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06CS36

Subject:

Chapter#1 Number systems and base conversion..Page3

Chapter#2. ...Boolean algebra and Logic GatesPage

Chapter#3 Minimization Techniques...Page

Chapter#4 Combinational Logic Design..Page

Chapter#5 Flip-Flops....Page

Chapter#5 Counters..Page

Chapter#7 Registers..Page

Chapter#8 ..Page

Chapter#9 ..Page

Chapter#10 page

Chapter #1

Number Systems and base conversion

The number systems basically depend on the base. each number system has a particular

weight. With the help of the weights we can easily convert a number from one system to

another. Mostly four number systems we often use.

i.

Binary

ii.

Octal

iii.

Decimal

iv. Hexadecimal

Binary number system: -In this number system, only two digits (0 and 1) are used to

represent the numbers. The binary numbers has the base 2. The weight of binary number

system is 24,23,22, 21,20

Decimal number system: -Decimal number system is familiar system and is used

commonly. This system has a base 10. In this system, 10 digits(from 0 to 9)are used to

represent the numbers. The weight of decimal is 104,103,102,101,100

Octal number system: -Octal number system has a base 8.8 digits from 0 to 7 are used

to represent the numbers. The octal number system has a weight 83,82,81,80.

Hexadecimal number system: -Hexadecimal number system has a base 16.In this

number system ten digits (from 0 to 9)and 6 alphabets A,B,C,D,E and F are used to

represent the numbers Where A=10,B=11,C=12,D=13,E=14,and F=15.The weights are

164,163,162,161,160.

Comparison among the representation of number in different systems

Decimal

Binary

Octal

Hexadecimal

0

0000

0

0

1

0001

1

1

2

0010

2

2

3

0011

3

3

4

0100

4

4

5

0101

5

5

6

0110

6

6

7

0111

7

7

8

1000

10

8

9

1001

11

9

10

1010

12

A

11

1011

13

B

12

1100

14

C

13

1101

15

D

14

1110

16

E

15

1111

17

F

Base Conversion: Decimal to Binary: -A decimal number can be converted into binary number by repeated

division by 2 and write results from bottom to top.

for example: (79)10=(??)2

(79)10=(1001111)2

A fractional decimal number can be converted to binary number by repeated

multiplication by 2. Write results from top to bottom.

(61.125)10= (??)2

0.125 x 2=0.250

0.250 x 2=0.500

0.500 x 2=1.000

(61.125)10= (11101.001)2

Similarly any decimal number can be converted to any base number by repeated

division by base, write results from bottom to top and similarly the fractional part of a

decimal number can be converted to any base by repeated multiplication by base and

write results from top to bottom. One example each from remaining two number systems

(octal & hexadecimal) is given below.

Example: - Convert (426.123)10 to octal and hexadecimal.

0.123 x 8 =0.984

0.984 x 8 =7.872

0.872 x 8 =6.976

0.976 x 8 =7.808

(426.123)10= (652.0767)8

(ii)(426.123)10= (??)16

0.123 x 16=1.968

0.968 x 16=15.488

0.488 x 16=7.808

0.808 x 16=12.928

(426.123)10= (1AA.1F7C)16

Binary to Decimal: -A binary number can be converted to decimal by multiplying each

corresponding bit of binary number by base, increasing the power of base 0 to n-1 where

n is the total number of binary bits from right to left and sum up to get decimal

equivalent.

Example: convert the binary number 111011 to the decimal equivalent.

1x25+1x24+1x23+0x22+1x21+1x20

32+16+8+0+2+1=59

while converting the fractional part of a number just give the negative powers to

the base from left to right just as done in the next example.

Example: Convert 11011.001 to decimal equivalent.

1x24+1x23+0x22+1x21+1x20+.0x2-1+0x2-2+1x2-3

16+8+2+1+.1/8=27.0125

Similarly, number from any base can be converted to decimal equivalent by the

same procedure mentioned above i.e. by multiplying each corresponding digit of number

by base, increasing the power of base 0 to n-1 where n is the total number of digits from

right to left and sum up to get decimal equivalent. and of course for fractional part give

the negative powers to the base from left to right. It will be further clear by this example.

Example: convert (56)8 and (DF7)16 to decimal equivalent.

