacity ranging from
1800 to 2500 L. Their main advantages are:
Heavy planes have capacities between 10.000
- possibility of operations on small take-off runways;
and 12.000 L.
- reduced operation and maintenance costs.
Spain, France and Greece prefer this type of
Their major limits are : means.
- low speed and autonomy ; The fact they have to operate from a large airport is
- very sensitive to meteorological conditions (winds a considerable constraint.
and turbulences in particular) due to its reduced The dimension of these apparatuses limits their
weight (COLLECTIVE, 2000). manoeuvrability.
However, their exceptional capacities make these
Spain, Greece and Portugal are using this type of
planes a privileged tool for large fire suppression
means. Spain and Greece have PZL M-18 Dromader especially over relatively flat terrain.
and Grumman 164 bombers planes. France has These planes carry out water bombing missions
three Beechcraft planes for liaisons missions. Photos
during the fire season and liaison missions during the
3.20, 3.21, 3.22 winter season.
PLANES ADAPTED FOR WIDE ATTACK Spain and Greece are equipped with the military
transport aircraft Lockheed C-130 Hercules that
These planes have a water capacity of 4000 L for possesses a chemical additives capacity of 12.000 L.
better autonomy. In Greece the C-130 belongs to the Air-Force and is
All of the studied countries are equipped with these basically a transport plane, Three MAFFS (Modular
planes. Airborne Fire Fighting System) were acquired in the
The Canadair Amphibious bombers planes are mid-1980s and were fitted in the C-130 planes upon
the most used in the Mediterranean region. request of the firefighting co-ordination center
The first models Canadair CL-215 are still in activity (preparedness time 1-4 hours).
in Spain and Greece. They operated mainly from the military airport of
The Canadairs CL-215 were bought by Spain in Elefsis where a retardant base was built.
1971 and transformed into CL-215 T in 1989. The result was decreased efficiency at large
The CL-215 is equipped with water tanks having a distances from Athens. After 2005 the use of this
5300 L capacity. (COLLECTIVE, 2000). systems has been practically discontinued. Spain has
The first Bombers CL-415 (Cf. Table 3.2) were Douglas Aircraft DC-6 and DC-7 planes.
purchased in France in 1995; in 2006 the French fleet Currently France is equipped with two Dash planes
has 11 Canadair CL-415. Photo 3.23. (Cf. Table 3.5) acquired in 2005 by the Ministry of
Both the French fleet and Spanish fleet possess « Interior. Photos 3.26, 3.27 and 3.28.
terrestrial » water bombers which are loaded on the 3.1.2.3 Helicopter use in fire fighting
ground.
The Tracker bought in the Eighties by France can Dedicated to people assistance operations,
carry more than three tons of water or chemical helicopters can also ensure forest fire fighting missions.
additives (Cf. Table 3.4).
LIGHT HELICOPTERS FOR INITIAL ATTACK
« Plane of old design, initially intended for armies,
the Tracker was to be withdrawn from the service in
Light helicopters can transport 5 to 8 people with
2008. A technical revision programme of great size was
their suppression equipment.
however launched to maintain them in activity until
These helicopters can be equipped with an external
2020. At the end of 2006 fire season, Trackers will be
load hung device under the apparatus; its average
withdrawn from the service, which will bring back the
water capacity is 500 L.
number of apparatuses to 9 units » (HAUT, 2006 :14).
These apparatuses are very polyvalent and can be
Since 1996 Spain uses Air Tractor AT-802 planes. used for all types of fires.
They are American planes using new technology. However, as they have limited capacities they are
Spain chose these planes because their technical only used for initial attack.
characteristics are adapted for fire suppression :
Spain uses light helicopters for initial attack.
- high technical reliability and high cruising speed ;
The country possesses Alouette and BK-117
- load capacity of more than 3000 L ;
helicopters (old EC-145).Photos 3.29 and 3.30.
- dropping system conceived to be used in any
circumstances ;
- possible to operate on the same airport
infrastructures as the light planes.

