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Transient Recovery Voltages (TRVs)

for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers


Part 1
Denis Dufournet
Chair CIGRE WG A3.28 & IEEE WG C37.011, Fellow IEEE
San Antonio (USA), 19/09/2013

GRID

Content

(1/3)
Page

Introduction & General Considerations


Capacitive Current Switching TRV
Types of Fault TRVs
TRV Modification
Terminal Fault TRV

4 &13
29
45
63
72

First-pole-to-clear factor
TRV rating & testing
TRV & arcing times

73
88
120

TRV for generator circuit breakers

138

Short-Line Fault TRV


ITRV (Initial TRV)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 2

148
187

Content

(2/3)

Page

Out-of-Phase TRV

194

Three-Phase Line Faults TRV

199

Shunt Reactor Switching TRV

217

Transformer Limited Fault TRV

229

Series Reactor Limited Fault TRV

264

Influence of Series Capacitors on TRV

271

Harmonization of TRVs in IEC & IEEE

282

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 3

Content

(3/3)
Page

Annexes

306

A: First-pole-to-clear factor

307

B: Second-pole-to-clear factor

316

C: Complement on line faults

321

D: Equivalent circuit for 3-phase to ground fault

326

E: Test circuit for kpp = 1.3

329

F: Bibliography

333

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 4

Introduction

GRID

Importance of TRV

The TRV is a decisive parameter that limits the interrupting capability


of a circuit breaker.

The interrupting capability of a circuit breaker was found to be strongly


dependent on TRV in the 1950s.

When developing interrupting chambers, manufacturers must verify


and prove the TRV withstand specified in the standards for different
test duties.

Users must specify TRVs in accordance with their applications.

Type tests in high-power laboratories must be performed in


accordance with international standards, in particular with rated values
of TRVs.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 6

Recent TRV Studies in International Bodies


TRV Studies by International Working Groups
1993-1996: CIGRE-CIRED WG CC03 Medium Voltages TRVs
1994-1998: IEC SC17A WG21 Revision Circuit Breaker Standard
1997-2002: IEC SC17A WG23 Harmonization TRVs Circuit Breakers 100kV
2002-2006: IEC SC17A WG35 Revision TRVs Circuit Breakers < 100kV
2001-2009: IEEE C37-04 & 06 Harmonization TRVs Circuit Breakers
2002-2005: IEEE C37-011 Revision Application Guide HV Circuit Breakers
2004-2008: CIGRE WG A3-19 Implications of Three-phase Line Faults
2007-2009: CIGRE WG A3-22 Technical Requirements for UHV Equipment
2009-2011: IEC SC17A MT36 TF Introduction UHV TRVs in IEC 62271-100
2008-2011: IEEE C37-011 Revision Application Guide HV Circuit Breakers
2011-2013: CIGRE WG A3-28 Switching Phenomena for UHV & EHV Equipment
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 7

Main References

A.Greenwood, Electrical Transients in Power Systems. (book) 2nd


edition, John Wiley & Sons (1991).

R.Alexander, D.Dufournet, IEEE Tutorial on TRVs (2003-05)


http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/switchgear/presentations/trvtutorial/T
utorialTRVAlexander-Dufournet.pdf

D.Dufournet, TRVs for High-Voltage Circuit Breakers, Presentation at


IEEE Switchgear Committee meeting in Calgary (2008-10)
http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/switchgear/presentations/2008cbtutor
ial/Part4_IEEETutorialonTRVHVCircuitBreakers-Dufournet.pdf

CIGRE Technical Brochure N134, Transient Recovery Voltages in


Medium Voltage Networks (1998-12)

CIGRE Technical Brochure N408, Line fault phenomena and their


implications for 3-phase short and long-line fault clearing, (2010-02)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 8

Main References

A.Janssen, D.Dufournet, Travelling Waves at Line Fault Clearing and


Other Transient Phenomena, CIGRE Session 2010, Paper A3-102.

CIGRE Technical Brochure 456, Background of Technical


Specifications for Substation Equipment Exceeding 800kV AC, by
CIGRE WG A3-22 (2011-04).

D.Dufournet, A.Janssen, Transformer Limited fault TRV, Tutorial at


IEEE Switchgear Committee Meeting in San Diego (2012-10)

Denis Dufournet, Joanne (Jingxuan) Hu, High-Voltage Circuit


Breakers Seminar Part 2 Transient Recovery Voltages, University of
Manitoba, Winnipeg (2012-06)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 9

Standards & Guides

IEC 62271-100, High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers (2012-09)


IEC 62271-101, Synthetic testing (2012-10)
IEC 62271-110, Inductive load switching (2012-09)
IEC 62271-306, Guide to IEC 62271-100, 62271-1 .. (2012-12)
ANSI/IEEE C37.04, 04a, 04b, IEEE Standard Rating Structure for AC
High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.
IEEE Std C37.06-2009, Draft AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on
a Symmetrical Current Basis-Preferred Ratings and Related Required
Capabilities
IEEE Std C37.09, 09b-2010, IEEE Standard Test Procedure for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.
IEEE C37.011, Application Guide for TRV for AC High-Voltage Circuit
Breakers (2011).
IEEE C37.013, IEEE Standard for AC High-Voltage Generator Circuit
Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 10

Historical Perspective

In the second edition of IEC 56 published in 1954, the TRV, defined as


"restriking voltage, was of single frequency.
The amplitude factor (or crest value) and the TRV frequency (related to
the rate-of-rise) were not specified but had to be evaluated during the
tests.

In the third edition of IEC 56, published in 1971, IEC introduced for the
first time the term TRV and its representation by two or four
parameters. The short-line-fault tests were also introduced in this
edition.

TRVs requirements were also introduced in 1971 in ANSI C37.0721971 (IEEE Std. 327), with TRV ratings in C37.0722-1971 and TRV
Application Guide C37.0721-1971 (IEEE Std. 328).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 11

Historical Perspective

In the fourth edition of IEC 56, published in 1987, a first-pole-to-clear


factor of 1.3 is the only factor specified for rated voltages 245 kV.
the rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) is doubled to 2.0 kV/s
for terminal fault test duty T100.
ITRV is introduced for rated voltages 100 kV.

ITRV is introduced in ANSI C37.04 and C37.09 in 1991 (amendments


04i and 09g).

ANSI C37-06 (1997) harmonize partly TRV parameters with those in


IEC (e.g. RRRV = 2.0 kV/s for T100).

As in IEC, line surge impedance is 450 for all rated voltages in


ANSI/IEEE C37.04-1999 (instead of 450 for Ur 242 kV and 360
for Ur 362 kV).
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 12

Historical Perspective

Further Harmonization of TRVs between IEC and IEEE lead


to
Amendments 1 and 2 of IEC 62271-100 (respectively in 2002 and
2006)
Amendments of IEEE C37.04b (2008), IEEE C37.06 (2009) and
IEEE C37.09b (2010).
Harmonization of IEC and IEEE standards for high-voltage circuit
breakers is presented in detail in a specific chapter.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 13

General considerations on
Transient Recovery Voltages

GRID

General Considerations
The recovery voltage is the voltage which appears across the
terminals of a pole of circuit breaker after current interruption.

Xs

CURRENT

Recovery
voltage

TRANSIENT RECOVERY
VOLTAGE

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 15

RECOVERY
VOLTAGE

General Considerations
Current Interruption Process in SF6 Circuit Breakers
Two
contacts
are
separated
in
each
interrupting chamber.
An arc is generated, it is
cooled and extinguished
when current passes
through zero.

Simulation arc interruption

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 16

General Considerations

During the interruption process, the arc loses rapidly its conductivity as
the instantaneous current approaches zero.

TRV (kV)
I (A)

TRV

Gas
circuit
breakers:
Within a few microseconds
after current zero, arc
resistance (RARC) rises to
one million ohm in a few
microseconds and current
stops flowing in the circuit.

Interruption when current passes through zero

During the first microseconds after current zero, the TRV withstand is
function of the energy balance in the arc: it is the thermal phase of
interruption.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 17

General Considerations

Later, the voltage withstand is function of the dielectric withstand


between contacts: it is the dielectric phase of interruption.
The breaking operation is successful if the circuit breaker is able to
withstand the TRV and the power frequency recovery voltage.
The TRV is the difference between the voltages on the source side
and on the load side of the circuit breaker.

During type tests, standards require that the recovery voltage is


applied during 300 ms after current interruption.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 18

General Considerations

The nature of the TRV is dependent on the circuit being interrupted,


whether primarily resistive, capacitive or inductive, (or some
combination).

