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Single­lensreflexcamera

FromWikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia

Asingle­lensreflexcamera(SLR)typicallyusesamirror

andprismsystem(hence"reflex",fromthemirror's

reflection)thatpermitsthephotographertoviewthroughthe

lensandseeexactlywhatwillbecaptured,contraryto

viewfindercameraswheretheimagecouldbesignificantly

differentfromwhatwillbecaptured.

Contents

1HistoryContents 1.1Through­the­lenslightmetering 1.2Semi­automaticexposurecapabilities 1.3Full­programauto­exposure

1.1Through­the­lenslightmetering

1.2Semi­automaticexposurecapabilities

1.3Full­programauto­exposure

1.4Autofocus1.3Full­programauto­exposure 1.5DigitalSLRs 2Opticalcomponents

1.5DigitalSLRs1.3Full­programauto­exposure 1.4Autofocus 2Opticalcomponents 2.1Pentaprismsandpenta­mirrors

2Opticalcomponents1.3Full­programauto­exposure 1.4Autofocus 1.5DigitalSLRs 2.1Pentaprismsandpenta­mirrors 3Shuttermechanisms

2.1Pentaprismsandpenta­mirrors

3Shuttermechanisms2Opticalcomponents 2.1Pentaprismsandpenta­mirrors 3.1Focal­planeshutters 3.1.1Rotaryfocal­planeshutter

3.1Focal­planeshutters2.1Pentaprismsandpenta­mirrors 3Shuttermechanisms 3.1.1Rotaryfocal­planeshutter 3.2Leafshutters

3.1.1Rotaryfocal­planeshutter

3.2Leafshutters3.1Focal­planeshutters 3.1.1Rotaryfocal­planeshutter 4Furtherdevelopments 5Filmformats 6Commonfeatures

4Furtherdevelopments3.1.1Rotaryfocal­planeshutter 3.2Leafshutters 5Filmformats 6Commonfeatures 7Advantages 8Disadvantages

5Filmformats3.2Leafshutters 4Furtherdevelopments 6Commonfeatures 7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability

6Commonfeatures3.2Leafshutters 4Furtherdevelopments 5Filmformats 7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability

7Advantages4Furtherdevelopments 5Filmformats 6Commonfeatures 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability

8Disadvantages5Filmformats 6Commonfeatures 7Advantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability 9FutureofSLRs

8.1Reliability5Filmformats 6Commonfeatures 7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.2Priceandaffordability 9FutureofSLRs 10Seealso

8.2Priceandaffordability6Commonfeatures 7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 9FutureofSLRs 10Seealso 11References 12Furtherreading

9FutureofSLRs7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability 10Seealso 11References 12Furtherreading 13Externallinks

10Seealso8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability 9FutureofSLRs 11References 12Furtherreading 13Externallinks

11References8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability 9FutureofSLRs 10Seealso 12Furtherreading 13Externallinks

12Furtherreading7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability 9FutureofSLRs 10Seealso 11References 13Externallinks

13Externallinks7Advantages 8Disadvantages 8.1Reliability 8.2Priceandaffordability 9FutureofSLRs 10Seealso 11References 12Furtherreading

History

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Single­lensreflexcamera­Wikipedia,thefreeencyclopedia Mediumformat SLR by Hasselblad Canon Pellix ,1965 NikonF5
Mediumformat SLR by Hasselblad Canon Pellix ,1965 NikonF5 professional SLR,1996 The1952(
Mediumformat SLR by Hasselblad Canon Pellix ,1965 NikonF5 professional SLR,1996 The1952( Pentax ) Asahiflex

NikonF5professional

SLR,1996

Canon Pellix ,1965 NikonF5 professional SLR,1996 The1952( Pentax ) Asahiflex , Japan 'sfirst
Canon Pellix ,1965 NikonF5 professional SLR,1996 The1952( Pentax ) Asahiflex , Japan 'sfirst

The1952(Pentax)

Asahiflex,Japan'sfirst single­lensreflex

single­lensreflex

camera

TheContaflexIIIa

camerafromWest

Germanyfrom1957,

withadditional

115mmlens

camerafromWest Germanyfrom1957, withadditional 115mmlens The Pentax Spotmatic IIa,1971 DigitalSLR Nikon

ThePentaxSpotmatic

IIa,1971

withadditional 115mmlens The Pentax Spotmatic IIa,1971 DigitalSLR Nikon D200andaNikonfilm scanner Olympus The35mm

DigitalSLRNikon

IIa,1971 DigitalSLR Nikon D200andaNikonfilm scanner Olympus The35mm film­basedOlympus OM­2(1975),which

OlympusThe35mm

wasthefirstSLRto

measurelightfor

electronicflashatthe

shuttercurtain.

measurelightfor electronicflashatthe shuttercurtain. The35mmfilm­based NikonF ,1959,the