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France and Greece have apparatuses for Spain and Greece respectively use Mil Mi-8MTV
reconnaissance missions, liaisons and command. and Mil Mi-16 helicopters, with average transport
Homogeneous and modern, the French fleet has 40 capacities of 24 people and their equipment; its water
apparatuses including 30 EC-145 (Cf. Table 3.6), 6 capacity is established at a level of 15.000 L with the
Alouette III (Cf. Table 3.7) and 3 Ecureuil (Cf. Table additional possibility to use an external water device of
3.8). Photos 3.32 and 3.33. 3000 L as in the Spanish fleet. Photo 3.40.
Italy uses light helicopters NH-500D. Their water The Spanish fleet is composed by Puma and
load capacity is 530 L, with a crew of 5 people. Photo Superpuma, and Kamov Ka-32 helicopters.
3.34. Used for their capacities of 5 000 L and their
manoeuvrability they are very appropriate for fire
AVERAGE HELICOPTERS FOR WIDE ATTACK
suppression (COLLECTIVE, 2000).
Greece has Kamov Ka-32 T helicopters with water
The average helicopters used for extended attacks
capacities of 5.000L, using a “bambi” bucket.
have water capacities between 1000 and 1500 L and
The French fighting device has two tactical Puma
can carry 8 to 10 people.
helicopters. Photos 3.41, 3.42 and 3.43.
The water bomber helicopters, “one-turbine” or
“twin-turbine” engines, are intended for personnel Italy uses tactical transport helicopters CH-47,
transport. equipped with external water systems of 5000 L.
They are equipped with external load hung devices They have a 2h50 flying autonomy. Photo 3.44.
under the apparatus, generally “twin-turbine” engines
SPECIFIC HELICOPTER USE IN SPAIN
for better safety.
The Spanish fleet is composed of two models The Directorate-General of Biodiversity (DGB)
frequently used: has set up "Helitransported" Brigades (BRIF63)
- “one-turbine” American Bell 205 helicopter, composed of firemen specialized in forest fires.
equipped with an external or ventral load device; Even though these brigades intervene on small fires
- Polish helicopter PZL-W3A Sokol, equipped with around their bases, their presence is strongly required
an external load device. Photos 3.35 and 3.36. on large fires.
The BRIF intervenes all over the national territory.
Italy possesses average AB 412 helicopters (Cf.
They are organised on a hierarchical basis
Table 3.9) equipped with external water systems.
according to their size :
This helicopter has characteristics identical to the
- BRIF-A is composed of three teams of sixteen
Bells used in Spain. Photo 3.37.
firemen and one forest technician. It operates
HEAVY HELICOPTERS SENT ON LARGE FIRES between the 1st of July and the 30th of September.
The brigade is transported by helicopters of average
The heavy water bomber helicopters have water and great capacity, Sokol PZL or Superpuma, with
capacities above 4000 L. They provide an important external water devices having 1500 to 2500 L
transportation capacity for personnel, and external capacities;
water devices. - BRIF-B is composed of three teams of nine firemen
and one forest technician. Their training, capacity
All countries are equipped with theses and working conditions are identical to those of
helicopters but the Spanish fleet is the most BRIF-A; but they have a different size. They have at
diversified. their disposal average helicopters of type Sokol PZL
Since 1999, Greece and Italy use the AirCrane and Bell-212 with an external water device of 1500
helicopter. L. They are operational from the 1st of July to the
Since 2004, the French Civil Safety rents an 30th of September.
AirCrane from the company HELIPACA during the
summer season. The autonomous Communities have their own
The apparatus is based in Bastia in Corsica. With « "Helitransported" Brigades (ex. BRICA in Andalusia,
a capacity of 9000 L, its contribution is particularly EGRAF in Catalonia, etc).
interesting in the difficult relief zones, because of its These brigades use helicopters of small or average
high operation capacity. Its speed is relatively slow capacities equipped with external or ventral reserve.
which explains why it is mainly used regional Their operation vary according to the Community's
frameworks of action, but this is compensated by a high concerns. Photos 3.45, 3.46 and 3.47.
dropping rhythm» (DDSC, 2006 :9).
Since 1992 the DGB uses Aircraft of Co-
After the accident of a Canadair plane on August 1,
ordination and Observation (ACO) for aerial fire
2005 and the suspension of all Canadairs from
monitoring missions.
operations, the AirCrane was repatriated to the
The first planes OPTICAL OA7 have been replaced
continent; for a few days the AirCrane remained the
by Cessna 337 Skymaster Push Pull.
only heavy aerial means for fire suppression. Photos
These planes are equipped with devices that take
3.38 and 3.39.
and send images.

63 Brigadas Helitransportadas

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Their operation is co-ordinated between the UMMT The use of images taken during the fire provides an
on the ground (Mobile Units of Meteorology and advantage in order to follow the evolution of the fire
Transmissions – Cf. 2.1.1.1. Special vehicles) and the front and to allow an optimal position of the fighting
Operational centre of command. means. Photos 3.48 and 3.49.
3.1.2.4 Figures, tables and photos

Photos 3-20, 3-21 and 3-22 - PZL-M-18 Dromader, Grumman 164, Beechcraft
(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain & DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Identifier CANADAIR CL-415


Technical characteristics Amphibious bomber
Capacity 6200 L in 4 water tanks
Number of Drops 1,2 or 4 times
Flying autonomy 1400 km at the speed of 350 km/h
Dropping height ≈ 30 meters
Dropping width ≈ 60 meters
Type of attack Direct
Table 3-3 - Technical index of Canadair CL-415 and Photo 3-23 - Bomber plane CL-415, France
(http://photos.linternaute.com)

Identifier TRACKER CF25


Technical characteristics Terrestrial bomber
Capacity 3200 L in 4 water tanks
Flying autonomy 1600 km at the speed of 400 km/h
Dropping height ≈ 45 meters
Dropping width ≈ 50 meters
Type of attack Indirect
Table 3-4 - Technical index of Tracker CF25 and Photo 3-24 - Bomber Tracker CF25, France
(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, 2006)

Photo 3-25 - Air Tractor AT-802 plane, Spain


(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

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Photos 3-26, 3-27 and 3-28 - Lockheed C-130 Hercules, Douglas Aircraft DC-7 and Dash 8 Q 400 MR
(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain & DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Identifier DASH 8 Q 400 MR