When interrupting a fault at the circuit breaker terminal (terminal fault)


in an inductive circuit, the supply voltage at current zero is maximum.
The circuit breaker interrupts at current zero (at a time when the power
input is minimum) the voltage on the supply side terminal meets the
supply voltage in a transient process called the TRV.
TRV frequency is

1
2

LC

with L = short-circuit inductance


C = supply capacitance.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 19

Fault

General Considerations
TRV during inductive current breaking

CURRENT

Supply voltage

TRANSIENT RECOVERY
Current and TRV waveforms during interruption of inductive current
VOLTAGE

Note: voltage polarity not respected on Figure


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 20

General Considerations
TRV and recovery voltage in resistive, inductive
and capacitive circuits
2,5
2
1,5

CAPACITIVE
CIRCUIT

1
0,5
0
0

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

-0,5
-1
-1,5

RESISTIVE
CIRCUIT

-2

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 21

INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT
(with stray capacitance)

0,025

0,03

0,035

General Considerations

Combination of the former basic cases are possible, for example the
TRV for mainly active load current breaking is a combination of TRVs
associated with inductive and resistive circuits.

They are specified for high-voltage switches only as circuit-breakers


are able to interrupt with more severe TRVs (in inductive circuits).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 22

General Considerations

Fault interruptions are often considered to produce the most onerous


TRVs. Shunt reactor switching is one of the exceptions.

TRVs can be oscillatory, triangular, or exponential and can occur as a


combination of these forms.

The highest peak TRVs are met during capacitive current and out-ofphase current interruption,

TRVs associated with the highest short-circuit current are obtained


during terminal fault and short-line-fault interruption.

In general, a network can be reduced to a simple parallel RLC circuit


for TRV calculations.
This representation is valid for a short-time period until voltage
reflections return from remote buses (see IEEE C37.011-2011)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 23

General Considerations
Equivalent circuit

Real network

(Vcb)

N Lines, each with surge


impedance

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 24

l
c

Z
N

L: source inductance, lines excepted


C: source capacitance, lines excepted

General Considerations
(Vcb)

L
R

The TRV in the parallel RLC circuit is oscillatory (under-damped) if


1
R
L/C
2
The TRV in the parallel RLC circuit is exponential (over-damped) if
1
R
L/C
2
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 25

General Considerations
TRV (p.u.)
2

0.5

R / (L / C)

1,8

= 10
4

1,6
2

1,4
1

1,2
0.75

1
0,8
0,6

0,5

0,4
0,3

0,2
0
0

t/RC

t / RC
Damping of the oscillatory TRV is provided by R, as R is in parallel
to L and C
(parallel damping) the damping increases when the resistance decreases (the
TRV peak increases when R increases).
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 26

General Considerations
Reflection from end of lines
When longer time frames are
considered, typically several hundreds
of micro-seconds, reflections on lines
must be considered.
VOLTAGE (kV)
900
800

SYSTEM TRV

TRV CAPABILITY FOR A


STANDARD BREAKER

700
600
500
400
300
200

REFLECTED WAVE

100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

TIME (s)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 27

Lines or cables must then be


treated as components with
distributed elements on
which voltage waves travel
after current interruption.
These traveling waves are
reflected and refracted when
reaching an open circuit or a
discontinuity.

General Considerations

The most severe TRV occurs across the first pole to clear of a circuit
breaker when it interrupts a three-phase terminal fault with a
symmetrical current and when the system voltage is maximum (see
section on Terminal fault).

By definition, all TRV values defined in the standards are inherent,


i.e. the values that would be obtained during interruption by an ideal
circuit breaker without arc voltage.
(arc resistance changes from zero to an infinite value at current
zero).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 28

Capacitive Current Switching


TRV & Recovery Voltage

GRID

Capacitive Current Switching

U (p.u.)
2,5
2

Recovery voltage

1,5
1
0,5

current
interruption

Supply voltage
0
-0,5

Example of a single
phase interruption at
50 Hz

Load voltage

-1
-1,5
0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,035

Time (s)

Capacitive current interruption: recovery voltage has a (1 cos) waveshape


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 30

Capacitive Current Switching

Supply-side voltage

Load-side voltage

Recovery voltage

Current
Contact separation
Current interruption
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 31

Final current interruption


Restrike

Capacitive Current Switching


U (p.u.)

Overvoltage 3 p.u.

3,5
3
2,5

2 p.u.

2
1,5
1

Recovery voltage
instant of current
interruption

0,5

2 p.u.

0
-0,5
-1
-1,5
0,005

Restrike

Reignition
0,01

no overvoltage

0,015

overvoltage

0,02

0,025

Time (s)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 32

Capacitive Current Switching

Two cases can be distinguished, depending on when the restrike


happens:
When it is less than 1/4 of a cycle after current interruption: it is
called a reignition,
no overvoltage is produced on the circuit during the transient
period when the load voltage tend to reach the supply voltage.
When it is more than 1/4 of a cycle after current interruption, it is
called a restrike,
there is an overvoltage on the circuit during the transient period
following the restrike.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 33

"1-Cos" Waveshape
Special case of series capacitor switching by by-pass switches
By-pass switches must be able to withstand the reinsertion voltage
without restrike during the transfer of reinsertion current.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 34

"1-Cos" Waveshape
Special case of series capacitor switching

by by-pass switches

Several transient reinsertion voltage


waveshapes can be obtained in service.
The reinsertion voltage waveshape should be determined by
systems studies.
For standardization purposes, and in order to cover the greatest
number of practical cases, IEC 62271-109 recommends a "1-cos"
waveshape having a preferred first time-to-peak of 5,6 ms.
A restrike happens if there is a resumption of current 2.8 ms or
later after the initial current interruption.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 35

Capacitive Current Switching


Voltage Jump
Circuit with capacitive and inductive
components.

The recovery voltage is the sum a 1 cos


wave-shape and a high-frequency voltage
oscillation on the supply side due to a
transient
across
the
short-circuit
(inductive) reactance at the time of
interruption (explanation on next slide).

There is an initial voltage jump.

It tends to increase the minimum arcing


time and therefore to increase the shortest
duration between contact separation and
the instant of peak recovery voltage.

Interruption is easier when the voltage


jump is higher
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 36

Capacitive Current Switching


Voltage Jump

1
0

1- Supply-side voltage after


current interruption, with
voltage jump
2- Load-side voltage after
current interruption

Voltage before
current interruption

UA

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 37

3- Recovery voltage across


circuit-breaker terminals

I
1
E
E

1
C C
1 Ls C 2
Ls
C

Three-Phase Capacitive Current Breaking


Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral

ER
ES

CR

CS
CT

ET

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 38

EN
N

Three-Phase Capacitive Current Breaking


Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral
Recovery voltage for the first pole to interrupt
2,0

VB
1,5

1,0

2.5 p.u.
0,5

VN
0,0
-0 ,0 05

-0,003

-0,00 1

0,00 1

0 ,0 03

0,00 5

0,0 07

0 ,0 09

0,01 1

0,0 13

0 ,0 15

-0,5

-1,0

VA
-1,5

Due to neutral voltage shift (VN) after interruption by the first pole, the peak
recovery voltage is 2.5 p.u. instead of 2 p.u. for single-phase interruption.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 39

Three-Phase Capacitive Current Breaking


Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral
Recovery voltage (RV) on each pole
uc= 2.5 p.u.
kc= 1.25

RV on firstpole-to-clear

The recovery voltage is higher on the first pole to clear


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 40

Three-Phase Capacitive Current Breaking


Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral
TRV 3-PHASE CAPACITIVE CURRENT SWITCHING (50Hz)
Capacitor bank with isolated neutral

Single-phase test with kc= 1,4

2,5
2

TRV (p.u.)

The
three-phase
recovery voltage is
considered to be
covered during a
single phase test
with
a
supply
voltage equal to the
phase to ground
voltage multiplied
by 1.4

Three-phase test

1,5
1
Single-phase test with kc= 1,25

0,5
0
0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5 9 9,5 10

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 41

T (ms)

Three-Phase Line-Charging Current Breaking


In the case of line switching
The recovery voltage is
influenced by phase-toground and phase-to-phase
capacitances
Equivalence during singlephase test is obtained with a
supply voltage equal to the
phase-to-ground
voltage
multiplied by a factor = 1.2
(U is 2.4 p.u.).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 42

Three-Phase Cable-Charging Current Breaking


Types of cables & equivalent circuits

Similar case as
overhead lines

Same case as
capacitor bank
with grounded
neutral

C1/C0=3 Ur 52kV
C1/C0=2 Ur > 52kV

Screened cable

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 43

Belted cable

Three-Phase Capacitive Current Breaking


Single-phase tests to simulate three-phase conditions
Test voltage for single-phase tests: U test k c

Ur
3

Voltage factors in case of effectively grounded neutral systems


Line-charging current
kc = 1.2
Cable-charging current kc = 1.0 (screened cable)
= 1.4/ 1.2 (belted cable 52kV / >52kV)
Capacitor-bank current kc = 1.0/1.4 grounded/isolated neutral

Voltage factors in case of non-effectively grounded neutral systems


Line-charging current
kc = 1.4
Cable-charging current kc = 1.4
Capacitor-bank current kc = 1.4

