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Study Guide for Human Physiology Exam 1:

I. Chapter 1: Introduction

a.Physiology
i. the study of biological functionhow
the body works, from molecular
mechanisms within cells to the actions
of tissues, organs and systems, and
how the organism as a whole
accomplishes particular task essential
for life
ii. Physis= nature, logos= study
iii. How the body works; the function of
cells, tissues and organs
iv. In study of physiology, cause-and effect
sequences are emphasized
b.Anatomy
i. Geography of the human body
c. Body Systems and Organs
1.Skeletal System
a. Bones, Cartilage
b. Movement and support
2.Muscular System
a. Skeletal muscles
b. Movements of the skeleton
3.Circulatory/Cardiovascular
System
a. Heart, blood vessels, lymphatic
muscles
b. Movement of blood and lymph
4.Integumentary System
a. Skin, hair, nails
b. Protection, thermoregulation
5.Digestive System

a. Mouth, stomach, intestine,


liver, gallbladder, pancreas
b. Breakdown of food into
molecules that enter the body
6.Urinary System
a. Kidneys, ureters, urethra
b. Regulation of blood, volume
and composition
7.Endocrine System
a. Hormone-secreting glands,
such as pituitary, thyroid, and
adrenals
b. Secretion of regulatory
molecules called hormones
8.Immune/Lymphatic System
a. Bone marrow, lymphoid organs
b. Defense of the body against
invading pathogens
9.Reproductive System
a. Gonads, external genitalia,
associated glands, and ducts
b. Continuation of the human
species
10. Nervous System
a. Brain, spinal cord, nerves
b. Regulation of other body
systems
11. Respiratory System
a. Lungs, airways
b. Gas exchange
d.Organs
i. A structure composed of at least two,
and usually all four, primary tissues.

The largest organ in the body, in terms


of surface area is the skin
e.Systems
i. Organs that area located in different
regions of the body that perform related
functions are grouped into systems.
f. Homeostasis:
i. keeping the body in balance.
ii. Homeo= same; stasis= stable
iii. Homeostasis is best conceived as a
state of dynamic constancy in which
conditions are stabilized above and
below the set point.
iv. Homeostasis is the Set Point
v. Negative and Positive Feedback
Mechanisms
vi. Homeostasis maintained by two general
categories of regulatory mechanisms,
intrinsic and extrinsic.
g.4 Homeostasis components
1. Stimulus
2. Sensor
3. Integrating Center
4. Effector
h. Stimulus:
i. Causes a change in balance. (cold
wind)
i. Sensor:
i. Notices the stimulus, sends information
out afferent pathway. (Thermometer)
j. Integrating Center:
i. receives information from sensor,
establishes the Set point, analyzes

information out of the efferent pathway.


(Thermostat)
k. Effector:
i. the organ that carries out the
directions given by the integrating
center. (Heater)
ii. act antagonistically to defend the set
point against deviations in any
directions
l. Scenario: Last summer, 8 year old
Charlene was walking barefoot on the
sidewalk. She stepped on a sharp piece of
glass and her immediate reaction was to lift
up her foot
1. Stimulus = sharp glass
2. Sensor = nerves, pain receptors
3. Integrating Center= CNS,
Brain/Spinal Cord
4. Effector: muscle, quadriceps
m.
Intrinsic vs Extrinsic Control
a. Intrinsic Control:
i. local area, nearby.
ii. Example: overworked
muscles need oxygen and
waste removal.
1. Signals nearby blood
vessels
2. Vasodilation of
vessels
3. Blood flow increases
4. Homeostasis
achieved.
b. Extrinsic Control:
i. outside of the area

ii. Nervous and endocrine


systems involved
iii. Example:
Overworked muscle
needs oxygen and
waste removal.
1. Chemoreceptors in
carotid arteries are
signaled
2. Signal to brain and
nervous system
3. Commands to
vasodilation to entire
muscle
4. Homeostasis
achieved.
n. Negative feedback:
i. Major physiological response to
stimulus. Always opposes the stimulus
and wants to return to the Set point
ii. Examples:
1. Body Temperature at 37 C
a. Body sweating
2. Blood Sugar at 100 mg/dL
a. insulin to bring it back down,
glucagon increase blood sugar
level
3. Heart Rate at 70 BPM
a. If high or low, body brings it
back to normal
iii. Because negative feedback loops
respond after deviations from the set
point have stimulated sensors, the
internal environment is never

absolutely constant. Homeostasis is


best conceived as a state of dynamic
constancy in which conditions are
stabilized above and below a set point.