Technical characteristics Terrestrial bomber
10000 L of fire retardants
Capacity
or 64 people and 9 tons of freight
Flying autonomy 1800 km at the speed of 600 km/h
Type of attack Indirect
Table 3-5 - Technical index of Dash 8 Q 400 MR

Photos 3-29 and 3-30 - Alouette and BK-117 helicopters, Spain


(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

Identifier EC-145
Technical characteristics Twin-engine helicopter
8 people and 2 members of crew,
Capacity
or 500 kg of freight
Flying autonomy 500 km at the speed of 220 km/h
Mission Reconnaissance, command, connection
Table 3-6 - Technical index of EC-145 and Photo 3-31 - EC-145 helicopter, France
(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Identifier ALOUETTE III


Technical characteristics Single-engine helicopter
Capacity 3 to 5 people and members of crew
Operational : 1h30
Flying autonomy
Maximum : 2h00
Speed 190 km/h
Maximum mass 2200 kg
Mission Reconnaissance, command, connection
Table 3-7 - Technical index of Alouette III and Photo 3-32 - Alouette III helicopter, France
(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

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Identifier ECUREUIL
Technical characteristics Single-engine helicopter
2 to 4 people and members of crew,
Capacity
or 200 kg of material
Operational : 2h00
Flying autonomy
Maximum : 3h00
Speed 210 km/h
Maximum mass 2200 kg
Mission Command and people help
Table 3-8 - Technical index of Ecureuil and Photo 3-33 - Ecureuil helicopter, France
(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

Photo 3-34 - NH-500D helicopter, Italy


(From DPC, Ministry of Interior, Italy)

Photos 3-35 and 3-36 - Bell 205 and PZL-W3A Sokol helicopters, Spain
(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

Identifier AB 412
Technical characteristics
15 people
Capacity
1000 L in external device
Speed 260 km/h
Table 3-9 - Technical index of AB 412 and Photo 3-37 - AB 412 helicopter, Italy
(From DPC, Ministry of Interior, Italy)

Photos 3-38 and 3-39 - AirCrane helicopter, France


(From DDSC, Ministry of Interior, France)

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Photo 3-40 - Mil Mi-8MTV helicopter , Spain


(From DGB, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

Photos 3-41, 3-42 and 3-43 - Puma, Superpuma and Kamov Ka-32 helicopters
(From, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

Photo 3-44 - CH-47 helicopter, Italy


From DPC, Ministry of Interior, Italy)

Photos 3-45, 3-46 and 3-47 - "Helitransported" Brigades of the Directorate-General of Biodiversity, Spain
(From, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

Photos 3-48 and 3-49 - Cessna 337 Skymaster Push Pull planes and its device to take images
(From, Ministry of Environment, Spain)

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- must be able to face the exceptional years, such as


3.2 OPERATIONAL ASSESSMENTS:
in 2003, which require a great number of
QUANTITATIVE OR QUALITATIVE
apparatuses.
APPROACH ?
Consequently, this means that in a “normal” year,
The technical diversity of ground and aerial means
the potential of the fleet will not be fully used ( HAUT,
in the Euro-Mediterranean region reflects the
2006 :37).
importance of the problem.
The bet is risky but necessary.
Governments had no other choice than to equip
The comparison of the means and results for
their Civil Protection services with powerful means in
France, Spain and Greece shows great disparities (Cf.
order to deal with this inevitable phenomenon.
Table 3.10).
According to the extent of the fire, the
This comparison is random due to the differences in
implemented device will be of variable importance,
the aspect and meteorology of the intervention zones.
able to mobilize some light vehicles or all the means
It is advisable to recall that Spain and Greece use
available in the country.
their fleet within the framework of the armies.
Mediterranean countries have varied landscapes
In addition, plane and helicopter accidents on forest
and topography not always accessible for fighting
fires are a concern.
vehicles.
In this case, aircrafts becomes the only extinction The deployment of terrestrial means also follows the
means. principle of proximity to risks zones.
Incontestably, the complementarity of All European Civil Protection services are largely
interventions means is in our regions a sign of provided with terrestrial means.
success in the forest fire fighting field. Their field of intervention being, in fact, relatively
reduced, they are necessarily positioned on all the
The fighting strategy is first based on an optimal
territory until it forms a dense device.
distribution of the means on the national territory,
and in particular the positioning of aerial means. In addition, tactical fighting choices are the
If their geographical field of action can be important second strength of the device.
for the largest apparatuses, it is not extensible. Human factor is obviously an essential aspect.
Their positioning near risk zones is inevitable. For example, France does not count less than 650
However they are supposed to intervene all over the Units of Civil Protection, 1000 firemen organised in 14
national territory, and even if that requires some zone reinforcement columns and 300 men at the
reorganisation in the device. disposal of the Ministry of Defence according to a
In France, in the past the fire risk level for forests protocol (DDSC/ORDRE, 2005).
located outside the Mediterranean zone did not require
Despite the technical performances of the means
the deployment of the means, but the current situation
and fighting devices currently implemented in the Euro-
gives all its sense to the device.
Mediterranean region, fires continue to strike on the
However the high purchase and maintenance costs
most exposed sectors.
for aerial means in particular, somewhat limit the
The large fires of August 2006 which broke out in
renewal of the national devices already in place.
Spain and in Portugal show the limits of the fight.
The difficulty is to dimension the fleet. Indeed, two
If the political choices have for long been focusing
elements must be taken into account :
improving the quality of the means in terms of technical
- an oversized fleet would present disproportionate
performances, quantity is often necessary.
maintenance costs compared to the real needs for
When local capacities are exceeded, external
the territory ;
assistance can bring a solution to the problem.