Voltage factors in the case of fault on another line(s)


Effectively grounded neutral systems
kc = 1.4
Non-effectively grounded neutral systems kc = 1.7

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 44

Types of Fault TRVs

GRID

Types of Fault TRVs / Reminder


Equivalent circuit

Real network

(Vcb)

N Lines, each with surge


impedance

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 46

l
c

Z
N

L: source inductance, lines excepted


C: source capacitance, lines excepted

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


Exponential (overdamped) TRV
The exponential part of a TRV occurs when the equivalent resistance
of the circuit with N connected lines in parallel
Z
R = Zeq = 1 is lower or equal to 0.5 Leq / Ceq
N
where Z1 = positive sequence surge impedance of a line
Z0 = zero sequence surge impedance of a line
3 Z0

N = number of lines,
Z1 2 Z 0
Leq = equivalent inductance, Ceq = equivalent capacitance.
It typically occurs when one or several lines are on the unfaulted side
of the circuit breaker and when the fault is cleared at the circuit
breaker terminals.
The rate of rise of recovery voltage is RRRV = Zeq x (di/dt)
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 47

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


Three-phase to ground fault
(Vcb)

Equivalent inductance

L eq
when

3 L 0 L1

L1 2 L 0

LLeq

L0 3 L1

ZReq

Ceq
C

9 L1
Leq
1.3 L1
7
see Annex D: 3-phase
network representation

Equivalent capacitance

Ceq

2 (C1 C0 )
C0
3

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 48

C0 2 C1

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


Three-phase to ground fault
Equivalent surge impedance (first pole to clear)

Z eq

Z 0Z1
3

N
Z1 2Z 0

Z0 ZS 2 ZM
Z1 Z S Z M
ZM

Z 0 Z1
3

ZS: self value


ZM: mutual value
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 49

3 Z0

Z1 2 Z 0
see Annex D: 3-phase network
representation
See section on SLF for the calculation of line
surge impedance

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


TRV for parallel RLC circuit

ucb u1 (1 e
with

(cosh t sinh t ))

ucb

is the voltage across the open circuit-breaker

u1

= 2 f = 377 rad/s at 60 Hz and 314 rad/s at 50 Hz

is the short-circuit current (rms)

2 I Leq

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 50

1
2 Z eq Ceq

2 1 /( Leq Ceq )

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


TRV when Ceq can be neglected

ucb u1 (1 e t / )
where

Leq
Z eq

RRRV

ducb

dt

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 51

dI
2 I Z eq Z eq
dt

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


Special case of three-phase ungrounded faults
Equivalent inductance

Equivalent capacitance

Ceq

2 C1
3

with C1= C0

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 52

C1
1.5

L eq

3 L1
1 . 5 L1
2

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV

This exponential part of TRV is transmitted as traveling waves on


each of the transmission lines. Reflected wave(s) returning from open
lines or discontinuities contribute also to the TRV.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 53

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV

As an example, the following figure shows the one line diagram of a


550 kV substation. The TRV seen by circuit breaker (A) when clearing
the three-phase fault is shown in the next slide. Circuit breaker (B) is
open.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 54

Types of Fault TRVs / Overdamped TRV


System TRV with reflected wave
VOLTAGE (kV)
900
800

SYSTEM TRV

TRV CAPABILITY FOR A


STANDARD BREAKER

700
600
500
400
300
200

REFLECTED WAVE

100
0
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

TIME (s)

A reflection occurs from the end of the shortest


line after 2 x 81 / 0.3 = 540 s
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 55

Types of Fault TRVs / Reflected Waves

The exponential part of TRV is transmitted as traveling waves on each


of the transmission lines.
When a wave reaches a discontinuity on the line (another bus or a
transformer termination) a reflected wave is produced, which travels
back towards the faulted bus.
It takes 6.67 s for a wave to go out and back to a discontinuity 1km
away as the wave travels at 300 000 km/s (speed of light).
At a discontinuity transmitted and reflected waves can be described by
the following equations:

2 Zb
et ei
Za Zb

Za

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 56

Zb

Zb Za
er ei
Za Zb

Types of Fault TRVs / Reflected Waves

Zb

Za

A wave that reaches a shortcircuit point (Zb= 0) is reflected


with an opposite sign
A wave that reaches an open
point (Zb is infinite) is reflected
with the same sign.
The voltage at this point is then
doubled.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 57

2 Zb
et ei
Za Zb
er ei

Zb Za
Za Zb

Types of Fault TRVs / Reflected Waves


Example of TRV resulting from several traveling waves

From CIGRE WG A322/28 tutorial in Rio


de Janeiro (2012-02)
Times in s and not in
ms

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 58

Types of Fault TRVs / Underdamped TRV


Oscillatory (underdamped) TRV

An oscillatory TRV occurs generally when a fault is limited by a


transformer or a series reactor and no transmission line (or cable) surge
impedance is present to provide damping.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 59

Types of Fault TRVs / Underdamped TRV

To be oscillatory, the equivalent resistance of the source side has to


be such that

Leq
Z
Req
0.5
N
Ceq

Leq = equivalent source inductance


Ceq = equivalent source capacitance.

To meet this requirement, only a low number of lines (N) must be


connected on the source side.
Therefore oscillatory TRVs are specified for
terminal fault test duties T10 and T30 for circuit breakers in
transmission systems (Ur 100 kV),
all terminal fault test duties in the case of circuit breakers in
distribution or sub-transmission systems (Ur < 100 kV).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 60

Types of Fault TRVs / Underdamped TRV


Transmission systems (Ur 100 kV)
In the large majority of cases, TRV characteristics (peak value and
rate-of-rise) for faults with 10% or 30% of rated short-circuit current
are covered by the rated values defined in the standards for test
duties T10 and T30.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 61

Types of Fault TRVs / Triangular wave-shape

Triangular-shaped TRVs are associated with short-line faults (see


separate chapter on SLF).

After current interruption, the line-side voltage exhibits a characteristic


triangular waveshape.

The rate-of-rise of the saw-tooth shaped TRV is function of the line


surge impedance and current. The rate-of rise is usually higher than
that experienced with exponential or oscillatory TRVs (with the same
current), however the TRV peak is generally low.

line

Circuit breaker
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 62

TRV Modification

GRID

Current Asymmetry and Circuit


Breaker Influence on TRV

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 64

TRV Modification / Current Asymmetry

When interrupting asymmetrical currents, TRV is less severe (lower


RRRV and TRV peak) than when interrupting the related
symmetrical current because the instantaneous value of the supply
voltage at the time of interruption is less than the peak value.

SUPPLY VOLTAGE

CURRENT

TIME

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 65

TRV Modification / Current Asymmetry

Correction factors of the TRV peak and rate of rise of recovery voltage
(RRRV) when interrupting asymmetrical currents are given in
IEEE C37.081 IEEE Guide for Synthetic Fault Testing of AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.
IEEE C37.081a Supplement to IEEE Guide for Synthetic Fault
Testing 8.3.2: Recovery Voltage for Terminal Faults; Asymmetrical
Short-Circuit Current.
IEC 62271-100 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers (2012-09).
IEC 62271-101 Synthetic testing (2012-10): Annex I

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 66

TRV Modification / Current Asymmetry


The RRRV is proportional to the slope of current before interruption

(di/dt). Factor F1 gives the correction due to current asymmetry:

D
F1 1 D
X /R
2

with

degree of asymmetry (p.u.)

-D

interruption after a major loop of current

+D

interruption after a minor loop of current

X/R

short-circuit reactance divided by resistance

When time to peak TRV is relatively short (< 500 s), the correction
factor for the TRV peak is also F1.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 67

TRV Modification / Current Asymmetry


Correction factor for the TRV peak in case of long time to peak TRV

(> 500 s) :

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 68

TRV Modification / Circuit Breaker Influence

During current interruption, the circuit TRV can be modified by a


circuit breaker:
by arc resistance,
by the circuit breaker capacitance or opening resistor (if any).

The TRV measured across the terminals of two different types of


circuit breakers under identical conditions can be different.

To simplify both rating and application, the power system TRV is


calculated ignoring the influence of the circuit breaker.
The circuit breaker is considered to be ideal i.e. without modifying
effects on the electrical characteristics of a system,
when conducting its impedance is zero,
at current zero its impedance changes from zero to infinity.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 69

TRV Modification / Circuit Breaker Influence

When a circuit breaker is fitted with grading capacitors or with line-toground capacitors, these capacitors can reduce significantly the rateof-rise of TRV during short-line faults.