(i)

5x81+6x80

5x8+6

40+6=46

(ii)

Dx162+Fx161+7x160

13x256+15x16+7

By: -Muhammed Asif Raza(06CS36).

3328+240+7=3575

Binary to Octal: - To convert a binary number to octal number, separate the binary

number into groups of three starting from the right and then translate each group into its

octal equivalent. Zeros may be added to the left of the binary number to complete a group

of three For example, to translate the number 11010 to octal, the formula would be as

follows

Binary

011

010

Formula

011=3

010=2

Octal

=32

Binary to Hexadecimal: -To convert a binary number to a hexadecimal number, separate

the binary number into groups of four starting from the right and then translate each

group into its hexadecimal equivalent. Zeros may be added to the left of the binary

number to complete a group of four. For example, to translate the number 11010 to

hexadecimal, the formula would be as follows

Binary =11010

0001

1010

Formula

0001=1

1010=A

Hexadecimal=1A

Octal to Hexadecimal: - Octal to hexadecimal conversion is not normally or directly

possible. Following procedure is applied when converting octal to hexadecimal.

First convert the octal number into equivalent binary number and then convert the binary

number into hexadecimal by making the groups of four bits from right to left. Same

procedure is applied to convert a hexadecimal number to octal instead that you have to

make the groups of three bits.

Binary operations: Binary numbers can be manipulated with the same familiar operations used to

calculate decimal numbers, but using only zeros and ones. To add two numbers there are

only four rules to remember.

0+0=0

0+1=1

1+0=1

1+1=10

And for subtraction,

0-0=0

1-0=1

0-1=1 (by taking borrow from next higher digit)

1-1=0

For multiplication,

00=0

01=0

01=0

By: -Muhammed Asif Raza(06CS36).

11=1

Example: Addition.

101101

+100111

1010100

Subtract, using borrow.

101101

- 100111

000110

Example Multiplication

1011

11__

1011

1011__

100001

Complements

The complement of a number is the number which when added to the original will make it

equal to a multiple of the base number system.

The complement of a number can be used as a representation of that number as a negative

- moreover, as a positive number representing a negative! It is really a bit of a trick, which

we can use to make subtraction easier for machines.

In a computer the representation and manipulation of negative numbers is usually

performed using complements

Complements for a radix come in two forms

1. rs complement

2. (r-1)s complement

rs

complement

Given a positive number N that has n digit integer part, the rs complement of N is

defined as

r n - N for N 0 ,zero otherwise.

10s

Complement

10s complement of (37218)10 = 10 5 - 37218 = 62782

10s complement of (0.12345) 10 = 10 0 - 0.12345 = 0.87655

2s Complement

1. Reverse the value of the bits in the binary number; i.e. change all the 0 bits to 1 and

change 1s to 0.

2. Add 1 to the result.

2s complement of (101110)2 = 2 6 - (101110) = 010010

2s complement of (0.0110) 2 = 2 0 - (0.0110) = 0.1010

(r-1)s Complement

Given a positive number N with integer part n bits, fractional part m bits, the (r-1)s

complement is defined as,

By: -Muhammed Asif Raza(06CS36).

(r n - n -m -N)

A simple procedure to obtain the 9s, 7s and 15s complement is that subtract

each digit of the number from 9,7, and 15 respectively.

9s complement (r = 10)

9s complement of (37218)10 = 10 5 - 1 - 37218 = 62781=99999-37218

9s complement of (0.12345)10 = (10 0 - 10 -5 - 0.12345)= 0.99999 - 0.12345 = 0.87654

9s complement 0f (25.639)10 = (10 2 - 10 -3 - 25.639) = 99.999 - 25.639 = 74.360

1s complement (r = 2)

To obtain 1s complement of a binary number, simply change the 1s to 0s and 0s to 1s.

1s complement of (101100)2 = 2 6 - 1 - (101100)= 111111 - 101100 = 010011

1s complement of (0.0110) 2 = 2 0 - 2 -4 - (0.0110)= 0.1111 -0.0110 = 0.1001

Subtracting using Complements: Using (r-1)s complement: Following procedure is applied to perform subtraction using (r-1)s complement.

Step 1. Find the (r-1)s complement of the subtrahend.

