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Part 1

Denis Dufournet

Chair CIGRE WG A3.28 & IEEE WG C37.011, Fellow IEEE

San Antonio (USA), 19/09/2013

GRID

Content

(1/3)

Page

Capacitive Current Switching TRV

Types of Fault TRVs

TRV Modification

Terminal Fault TRV

4 &13

29

45

63

72

First-pole-to-clear factor

TRV rating & testing

TRV & arcing times

73

88

120

138

ITRV (Initial TRV)

148

187

Content

(2/3)

Page

Out-of-Phase TRV

194

199

217

229

264

271

282

Content

(3/3)

Page

Annexes

306

A: First-pole-to-clear factor

307

B: Second-pole-to-clear factor

316

321

326

329

F: Bibliography

333

Introduction

GRID

Importance of TRV

of a circuit breaker.

dependent on TRV in the 1950s.

and prove the TRV withstand specified in the standards for different

test duties.

accordance with international standards, in particular with rated values

of TRVs.

TRV Studies by International Working Groups

1993-1996: CIGRE-CIRED WG CC03 Medium Voltages TRVs

1994-1998: IEC SC17A WG21 Revision Circuit Breaker Standard

1997-2002: IEC SC17A WG23 Harmonization TRVs Circuit Breakers 100kV

2002-2006: IEC SC17A WG35 Revision TRVs Circuit Breakers < 100kV

2001-2009: IEEE C37-04 & 06 Harmonization TRVs Circuit Breakers

2002-2005: IEEE C37-011 Revision Application Guide HV Circuit Breakers

2004-2008: CIGRE WG A3-19 Implications of Three-phase Line Faults

2007-2009: CIGRE WG A3-22 Technical Requirements for UHV Equipment

2009-2011: IEC SC17A MT36 TF Introduction UHV TRVs in IEC 62271-100

2008-2011: IEEE C37-011 Revision Application Guide HV Circuit Breakers

2011-2013: CIGRE WG A3-28 Switching Phenomena for UHV & EHV Equipment

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 7

Main References

edition, John Wiley & Sons (1991).

http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/switchgear/presentations/trvtutorial/T

utorialTRVAlexander-Dufournet.pdf

IEEE Switchgear Committee meeting in Calgary (2008-10)

http://www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/pes/switchgear/presentations/2008cbtutor

ial/Part4_IEEETutorialonTRVHVCircuitBreakers-Dufournet.pdf

Medium Voltage Networks (1998-12)

implications for 3-phase short and long-line fault clearing, (2010-02)

Main References

Other Transient Phenomena, CIGRE Session 2010, Paper A3-102.

Specifications for Substation Equipment Exceeding 800kV AC, by

CIGRE WG A3-22 (2011-04).

IEEE Switchgear Committee Meeting in San Diego (2012-10)

Breakers Seminar Part 2 Transient Recovery Voltages, University of

Manitoba, Winnipeg (2012-06)

IEC 62271-101, Synthetic testing (2012-10)

IEC 62271-110, Inductive load switching (2012-09)

IEC 62271-306, Guide to IEC 62271-100, 62271-1 .. (2012-12)

ANSI/IEEE C37.04, 04a, 04b, IEEE Standard Rating Structure for AC

High-Voltage Circuit Breakers.

IEEE Std C37.06-2009, Draft AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on

a Symmetrical Current Basis-Preferred Ratings and Related Required

Capabilities

IEEE Std C37.09, 09b-2010, IEEE Standard Test Procedure for AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.

IEEE C37.011, Application Guide for TRV for AC High-Voltage Circuit

Breakers (2011).

IEEE C37.013, IEEE Standard for AC High-Voltage Generator Circuit

Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.

Historical Perspective

"restriking voltage, was of single frequency.

The amplitude factor (or crest value) and the TRV frequency (related to

the rate-of-rise) were not specified but had to be evaluated during the

tests.

In the third edition of IEC 56, published in 1971, IEC introduced for the

first time the term TRV and its representation by two or four

parameters. The short-line-fault tests were also introduced in this

edition.

TRVs requirements were also introduced in 1971 in ANSI C37.0721971 (IEEE Std. 327), with TRV ratings in C37.0722-1971 and TRV

Application Guide C37.0721-1971 (IEEE Std. 328).

Historical Perspective

factor of 1.3 is the only factor specified for rated voltages 245 kV.

the rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) is doubled to 2.0 kV/s

for terminal fault test duty T100.

ITRV is introduced for rated voltages 100 kV.

04i and 09g).

IEC (e.g. RRRV = 2.0 kV/s for T100).