The35mmfilm­based

NikonF,1959,the

world'sfirstsingle­lens

reflexsystemcamera

,1959,the world'sfirstsingle­lens reflex systemcamera Casio RF235mmfilm SLR

CasioRF235mmfilm

SLR

PriortothedevelopmentofSLR,allcameraswithviewfindershadtwoopticallightpaths:onepath

throughthelenstothefilm,andanotherpathpositionedabove(TLRortwin­lensreflex)ortotheside

(rangefinder).Becausetheviewfinderandthefilmlenscannotsharethesameopticalpath,theviewing

lensisaimedtointersectwiththefilmlensatafixedpointsomewhereinfrontofthecamera.Thisisnot

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problematicforpicturestakenatamiddleorlongerdistance,butparallaxcausesframingerrorsinclose­

upshots.Moreover,focusingthelensofafastreflexcamerawhenitisopenedtowiderapertures(such

asinlowlightorwhileusinglow­speedfilm)isnoteasy.

MostSLRcameraspermituprightandlaterallycorrectviewingthroughuseofaroofpentaprism

situatedintheopticalpathbetweenthereflexmirrorandviewfinder.Light,whichcomesboth

horizontallyandverticallyinvertedafterpassingthroughthelens,isreflectedupwardsbythereflex

mirror,intothepentaprismwhereitisreflectedseveraltimestocorrecttheinversionscausedbythe

lens,andaligntheimagewiththeviewfinder.Whentheshutterisreleased,themirrormovesoutofthe

lightpath,andthelightshinesdirectlyontothefilm(orinthecaseofaDSLR,theCCDorCMOS

imagingsensor).TheCanonPellixfilmcamerawasanexceptiontothemovingmirrorsystem,wherein

themirrorwasafixedbeamsplittingpellicle.

Focuscanbeadjustedmanuallybythephotographerorautomaticallybyanautofocussystem.The

viewfindercanincludeamattefocusingscreenlocatedjustabovethemirrorsystemtodiffusethelight.

Thispermitsaccurateviewing,composingandfocusing,especiallyusefulwithinterchangeablelenses.

Upuntilthe1990s,SLRwasthemostadvancedphotographicpreviewsystemavailable,buttherecent

developmentandrefinementofdigitalimagingtechnologywithanon­cameraliveLCDpreviewscreen

hasovershadowedSLR'spopularity.Nearlyallinexpensivecompactdigitalcamerasnowincludean

LCDpreviewscreenallowingthephotographertoseewhattheCCDiscapturing.However,SLRisstill

popularinhigh­endandprofessionalcamerasbecausetheyaresystemcameraswithinterchangeable

parts,allowingcustomization.Theyalsohavefarlessshutterlag,allowingphotographstobetimed

moreprecisely.Alsothepixelresolution,contrastratio,refreshrate,andcolorgamutofanLCDpreview

screencannotcompetewiththeclarityandshadowdetailofadirect­viewedopticalSLRviewfinder.

LargeformatSLRcameraswereprobablyfirstmarketedwiththeintroductionofC.R.Smith's MonocularDuplex(USA,1884). [1] SLRsforsmallerexposureformatswerelaunchedinthe1920sby

severalcameramakers.Thefirst35mmSLRavailabletothemassmarket,Leica'sPLOOTreflex

housingalongwitha200mmf4.5lenspairedtoa35mmrangefindercamerabody,debutedin1935.The

SovietСпорт(“Sport”), [2] alsoa24mmby36mmimagesize,wasprototypedin1934andwentto

marketin1937.K.Nüchterlein'sKineExakta(Germany,1936)wasthefirstintegrated35mmSLRto

enterthemarket.AdditionalExaktamodels,allwithwaist­levelfinders,wereproduceduptoandduring WorldWarII.AnotherancestorofthemodernSLRcamerawastheSwiss­madeAlpa,whichwas innovative,andinfluencedthelaterJapanesecameras.Thefirsteye­levelSLRviewfinderwaspatented

inHungaryonAugust23,1943byJenőDulovits,whothendesignedthefirst35mmcamerawithone,

theDuflex,whichusedasystemofmirrorstoprovidealaterallycorrect,uprightimageintheeye­level

viewfinder.TheDuflex,whichwentintoserialproductionin1948,wasalsotheworld'sfirstSLRwith

aninstant­return(a.k.a.autoreturn)mirror.

ThefirstcommerciallyproducedSLRthatemployedaroofpentaprismwastheItalianRectaflex

A.1000,showninfullworkingconditiononMilanfairApril1948andproducedfromSeptemberthe

sameyear,thusbeingonthemarketoneyearbeforetheeastGermanZeissIkonVEBContaxS,

announcedonMay20,1949,producedfromSeptember.

TheJapaneseadoptedandfurtherdevelopedtheSLR.In1952,AsahidevelopedtheAsahiflexandin

1954,theAsahiflexIIB.In1957,theAsahiPentaxcombinedthefixedpentaprismandtheright­hand

thumbwindlever.Nikon,CanonandYashicaintroducedtheirfirstSLRsin1959(theF,Canonflex,and

Pentamatic,respectively).