o.Positive Feedback
i. Lesson common method, set point is
ignored.
ii. Response intensifies the stimulus, does
not encourage homeostasis
iii. Homeostasis is ultimately maintained
by negative feedback mechanisms, but
the effectiveness, however, is increased
by positive feedback mechanisms that
amplify the actions of a negative
feedback response.
a. Example:
i. Blood clotting, for
example, occurs as a
result of a sequential
activation of clotting
factors; the activation of
one clotting factor results
in activation of many in a
positive feedback
cascade.
ii. In this way, a single
change is amplified to
produce a blood clot.
iii. Formation of the clot,
however, can prevent
further loss of blood, and
thus represents the
completion of a negative

feedback loop that


restores homeostasis.
iv. Examples:
1. Blood clotting
2. Parturition

II.

Chapter 2: Chemistry
a.Basic chemistry you should know
i. Atoms, chemical bonds, molecules,
functional groups of organic molecules
b.Atoms
i. Smallest units of the chemical
elements, too small to be seen
individually even with the most
powerful microscope.
c. Nucleus

i. Located at the center of an atom,


contains two type of particles, protons
and neutrons.
d.Protons
i. Bear a positive charge
e.Neutron
i. Carry no charge, neutral
f. Mass Number
i. Mass of a proton is equal to the mass of
a neutron, and the mass of the protons
and neutrons in an atom is the mass
number.
ii. Example: Carbon atom, 6 protons and 6
neutrons, has atomic mass of 12.
g.Atomic Number
i. The number of protons in an atom is
given as its atomic number.
ii. Carbon has 6 protons, and thus atomic
number of 6.
h.Electrons
i. Outside of the positively charged
nucleus are negatively charged
subatomic particles called electrons.
ii. Because the number of electrons in an
atom is equal to the number of protons,
atoms have a net charge of zero.
i. Isotopes
i. A particular atom with a given number
of protons in its nucleus may exist in
several forms that differ from one
another in their of neutrons. The atomic
number of these forms is thus the
same, but their atomic mass is

different. Different forms are called


isotopes.
j. Chemical Bonds
i. Molecules are formed through
interaction of the valence electrons
between two or more atoms. These
interactions such as the sharing of
electrons produce chemical bonds.
ii. The number of bonds that each atom
can have is determined b the number of
electrons needed to complete the
outermost shell.
k.Covalent Bonds
i. Result when atoms share their valence
electrons. Because the electrons are
equally distributed (no charge) between
two atoms, these molecules are said to
be nonpolar., and the bonds between
them are nonpolar covalent bonds.
l. Non-polar
i. Electrons are equally distributed (no
charge) between two atoms
m.
Polar
i. When electrons are pulled more toward
one atom than the other, the end of the
molecule toward which the electrons
are pulled is electrically negative
compared to the other end.
ii. Such a molecule is said to be polar (has
a positive or negative pole
n.Ionic Bonds
i. Result when one or more valence
electrons from one atom are completely
transferred to a second atom.

ii. Thus the electrons are not shared at all.


o.Ions
i. Atoms or molecules that have a positive
or negative charge.
p.Cations
i. Positively charged ions
ii. Cations = because they move toward
the negative pole, or cathode, in a
electric field.
q.Anion
i. Negative charged ion
ii. Anion=moves toward positive pole, or
anode, in an electric field.
r. Ionic Compounds
i. Cations and anion ions attract each
other and form ionic compounds,
s. Organic compounds
i. Molecules that contain the atoms of
carbon and hydrogen
t. Functional Groups
i. Hydrocarbon chain or ring of many
organic molecules provides a relatively
inactive molecular backbone: to which
more reactive groups of atoms are
attached. Known as functional groups of
the molecule, these reactive groups
usually contain atoms of oxygen,
nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorous, or
sulfur.
ii. Often responsible for the unique
chemical properties of a molecule.
u.Characteristics of water
v. Water