ANSI/IEEE C37.04-1999 (instead of 450 for Ur 242 kV and 360

for Ur 362 kV).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 12

Historical Perspective

to

Amendments 1 and 2 of IEC 62271-100 (respectively in 2002 and

2006)

Amendments of IEEE C37.04b (2008), IEEE C37.06 (2009) and

IEEE C37.09b (2010).

Harmonization of IEC and IEEE standards for high-voltage circuit

breakers is presented in detail in a specific chapter.

General considerations on

Transient Recovery Voltages

GRID

General Considerations

The recovery voltage is the voltage which appears across the

terminals of a pole of circuit breaker after current interruption.

Xs

CURRENT

Recovery

voltage

TRANSIENT RECOVERY

VOLTAGE

RECOVERY

VOLTAGE

General Considerations

Current Interruption Process in SF6 Circuit Breakers

Two

contacts

are

separated

in

each

interrupting chamber.

An arc is generated, it is

cooled and extinguished

when current passes

through zero.

General Considerations

During the interruption process, the arc loses rapidly its conductivity as

the instantaneous current approaches zero.

TRV (kV)

I (A)

TRV

Gas

circuit

breakers:

Within a few microseconds

after current zero, arc

resistance (RARC) rises to

one million ohm in a few

microseconds and current

stops flowing in the circuit.

During the first microseconds after current zero, the TRV withstand is

function of the energy balance in the arc: it is the thermal phase of

interruption.

General Considerations

between contacts: it is the dielectric phase of interruption.

The breaking operation is successful if the circuit breaker is able to

withstand the TRV and the power frequency recovery voltage.

The TRV is the difference between the voltages on the source side

and on the load side of the circuit breaker.

applied during 300 ms after current interruption.

General Considerations

whether primarily resistive, capacitive or inductive, (or some

combination).

in an inductive circuit, the supply voltage at current zero is maximum.

The circuit breaker interrupts at current zero (at a time when the power

input is minimum) the voltage on the supply side terminal meets the

supply voltage in a transient process called the TRV.

TRV frequency is

1

2

LC

C = supply capacitance.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 19

Fault

General Considerations

TRV during inductive current breaking

CURRENT

Supply voltage

TRANSIENT RECOVERY

Current and TRV waveforms during interruption of inductive current

VOLTAGE

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 20

General Considerations

TRV and recovery voltage in resistive, inductive

and capacitive circuits

2,5

2

1,5

CAPACITIVE

CIRCUIT

1

0,5

0

0

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

-0,5

-1

-1,5

RESISTIVE

CIRCUIT

-2

INDUCTIVE CIRCUIT

(with stray capacitance)

0,025

0,03

0,035

General Considerations

Combination of the former basic cases are possible, for example the

TRV for mainly active load current breaking is a combination of TRVs

associated with inductive and resistive circuits.

are able to interrupt with more severe TRVs (in inductive circuits).

General Considerations

TRVs. Shunt reactor switching is one of the exceptions.

combination of these forms.

The highest peak TRVs are met during capacitive current and out-ofphase current interruption,

during terminal fault and short-line-fault interruption.

for TRV calculations.

This representation is valid for a short-time period until voltage

reflections return from remote buses (see IEEE C37.011-2011)

General Considerations

Equivalent circuit

Real network

(Vcb)

impedance

l

c

Z

N

C: source capacitance, lines excepted

General Considerations

(Vcb)

L

R

1

R

L/C

2

The TRV in the parallel RLC circuit is exponential (over-damped) if

1

R

L/C

2

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 25

General Considerations

TRV (p.u.)

2

0.5

R / (L / C)

1,8

= 10

4

1,6

2

1,4

1

1,2

0.75

1

0,8

0,6

0,5

0,4

0,3

0,2

0

0

t/RC

t / RC

Damping of the oscillatory TRV is provided by R, as R is in parallel

to L and C

(parallel damping) the damping increases when the resistance decreases (the

TRV peak increases when R increases).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 26

General Considerations

Reflection from end of lines

When longer time frames are

considered, typically several hundreds

of micro-seconds, reflections on lines

must be considered.

VOLTAGE (kV)

900

800

SYSTEM TRV

STANDARD BREAKER

700

600

500

400

300

200

REFLECTED WAVE

100

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

TIME (s)

treated as components with

distributed elements on

which voltage waves travel

after current interruption.

These traveling waves are

reflected and refracted when

reaching an open circuit or a

discontinuity.