Through­the­lenslightmetering

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Asasmallmatterofhistory,thefirst35mmcamera(non­SLR)tofeaturethroughthelenslight

meteringmayhavebeenNikon,withaprototyperangefindercamera,theSPX.Accordingtothewebsite below,thecamerausedNikon'S'typerangefinderlenses. [3]

Through­the­lenslightmeteringisalsoknownas"behind­the­lensmetering".IntheSLRdesignscheme,

therewerevariousplacementsmadeforthemeteringcells,allofwhichusedCdS(Cadmiumsulfide)

photocells.Thecellswereeitherlocatedinthepentaprismhousing,wheretheymeteredlighttransmitted

throughthefocusingscreen;underneaththereflexmirrorglassitself,whichwasTopcon'sdesign;orin

frontoftheshuttermechanism,whichwasthedesignusedbyCanonwiththeirCanonPellix.

Pentaxwasthefirstmanufacturertoshowanearlyprototype35mmbehind­the­lensmeteringSLR

camera,whichwasnamedthePentaxSpotmatic.Thecamerawasshownatthe1960Photokinashow.

Super,whichhadtheCdSmeteringcellplacedbehindthereflexmirror.Themirrorhadnarrowslitscut intothesurfacetoletthelightreachthecellprovidingaveragemetering.Lateinthefollowingyear,a productionmodelofthePentaxSpotmaticwasshownwhoseCdSlightmetercellswereonthe pentaprism,readingthelightoffthefocusingscreenprovidingaveragereading,yetkeepingthe

Spotmaticname,butnowwritteninoneword.Anothercleverdesignappearedin1965,theCanonPellix

employingapelliclemirrorthatissemi­transparent,placingthemetercellonanarmswingingintothe

lightpassbehindthemirrorformeterreading.

MamiyaSekorcameoutwithcamerassuchastheMamiyaSekorTLandvariousotherversions.

YashicaintroducedtheTLSuper.BothofthesecamerasusedM42screwthreadlensesasdidthePentax

Spotmatic.LateronFujicaintroducedtheirST­701,thenST­801andST­901cameras.TheST­701was

thefirstSLRtouseasiliconcellphotodiode,whichwasmoresensitivethanCdSandwasimmuneto

thememoryeffectthattheCdScellsufferedfrominbrightsunlight.Gradually,other35mmSLR

cameramanufacturerschangedtheirbehind­the­lensmetersfromCdScellstoSiliconDiodephotocells.

Othermanufacturersrespondedandintroducedtheirownbehind­the­lensmeteringcameras.Nikonand Miranda,atfirst,simplyupgradedtheirinterchangeablepentaprismstoincludebehind­the­lensmetering (forNikonF,andMirandaD,F,FvandGmodels)andthesemanufacturersalsoboughtoutother cameramodelswithbuilt­inbehind­the­lensmeteringcapability,suchastheNikkormatFTandthe

MirandaSensorex(whichusedanexternalcouplingdiaphragm).MinoltaintroducedtheSRT­101,

whichusedMinolta'sproprietarysystemtheyreferredtoas"CLC",whichwasanacronymfor"contrast

lightcompensation",whichmetereddifferentlyfromanaveragemeteringbehind­the­lenscamera.

SomeGermanmanufacturersalsointroducedcamerassuchastheZeissIkonContarexfamily,which

wasoneofveryfew35mmSLRtouseinterchangeablefilmbacks.

Inexpensiveleaf­shuttercamerasalsobenefitedfrombehind­the­lensmeteringas,Topconintroduced

theAuto100withfront­mountinterchangeablelensesdesignedonlyforthatcamera,andoneofthe

ZeissIkonContaflexleafshuttercameras.KowamanufacturedtheirSET­R,whichhadsimilar

specifications.

Withinmonths,manufacturersdecidedtobringoutmodelsthatprovidedlimitedareametering,suchas

Nikon'sPhotomicTnfinder,whichconcentrated60%oftheCdScellssensitivityontheinnercircleof

thefocusingscreenand30%onthesurroundingarea.CanonusedspotmeteringintheunusualCanon

Pellixcamera,whichalsohadastationarymirrorsystemthatallowedapproximately70%ofthelightto

traveltothefilmplaneand30%tothephotographer'seye.Thissystem,unfortunately,degradedthe

nativeresolutionoftheattachedlensandprovidedlessilluminationtotheeyepiece.Itdidhavethe

advantageofhavinglessvibrationthanotherSLRcamerasbutthiswasnotsufficienttoattract

professionalstothecamerainnumbers.

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Semi­automaticexposurecapabilities

Whileauto­exposurewascommonlyusedintheearly1960swithvarious35mmfixedlensrangefinder

camerassuchastheKonicaAuto'S',andothercamerassuchasthePolaroidLandcameraswhoseearly modelsusedseleniumcellmeters,auto­exposureforinterchangeablelensSLRswasafeaturethatwas

largelyabsent,exceptforafewearlyleaf­shutterSLRssuchastheKowaSE­RandTopconAuto100.