Opening resistors (R) are used to assist interruption by air blast circuit
breakers, they are used on some SF6 circuit breakers (Japanese
550kV 1 break & 1100 kV 2 breaks).
The RRRV (rate of rise of
recovery voltage) is reduced
as follows
du Z R di Z R

I 2
dt Z R dt Z R
The resistor (R) is in parallel
with the surge impedance of
the system (Z).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 70

Air blast Generator Circuit Breaker


with opening resistor

TRV Modification / Circuit Breaker Influence


Interruption with Opening Resistance

Arc extinction is facilitated by reducing the voltage stress (RRRV) after


current interruption, a parallel resistance is used for this purpose
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 71

Terminal Fault TRV

GRID

Terminal fault TRV


First pole to clear factor

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 73

Terminal Fault TRV

CURRENT

TRANSIENT RECOVERY
VOLTAGE
Current - TRV - Recovery Voltage

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 74

RECOVERY
VOLTAGE

Terminal Fault TRV


First Pole to Clear Factor (kpp)
During 3-phase faults interruption, the recovery voltage is higher on
the first pole to clear.
The first-pole-to clear factor is the ratio of the power frequency
voltage across the first interrupting pole, before current interruption
in the other poles, to the power frequency voltage occurring across
the pole after interruption in all three poles.
It is the ratio between the recovery voltage (RV) across the first
pole to clear and the phase to ground voltage of the system.

kpp

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 75

Recovery Voltage

Ur
3

Terminal Fault TRV


First Pole to Clear Factor (kpp)
kpp

Ur
3

ER
ES

ET
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 76

Ur
3
B

Terminal Fault TRV

When tests are performed on one pole (single-phase tests), the supply
voltage must be multiplied by kpp in order to have the recovery voltage
that would be met on the first pole during a three-phase interruption.

The firstpoleto-clear factor (kpp) is a function of the grounding


arrangements of the system and of the type of fault.
For systems with non-effectively grounded neutral, kpp is 1.5.
For three-phase to ground faults in systems with effectively grounded
neutral, kpp is 1.3 (see Annex A).
Note: for UHV systems (rated voltages 1100 & 1200kV) the ratio X0/X1
is close to 2 and the standardized value of kpp is 1.2.

For three-phase ungrounded faults, kpp is 1.5.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 77

Terminal Fault TRV


Three-phase faults in non-effectively grounded systems
or three-phase ungrounded faults

In these cases, kpp is 1.5

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 78

Terminal Fault TRV


Example of First-Pole-To-Clear Factor (kpp)
3-phase
ungrounded fault
in effectivelygrounded neutral

L
i
L
i

When pole A
interrupts.
voltage eA is
maximum = 1 p.u.
eB = eC = - 0.5 p.u.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 79

di
eC 0
dt
di e eC
L B
2
dt
e eC
di
eP eB L eB B
dt
2
e eC
eP B
0.5
2
e A eP 1 (0.5) 1.5

eB 2 L

First-pole-to-clear
factor is 1.5

Terminal Fault TRV


Example of First-Pole-To-Clear Factor (kpp)
3-phase to ground fault in non-effectively grounded system
When the first pole interrupts:
Voltage at neutral point N:
EN + ES = Xsc I
EN + ET = - Xsc I

ES

ES = Emax cos (120) = -0.5 p.u.

ET

ET = Emax cos (240) = -0.5 p.u.


then EN = 0.5 p.u.
Voltage EA = EN + ER = 1.5 p.u.

First-pole-to-clear factor is 1.5


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 80

1 p.u. Xsc kpp= 1.5


Xsc

EN = (ES + ET)/2
ER is maximum = Emax cos(0) = 1 p.u.

ER

Xsc

Terminal Fault TRV

First-Pole-To-Clear Factor (kpp)


Single-phase fault in an effectively grounded system

In this case, kpp is 1.0 as the circuit breaker interrupts under the phaseto-ground voltage.
E

I3

V3

I2

V2

I1

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 81

V1

Terminal Fault TRV

First-Pole-To-Clear Factor (kpp)


Three-phase to ground fault in effectively
grounded neutral systems

The value of kpp is dependent upon the sequence impedances from the
location of the fault to the various system neutral points (ratio X0/X1).

3X 0
k pp
X1 2X 0
where

X0 is the zero sequence reactance of the system,


X1 the positive sequence reactance of the system.

For systems up to 800 kV, the ratio X0/X1 is taken to be 3.0.


Hence, for systems with effectively grounded systems kpp is 1.3.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 82

Terminal Fault TRV


Pole-To-Clear Factor

Equations for the other clearing poles

In systems with non-effectively grounded neutral, after interruption of


the first phase (R), the current is interrupted by the last two poles in
series under the phase-to-phase voltage (ES ET) equal to 3 times
the phase voltage

ER
ES
ES - ET
ET

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 83

I
I

Terminal Fault TRV


Pole-To-Clear Factor

It follows that, in systems with non-effectively grounded neutrals,


for the second and third pole to clear:

k pp

Current in each phase


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 84

3
0.87
2

After interruption of the


3 poles, the recovery
voltage is 1 p.u.

TRV in each phase

Terminal Fault TRV


Pole-To-Clear Factor

In systems with effectively grounded neutrals, the second pole clears


a three-phase to ground fault
with a factor

k pp

3 X 02 X 0 X 1 X 12
X 0 2X1

See Annex B

If X0 / X1 = 3.0 the second pole to clear factor is 1.25.

Currents

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 85

TRVs

Terminal Fault TRV


Pole-To-Clear Factor

In systems with effectively grounded neutral, for the third pole-toclear:

k pp 1
E

I3

V3

I2

V2

I1

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 86

V1

Terminal Fault TRV


Pole-To-Clear Factor

Pole-to-clear factors (kp) for each clearing pole


3-phase to ground case
Neutral

Pole to clear factor

X0/X1
first pole

2nd pole

3rd pole

isolated

infinite

1.5

0.87

0.87

effectively
grounded

3.0

1.3

1.27

1.0

see note

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Note: values of the pole-to-clear factor are given for X0/X1 = 1.0 to
indicate the trend in the special case of networks with a ratio X0/X1 of
less than 3.0.
kpp= 1.5 is taken for all systems that are not effectively grounded, it
includes (but is not limited to) systems with isolated neutral (it is also
taken for three-phase ungrounded faults).
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 87

Terminal fault TRV


Rating & Testing

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 88

Terminal Fault TRV Rating

Current
CURRENT

SupplySupply
voltage
voltage

Transient recovery
TRANSIENT
RECOVERY
voltage
VOLTAGE

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 89

Terminal Fault TRV Rating

The TRV ratings for circuit breakers are applicable for interruption
of three-phase faults with
a rated symmetrical short circuit current
at the rated voltage of the circuit breaker.

In IEC
While three-phase ungrounded faults produce the highest TRV
peaks, the probability of their occurrence is very low.
Therefore, in IEC 62271-100 the TRV ratings are based on
three-phase to ground faults.
TRV parameters are given in subclause 4.102 of IEC 62271100.
For values of fault current other than rated and for line faults,
related TRV capabilities are given in subclause 6.104.5 of IEC
62271-100.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 90

Terminal Fault TRV Rating


In ANSI/IEEE
TRV withstand capabilities are given in ANSI/IEEE C37.04 and
IEEE C37.06.
In the case of terminal faults, for circuit-breakers of rated
voltages equal or higher than 100 kV, separate Tables give
TRVs for three-phase to ground and three-phase ungrounded
faults.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 91

Terminal Fault TRV Rating


ANSI/IEEE C37.06 Table 10

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 92

Terminal Fault TRV Rating


ANSI/IEEE C37.06 Table 11

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 93

Terminal Fault TRV Rating

For circuit breakers applied on systems 72.5 kV and below, the TRV
ratings assume that the system neutrals can be non-effectively
grounded.

For circuit breakers applied on systems 245 kV and above, the TRV
ratings assume that the system neutrals are effectively grounded.

Standard TRV are defined by two-parameter and four-parameter


envelopes.