Step 2. Add (r-1)s complement of the subtrahend to the minuend.

Step 3. Check the end around carry

(a) If there is carry, result will be positive, add that carry to the result.

(b) If there is no carry, result will be negative. Find the (r-1)s complement of the

result and put minus sign.

Example

Using (r)s complement: Step 1. Find rs complement of the subtrahend.

Step 2. Add rs complement of the subtrahend to the minuend.

Step 3. Check end around carry.

(a) If there is carry result will be positive. Discard the carry.

(c) If there is no carry result is negative, find rs complement of the result and put

negative sign.

Binary Codes: Decimal numbers are coded using binary bit patterns. Binary codes for decimal digits

require a minimum number of four bits. Numerous different codes can be obtained by

arranging four or more bits in ten distinct possible combinations. A few codes are shown

in Table-2

Numbers are represented in digital computers either in binary or decimal form

through a binary code. The decimal numbers are stored internally in the computer by

means of decimal code. Each decimal digit requires at least four storage elements. The

decimal numbers are converted into binary when arithmetic operations are done

internally in computer with numbers represented in binary. It is also possible to perform

the arithmetic operations directly in decimal with all numbers left in a coded form

throughout. For example, the decimal number 395, when converted into binary, it is

equivalent to 110001011 and consists of nine binary digits. The same number, when

represented internally in the BCD code, occupies the four bits for each decimal digit, for

a total of 12 bits;0011 1001 0101. The first four bits represented a 3 the next four a 9, and

a last four a 5.

It is worthwhile to note the difference between the coding and conversion of a

binary number. In either case the result is the series of bits. The bits obtained from

conversion are binary digits. Bits obtained from coding are combination of 1s and 0s

arranged according to the rules of the code used. Therefore it is extremely important to

realize that a series of 1s and 0s in a digital system may some times represent a binary

number and at other times represent some other discrete quantity of information as

specified by a given binary code. The BCD code for example, has been chosen to be both

a code and a direct binary conversion as long as the decimal

Table-2

Table of various binary codes for decimal digits

Decimal

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

8421 (BCD)

84-2-1

2421

Excess-3

Gray

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

0000

0111

0110

0101

0100

1011

1010

1001

1000

1111

0000

0001

0010

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1110

1111

0011

0100

0101

0110

0111

1000

1001

1010

1011

1100

0000

0001

0011

0010

0110

0111

0101

0100

1100

1101

Binary coded decimal (BCD): The BCD is a straight assignment of binary equivalent.

Each decimal digit is represented by a 4-digit binary number; e.g. (7 4 3)10 = (0111 0100 0011)BCD.

2421 and 84-2-1: - 2421 and 84-2-1 are weighted codes. The latter is convenient for 9s

complement operations

Excess-3: - Excess-3 is BCD plus 3. It is convenient 9s complement operations. Excess3 code was used in older computers. This is an unweighted code, it code assignment is

obtained from the corresponding value of the BCD after addition of 3.

Gray code: - In Gray code consecutive digits differ only by one bit. Useful for

mechanical position decoding.

Example: represent the decimal number (567)10 in the following codes

(i)BCD

(ii)2421

(iii)5421

(iv)Excess-3

Answer: Decimal

BCD

2421

5421

Excess-3

567

0101 0110 0111 0101 1110 1101 1000 1001 1010

1000 1001 1010

Binary -to-Gray Conversion: Following steps are applied to convert a binary number into Gray number.

Step 1: - The MSB of Gray number remains the same as the MSB of the binary number.

Step 2: - Start from left to right and add each adjacent pair of binary bits to obtain new

gray- code bit. Discard the carries.

Example: - Convert (101100101)2 into Gray

(101100101)binary=(111010111)Gray

Answer.

10

11

Chapter # 2

Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates

In 1854 George Boole introduced a systematic treatment of logic and developed

Boolean algebra. Boolean algebra is the set of rules, laws and theorems by which logic

circuits are represented mathematically. It is convenient tool for expressing and analyzing

the logical behavior of digital systems.

Boolean algebra operations: -Basically there are three basic operations in Boolean

algebra that are applied on the variables, AND, OR and NOT (or sometimes called as

complement operation).