Thetypesofautomationfoundinsomeofthesecamerasconsistedofthesimpleprogrammedshutter,

wherebythecamera'smeteringsystemwouldselectamechanicallysetseriesofapertureswithshutter

speeds,onesettingofwhichwouldbesufficientforthecorrectexposure.Inthecaseoftheabove­

mentionedKowaandTopcon,automationwassemi­automatic,wherethecamera'sCDsmeterwould

selectthecorrectapertureonly.

Autoexposure,technicallyknownassemi­automaticexposure,wherethecamera'smeteringsystem chooseseithertheshutterspeedortheaperture,wasfinallyintroducedbytheSavoyflexandpopularized

byKonishirokuinthe1965KonicaAuto­Reflex.Thiscamerawasofthe'shutter­priority'type

automation,whichmeantthatthecameraselectedthecorrectapertureautomatically.Thismodelalso

hadtheinterestingabilitytophotographin35mmfull­framesorhalf­frames,allselectedbyalever.

OtherSLRssoonfollowed,butbecauseoflimitationswiththeirlensmounts,themanufacturersofthese camerashadtochoose'aperture­priority'automation,wherethecamera'smeteringsystemselectsthe correctshutterspeed.Asoneexample,PentaxintroducedtheElectroSpotmatic,whichwasabletouse

thethenconsiderablebulkof42mmscrew­mountlensesproducedbyvariousmanufacturers.Yashica,

anotherscrew­mountcameramanufacturer,soonfollowed.

Canon,whichproducedtheFDlensmount(knownasthebreech­mount;auniquelensmountingsystem thatcombinestheadvantagesofscrew­mountandbayonet­mount)introducedtheirshutterpriority

35mmSLR,theCanonEFin1976orso.Thiscamera'sbuildqualitywasalmosttheequaloftheir

flagshipcamera,theCanonF1,andfeaturedacopal­squareverticallytravellingfocalplaneshutterthat

couldsynchronizeelectronicflashatshutterspeedsuptoandincluding1/125ofasecond,thusmaking

thisagoodsecond­bodycamerafortheprofessionalphotographer.

Nikonatfirstproducedanaperture­prioritycamera,butlatermadesubtlechangesontheinsideoftheir

bayonetmount,whichallowedforshutter­priorityautomationwithoutobsoletingthephotographers

lenses.

Full­programauto­exposure

Full­programauto­exposuresoonfollowedwiththe

adventoftheCanonA­1in1978.ThisSLRhada'P'

modeontheshutterspeeddial,andalockonthe apertureringtoallowthelenstobeputon'Auto' mode.OthermanufacturerssoonfollowedwithNikon

introducingtheFA,MinoltaintroducingtheX­700in

1981, [4] andPentaxintroducingtheSuperProgram. Olympus,however,continuedwith'aperture­priority' automationintheirOMsystemline.

The1970sand1980ssawsteadilyincreasinguseof

electronics,automation,andminiaturization, includingintegratedmotordrivenfilmadvancewith

theKonicaFS­1in1979,andmotorrewindfunctions.

MinoltaXD­11(alsoXD­7andXD)

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Autofocus

Focus

Dimensions51×86×136mm,560g

ManualfocusSLR

Hotshoeonly;noPCconnector

Thefirstautofocus35mmSLRwasthePentaxME­F

releasedin1981. [5]

TheMinoltaMaxxum7000,releasedin1985,wasthe

first35mmSLRwithintegratedautofocusand

motorizedfilm­advancewinder,whichbecamethe

standardconfigurationforSLRcamerasfromthenon.

Thisdevelopmenthadsignificantimpactonthephotographicindustry.

Somemanufacturersdiscardedtheirexistinglenssystemstocompetewithothermanufacturer's autofocuscapabilityintheirnewcameras.ThiswasthecaseforCanon,withitsnewEOSlensline. Othermanufacturerschosetoadapttheirexistinglenssystemsforautofocuscapability,aswasthecase withNikonandPentax.Thisallowedphotographerstocontinueusingtheirexistinglenses,which

greatlyreducedthecostofupgrading.Forexample,almostallNikonlensesfromthe1960sandlater

stillfunctiononthecurrentNikonbodies,onlylackingautofocus.Stillsomemanufacturers,notably

LeicawithitsR­systemlenses,andContaxwithitsZeisslenses,decidedtokeeptheirlensmountsnon­

autofocus.

Fromthelate1980scompetitionandtechnicalinnovationsmade

35mmcamerasystemsmoreversatileandsophisticatedby

addingmoreadvancedlightmeteringcapabilitiessuchasspot­ metering;limitedareameteringsuchasusedbyCanonwiththe

F1series;matrixmeteringasusedbyNikon,exposure

communicationwithdedicatedelectronicflashunits.Theuser

interfacealsochangedonmanycameras,replacingmeterneedle

displaysthatweregalvanometer­basedandtherebyfragile,with

light­emittingdiodes(LEDs)andthenwithmorecomprehensive

liquidcrystaldisplays(LCDs)bothintheSLRviewfinderand

externallyonthecameras'topplateusinganLCDscreen.