General Considerations

The most severe TRV occurs across the first pole to clear of a circuit

breaker when it interrupts a three-phase terminal fault with a

symmetrical current and when the system voltage is maximum (see

section on Terminal fault).

i.e. the values that would be obtained during interruption by an ideal

circuit breaker without arc voltage.

(arc resistance changes from zero to an infinite value at current

zero).

TRV & Recovery Voltage

GRID

U (p.u.)

2,5

2

Recovery voltage

1,5

1

0,5

current

interruption

Supply voltage

0

-0,5

Example of a single

phase interruption at

50 Hz

Load voltage

-1

-1,5

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,035

Time (s)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 30

Supply-side voltage

Load-side voltage

Recovery voltage

Current

Contact separation

Current interruption

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 31

Restrike

U (p.u.)

Overvoltage 3 p.u.

3,5

3

2,5

2 p.u.

2

1,5

1

Recovery voltage

instant of current

interruption

0,5

2 p.u.

0

-0,5

-1

-1,5

0,005

Restrike

Reignition

0,01

no overvoltage

0,015

overvoltage

0,02

0,025

Time (s)

happens:

When it is less than 1/4 of a cycle after current interruption: it is

called a reignition,

no overvoltage is produced on the circuit during the transient

period when the load voltage tend to reach the supply voltage.

When it is more than 1/4 of a cycle after current interruption, it is

called a restrike,

there is an overvoltage on the circuit during the transient period

following the restrike.

"1-Cos" Waveshape

Special case of series capacitor switching by by-pass switches

By-pass switches must be able to withstand the reinsertion voltage

without restrike during the transfer of reinsertion current.

"1-Cos" Waveshape

Special case of series capacitor switching

by by-pass switches

waveshapes can be obtained in service.

The reinsertion voltage waveshape should be determined by

systems studies.

For standardization purposes, and in order to cover the greatest

number of practical cases, IEC 62271-109 recommends a "1-cos"

waveshape having a preferred first time-to-peak of 5,6 ms.

A restrike happens if there is a resumption of current 2.8 ms or

later after the initial current interruption.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 35

Voltage Jump

Circuit with capacitive and inductive

components.

wave-shape and a high-frequency voltage

oscillation on the supply side due to a

transient

across

the

short-circuit

(inductive) reactance at the time of

interruption (explanation on next slide).

time and therefore to increase the shortest

duration between contact separation and

the instant of peak recovery voltage.

jump is higher

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 36

Voltage Jump

1

0

current interruption, with

voltage jump

2- Load-side voltage after

current interruption

Voltage before

current interruption

UA

circuit-breaker terminals

I

1

E

E

1

C C

1 Ls C 2

Ls

C

Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral

ER

ES

CR

CS

CT

ET

EN

N

Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral

Recovery voltage for the first pole to interrupt

2,0

VB

1,5

1,0

2.5 p.u.

0,5

VN

0,0

-0 ,0 05

-0,003

-0,00 1

0,00 1

0 ,0 03

0,00 5

0,0 07

0 ,0 09

0,01 1

0,0 13

0 ,0 15

-0,5

-1,0

VA

-1,5

Due to neutral voltage shift (VN) after interruption by the first pole, the peak

recovery voltage is 2.5 p.u. instead of 2 p.u. for single-phase interruption.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 39

Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral

Recovery voltage (RV) on each pole

uc= 2.5 p.u.

kc= 1.25

RV on firstpole-to-clear

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 40

Capacitor Bank with Isolated Neutral

TRV 3-PHASE CAPACITIVE CURRENT SWITCHING (50Hz)

Capacitor bank with isolated neutral

2,5

2

TRV (p.u.)

The

three-phase

recovery voltage is

considered to be

covered during a

single phase test

with

a

supply

voltage equal to the

phase to ground

voltage multiplied

by 1.4

Three-phase test

1,5

1

Single-phase test with kc= 1,25

0,5

0

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4 4,5 5 5,5 6 6,5 7 7,5 8 8,5 9 9,5 10

T (ms)

In the case of line switching

The recovery voltage is

influenced by phase-toground and phase-to-phase

capacitances

Equivalence during singlephase test is obtained with a

supply voltage equal to the

phase-to-ground

voltage

multiplied by a factor = 1.2

(U is 2.4 p.u.).