AND operation: -AND operation represents the logical multiplication. Its symbol is

.(Dot) which is placed between the variables that are to be multiplied. In logic circuits,

AND operation is performed with the AND gate. For example

0.0 = 0

1.0 = 0

0.1 = 0

1.1 = 1

OR operation: -OR operation represents the logical addition. Its symbol is +(Plus

sign). This operation is performed by the OR gate.

0+0 = 0

0+1 = 1

1+0 = 1

1+1 = 1

NOT operation (Complement operation): -NOT operation performs the complement

operation. In other words, it complements or inverts the input, for instance,

A=1

=0

Boolean Function: - A Boolean function is a function that is represented by two binary

operators, AND and OR and one unary operator NOT, Binary variables, (), and equal

sign. For example

F (A, B)= AB+AB

Truth Table: -A truth table is a table that describes the logic behavior of the Boolean

function of logic circuit. It shows all the inputs combinations with corresponding outputs.

To represent any function in terms of truth table, we need 2n input combinations from 0 to

2n-1, where n is the number of input variable. For example the truth table for And

operation is given below. Here we use two input variables named as A and B because

AND operation requires at least two variables, and the output of function as F. With two

variables we have 4 input combinations.

Truth Table for AND operation

A

B

F

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

1

By: -Muhammed Asif Raza(06CS36).

12

Rules of Boolean algebra: Boolean algebra has some rules, which are useful for minimizing the Boolean

expression and Boolean function.

1. A+A = A

2. A.A = A

3. A+1 = 1

4. A+0 = A

5. A+A = 1

6. A.0 = 0

7. A.A = 0

8. A =A

9. A+AB = A

10. A+AB = A+B

11. (A+B) = A. B

12. (A.B) = A+B

13. A+B = B+A

14. A.1 = A

15. A. (B.C) = A.B+A.C

Laws of Boolean algebra: -Boolean algebra has the three basic laws:

1. Commutative Law: i.

A+B = B+A

ii.

A.B = B.A

Truth table for (i)

A B

A.B B.A

0 0

0

0

0 1

0

0

1 0

0

0

1 1

1

1

order in which variables

when performing OR or

operation makes no difference

i.

(A+B)+C = A+(B+C)

ii.

(A.B).C = A.(B.C)

Truth table for proof

A

B

C

A+B

(A+B)+C B+C

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

3. Distributive Law: -

A B

A+B B+A

0 0

0

0

0 1

1

1

1 0

1

1

1 1

1

1

that the

are grouped

AND

A+C

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

13

This law states that ORing several variables and multiplying with single variable is

equivalent to multiplying single variable with all variables and performing OR operation.

i.

A.(B+C) = A.B + A.C

ii.

A+ (BC) = (A+B) . (A+C)

Truth Table for proof

A

B

C

BC L.H.S A+B A+C R.H.S

A+BC

(A+B).(A+C)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

L.H.S = R.H.S

De Morgans Theorem: This law states that complement of Sums equal to products of complements.

(i) (A+B) = A. B

Generally,

(x1+x2+x3+x4++xn) = x1.x2.x3.x4.xn

And,

Complement of product is equal to sum of the complements.

(ii) (AB) = A+B

Generally,

(x1.x2.x3.x4.xn) = x1+x2+x3+x4+xn

Truth Table for proof

A B

C

A+B+C

L.H.S

A

B

C

R.H.S

(A+B+C)

A.B.C

0 0

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0 0

1

1

0

1

1

0

0

0 1

0

1

0

1

0

1

0

0 1

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

1 0

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1 0

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

1 1

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1 1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

L.H.S = R.H.S

Boolean Expression: It is short hand way to describe the logic circuit in terms of Boolean expression.

The result of the Boolean expression is true, high, or 1 or it may be 0, low or false. There

is no third possibility between 1 and 0.The Boolean expression describes the logic actions

performed by a circuit. Boolean expressions are basically two forms.

1. Canonical form

By: -Muhammed Asif Raza(06CS36).

14

2. Standard Form

1. Canonical form: This form of a Boolean expression is obtained directly from the truth table of the

function. In this form of Boolean expression all variables must be present in the

expression. It is not a simplified form. Canonical form has two types.

i. Sum of min terms

ii. Product of max terms

Min term: - A min term is a product term in which each variable must exist either in

complemented (normal) or un complemented form. The variable will be in complemented

form, if the bit corresponding to it in the truth table is zero, and variable will be in un

complemented form if the corresponding bit is one.