Wheelsandbuttonsreplacedtheshutterdialonthecameraand

theapertureringonthelensonmanymodels,althoughsome

usingatripod.Thisfeatureisespeciallyusefulwithlongtelephotolenses.

TypicalfilmSLRviewfinder information

TypicalfilmSLRviewfinder

information

DigitalSLRs

Canon,NikonandPentaxhavealldevelopeddigitalSLRcameras(DSLRs)usingthesamelensmounts

asontheirrespectivefilmSLRcameras.KonicaMinoltadidthesame,butin2006soldtheircamera

technologytoSony,whonowbuildsDSLRsbasedontheMinoltalensmount.SamsungbuildsDSLRs

ContaxcameoutwithaDSLRmodel,theContaxN­Digital.Thismodelwastoolateandtooexpensive

tobecompetitivewithothercameramanufacturers.TheContaxN­digitalwasthelastContaxtousethat

maker'slenssystem,andthecamera,whilehavingimpressivefeaturessuchasafull­framesensor,was

expensiveandlackedsufficientwrite­speedtothememorycardforittobeseriouslyconsideredbysome

professionalphotographers.

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Thedigitalsingle­lensreflexcamerahavelargelyreplacedfilmSLR'sdesigninconvenience,salesand

popularityatthestartof21stcentury.

Opticalcomponents

Across­section(or'side­view')oftheopticalcomponentsof atypicalSLRcamerashowshowthelightpassesthrough

thelensassembly(1),isreflectedbythemirror(2)placedat

intheroofpentaprism(7)theimageappearsintheeyepiece

(8).Whenanimageistaken,themirrormovesupwards

fromitsrestingpositioninthedirectionofthearrow,the

focalplaneshutter(3)opens,andtheimageisprojectedonto

thefilmorsensor(4)inexactlythesamemannerasonthe

focusingscreen.

FocusingscreenonPrakticaSuperTL1000

FocusingscreenonPrakticaSuperTL1000

ThisfeaturedistinguishesSLRsfromothercamerasasthe

photographerseestheimagecomposedexactlyasitwillbe

capturedonthefilmorsensor(seeAdvantagesbelow).

Cross­sectionviewofSLRsystem:1: Front­mountlens(four­elementTessar design)2:Reflexmirrorat45­degreeangle

Cross­sectionviewofSLRsystem:1:

Front­mountlens(four­elementTessar

design)2:Reflexmirrorat45­degreeangle

3:Focalplaneshutter4:Filmorsensor5:

Focusingscreen6:Condenserlens7:

Opticalglasspentaprism(orpentamirror)

8:Eyepiece(canhavedioptercorrection

ability)

Pentaprismsandpenta­mirrors

Most35mmSLRsusearoofpentaprismorpenta­mirrorto

directthelighttotheeyepiece,firstusedonthe1948

Duflex [6] constructedbyJenőDulovitsandpatentedAugust

1943(Hungary).Withthiscameraalsoappearedthefirst

Instant­returnmirror.ThefirstJapanesepentaprismSLR

wasthe1955MirandaT,followedbytheAsahiPentax,

MinoltaSR­2,Zunow,NikonFandtheYashicaPentamatic.

SomeSLRsofferedremovablepentaprismswithoptional viewfindercapabilities,suchasthewaist­levelfinder,the

interchangeablesportsfindersusedontheCanonF1and

F1n;theNikonF,F2,F3,F4andF5;andthePentaxLX.

Anotherprismdesignwastheporroprismsystemusedin

theOlympusPenF,thePenFT,thePenFVhalf­frame

Aright­anglefinderisavailablethatslipsontotheeyepieceofmostSLRsandD­SLRsandallows

viewingthroughawaist­levelviewfinder.ThereisalsoafinderthatprovidesEVFremotecapability.

Shuttermechanisms

Focal­planeshutters

AlmostallcontemporarySLRsuseafocal­planeshutterlocatedinfrontofthefilmplane,which

preventsthelightfromreachingthefilmevenifthelensisremoved,exceptwhentheshutterisactually

releasedduringtheexposure.Therearevariousdesignsforfocalplaneshutters.Earlyfocal­plane

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shuttersdesignedfromthe1930sonwardsusuallyconsisted

oftwocurtainsthattravelledhorizontallyacrossthefilm gate:anopeningshuttercurtainfollowedbyaclosing shuttercurtain.Duringfastshutterspeeds,thefocal­plane shutterwouldforma'slit'wherebythesecondshuttercurtain wascloselyfollowingthefirstopeningshuttercurtainto produceanarrow,verticalopening,withtheshutterslit movinghorizontally.Theslitwouldgetnarrowerasshutter speedswereincreased.Initiallytheseshuttersweremade fromaclothmaterial(whichwasinlateryearsoften rubberised),butsomemanufacturersusedothermaterials instead.NipponKōgaku(nowNikonCorporation),for example,usedtitaniumfoilshuttersforseveraloftheir

flagshipSLRcameras,includingtheNikonF,F2,andF3.