France Greece Spain


(1)
Aircraft implemented by the State 24 53 35
Instantaneous capacity of dropping 124,8 tons 200 tons 200 tons
(2)
Sensitive Surface at fire 6,6 million of hectares 6 million of hectares 26 million of hectares
Burned average surface over the 5
30 000 hectares 5 000 hectares 120 000 hectares
last years
1
Around 40% of the apparatuses of the fleet have a reduced capacity (less than 2 tons)
2
Mediterranean Departments (4,6 million hectares) and Aquitaine departments (2 million hectares)
Table 3-10 - Comparison of the means for fire fighting (From DDSC, 2005)

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3.3 FLEXIBLE RESPONSE CAPACITIES: This convention also implements a principle of


DEVELOPMENT OF BILATERAL CO- reciprocity: each State has the possibility of
OPERATION IN FOREST FIRE FIGHTING requesting the assistance of a third country.
Two conditions are however required :
The impacts of forest fires do not stop at national
- the asking country must need the assistance ;
frontiers, so international and regional organisations,
- the solicited country should not be engaged in a
governments and civil society harmonize their efforts to
mission of assistance or fire fighting.
mitigate the harmful fire effects.
Non-official partnerships, joint projects and official On October 11, 2001, the two countries signed a
agreements are essential to create long lasting new agreement concerning Civil Protection and Civil
management and fighting capacities in the Safety.
Mediterranean area. It redefines the methods of mutual assistance during
When we consider the differences in the burned catastrophes or serious accidents.
surfaces in 2003 among the countries (Cf. Map 3.5), we
Following this example, « the first agreement at the
understand why certain countries request external
national level for cross-border co-operation
assistance.
between Italy and France was signed in 1963, the
Indeed, when the scale of a fire is such that the
first management of Civil Protection and Defence in
national capacity is insufficient, a vital additional
1992.
assistance can be quickly provided if other countries
The agreement of Chambery, signed in 1997, has
are willing to share their competences and equipment.
considered the establishment of common police patrols
For this help to be efficiently transported a clearly
and the last agreement of 2002 increases the activities
defined co-ordination mechanism between the various
of cross-border co-operation » (COLLECTIVE, 2004
parts must exist.
:43).
For this, the European commission has set up In 1992, Portugal signed a bilateral protocol of
Monitoring Information Centres (MIC) accessible and co-operation concerning Civil Protection with
ready to intervene 24h/24, and the Common Spain, with an addendum specific to forest fires
Emergency Communication and Information fighting (2003) (Cf. Table 3.11).
System (CECIS).
They co-ordinate the means on the terrain. These agreements never bind the counterparts to
Today this centre associates 30 States (EU Member intervene, each one decides to intervene according to
States, and Bulgaria, Romania, Iceland, Liechtenstein the availability.
and Norway). Forest fires in Portugal during summer 2003, have
put forward the limits of voluntary assistance at a
Formerly, resource sharing between the countries moment when several neighbouring countries were
was very limited but the situation has been quickly simultaneously facing big emergency situations.
changing since a few years. Although 21 participating countries clearly
The advantages of resource sharing have become expressed a political wish to help, Portugal finally
so obvious that regional co-operation has widely received only the help of Italy (two Canadairs) and
increased. Germany (three helicopters) because the majority of
At the European level, we have many examples of the available means were already used to fight fires in
cross-border co-operation where two countries share other parts of the Mediterranean region.
their forest fire fighting means. During these inter-State co-operations, the action
The French and Spanish forest fire fighting services zones (generally border or nearby) command rules;
signed on July 4th, 1959 the first mutual assistance responsibility and financing (rule of voluntary
Agreement (CONVENIO, 1959). participation and not of request) are clearly defined.
The rules of this co-operation are fixed by the Moreover, the co-operation can have two quite
preamble of the convention: distinct aspects: in a replacement operation, a
- facilitate mutual assistance between the two country sends its teams to the countries requiring help,
countries ; to work under the direction of the proper authorities of
- facilitate quick assistance sending in the case of this last country.
serious accidents or important disasters « in the In a reinforcement operation, the two countries
regions near the border » ; simultaneously deploy their teams under the direction
- this agreement applies not only to fire-fighter means of the authority, which has the territorial jurisdiction.
but to all personnel and equipment means that can
be used by the two countries in their respective
assistance organisation plans.