These envelopes are used to compare


System TRVs
Standard TRVs
Test TRVs

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 94

Terminal Fault TRV Rating


A two-parameter envelope is used for oscillatory (underdamped)

TRVs specified in standards for:


circuit breakers rated less than 100 kV, at all values of breaking
current,
circuit breakers rated 100 kV and above if the short-circuit
current is equal or less than 30% of the rated breaking current.
Ur
2 k pp k af
3
u ' uc / 3

uc

t d 0.15 t3

(Class S1, cable systems)

t d 0.05 t3

(Class S 2, line systems)

The test TRV must not cross the


delay segment defined by (td , 0)
and (t, u)
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 95

Terminal Fault TRV Rating

A four-parameter envelope is specified for circuit breakers rated 100 kV


and above if the short-circuit current is more than 30% of the rated
breaking current (cases with over-damped TRVs).

u1

Ur
2 k pp 0.75
3

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 96

uc

Ur
2 k pp k af
3

u ' u1 / 2

t 2 4 t1

Terminal Fault TRV Rating


The peak value of TRV is defined as follows:

U c k af k pp 2

Ur
3

where
kpp

is the first pole to clear factor

kaf is the amplitude factor (ratio between the peak value of TRV and
the peak value of the recovery voltage at power frequency).
In IEC 62271-100 and IEEE C37.04, kaf is 1.4 at 100% rated breaking
current.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 97

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


TRV envelopes for terminal fault (Ur < 100 kV)
VOLTAGE

0.1 I
0.3 I
0.6 I

I is the rated short-circuit current


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 98

1.0 I

TIME

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


Cable systems and line systems
In order to cover all types of networks (distribution, industrial and subtransmission) and for standardization purposes, two types of systems
are introduced:
Cable systems
Cable systems have a TRV during breaking of terminal fault at
100% of short-circuit breaking current that does not exceed the
envelope derived from Table 24 in Edition 1.2 of IEC 62271-100.
TRV values are those defined in the former editions of IEC
standard for high-voltage circuit breakers.
Line systems
Line systems have a TRV during breaking of terminal fault at 100%
of short-circuit breaking current defined by the envelope derived
from Table 25 in Edition 1.2 of IEC 62271-100. Standard values of
TRVs for line systems are those defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.06 for
outdoor circuit-breakers.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 99

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


Comparison of TRVs for cable systems and line-systems
Envelope of
Line system TRV

Envelope of
Cable system TRV

Uc

t3
The rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) for line
systems is approximately twice the value for cable systems
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 100

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


Classes of Circuit breakers
Circuit breaker Ur < 100 kV

ClassCS
S1
Class

SLF ?

Cable-system

No

Class
Class S2
LS Direct connection
to OH line

Yes

Direct connection
to OH line

Yes

Line-system

Cable-system

Class S2
LS
Class
Short-line fault breaking performance is required only for class S2
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 101

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


Amplitude factor for terminal fault (Ur < 100 kV)
Class S2 circuit breakers
1,9

Amplitude factor (p.u.)

1,8

1,7

1,6

1,5

1,4

1,3

1,2

T10

10% I
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 102

T30

30% I

T60

60% I

T100

100% I

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


RRRV for terminal fault T100 (Ur < 100 kV)
Class S2 circuit breakers
1,6

RRRV
(kV/s)

72.5kV

1.47
1,4

1,2

1.33

52kV

1.21

38kV

1.05
1

0,8

0.91

24kV

15kV

0,6

0,4
12,5

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 103

22,5

32,5

42,5

52,5

62,5

72,5

Ur
(kV)

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


Calculation of standard RRRV: circuit breaker 72.5 kV class S2
Time to peak TRV was taken from ANSI C37.06: T2 106 s
Time t3 is 88% of T2 (1-COS waveshape):

t3 = 93 s

TRV peak uc is calculated from Ur, kpp and kaf

72.5 2
uc 1.5 1.54
137 kV
3
137
VATR
1.47 kV / s
RRRV is the ratio of uc and t3 :
93
it is the present value in IEC and IEEE standards.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 104

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


RRRV for terminal fault T100 (Ur < 100 kV)
Class S2 circuit breakers
1,6

RRRV
(kV/s)

72.5kV

1.47
1,4

1,2

1.33

52kV

1.21

38kV

1.05

1kV/s 1
0,8

0.91

24kV

15kV

RRRV 0.4 U r0.305

0,6

20kV
0,4
12,5

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 105

22,5

32,5

42,5

52,5

62,5

72,5

Ur
(kV)

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur < 100 kV


RRRV

at reduced short-circuit current (Class S2)

Time t3 for T100 is multiplied by the following factors


0.67

for T60

0.40

for T30 and T10

Compared with the standard value for T100, the RRRV at


reduced short-circuit current is divided by the multiplier for time
t3 and multiplied by the increase of amplitude factor.
Example: T60 72.5 kV

RRRV

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 106

1.47 1.65

2.35 kV / s
0.67 1.54

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur 100 kV


TRV envelopes for terminal fault (Ur 100 kV)

I is the rated short-circuit current


Note: time to peak for T60 is shown here according to IEEE, it is half the IEC value
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 107

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur 100 kV


Amplitude factor for terminal fault (Ur 100 kV)
according to IEC and IEEE C37.06
kaf (p.u.)

1,8

IEC & IEEE k pp=1.3

1,7
1,6
1,5

IEEE k pp=1.5

1,4
1,3
1,2
1,1
1
10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

% Isc

Case 10 % Isc: kpp x kaf = 2.46 (IEEE kpp=1.5) and 2.29 (IEC & IEEE kpp=1.3)
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 108

Terminal Fault TRV Rating - Ur 100 kV


Rate-of-rise-of-recovery-voltage for terminal fault
(Ur 100 kV)
8

RRRV (kV/s)

T10

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 109

T30

T60

T100

Terminal Fault TRV


Application

A circuit breaker TRV capability is considered to be sufficient if the two


or four parameter envelope drawn with rated parameters is equal or
higher than the two or four parameter envelope of the system TRV.
Voltage

System TRV envelope

Circuit breaker rated TRV envelope

time
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 110

Terminal Fault TRV


Application

The parameters that define the circuit breaker TRV capabilities vary
with the circuit breaker voltage rating and short-circuit current
interrupting level.

The circuit breaker TRV capabilities at 10%, 30%, 60% and 100% of
rated short-circuit interrupting current (Isc), corresponding to terminal
fault test duties T10, T30, T60 and T100, are given in IEEE Std
C37.06.

The circuit breaker TRV withstand capability envelope at any other


short-circuit interrupting current below rated can be derived using the
multipliers given in Table 1 of IEEE C37.011-011.

TRV studies are sometimes carried out to determine if a system TRV


is covered by the circuit breaker TRV capability demonstrated by type
tests, either when new circuit breakers are to be installed or following
a system change.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 111

Terminal Fault TRV


Application

It is not uncommon that the maximum short-circuit current falls in


between 30% and 60% of the circuit breaker rated short-circuit current.

To allow comparison of system TRV and circuit breaker TRV withstand


capability and to avoid additional testing, a method of interpolation of
TRV capabilities demonstrated by type tests was introduced in the
former editions of IEEE C37.011.

Following the introduction of the two-parameter and four-parameter


description of TRVs, this method of interpolation in the current range
between T30 and T60 (terminal faults with respectively 30% and 60%
of Isc) was not clearly stated in the 2005 edition of IEEE C37.011.

Thus, the method of interpolation has been further developed in IEEE


C37.011-2011 to define the circuit breaker TRV withstand capability for
short-circuit currents in this range between T30 and T60.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 112

Terminal Fault TRV


Application

In standards, it is considered that 30 % of Isc is the maximum shortcircuit current for which a two parameter TRV is applicable for circuit
breakers rated 100 kV and above.

The related TRV capability for short-circuit currents between 30 % of Isc


and 60 % of Isc is then necessarily a four parameter TRV.

The Working Group in charge of IEEE Guide C37.011 has defined that
the TRV capability between T30 and T60 can be considered to have a
rate-of-rise (u1/t1) and a first reference voltage (u1) that have
intermediate values between those of T30 and T60.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 113

Terminal Fault TRV


Application

TRV parameters (u1, t1, uc, t2) for any terminal fault current between
30 % and 60 % of Isc can be obtained as follows:
u1 and t1 are linearly interpolated between u1 and t1 of T60 and uc
and t3 of T30
uc and t2 are linearly interpolated between uc and t2 of T60 and uc
and t3 of T30

The method of interpolation is illustrated by the Figure shown on the


next slide.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 114

Terminal Fault TRV


Application
245kVBreakerTRVEnvelope
500
450

T100
T75

400

T60

350

T55
T50

300

kV

T45

250

T40
T35

200

T30

150

T10
u1,t1

100
50
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Time(s)

Example of TRV interpolation for a 245kV circuit breaker


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 115

Terminal Fault TRV


Application
* When the system TRV has an initial slope that is higher than the value
specified for terminal fault type tests, Guide IEEE C37.011 authorizes
to combine the TRV withstands demonstrated during terminal fault and
short-line-fault (same range of currents).

Voltage withstand by a 550kV circuit breaker at 75% rated breaking capability


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 116

Terminal Fault TRV


Testing

Tests are required at 100% (T100), 60% (T60), 30% (T30) and 10%
(T10) of rated short-circuit current with the corresponding rated TRVs
and recovery voltages.

In IEC 62271-100, 3 tests are required with a symmetrical current for


each test duty, except T100 that is performed as follows
3 tests with symmetrical current and
3 tests with asymmetrical current (when interrupting asymmetrical
currents, the rate-of-rise and peak value of TRV are reduced but the
energy in the arc is higher).

In IEEE Std C37.09


for each test duty T10, T30, T60: 2 tests are required with
symmetrical current and 1 test with asymmetrical current.
test duty T100 is performed as in IEC

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 117

Terminal Fault TRV


Testing

During testing, the envelope of the test TRV (in red) must be equal or
higher than the specified TRV envelope (in blue).
U
(kV)
Envelope of prospective test TRV

uc

Prospective test TRV

u1
Reference line of specified TRV

u'
Delay line of specified TRV
0

td

t'

t1

t2

t (s)

This procedure is justified as it allows to compare TRVs in the two


regions where a restrike is likely: during the initial part of the TRV where
the RRRV is maximum and in the vicinity of the peak voltage (uc).
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 118

Terminal Fault TRV


Initial TRV

In a network, the initial part of the TRV may have a high-frequency


oscillation of small amplitude.