1. High heat capacityit changes


temperature slowly (able to hold
heat)
2. High latent heat of vaporization
a. Needs lots of calories needed
to evaporate
b. Molecules highly attracted to
each other by hydrogen
bonding.
3. Water is Polar
a. Polar= one side +, opposite
side
b. Oxygen and two hydrogens on
opposite ends
c. Water can be separated into
Hydrogen atom, and a
hydroxyl ion
d. Hydrogen bonds happen
between water molecules
i. Hydrogen bonding is
strong enough bond to
take water up a redwood
tree
ii. Similar to how humans,
blood is pumped up
4. Excellent solvent for all solutes
a. Blood is mostly water
b. Professor Question: Baby v.s
70 year old. Who is made up of
more water.
i. Answer: baby is 80
percent water, older
person less water.

ii. Men have more water %


than women because of
adipose tissue, essential
fats for pregnancy
5. Reactant or product in chemical
reactions
a. Hydrolysiswater used to
break chemical bonds.
Hydro=water, lysis=to break
or cut
b.Dehydration synthesis
i. Water produced when
build a bond between 2
molecules
6. Cushioning agent in your body
a. Cerebral spinal fluid, amniotic
fluid.
w.
Acid
i. Donates a hydrogen ion (H+)
ii. If you increases H+ ions the pH will go
down (more acidic)
iii. Example: HCL is a strong acid
x. Base
i. Accepts a hydrogen ion (H+)
ii. If you remove hydrogen ions, the pH
will go up (more basic)
iii. Example: NaOH is a strong base
y. Acid + base = Salt
a. HCl + NaOH NaCl + H20
z. Buffer
a. Prevents dramatic changes in
pH, balances
aa.
Electrolytes

ab.

a. Dissociate and conduct


electricity
b. Positive and negative ions
conduct electricity
c. Osmolality= # solutes/ L
solution
i. Measurement of
electrolytes
d. Molarity = #moles/ L solution
Carbohydrates
a. Sources from plants
b. Carbs and sugars suffix usually
ose, -rides,
c. Carbon, Hydrogen, and oxygen
d. Examples: pasta, rice, body
likes it, favorite energy source
1. Monosaccharaides
(mono-sac-cha-rides)
one sugar
a. Glucose,
galactose, ribose
2. Disaccharides (disac-cha-rides)two
sugars connected
with a bond
a. Lactose and
sucrose
3. Polysaccharides
(poly-sac-cha-rides)
many sugars
a. Glycogen, starch,
and cellulose
b. Glycogen is a
bunch of glucose,

ac.

Lipids

glycogen stored
in skeletal muscle
and liver
a.Insoluble in water
i. Nonpolar or hydrophobic
ii. Example: fats and oil
b.Simple Lipids
i. 3 free fatty acids plus 1
glycerol
ii. put them together through
dehydration synthesis to
make triglyceride
c. Fatty Acids
i. Can be saturated or
unsaturated
a. Butter vs milk
ii. Fatty acids have cis or
trans double bonds
a. Trans are bad
news
b. Cause heart
disease, harden
at room
temperature,
hydrogenation.
c. Increases LDL,
HDL, plasma
blood.
d.Complex Lipids
i. Phospholipid of cell
membrane
e.Cholesterol

i. Altered to become steroid


hormone
ii. You need some
cholesterol.
ad.

Proteins
a. Amino acids connected by
peptide bonds
b. Amino group and a carboxyl
group on sides
c. Functional group
d.Protein Structure
i. Primary structure
a. order of amino
acids
ii. Secondary structure
a. Shape of protein,
alpha helix
pleated sheet
iii. Tertiary structure
a. Interactions of
helices and
sheets.
iv. Quaternary structure
a. Three
dimensional
figure
e. Proteins are delicate
a. If we hydrolyze
them, break their
bonds with water
b. If denature them
by heating or
changes in pH,

then quaternary
structure is lost
i. Protein is
longer
functions
properly
ae.

ATP

a. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)


b. When bonds are broken,
energy is released
c. ENERGY of the body
d. Mitochondria take glucose and
make ATP
e. When last bond of P is broken,
energy is released and result is
ADP and free P
i. Adenosine triphosphate

III. Chapter 3: Cell


Structure

a.Cytosol or Cytoplasm
i. Cyto=cell
ii. Gelatinous mass inside the cell
iii. Contains water, proteins, organelles
iv. Some cells contain fat or glycogen
b.Cytoskeleton components
i. Gives the cell structure.
ii. Proteins that keeps organelles in place
iii. Gives structures to cells
iv. Two Major Elements of Cytoskeleton
1.Microtubules
a. Largest
b. Also give structure to cilia and
flagella