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This situation requires reflecting on necessary


In July 2004, the Direction of Defence and Civil
common training and exercises.
Protection of the French Ministry of Interior asked Italy
Indeed, if an agreement fixes the legal framework
to deploy its teams in order to help control a forest fire
for the co-operation, it is necessary to test its impact
near the Muy.
before applying it in real situation.
The Italian Ministry immediately decided to send
Thus the EU supports simulation programs for
several teams in France, which worked in close co-
catastrophes, organised to evaluate the operational
operation with the French brigades during two weeks.
assistance and command chain and to test in full-
The presence of French and Italian liaison officers,
scale the co-operative work between the European
the professional qualification level of the teams, the
teams.
technical assistance provided by the French and the
Under the aegis of the Commission, France
logistic assistance provided by the Italian were much
organised in April 2004 the first large size Community
appreciated.
exercise for forest fire fighting (DDSC/COM, 2004).
However many problems emerged, such as relief
team take-overs, personnel accommodation, At the present time, several Member States of the
differences in procedures and equipment, EU support the establishment of an action force, which
comprehension problems, doubts concerning would not be a new Community service, but a
administrative management and personnel insurance combined force by mobilizing national forces.
(COLLECTIVE, 2004 :43). Portugal goes as far as to wishing a mutualisation of
the fighting means against natural disasters, especially
forest fires; but this position is far from being shared by
all (GIROUD, 2006 :15).
Figures and tables

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Map 3-5 - Burned surfaces in 2003


(Map created on line on the EFFIS website –http://effis.jrc.it/wmi/viewer.htm), (I. GUIRAUD, 2006)
Name and date of the agreement Purpose of the agreement

Agreement for the mutual assistance To facilitate the mutual assistance and the fast
France / Spain between French and Spanish fire sending of assistance in the event of urgency
protection organizations ; 1959 occurring in border areas

Agreement concerning the intervention This agreement delimits when the mutual
of the water bombers in the event of assistance is necessary, the procedure to
France / Italy
mutual assistance for the forest require the assistance and the duration for
fires fighting ; 1963 which it is applicable

Protocol enters the Kingdom of Spain


Treats of preparation and implementation of
and the Republic of Portugal concerning
Spain / Portugal projects on the scientific and technical
the technical assistance and the mutual
assistance for Civil Protection
assistance on Civil Protection ; 1992

Additional protocol of mutual assistance This protocol facilitates the intervention of the
in the event of forest fires in border two parties in the event of forest fire being in a
Spain / Portugal areas, adopted within the framework of band of 5 km each side of the common border.
terms of the protocol of 1992 between The objective is to reduce the delays of the
the same parts ; 2003 bodies of forest fighting

Table 3-11 - Assistance agreements concerning forest fires in the Euro-Mediterranean region

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4 CONCLUSION

Forest fire fighting has much improved during these Resources have always been the core of the
last decades. problem.
It is considered today as a set of successive and As it is the main element for the fight, it logically
complementary measures, identified in a “device for occupies the central place in the forest fire
crisis management”. management device.
The highly fire prone European countries of the The technical innovations on equipment and
Mediterranean basin have been very early organised to intervention tactics have facilitated the work of the
face fires. firemen.
The efforts made by the successive Governments We are far from the first intervention vehicles.
these last thirty years, have led to the constitution of Ground and aerial means are now full of new
perfectly structured national devices for technologies.
operational management. High water load capacities are a big advantage to
In addition to the qualified ministerial poles, quickly control a fire.
missions and other organisations public and/or private Governments have well understood that the
are regularly created. complimentarily of the terrestrial and aerial means
The partnerships are multiplied, and the system is primordial.
is more and more complex. New technical means have recently appeared.
We can fear that the determination to always Generalisation of the development of geomatic as
improve the system will reduce or slow down the a decision aid tool, a technique, which has already
existing devices due to an important division of the proved its reliability.
responsibilities. At the heart of the device, Geographical Information
It should also be noticed that Civil Protection systems, and their applications for Civil Protection, is a
services are regularly reorganised. major advantage for better forest fire management.
However these restructurings do not always follow These resources are still not widespread enough,
the same direction: sometimes it is to reinforce the civil but this change during the following years.
part of the device, sometimes the military part. The role of man has been diversified: he is a
The increasing complexity of the device does not fighter but he is first a manager and a coordinator of the
necessarily represent a constraint, if the frame is device.
correctly treated on a hierarchical basis.
If strategic choices concerning fire fighting are
Chances are that that this tendency will continue in
different from one country to another (privileged aerial
the next years, and especially under the Community
support, troops of "helitransported" firemen, etc.),
influence.
fighting forces are forced to cooperate within the
Indeed, the support policy of the European Union
framework of forest fire assistance missions.
concerning Civil Protection federates the countries
The forest fire reality of these last years in the
around the principles of complimentarily and resource
Mediterranean region recalls the limits of the national
sharing.
devices.
Nevertheless, the supranational level cannot
After a certain level, response capacities are not
supplant national systems, especially as many States
sufficient to control a phenomenon and this no matter
wish to keep control of their national competence and
the logistical and technical qualities of the device.
resources.
In such situations, the concerned country has no
other choice than to ask for voluntary assistance to
neighbouring countries.
All the countries share this dependence situation.
But this does not mean abandoning their own device
to help the neighbours.
It is thus difficult to have to deal with two existing
realities (national and supranational), and
unfortunately, this becomes more and more the case.
The future of the forest fire fighting maybe depends
on increasing technical and scientific co-operation.
But anyway, the increase of big fires during these
last years, calls for higher vigilance, early before the
fighting phase.