This ITRV (Initial Transient Recovery Voltage) is due to reflections


from the first major discontinuity along the busbar.

It may influence the thermal phase of interruption.

In most cases the ITRV withstand capability is proven during short-linefault tests.

More information is given in the chapter dedicated to ITRV

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 119

Terminal fault
TRV & Arcing Times

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 120

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Time


Arcing time
1,5

Contacts separation
1

Interruption at 2nd
passage through zero

Current
0,5

Arcing time = 13 ms
0

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,035

0,04

0,045

Time
-0,5

1st passage
through zero
-1

-1,5

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 121

0,05

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Times


In the case of periodic
phenomena,
durations
can be expressed in
milliseconds
or
in
electrical degrees.
For a system frequency
of 50 Hz, the duration of
one half loop is 10 ms, it
corresponds to 180 el., it
follows that 18 el. = 1ms
For a system frequency
of 60 Hz the duration of
one half loop is 8.33 ms
so 18 el. = 0.83 ms
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 122

1,5

0,5

10 ms

0,002 0,004 0,006 0,008 0,01 0,012 0,014 0,016 0,018 0,02

-0,5

-1

-1,5

One period at 50 Hz

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Times

Current

Arcing time
1st pole
Arcing time
last poles

One period (360) at 60Hz is 16.7 ms


One period (360) at 50Hz is 20 ms
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 123

Contacts
separation

1st pole
clears

last poles
clear

Minimum & Maximum Arcing Times


Case 1: Reference case with contact separation at 29.67ms
Example
three-phase
fault
interruption
Fr = 50 Hz
Pole 3
interrupts first
Arcing time
pole 3 = 8.4ms
(minimum arcing
time)
System with non-effectively grounded neutral
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 124

Minimum & Maximum Arcing Times


Case 2: Contact separation advanced by 3.33ms (60) = 26.34ms
Arcing time
pole 1 = 8.4ms
Pole 1 interrupts
first with the same
arcing time as in
Case 1 by pole 3
i.e. same breaking
conditions in
terms of arcing
times

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 125

Minimum & Maximum Arcing Times


Case 3: Contact separation advanced by 2.33ms (42) = 27.34ms
Arcing time pole 1
= 15.7ms
= 8.4ms + 7.3ms
= 8.4ms + 132
maximum arcing
time
Pole 3 interrupts
first with the
longest arcing
time for a first
pole to clear
Arcing time
pole 3 = 10.7ms
= 8.4ms + 42
The range of arcing times for the first pole to clear is 42
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 126

Minimum & Maximum Arcing Times


Three-phase
faults
grounded
systems
ungrounded faults

in
non-effectively
or
three-phase

20000

Example with fr = 50 Hz

tarc min = 12 ms

10000

Iarc

Current (A)

Contact separation
-10000

18
-20000

Iarc

-30000

Contact separation
-40000

tarc max = 19,33 ms


-50000

10

15

20

Time (ms)
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 127

25

30

35

40

Minimum & Maximum Arcing Times (50Hz)


Three-phase faults in noneffectively grounded systems or
three-phase ungrounded faults

time [ms]
0

10

15

20000

20

25

30

35

40

Tmin = 12 ms

15000

Minimum arcing time (blue


phase) Tmin = 12 ms

10000

Iarc

current [A]

5000

Contact separation delayed


by 18 el.
(or 1 ms)

Contact
separation

-5000

-10000

18 el.

-15000

-20000

time [ms]
0

10

15

20

25

30

20000

15000

current [A]

10000

5000

Iarc

-5000

-10000

Contact
separation

-15000

-20000

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 128

T max = 19.33 ms

35

40

Arcing time 1st phase (red


phase) = 14.33 ms
(Tmin + 60 - 18
= Tmin + 42)
Maximum arcing time (blue
phase) = 19.33 ms
(14.33 ms + 90
= Tmin + 132)

Minimum & Maximum Arcing Times (60Hz)


Three-phase faults in noneffectively grounded systems or
three-phase ungrounded faults

time [ms]
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

20000

Tmin = 12 ms
15000

current [A]

10000

5000

Minimum arcing time (blue


phase) Tmin = 12 ms

Iarc

Contact
separation

-5000

Contact separation delayed


by 18 el.
(or 0.83 ms)

-10000

18 el.

-15000

-20000

time [ms]
0

10

15

20

25

30

20000

15000

current [A]

10000

5000

Iarc

-5000

-10000

Contact
separation

-15000

-20000

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 129

T max = 18.1 ms

35

40

Arcing time 1st phase (red


phase) = 13.94 ms
(Tmin + 60 - 18
= Tmin + 42)
Maximum arcing time
(blue phase) = 18.1 ms
(13.94 ms + 90
= Tmin + 132)

Terminal Fault Arcing times


Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Interruption
Three-phase fault in network with isolated neutral (Ur < 245kV)
Current
ER

ES

ET
Contact
separation

Time
Interruption of current in a first pole, followed cycle later by
interruption of the two other poles in series
Breaking Tests HV Circuit-Breakers Denis Dufournet

Terminal Fault Arcing Times


Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Interruption
Three-phase fault in network with effectively grounded
neutral (Ur 245kV)
Voltages

Currents
ER

ES
ET

Contact
separation

The three poles interrupt at separate current zeros with


different arcing times
Breaking Tests HV Circuit-Breakers Denis Dufournet

Arcing Times and TRVs / Fr = 60 Hz


Three-phase faults in
non-effectively grounded
systems or three-phase
ungrounded faults

0.87
90

Maximum arcing time


0.87
1.5

Currents

= Tmin + 132
= Tmin + 6.1 ms

TRVs (pole factor)


Three-phase faults in
effectively grounded
systems

1.27
120

Maximum arcing time


= Tmin + 162
= Tmin + 7.5 ms
1.3
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 132

1.0

Arcing Times and TRVs / Fr = 50 Hz


Three-phase faults in
non-effectively grounded
systems or three-phase
ungrounded faults

0.87
90

Maximum arcing time


0.87
1.5

Currents

= Tmin + 132
= Tmin + 7.3 ms

TRVs (pole factor)


Three-phase faults in
effectively grounded
systems

1.27
120

Maximum arcing time


= Tmin + 162
= Tmin + 9 ms
1.3
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 133

1.0

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Times


Pole to clear factor

Arcing time
el.
Reference = Minimum arcing time first pole
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 134

Minimum arcing time + 180 -18

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Times at 60Hz


Pole to clear factor

Arcing times in ms FR = 60 Hz

Arcing time
el.
0

1.95

3.55 4.15

5.5
5.55

Reference = Minimum arcing time first pole to clear


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 135

6.1

7.5

ms

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Times


Pole to clear factor

Single-phase "umbrella" test with


kpp=1.3

Increased
stress

el.
Reference = Minimum arcing time first pole Minimum arcing time + 180 -18
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 136

Terminal Fault TRV & Arcing Times


1,5

Contacts separation
1

Current

Single-phase tests
with minimum &
maximum arcing time

0,5

Minimum arcing time


= 13 ms

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,035

0,04

0,045

0,05

Time
-0,5

-1

-1,5
1,5

Contacts separation
1

Current
Mximum arcing time = 22 ms
= 13 ms + 10 ms - 1 ms
= 13ms + 180 el. - 18 el.

0,5

Example with F=50Hz

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,04

0,045

Time
-0,5

restrike with arcing


time 12 ms
-1

-1,5

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 137

0,035

0,05

Terminal Fault TRV


Generator Circuit Breakers

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 138

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV

Special TRV requirements are applicable for generator circuit breakers


installed between a generator and a transformer.

Two types of faults need to be considered


A1

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 139

System-source fault

B1 Generator-source fault

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV

For the two types of fault, the TRV has an oscillatory waveshape and
the first-pole-to-clear factor is 1.5 in order to cover three-phase
ungrounded faults.

TRV parameters, i.e. peak voltage uc, rate-of-rise (RRRV) and time
delay, are listed in ANSI/IEEE C37.013.

TRV for system-source faults

RRRV for system-source faults is 3 to 5 times higher than the value


specified for distribution or sub-transmission circuit breakers ANSI/IEEE
C37.04.
This is due to the fact that the TRV frequency is dominated by the
natural frequency of the step-up transformer.