Aperspectivedrawingshowinghowaroof pentaprismcorrectsalaterallyreversed SLRimage.

Aperspectivedrawingshowinghowaroof

pentaprismcorrectsalaterallyreversed

SLRimage.

Otherfocal­planeshutterdesigns,suchastheCopalSquare,

travelledvertically—theshortertravellingdistanceof24millimetres(asopposedto36mm

horizontally)meantthatminimumexposureandflashsynchronisationtimescouldbereduced.These shuttersareusuallymanufacturedfrommetal,andusethesamemoving­slitprincipleashorizontally travellingshutters.Theydiffer,though,inusuallybeingformedofseveralslatsorblades,ratherthan singlecurtainsaswithhorizontaldesigns,asthereisrarelyenoughroomaboveandbelowtheframefor

aone­pieceshutter.Verticalshuttersbecameverycommoninthe1980s(thoughKonica,Mamiya,and

Copalfirstpioneeredtheiruseinthe1950sand1960s,andarealmostexclusivelyusedfornewcameras.

NikonusedCopal­madeverticalplaneshuttersintheirNikomat/Nikkormat­range,enablingx­sync speedsfrom 1 30 to 1 125 whiletheonlychoiceforfocalplaneshuttersatthattimewas 1 60 .Later,Nikon

againpioneeredtheuseoftitaniumforverticalshutters,usingaspecialhoneycombpatternontheblades toreducetheirweightandachieveworld­recordspeedsin1982of 1 4000 secondfornon­syncshooting,

and 1 250 withx­sync.Nowadaysmostsuchshuttersaremanufacturedfromcheaperaluminium(though

somehigh­endcamerasusematerialssuchascarbon­fibreandKevlar).

Rotaryfocal­planeshutter

Oneunusualdesign,theOlympusPenhalf­frame35mmSLRsystem,manufacturedbyOlympusin

Japan,usedarotaryfocal­planeshuttermechanismthatwasextremelysimpleandelegantindesign. Thisshutterusedtitaniumfoilbutconsistedofonepieceofmetalwithafixedopening,whichallowed

electronicflashsynchronisationuptoandincludingitsmaximumspeedof1/500ofasecond–rivalling

thecapabilitiesofleaf­shuttersystems

Another35mmcamerasystemthatusedarotaryshutter,wastheRobotRoyalcameras,mostofwhich

wererangefinder35mmcameras.Someofthesecameraswerefull­frame;somewerehalf­frame,andat

leastoneRobotcameraproducedanunusualsquare­sizedimageonthe35mmframe.

TheMercuryII,producedin1946,alsousedarotaryshutter.Thiswasahalf­frame35mmcamera.

Leafshutters

Anothershuttersystemistheleafshutter,wherebytheshutterisconstructedofdiaphragm­likeblades

andcanbesituatedeitherbetweenthelensorbehindthelens.Iftheshutterispartofalensassembly

someothermechanismisrequiredtoensurethatnolightreachesthefilmbetweenexposures.

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Anexampleofabehind­the­lensleafshutterisfoundinthe35mmSLRsproducedbyKodak,withtheir

RetinaReflexcameraline;Topcon,withtheirAuto100;andKowawiththeirSE­RandSET­Rreflexes.

Aprimaryexampleofamedium­formatSLRwithabetween­the­lensleafshuttersystemwouldbe

Hasselblad,withtheir500C,500CM,500EL­M(amotorizedHasselblad)andothermodels(producing

a6cmsquarenegative).Hasselbladsuseanauxiliaryshutterblindsituatedbehindthelensmountand

themirrorsystemtopreventthefoggingoffilm.

Othermedium­formatSLRsalsousingleafshuttersincludethenowdiscontinuedZenza­Bronicacamera

systemlinessuchastheBronicaETRs,theETRs'i(bothproducinga6×4.5cm.image),theSQandthe

SQ­AI(producinga6×6cmimageliketheHasselblad),andtheZenza­BronicaGsystem(6×7cm).

CertainMamiyamedium­formatSLRs,discontinuedcamerasystemssuchastheKowa6andafew

othercameramodelsalsousedbetween­the­lensleafshuttersintheirlenssystems.

Thus,anytimeaphotographerpurchasedoneoftheselenses,thatlensincludedaleafshutterinitslens

mount.

Becauseleafshutterssynchronizedelectronicflashatallshutterspeedsespeciallyatfastshutterspeeds of 1 500 ofasecondorfaster,camerasusingleafshuttersweremoredesirabletostudiophotographers

whousedsophisticatedstudioelectronicflashsystems.

Somemanufacturersofmedium­format120filmSLRcamerasalsomadeleaf­shutterlensesfortheir

focal­plane­shuttermodels.RolleimadeatleasttwosuchlensesfortheirRolleiflexSL­66medium

formatwhichwasafocal­planeshutterSLR.Rolleilaterswitchedtoacamerasystemofleaf­shutter

design(e.g.,the6006and6008reflexes)andtheircurrentmedium­formatSLRsarenowallofthe

between­the­lensshutterdesign.