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5 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCES

Collective, under the direction of Ricardo VÉLEZ (2000) Direcção-Geral Recursos Florestais (2006) - Plano
- La defensa contra incendios forestales. Nacional de Defesa da Floresta Contra Incêndios -
Fundamentos y experiencias - Mc Graw-Hill, Ministerio de Agricultura, 85 p.
Madrid, 1320 p.
General Direction of Environment (1999) - Vade-
Collective, under the direction of Sophie mecum of civil protection in the European Union -
SAUVAGNARGUES-LESAGE (2001) - Wildland fire European Commission report, 133 p.
suppression management and planning : a state of
General Direction of Environment (2005) - Forest Fires
the art - EUFIRELAB, 29 p.
in Europe 2004 - European Commission report, 44
Collectif (2004) - Le rôle du représentant territorial de p.
l’Etat dans la gestion des crises de Sécurité Civile -
Dipartimento dello Protezion Civile (2006) - Procedure
Actes des Journées européennes des représentants
per il concorso della flotta aerea dello stato nel caso
territoriaux de l’Etat (Munich, Allemagne), La
di incendi boschivi - Ministero dell’Interiore, 48 p.
Documentation Française, pp. 42-45
GIROD P. (mars 2004) - L’action communautaire en
Convenio de 14 de julio de 1959 de asistencia mutua
matière de protection civile - Rapport d’information
entre servicios contra incendios y socorro franceses
n° 237 du Sénat, 24 p.
y españoles - Madrid, 3 p.
GUIRAUD Isabelle (2006) - Geographical Information
DDSC / Communication (2004) - Exercice européen
Systems applied to Civil Safety : « SIGASC »
feux de forêts -Dossier de presse, 17 p.
application in the Gard - Working document, LGEI
Direction de la Défense et de la Sécurité Civile (2005) - Center (EMA), 14 p.
Ordre d’Opérations National Feux de Forêts -
HAUT Claude (2006) - La flotte aérienne de la Sécurité
Ministère de l’Intérieur, 86 p.
Civile - Rapport d’information du Sénat n°452, 67 p.
Direction de la Défense et de la Sécurité Civile (2006) -
Junta de Andalucía (2004) - Plan INFOCA 2004
Protéger la forêt contre les incendies - Dossier de
Presentación - Conferencia de Medio Ambiente, 19
presse - Ministère de l’Intérieur, 13 p.
p.
DGB (2002) - Plan forestal español - Ministerio de
SARMIENTO Pilar (2001) - Los planes de protección civil
Medio Ambiente, pp. 93-96.
de emergencia por incendios forestales - II
DGB (2005) - La campaña de lucha contra incendios Jornadas de Prevención de Incendios Forestales
forestales 2005 - Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, 37 ETSI Montes, 12 p.
p.
VELEZ Ricardo (1990) - Au feu ! Les incendies de forêt
sans la région méditerranéenne : panorama régional
- FAO, Unasylva n°162.