IEEE has defined TRV parameters in several ranges of transformer


rated power.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 140

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV


TRV parameters for System-Source Faults
Table 5a TRV parameters for system - source faults
Inherent TRV
Transformer
Rating

T2 -Time to - Peak

E2 -Peak Voltage

TRV Rate

(MVA)

(s)

(kV)

(kV / s)

Line

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

10 - 50

0.68 V

1.84 V

3.2

51 - 100

0.62 V

1.84 V

3.5

101 - 200

0.54 V

1.84 V

4.0

201 - 400

0.48 V

1.84 V

4.5

401 - 600

0.43 V

1.84 V

5.0

601 - 1000

0.39 V

1.84 V

5.5

1001 or more

0.36 V

1.84 V

6.0

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 141

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV


TRV

for system-source faults (Contd)

In IEEE C37.013-1993, the WG introduced time t3 (coming from IEC) to


define precisely the determination of the TRV rate.
E2 is equal to 1.84 V where V is
the rms value of the rated
maximum voltage and the value
1.84 is equal to
2 x 1.5 (= first-pole-to-clear3
factor) x 1.5 (= amplitude factor)

T2

t3
E2

0.85 0.85 TRV rate

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 142

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV


TRV for system-source faults (Contd)

The RRRV can be significantly reduced if a capacitor is installed


between the circuit breaker and the transformer. It is also reduced in
the special cases where the connection between the circuit breaker
and the transformer(s) is made by cable(s) [29].
TRV RATE FOR SYSTEM FED FAULTS TRANSFORMER 50MVA<<=100MVA
3,6

3,4

TRV RATE (kV/s)

3,2

81MVA

100MVA

2,8

2,6

65,5MVA
2,4

2,2

2
0

2000

4000

6000

CABLE CAPACITANCE (pF)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 143

8000

10000

12000

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV


TRV for system-source faults (Contd)

When a capacitance is added between the circuit breaker and the


step-up transformer, the TRV peak is increased (explanation: see
general considerations).
E2 MULTIPLIER FOR SYSTEM FED FAULTS TRANSFORMER 50MVA<<=100MVA

TRV peak
increase (p.u.)

1,3

1,25

E2 MULTIPLIER (p.u.)

65.5 MVA
1,2

81 MVA
1,15

100 MVA
1,1

1,05

Capacitance
(pF)

1
0

2000

4000

6000

8000

CABLE CAPACITANCE (pF)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 144

10000

12000

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV


TRV for generator-source faults
RRRV for generator-source faults is roughly 2 times the values
specified for distribution or sub-transmission circuit breakers.
Table 6a TRV parameters for generator - source faults
Inherent TRV
Generator
Rating

T2 -Time - to Peak

E2 -Peak Voltage

TRV Rate

(MVA)

(s)

(kV)

(kV / s)

Line

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

10 - 50

1.44 V

1.84 V

1.5

51 - 100

1.35 V

1.84 V

1.6

101 - 400

1.20 V

1.84 V

1.8

401 - 800

1.08 V

1.84 V

2.0

801 or more

0.98 V

1.84 V

2.2

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 145

Generator Circuit Breakers TRV


TRV in case of asymmetrical currents
Due to the large time constants of generators and transformers
(high X/R), generator circuit breakers are required to interrupt
currents with a high percentage of dc component (high asymmetry).
The rate-of rise and peak value of TRV during interruption of
currents with large asymmetry are significantly reduced.
In this case, the stress is mainly due to the current amplitude and
the energy in the arc (mechanical and thermal stresses), and to a
lesser extent to the TRV.
The more severe TRV stress is obtained during interruption of
symmetrical currents.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 146

Terminal Fault TRV / Summary


First-pole-to-clear factor
Effectively earthed systems

kpp = 1.3 (1.2 for UHV)

Non-effectively earthed systems kpp = 1.5

Rating
TRV with 2 or 4 parameters
Classes S1 and S2 for rated voltages < 100 kV

Testing circuit breakers 100 kV


RRRV:

7 5 3 2 kV/s for resp. T10, T30, T60, T100s

Interrupting window: 162 (kpp = 1.3) or 132 (kpp = 1.5)

Generator circuit breakers

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 147

higher RRRV for T100s

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 148

Introduction

The severity of SLF with its associated very fast rate-of-rise-ofrecovery-voltage (RRRV) was identified at the end of the 1950s.

First SLF tests were performed in 1956-1958 in the USA (G.E.), also
at Mettlen substation (CH), Fontenay (EDF High Power Laboratories)
and CESI. The aim was to compare theoretical studies and
experiments.

The first published paper on SLF is considered to be by W.F. Skeats,


C.H. Titus, W.R. Wilson (G.E.) in Transactions AIEE, submitted in
April 1957 and published in February 1958.

In Europe, a paper by Michel Pouard (EDF) was published in the


Bulletin de la Socit Franaise des Electriciens in Nov. 1958.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 149

Introduction

Paper in Power Apparatus and


Systems, Part III, Transactions of
the
American
Institute
of
Electrical Engineers. Publication
in February 1958
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 150

Test laboratory line used by General


Electric in 1957 to test air-blast
circuit-breakers. It was 1.6km long,
short-circuit power of the source was
50kA under 31kV.

Introduction

During the general meetings of CIGRE, SLF was first mentioned


during the session of 1958.
Two reports were presented during the CIGRE session of 1960 (by
France and Switzerland).

IEC introduced for the first time short-line-fault (SLF) requirements


in 1971.

SLF TRVs were introduced also in ANSI/IEEE C37.072 in 1971.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 151

Introduction

The requirement of a SLF interrupting capability had and still has a


great influence on the design of high-voltage circuit breakers.
It was already the case with air blast type that had to be fitted with
opening resistors for SLF interruption.

SLF is also a critical test duty for SF6 type circuit breakers.
Sufficient pressure build-up and mass flow rate are necessary for SF6
circuit breakers to interrupt at current zero.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 152

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

Short-line faults occur from a few hundred meters up to several


kilometers down the line.
L90: short-line fault with 90% of rated short-circuit current
L75: short-line fault with 75% of rated short-circuit current
After current interruption, the line-side voltage exhibits a characteristic
triangular waveshape.
U

line

Circuit breaker
TRV, neglecting the contribution from
the supply-side
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 153

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

The circuit-breaker interrupts the current, at a passage through zero,


the supply voltage and the di/dt are both maximum (in amplitude). The
voltage on the circuit-breaker terminals (U0) is a fraction of the supply
voltage Us0.

LS
Us0
Supply side
Voltage (point B)

LL
line

U0

At the time of interruption


Us0 = (LS + LL ) di/dt
U0 = LL di/dt
where di/dt is the current
derivative at current zero
Example Ur = 245kV
U s0

U0

Line side
Voltage (point C)
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 154

Ur
3

200 kV

90

L90 : U 0 U s 0 1
20 kV
100

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

As the TRV is at high frequency, the line must be treated as a


transmission line with distributed elements.
The line side voltage oscillates as travelling waves are transmitted with
positive and negative reflections at the open breaker and at the fault,
respectively.
After current interruption
The supply voltage varies
much more slowly than the
line-side voltage
The TRV is mainly due to the
voltage variation on the line
side.
Line-side
voltage (point C)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 155

Supply side
voltage (point B)

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)
Supply-side and line-side voltages
Current

t
Supply-side voltage

Um

U=0

Uo
UL

Line-side voltage

Um: supply voltage at the time of interruption


Uo: voltage on circuit breaker terminals at the time of interruption
Example L75: Ur = 245kV : Um= 200 kV, Uo= 50 kV, UL= 80 kV
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 156

SLF / Evolution of Line Voltage

Voltage profile at current zero (t=0),


Voltage decreases linearly towards 0 at the fault point
It is considered to be sum of two voltage waves moving in opposite directions.
TL = Travel time for wave to travel from one end of line to the other and back.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 157

SLF / Evolution of Line Voltage


Traveling waves that
reach the fault point are
reflected with an opposite
polarity.
Traveling waves that
reach the open point, at
the
circuit
breaker
terminal, are reflected
with the same polarity.
Voltage at any location
on the line is the sum of
each component.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 158

SLF / Evolution of Line Voltage

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 159

SLF / Evolution of Line Voltage


Voltage on the line after current interruption
VOLTAGE (p.u.)
2

tL/4

0.5 tL

3 tL/4

tL

1.5 tL

TIME
Voltage at x = 0.75 L

-2

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 160

Voltage half-way
to the fault x = 0.5 L

Voltage at circuit-breaker
Terminal x = 0

SLF / Evolution of Line Voltage


Voltage on Circuit Breaker line-side terminal
Line side Voltage
(p.u.)
1,5

0,5

0
0

0,25

0,5

0,75

1,25

1,5

1,75

-0,5

-1

-1,5

Time / TL

Damping is neglected, in practice at time TL voltage is -0.6 to -0.8 p.u.


TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 161

SLF TRV
Voltage (kV)

TRV

Supply voltage

Line voltage

Time (s)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 162

SLF / RRRV

The rate-of-rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) on the line side is function


of the slope of current before interruption and of the surge impedance
of the line:
du
di
RRRV
Z
ZI 2sI
dt
dt
Z

L
C

Z is the surge impedance of the line (450 ohm)

L and C are respectively the self inductance and the capacitance of the
line per unit length
I

fault current (kA)

pulsation

multiplier = 0.20 (f = 50Hz) or 0.24 (f = 60 Hz), du/dt in kV/s

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 163

at 50 Hz

Z 2 0.2 10 6

SLF / Line Surge Impedance

Assumptions: conductors of infinite length, the electrical field and magnetic field
do not penetrate the ground.

Self surge impedance


D = 2 h with h = height of line
r = radius of conductor
Ln = natural logarithm 0 = magnetic constant = 4107 H/m
= electric constant = 8.8541012 F/m

with

L
D
2h
60 Ln 60 Ln

C
r
r

(1)

Mutual surge impedance (ZM) between 2 conductors is given by (1) where D is


the distance between one conductor and the image of the other conductor, and r
represents the distance between the two conductors (see next slide).

A matrix equation is done in case of multi-conductors circuits with self and


mutual couplings. Modal analysis done by digital calculations gives the relevant
modes of travelling waves (see Annex C in [39] and [47]).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 164

SLF / Line Surge Impedance

Distances to consider for mutual surge impedance calculation


d12

Bundle 1

Bundle 2
Bundle 3

D12

Ground

D
Z M 12 60 Ln 12
d12
Image of bundle of conductors 2
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 165

SLF / Line Surge Impedance

Factors that influence the surge impedance


Geometry of a conductor
Arrangement of the conductors in relation to the towers and the ground
(single or double circuits..)
Frequency of the TRV: Z decreases by 4% when the frequency increases
from 1 to 100 kHz.
In case of bundled conductors, they can clash if the current is high enough.
The surge impedance is higher after conductor clashing and reach the
value for a single conductor: 450 .
Line height: the surge impedance of lines increases with the conductor
height above ground.
Earth resistivity: the surge impedance increases by 5.7% at 1kHz and
3.2% at 100 kHz when earth resistivity changes from 10 to 1000 -m.
Tower footing resistance: if it rises from 0 to 10 the surge impedance
increases by about 2%.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 166

Short-line-fault
Percentage of SLF (or M)

V
I S LG
XS

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 167

IL

VLG
XS XL

Short-line-fault

The transmission line parameters are given in terms of the effective


surge impedance ( Zeff) of the faulted line and a peak factor (d)

uL
uO
uL

u L Z eff di / dt 2 / v
uo X L I L

uO

d 2

Z eff
XL v

XL is the line reactance per unit length


v is the velocity of light (0.3 km/s), is the line length
is 2 system power frequency (314 or 377 rad/s for 50 or 60 Hz)
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 168

SLF / Voltage at Current Zero


U0 X L IL
US X S IS
U0
US

IL M IS
M

XS
XS XL

or M X L X S M X S
U0 X L M IS

U0 X S M X S IS

U 0 1 M X S I S 1 M U S

U 0 1 M U S
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 169

SLF / Line-side Contribution to TRV

The rated values for the line surge impedance Z and the peak factor
d are defined in standards as follows:

Z 450 d U L / U 0 1.6

The line side voltage contribution to TRV is defined as a triangular


wave as follows (where IS is the rated short-circuit current) :

U L 1.6 (1 M )

2
Ur
3

du
di
Z
Z M IS
dt
dt

the first peak UL decreases when M increases


the rate-of-rise of recovery voltage increases with M

There is a critical value of the short-line-fault current for which the


circuit breaker has more difficulty to interrupt.
The critical value of M is close to 90% for SF6 circuit breakers
(generally in the range 90%-95%). it is between 75% and 80% for
air blast circuit breakers.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 170

Short-line-fault

The following Table gives the comparison of current and voltage


stresses during test duties L90 and L75, respectively at 90% and 75%
of rated short-circuit current, for a circuit-breaker 245kV 40kA 50Hz.

The current and RRRV are higher during L90, but the (first) peak
voltage is higher during L75.

In practice, L90 is usually the most severe test duty.


L90

L75

Current (kA)

36

30

RRRV (kV/s)

7.2

UL (kV)

32

80

RRRV: rate of rise of recovery voltage


Voltage on the line side only is considered
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 171

UL= first peak voltage

SLF / Comparison of Test Duties


140
120
4.8 kV/s

100

U (kV)

Ur = 245kV

L60

80

Isc = 40kA
fr = 50Hz

L75
6 kV/s

60
40

L90
7.2 kV/s

20

0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

T (s)

When current decreases (longer line), the slope decreases but the peak
value increases. It is generally considered that for SF6 circuit breakers
interruption is more influenced by the voltage slope (RRRV).
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 172

Short-line-fault

The TRV seen by the circuit breaker is the sum of a contribution


from the line side (eL) and a contribution from the supply side (eS):

e e L eS
with (in a first approximation)

eS 2 M (TL t d )
where
2M

= RRRV (T100) x M = 2 kV/s x M

TL

is the time to peak of the line side TRV

td

is the time delay of TRV on the source side

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 173

Short-line-fault

Example of calculation of SLF TRV : L90 245 kV 50 kA 50 Hz


Fault current = 0.9 x 50 = 45 kA (assuming time delay tdL= 0 s)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 174

Short-line-fault

This rate-of-rise of TRV during SLF is much higher than the values
that are met during terminal fault interruption:
Test duty

RRRV
(kV/s)

I
(kA)

F
(Hz)

SLF
L90 50 kA

10.8

45

60

SLF
L90 50 kA

45

50

SLF
L90 40 kA

8.64

36

60

Terminal fault
T60

30

50/60

Terminal fault
T100

50

50/60

For SLF, this table gives the RRRV of the line side voltage
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 175

SLF / Line Characteristics


Standard values of lines characteristics for SLF

IEC values are shown, ANSI/IEEE values cover rated voltages up to 800kV
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 176

Short-Line-Fault
Influence of an Additional Capacitor

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 177

SLF / Influence of an Additional Capacitor

The SLF performance can be increased by adding a capacitor, either


between terminals or phase to ground (see figure).

A capacitor has two effects:


it decreases the oscillation frequency and the RRRV of the line
side contribution to TRV;
it increases the time delay of the line side contribution to TRV.

XS

VLG

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 178

C.B.

XL

SLF / Influence of an Additional Capacitor


60
[ kV ]
50

40

30

1 2

20

10

0
0

(file t r v 2 .pl4 ; x - v ar t ) v :P 0 0

8
v :P 1

v :P 4

16

[ u s]

20

v :P 1 0

TRV without
capacitor
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 179

12

TRV with capacitor


(capacitance increase from 1 to 3)

SLF / Influence of an Additional Capacitor


Equation of the line-side contribution to TRV up to the first peak:

e(t ) Z (di / dt ) t Z C Z C e t / Z C

If the capacitor is connected phase to ground on the line side, the


reduction of the line side RRRV can be estimated by a simple
calculation, as detailed in the next slide, with
Cadd

additional line-to-ground capacitance;

line inductance;

line surge impedance;

CL

total line capacitance = L/Z2;

Ce

equivalent line capacitance: capacitance which, together


with the inductance L, gives the line frequency of oscillation

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 180

SLF / Influence of an Additional Capacitor


By definition of Ce

fL

1
2 LCe

2u *L
The period of oscillation is equal to
du

du
and Z I L 2
dt L
dt L
Z
fL
It follows that
4X L

and

with u *L 2 X L I L 2

4L
4 CL
Ce 2
2 0.4 CL
2
Z

If an additional capacitance is added at the line entrance, the RRRV on


the line side is reduced in the same manner as the line frequency of
oscillation.
TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 181

SLF / Influence of an Additional Capacitor


The RRRV on the line side is then

2 LCe
du
Z IL
dt
2 L(Ce Cadd )

Ce
du
Z IL
dt
Ce Cadd

CL
du
Z IL 2
dt
C L 2.5 Cadd

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 182

Short-Line-Fault
Influence of an Opening Resistor

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 183

SLF / Breaking with Opening Resistor


Some circuit breakers, mainly air-blast, have an opening resistor to
assist a short-circuit interruption.
It was introduced to improve the SLF breaking capability of air-blast
circuit breakers, but it has been used also to facilitate the interruption
of fast TRVs by some SF6 circuit breakers.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 184

SLF / Breaking with Opening Resistor


In case of SLF, the RRRV (or du/dt) is modified as follows:

du Z R di Z R

I
dt Z R dt Z R
where R = value of opening resistor
Z = line surge impedance
I = short-circuit current

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 185

Short-Line--Fault TRV / Summary

Very fast RRRV (rate-of-rise of recovery voltage)


Product of fault current derivative by surge impedance
Standard value of surge impedance = 450

Triangular waveshape due to travelling waves


Test duties L90 and L75 (+ L60 is some cases)
Single-phase tests that cover all SLF conditions

SLF performance improved by


additional capacitor (or opening resistor)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 186