A min term id represented by mj where j is the decimal representation of the

binary number in the input combination.

Max term: - A max term is a sum term in which each variable must exist either in

complemented (normal) or un complemented form. The variable will be in complemented

form, if the bit corresponding to it in the truth table is one, and variable will be in un

complemented form if the corresponding bit is zero.

A max term is represented by Mj where j is the decimal representation of the

binary number in the input combination. It is worthwhile to note that Sum of min term is

when complemented produces the Product of max term expression and vice versa. A

function has min terms as well as max terms equal to number of input combinations.

A B

C

Min terms

mj

Max terms Mj

0 0

0

ABC

m0

A+B+C

M0

0 0

1

ABC

m1

A+B+C

M1

0 1

0

ABC

m2

A+B+C

M2

0 1

1

ABC

m3

A+B+C

M3

1 0

0

ABC

m4

A+B+C

M4

1 0

1

ABC

m5

A+B+C

M5

1 1

0

ABC

m6

A+B+C

M6

1 1

1

ABC

m7

A+B+C

M7

(i) Sum of Min term Boolean expression: The Sum of min term Boolean expression is derived from truth table by writing

all min terms whose output is equal to one and then sum the min terms.

(ii) Product of max term Boolean expression: - Product of max term Boolean

expression is derived from truth table by writing all Max terms whose out put is zero and

then take the product.

Example: -Write Sum of min terms and product of max terms Boolean expression of a

circuit of three inputs and one output. The circuit produces a high out put when ever their

inputs have more ones than zeros. Other wise the output of the function is zero.

Truth Table

A B

C

Output (F)

Min terms Max terms

0 0

0

0

ABC

A+B+C

0 0

1

0

ABC

A+B+C

0 1

0

0

ABC

A+B+C

0 1

1

1

ABC

A+B+C

By: -Muhammed Asif Raza(06CS36).

15

1 0

0

0

ABC

A+B+C

1 0

1

1

ABC

A+B+C

1 1

0

1

ABC

A+B+C

1 1

1

1

ABC

A+B+C

Sum of min terms Boolean expression for F

= ABC+ ABC+ ABC+ ABC

Product of max terms Boolean expression for F=(A+B+C)(A+B+C)(A+B+C)(A+B+C)

Standard Form: - The standard form of a Boolean expression is a minimized form of a

Sum of min terms Boolean expression or Product of max terms Boolean expression. This

form of a Boolean expression is used to draw logical diagram of circuits because this is a

minimized form and requires less number of logic gates as compared to canonical form.

Like canonical form, it has also two types.

i.

Sum of products

ii.

Product of Sums

It is worthwhile to note that Sum of min terms Boolean expression can be called as

Sum of product and Product of max terms Boolean expression can be called Product of

Sums because min term is a product term and max term is a sum term. But Sum of

product or product of Sums cannot be denoted as Sum of min terms Boolean expression

or Product of max terms Boolean expression because they dont contain min terms or

max terms but they contains simple products or sums with lesser variables than canonical

form expressions.

Logic Gates: Logic gates are the physical components through which the logical operations are

performed. There are eight logic gates, which perform different logical operations, and

the each has their own characteristics and as well as inputs and outputs. Normally logic

gates have only one output.

1. NOT Gate (Inverter): -The NOT gate has only one input and one output. NOT

gate performs the complement operation. Whenever the input is high output will be

the low and whenever the input is low the output will be the high.

A Y

0 1

1 0

Y=A

Logical symbol

2.AND Gate: -The AND-Gate performs the logical multiplication. This gate has two or

more than two inputs and only one output. The output will be high if inputs are high and

the output will be low if any of the input is low.

Truth Table

A B

Y

0

0

0

16

0

1

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

Y=A.B

Logical symbol

3. OR gate: -OR gate has two or more than two inputs and one output. Or gate

performs the logical addition. The output will be high when ever any of the input

is high and output will be low if all inputs are low.

Truth Table

A B

Y

0 0

0

0 1

1

1 0

1

1 1

1

Y=A+B

Logical symbol

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