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6 FIGURES AND ILLUSTRATIONS


6.1 FIGURES
Figure 1-1 - Importance of wooded surfaces on the national territories .......................................................................2
Figure 1-2 - Burned surfaces (ha) since 1980 in the Euro-Mediterranean countries ...................................................2
Figure 2-1 - Map of meteorological fire danger forecast in the Southern defence zone ..............................................5
Figure 2-2 - Synthesis on the French organisation for forest fire fighting.....................................................................5
Figure 2-3 - Daily map of fire risk in Greece.................................................................................................................8
Figure 2-4 - Synthesis on the Greek organisation of the forest fire fighting .................................................................9
Figure 2-5: Synthesis of the Italian organisation for forest fire fighting ......................................................................11
Figure 2-6: Model of forecasting Ris.I.Co ...................................................................................................................12
Figure 2-7 - Map of Fire Risk in Portugal....................................................................................................................15
Figure 2-8 - Synthesis on the Portuguese organisation for forest fire fighting ...........................................................16
Figure 2-9 - Daily risks map of the Spanish Meteorological National Institute ...........................................................19
Figure 2-10 - Synthesis on the Spanish organisation for forest fire fighting...............................................................19
Figure 3-1 - Map of fire out-line in real time for the assistance in the fighting management......................................25
Figure 3-2 - Role of the VLRTT in the forest fires campaign......................................................................................25
6.2 MAPS
Map 3-1 - Deployment of aerial means in the Southern defence zone in France ......................................................30
Map 3-2 - Deployment of aerial means in Italy ...........................................................................................................31
Map 3-3 - Distribution of aerial means by the Ministry of Environment - summer 2005 Campaign ...........................32
Map 3-4 - Distribution of aerial means by the Ministry of Environment - winter 2005 Campaign .............................33
Map 3-5 - Burned surfaces in 2003 ............................................................................................................................43
6.3 PHOTOS
Photos 3-1, 3-2 and 3-3 - VLRTT vehicle (France), VCOT and VCOC vehicles (Portugal).......................................25
Photo 3-4 - UMMT vehicle, Spain...............................................................................................................................26
Photos 3-5 and 3-6 - VVPA (Spain) and VLCI vehicles (Portugal).............................................................................26
Photo 3-7 - DATT vehicle ...........................................................................................................................................26
Photo 3-8 - CCFM vehicle, France .............................................................................................................................26
Photos 3-9, 3-10 and 3-11 - GIPPONE Iveco 40.10, UNIMOG Mercedes U1650 and Iveco 80.17 BARRIBI vehicles
...............................................................................................................................................................................26
Photos 3-12, 3-13 and 3-14 - VRCI, VFCI and VECI vehicles, Portugal....................................................................27
Table 3-1 - 3 - Technical index of CCFS and Photo 3-15 - CCFS vehicle, France....................................................27
Table 3-2 - Technical index of CCGC and Photo 3-16 - CCGC vehicle, France .......................................................27
Photos 3-17, 3-18 and 3-19 -VTTR, VTTF and VTGC vehicles, Portugal..................................................................27
Photos 3-20, 3-21 and 3-22 - PZL-M-18 Dromader, Grumman 164, Beechcraft .......................................................36
Table 3-3 - Technical index of Canadair CL-41 and Photo 3-23 - Bomber plane CL-415, France ............................36
Table 3-4 - Technical index of Tracker CF25 and Photo 3-24 - Bomber Tracker CF25, France ...............................36
Photo 3-25 - Air Tractor AT-802 plane, Spain ............................................................................................................36
Photos 3-26, 3-27 and 3-28 - Lockheed C-130 Hercules, Douglas Aircraft DC-7 and Dash 8 Q 400 MR.................37
Photos 3-29 and 3-30 - Alouette and BK-117 helicopters, Spain...............................................................................37
Photo 3-34 - NH-500D helicopter, Italy.......................................................................................................................38
Photos 3-35 and 3-36 - Bell 205 and PZL-W3A Sokol helicopters, Spain .................................................................38
Photos 3-38 and 3-39 - AirCrane helicopter, France..................................................................................................38
Photo 3-40 - Mil Mi-8MTV helicopter , Spain..............................................................................................................39
Photos 3-41, 3-42 and 3-43 - Puma, Superpuma and Kamov Ka-32 helicopters ......................................................39
Photo 3-44 - CH-47 helicopter, Italy ...........................................................................................................................39
Photos 3-45, 3-46 and 3-47 - "Helitransported" Brigades of the Directorate-General of Biodiversity, Spain.............39
Photos 3-48 and 3-49 - Cessna 337 Skymaster Push Pull planes and its device to take images.............................39
6.4 TABLES
Table 1-1 - Forests in the Euro-Mediterranean countries and first evaluations of fires................................................2
Table 2-1 - Synthesis of the national organisations in charge of forest fire management .........................................21
Table 3-1 - 3 - Technical index of CCFS and Photo 3-15 - CCFS vehicle, France ...............................................27
Table 3-2 - Technical index of CCGC and Photo 3-16 - CCGC vehicle, France .......................................................27
Table 3-3 - Technical index of Canadair CL-415 and Photo 3-23 - Bomber plane CL-415, France......................36
Table 3-4 - Technical index of Tracker CF25 and Photo 3-24 - Bomber Tracker CF25, France ...............................36
Table 3-5 - Technical index of Dash 8 Q 400 MR ......................................................................................................37
Table 3-6 - Technical index of EC-145 and Photo 3-31 - EC-145 helicopter, France................................................37
Table 3-7 - Technical index of Alouette III and Photo 3-32 - Alouette III helicopter, France......................................37
Table 3-8 - Technical index of Ecureuil and Photo 3-33 - Ecureuil helicopter, France ..............................................38
Table 3-9 - Technical index of AB 412 and Photo 3-37 - AB 412 helicopter, Italy .....................................................38
Table 3-10 - Comparison of the means for fire fighting (From DDSC, 2005) .............................................................40
Table 3-11 - Assistance agreements concerning forest fires in the Euro-Mediterranean region ...............................43

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7 WEBSITES
7.1 CARTOGRAPHY & IMAGERIE
http://effis.jrc.it EFFIS Map viewer
http://mapserver.jrc.it/website/image2000/viewer.htm Image and CORINTE Land Cover
www.zki.caf.dlr.de Emergency Mapping and Disaster Monitoring
http://rapidfire.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov MODIS Rapid Response System
7.2 FOREST FIRES
www.fire.uni-freiburg.de/programmes/eu-comission/EU-Commission.htm List of links on forest fires
www.eufirelab.org Project EUFIRELAB
www.bombeiosdeportugal.com Portuguese firemen
7.3 ORGANISATIONS IN CHARGE OF FOREST FIRE MANAGEMENT
• FRANCE
www.meteofrance.com National institute of meteorology
www.agriculture.gouv.fr Ministry o Agriculture
www.interieur.gouv.fr/rubriques/c/c5_defense_secu_civil Ministry of Interior
• GREECE
www.civilprotection.gr Civil Protection
www.fireservice.gr Forest fires service
• ITALY
www.vasonline.it Environmental association and Onlus Company
www.vigilfuoco.it National Corps of Fires Monitoring
www.protezionecivile.it Department of Civil Protection
www.corpoforestale.it State Forest Corps
• PORTUGAL
www.dgrf.min-agricultura.pt General Direction of Forest Resources
www.meteo.pt Meteorological Institut
www.snbpc.pt National service of Firemen and Civil Protection
• SPAIN
www.juntadeandalucia.es/medioambiente Council of environment of Andalusia
www.mma.es/portal/secciones/biodiversidad/defensa_incendios/index.htmGeneral Direction of Biodiversity
www.proteccioncivil.org General Direction of Civil Protection
www.guardiacivil.es/quesomos/organizacion/operaciones/seprona Service of Nature Protection
www.inm.es National Institute of Meteorology
7.4 LEGISLATION
www.fao.org/Legal/index_en.htm Legal data bases of FAO
http://eur-lex.europa.eu Right of the European Union
7.5 EUROPEAN UNION
http://ec.europa.eu/index_en.htm European Commission (CE)
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/forests/home_en.htm Forest management (CE)
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/civil Civil Protection (CE)