Furtherdevelopments

Sincethetechnologybecamewidespreadinthe

1970s,SLRshavebecomethemainphotographic

Parts

Parts

instrumentusedbydedicatedamateurphotographers andprofessionals.Somephotographersofstatic subjects(suchasarchitecture,landscape,andsome commercialsubjects),however,preferviewcameras becauseofthecapabilitytocontrolperspective. [7]

Withatriple­extensionbellows4"×5"camerasuch

astheLinhofSuperTechnikaV,thephotographer cancorrectcertaindistortionssuchas"keystoning", wheretheimage'lines'converge(i.e.,photographing abuildingbypointingatypicalcameraupwardto includethetopofthebuilding).Perspective

mediumformatstocorrectthisdistortionwithfilm

cameras,anditcanalsobecorrectedafterthefact

withphotosoftwarewhenusingdigitalcameras.Thephotographercanalsoextendthebellowstoitsfull

Filmformats

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EarlySLRswerebuiltforlargeformatphotography,butthisfilmformathaslargelylostfavoramong professionalphotographers.SLRfilm­basedcamerashavebeenproducedformostfilmformatsaswell

asfordigitalformats.Thesefilm­basedSLRsusethe35mmformatas,thisfilmformatoffersavariety

ofemulsionsandfilmsensitivityspeeds,usableimagequalityandagoodmarketcost.35mmfilm

comesinavarietyofexposurelengths:20exposure,24exposureand36exposurerolls.Mediumformat

SLRsprovideahigher­qualityimagewithanegativethatcanbemoreeasilyretouchedthanthesmaller

35mmnegative,whenthiscapabilityisrequired.

AsmallnumberofSLRswerebuiltforAPSsuchastheCanonIXseriesandtheNikonProneacameras.

SLRswerealsointroducedforfilmformatsassmallasKodak's110,suchasthePentaxAuto110,which

hadinterchangeablelenses.

Commonfeatures

"dedicatedelectronicflash".Inadedicatedsystem,oncethe

dedicatedelectronicflashisinsertedintothecamera'shotshoe

andturnedon,thereisthencommunicationbetweencameraand

flash.Thecamera'ssynchronizationspeedisset,alongwiththe

aperture.Manycameramodelsmeasurethelightthatreflectsoff

ofthefilmplane,whichcontrolstheflashdurationofthe

electronicflash.ThisisdenotedTTLflashmetering.

Cut­awayofa MinoltaXE film­based SLR

Cut­awayofaMinoltaXEfilm­based

SLR

. Cut­awayofa MinoltaXE film­based SLR Someelectronicflashunitscansendoutseveralshortburstsof

Someelectronicflashunitscansendoutseveralshortburstsof

lighttoaidtheautofocussystemorforwirelesscommunication

withoff­cameraflashunits.Apre­flashisoftenusedto

determinetheamountoflightthatisreflectedfromthesubject,

whichsetsthedurationofthemainflashattimeofexposure.

Somecamerasalsoemployautomaticfill­flash,wheretheflash

lightandtheavailablelightarebalanced.Whilethesecapabilities

arenotuniquetotheSLR,manufacturersincludedthemearlyon

inthetopmodels,whereasthebestrangefindercamerasadopted

suchfeatureslater.

Advantages

ManyoftheadvantagesofSLRcamerasderivefromviewing

andfocusingtheimagethroughtheattachedlens.Mostother

typesofcamerasdonothavethisfunction;subjectsareseen

throughaviewfinderthatisnearthelens,makingthephotographer'sviewdifferentfromthatofthelens.

SLRcamerasprovidephotographerswithprecision;theyprovideaviewingimagethatwillbeexposed

ontothenegativeexactlyasitisseenthroughthelens.Thereisnoparallaxerror,andexactfocuscanbe

confirmedbyeye—especiallyinmacrophotographyandwhenphotographingusinglongfocuslenses.

Thedepthoffieldmaybeseenbystoppingdowntotheattachedlensaperture,whichispossibleon

mostSLRcamerasexceptfortheleastexpensivemodels.BecauseoftheSLR'sversatility,most

manufacturershaveavastrangeoflensesandaccessoriesavailableforthem.

Comparedtomostfixed­lenscompactcameras,themostcommonlyusedandinexpensiveSLRlenses

offerawideraperturerangeandlargermaximumaperture(typicallyf/1.4tof/1.8fora50mmlens).

Thisallowsphotographstobetakeninlowerlightconditionswithoutflash,andallowsanarrowerdepth

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offield,whichisusefulforblurringthebackgroundbehindthesubject,makingthesubjectmore

prominent."Fast"lensesarecommonlyusedintheaterphotography,portraitphotography,surveillance

photography,andallotherphotographyrequiringalargemaximumaperture.