2. Microfilaments
a. Smaller than microtubules
b. Also give structure to microvilli
of small intestine
c. Actin and myosin of muscle
are also microfilaments
c. Organelle names and functions
i. Identify and know the definitions
a. Secretory vesicle
b. Centriole
c. Nucleolus

d.

d.Plasma membrane
i. Plasma Membrane and Structure:
ii. Phospholipids
a. Head is hydrophilic
i. Face outward
ii. Loves water
b. 2 fatty acid tails are
hydrophobic

i. Face inward
ii. Fear water
e.Transcription
i. Protein Synthesis
ii. DNA - RNA
iii. Steps
1. Starts in nucleus
2. RNA polymerase binds to promoter
3. DNA unwinds
4. Read T, grab A. (A-U, G-C, C-G)
f. Translation
i. mRNA to Protein
ii. Steps:
1. Initiation complex forms
a. Small ribosomal subunit and
mRNA
b. First tRNA transfers arrives
with methionine
i. tRNA=job is to move
things
c. Then large ribosomal subunit
2. Read second codon or triplet
3. tRNA with matching anti-codon
brings its amino acid
4. Peptide bond made between amino
acids
5. Ribosome moves down the mRNA
6. Continue reading/building until
stop codon
7. Release factor comes
8. Everything falls apart
9. Protein is Finished
g.Mitosis
i. Cell division

ii. Subdivided into 4 stages


1.Prophase
a. Chromosomes become visible,
as distinctive structures
2.Metaphase
a. Chromosomes line up single
file along the equator of the
cell
b. This aligning of chromosomes
at the equator is believed to
be the result from the action of
the spindle fibers
3.Anaphase
a. Begins with centromeres split
apart and the spindle fibers
shorten pulling the two
chromatids in each
chromosome to opposite poles.
b. Each pole therefore gets one
copy of each of the 46
chromosomes.
c. Ana-phase
4.Telophase
a. Division of the cytoplasm
(cytokinesis) results in the
production of two daughter
cells that are genetically
identical to each other and to
the original parent cell
b. Tel-o-phase

iii.

IV.

Chapter 4: Enzymes
a.Characteristics of enzymes
1. Proteins that catalyze a reaction

a. Increase rate of reaction


2. Work with lock and key model
3. Usually end in ase
a. Example: lactase
dehydrogenase (LDH)
b. Removes hydrogen from lactic
acid
4. Diagnose disease with enzymes in
blood
a. Ex: Creatine phosphokinase
(CPK)
5. Enzymes have optimal pH and
temperature
6. Assisted by coenzymes and derived
from vitamins
b.Bioenergetics
i. Endergonic reactions
a. Requires energy input
ii. Exergonic reactions
a. Releases energy
iii. Energy made by enzyme; ATP synthase
a. ADP + P (inorganic) ATP
iv. Oxidation-Reduction reactions are
important
a. To gain H+ is to be reduced
b. To donate H + is to be oxidized
c. OIL=Oxidized Is to Lose
d. RIG=Reduce is to Gain
c. Reduced/oxidized coenzymes
i. FAD FADH2
ii. Suffinic Acid ---Fumaric Acid
1. What is oxidized?
a. Succinic acid
2. What is reduced?

V.

VI.

VII.

a. FAD
3. What atoms are removed?
Chapter 5: Cell Respiration/Metabolism
a. 3 major nutrients
b. Catabolism/anabolism
c. Glycolysis
d.Citric Acid Cycle
e.Electron Transport Chain
f. Overall chemical equation for glucose
metabolism
g. Glycogen
h. Lipid Metabolism
i. Protein metabolism
Chapter 6: Cells and Environment
a.3 types of passive transports
b.3 types of active transport
c. Bull transport
d. Basics of neurophysiology
e. Ion concentrations out/in cell
f. Why -70 mV resting membrane
potential
g. 4 ways of cell to cell signaling
Chapter 7: Nervous System
a.Classes of neurons
b.Depolarization
c. Repolarization
d.Hyperpolarization
e.Steps to an action potential
f. Na/Sodium pump
g. Propagation of action potential
h. Myelination, nodes, conduction
i. Steps of a synapse
j. Neurotransmitter action
1. Ligand-operated

2. G-protein operated
3. Second messenger
k. Know basic neurotransmitter categories and
as an example of each
l. ETSP/IPSP