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8 GLOSSARY

ACO : Aeronaves de Coordinación y Observación


BASC : Base Avions de la Sécurité Civile
BRIF : Brigadas Helitransportadas
CCFL : Camion Citerne Feux Léger
CCFM : Camion Citerne Feux Moyen
CCFS : Camion Citerne Feux Super
CCGC : Camion Citerne Grande Capacité
CDOS : Centros Distritais de Operações de Socorro
CFS : Corpo Forestale dello Stato
CLIF : Comite de Lucha contra Incendios Forestales
CNPC : Comisión Nacional de Protección Civil
CNVF : Corpo Nazionale dei Vigili del Fuoco
COAU : Centro Operativo Aereo Unificato
CODIS : Centre Opérationnel D’Incendie et de Secours
COEPC : Centros Operacionais de Emergência de Protecção Civil
COGIC : Centre Opérationnel de Gestion Interministériel des Crises
COL : Centri Operativi Locali
COP : Centri Operativi Provinciale
COR : Centri de Controllo Regionale
COZ : Centre Opérationnel de Zone
DATT : Dévidoir Automatique Tout Terrain
DDAF : Direction Départementale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt
DDSC : Direction de la Défense et de la Sécurité Civile
DGB : Dirección General de Biodiversidad
DGE : Direction Générale de l’Environnement
DGPCE : Dirección General de la Protección Civil y Emergencias
DGRF : Direcção-Geral dos Recursos Florestais
DIH : Division d’Intervention Héliporté
DIS : Division d’Intervention Spécialisée
DRAF : Direction Régionale de l’Agriculture et de la Forêt
EC : European Commission
EGIF : Estadistica General de Incendios Forestales
EMZ : Etat Major de Zone
EPRIF : Equipos de Prevención integral de Incendios Forestales
EU : European Union
FAO : Food and Agricultural Organisation
GDDPFNE : General Direction for the Development and Protection of Forest and Natural
GFS : Greek Fire Service
GH : Groupement Hélicoptères
GMA : Groupement des Moyens Aériens
GSCP : General Secretariat for Civil Protection
INC : Instituto da Conservação da Natureza
LGEI : Laboratoire de Génie de l’Environnement Industriel
MAFFS : Modular Airborne Fire Fighting System
MIPAD : Ministry of Interior, Public Administration and Decentralisation
MMA : Ministerio de Medio Ambiente
NDVI : Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
ONF : Office National des Forêts
PCMTT : Poste de Commandement Mobile Tout Terrain
PIDAF : Plan Intercommunal de Débroussaillement et d’Aménagement Forestier
PIP : Plane Integrado de Prevención
PNDFCI : Plano Nacional de Defesa da Floresta Contra Incêndios
PPRIF : Plan de Prévention du Risque Incendie de Forêt
Ris.I.Co : Rischio Incendi e Coordinamento
SDIS : Service Départemental d’Incendie et de Secours
SEPRONA : Servicio de Protección de la Naturaleza
SNBPC : Serviço Nacional de Bombeiros e Protecção Civil
SMBPC : Serviços Municipais de Bombeiros e Protecção Civil
SOUP : Sale Operative Unificate Permanenti
SRBPC : Serviço Regional de Bombeiros e Protecção Civil

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UMMT : Unidades Móviles de Meteorología y Transmisiones


VCOC : Veículo de Comando e Comunicações
VCOT : Veículo de Comando Táctico
VECI : Veículo Especial de Combate a Incêndios
VFCI : Veículo Florestal de Combate a Incêndios
VLCI : Veículo Ligeiro de Combate a Incêndios
VLRTT : Véhicule de Liaison Radio Tout Terrain
VRCI : Veículo Rural de Combate a Incêndios
VTTF : Veículo Tanque Táctico Florestal
VTTR : Veículo Tanque Táctico Rural
VTGC : Veículo Tanque Grande Capacidade
VVPA : Vehículo de Vigilancia y Primer Ataque

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9 APPENDIX: CLASSIFICATION OF INTERVENTION AERIAL MEANS IN SPAIN AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION ON THE TERRITORY

Source : « La campaña de lucha contra incendios forestales 2005 - Ministerio de Medio Ambiente » (DGB, 2006 :35)

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