Thevarietyoflensesalsoallowsforthecameratobeusedandadaptedinmanydifferentsituations.This

providesthephotographerwithconsiderablymorecontrol(i.e.,howtheimageisviewedandframed)

thanwouldbethecasewithaviewcamera.Inaddition,someSLRlensesaremanufacturedwith

extremelylongfocallengths,allowingaphotographertobeaconsiderabledistanceawayfromthe

subjectandyetstillexposeasharp,focusedimage.Thisisparticularlyusefulifthesubjectincludes

dangerousanimals(e.g.,wildlife);thesubjectprefersanonymitytobeingphotographed;orelse,the

photographer'spresenceisunwanted(e.g.,celebrityphotographyorsurveillancephotography).

PracticallyallSLRandDSLRcamerabodiescanalsobeattachedtotelescopesandmicroscopesviaan

adaptertubetofurtherenhancetheirimagingcapabilities.

Disadvantages

Inmostcases,single­lensreflexcamerascannotbemadeassmalloraslightasothercameradesigns—

lenseswithdeeplyrecessedrearelementsfrombeingmountedclosetothefilmorsensorunlessthe

camerahasamirrorlockupfeature;thismeansthatsimpledesignsforwideanglelensescannotbeused.

Instead,largerandmorecomplexretrofocusdesignsarerequired.

TheSLRmirror'blacks­out'theviewfinderimageduringthe exposure.Inaddition,themovementofthereflexmirrortakes time,limitingthemaximumshootingspeed.Themirrorsystem canalsocausenoiseandvibration.Partiallyreflective(pellicle) fixedmirrorsavoidtheseproblemsandhavebeenusedinavery

pelliclemirrorsreducetheamountoflighttravellingtothefilm

planeorsensorandalsocandistortthelightpassingthrough

them,resultinginaless­sharpimage.Toavoidthenoiseand

vibration,manyprofessionalcamerasofferamirrorlock­up

feature,however,thisfeaturetotallydisablestheSLR'sautomatic

focusingability.Electronicviewfindershavethepotentialtogivethe'viewing­experience'ofaDSLR

(through­the­lensviewing)withoutmanyofthedisadvantages.Morerecently,Sonyhaveresurrectedthe

pelliclemirrorconceptintheir"single­lenstranslucent"(SLT)rangeofcameras.

Duringanexposure,theviewfinderis blocked

Duringanexposure,theviewfinderis

blocked

Reliability

SLRsvarywidelyintheirconstructionandtypicallyhavebodiesmadeofplasticormagnesium.Most manufacturersdonotcitedurabilityspecifications,butsomereportshutterlifeexpectanciesfor

professionalmodels.Forinstance,theCanonEOS1DsMkIIisratedfor200,000shuttercyclesandthe

newerNikonD3isratedfor300,000withitsexoticcarbonfiber/kevlarshutter.BecausemanySLRs

haveinterchangeablelenses,thereisatendencyfordust,sandanddirttogetintothemainbodyofthe

camerathroughthemirrorboxwhenthelensisremoved,thusdirtyingorevenjammingthemirror

movementmechanismortheshuttercurtainmechanismitself.Inaddition,theseparticlescanalsojamor

otherwisehinderthefocusingfeatureofalensiftheyenterintothefocusinghelicoid.Theproblemof

sensorcleaninghasbeensomewhatreducedinDSLRsassomecamerashaveabuilt­insensorcleaning

unit.

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Priceandaffordability

ThepriceofSLRsingeneralalsotendstobesomewhathigherthanthatofothertypesofcameras,

owingtotheirinternalcomplexity.Thisiscompoundedbytheexpenseofadditionalcomponents,such

asflashesorlenses.Theinitialinvestmentinequipmentcanbeprohibitiveenoughtokeepsomecasual

photographersawayfromSLRs,althoughthemarketforusedSLRshasbecomelargerparticularlyas

photographersmigratetodigitalsystems.

FutureofSLRs

Thedigitalsingle­lensreflexcamerahavelargelyreplacedfilmSLR'sdesigninconvenience,salesand

popularityatthestartof21stcentury.Thesecamerasarecurrentlythemarketing'favorite'among

advancedamateurandprofessionalphotographers.FilmbasedSLR'sarestillusedbyanichemarketof enthusiastsandformatlovers. [8]

Seealso

References

1. ^Onewaspatentedin1861(ThomasSutton),butitisnotclearifasecondexamplewaseverproduced;

CalvinRaeSmith'sdesignofaPatentMonocularDuplexcamerawasadvertisedandsold.Spira,TheHistory

ofPhotography,119.

CameraQuest.Retrieved2008­06­08.

November23,2010.Retrieved2010­11­23.

historyofinnovations.Retrieved2006­10­22.

01­23.Retrieved2013­10­15.

NaturePhotographersOnlineMagazine.Retrieved2007­08­28.

Furtherreading

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Spira,S.F.TheHistoryofPhotographyasSeenthroughtheSpiraCollection.NewYork:

Aperture,2001.ISBN0­89381­953­0.

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