Types of cables & equivalent circuits

Similar case as

overhead lines

Same case as

capacitor bank

with grounded

neutral

C1/C0=3 Ur 52kV

C1/C0=2 Ur > 52kV

Screened cable

Belted cable

Single-phase tests to simulate three-phase conditions

Test voltage for single-phase tests: U test k c

Ur

3

Line-charging current

kc = 1.2

Cable-charging current kc = 1.0 (screened cable)

= 1.4/ 1.2 (belted cable 52kV / >52kV)

Capacitor-bank current kc = 1.0/1.4 grounded/isolated neutral

Line-charging current

kc = 1.4

Cable-charging current kc = 1.4

Capacitor-bank current kc = 1.4

Effectively grounded neutral systems

kc = 1.4

Non-effectively grounded neutral systems kc = 1.7

GRID

Equivalent circuit

Real network

(Vcb)

impedance

l

c

Z

N

C: source capacitance, lines excepted

Exponential (overdamped) TRV

The exponential part of a TRV occurs when the equivalent resistance

of the circuit with N connected lines in parallel

Z

R = Zeq = 1 is lower or equal to 0.5 Leq / Ceq

N

where Z1 = positive sequence surge impedance of a line

Z0 = zero sequence surge impedance of a line

3 Z0

N = number of lines,

Z1 2 Z 0

Leq = equivalent inductance, Ceq = equivalent capacitance.

It typically occurs when one or several lines are on the unfaulted side

of the circuit breaker and when the fault is cleared at the circuit

breaker terminals.

The rate of rise of recovery voltage is RRRV = Zeq x (di/dt)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 47

Three-phase to ground fault

(Vcb)

Equivalent inductance

L eq

when

3 L 0 L1

L1 2 L 0

LLeq

L0 3 L1

ZReq

Ceq

C

9 L1

Leq

1.3 L1

7

see Annex D: 3-phase

network representation

Equivalent capacitance

Ceq

2 (C1 C0 )

C0

3

C0 2 C1

Three-phase to ground fault

Equivalent surge impedance (first pole to clear)

Z eq

Z 0Z1

3

N

Z1 2Z 0

Z0 ZS 2 ZM

Z1 Z S Z M

ZM

Z 0 Z1

3

ZM: mutual value

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 49

3 Z0

Z1 2 Z 0

see Annex D: 3-phase network

representation

See section on SLF for the calculation of line

surge impedance

TRV for parallel RLC circuit

ucb u1 (1 e

with

(cosh t sinh t ))

ucb

u1

2 I Leq

1

2 Z eq Ceq

2 1 /( Leq Ceq )

TRV when Ceq can be neglected

ucb u1 (1 e t / )

where

Leq

Z eq

RRRV

ducb

dt

dI

2 I Z eq Z eq

dt

Special case of three-phase ungrounded faults

Equivalent inductance

Equivalent capacitance

Ceq

2 C1

3

with C1= C0

C1

1.5

L eq

3 L1

1 . 5 L1

2

each of the transmission lines. Reflected wave(s) returning from open

lines or discontinuities contribute also to the TRV.

550 kV substation. The TRV seen by circuit breaker (A) when clearing

the three-phase fault is shown in the next slide. Circuit breaker (B) is

open.

System TRV with reflected wave

VOLTAGE (kV)

900

800

SYSTEM TRV

STANDARD BREAKER

700

600

500

400

300

200

REFLECTED WAVE

100

0

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

TIME (s)

line after 2 x 81 / 0.3 = 540 s

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 55

of the transmission lines.

When a wave reaches a discontinuity on the line (another bus or a

transformer termination) a reflected wave is produced, which travels

back towards the faulted bus.

It takes 6.67 s for a wave to go out and back to a discontinuity 1km

away as the wave travels at 300 000 km/s (speed of light).

At a discontinuity transmitted and reflected waves can be described by

the following equations:

2 Zb

et ei

Za Zb

Za

Zb

Zb Za

er ei

Za Zb

Zb

Za

with an opposite sign

A wave that reaches an open

point (Zb is infinite) is reflected

with the same sign.

The voltage at this point is then

doubled.

2 Zb

et ei

Za Zb

er ei

Zb Za

Za Zb

Example of TRV resulting from several traveling waves

de Janeiro (2012-02)

Times in s and not in

ms

Oscillatory (underdamped) TRV

transformer or a series reactor and no transmission line (or cable) surge

impedance is present to provide damping.

be such that

Leq

Z

Req

0.5

N

Ceq

Ceq = equivalent source capacitance.

connected on the source side.

Therefore oscillatory TRVs are specified for

terminal fault test duties T10 and T30 for circuit breakers in

transmission systems (Ur 100 kV),

all terminal fault test duties in the case of circuit breakers in

distribution or sub-transmission systems (Ur < 100 kV).

Transmission systems (Ur 100 kV)

In the large majority of cases, TRV characteristics (peak value and

rate-of-rise) for faults with 10% or 30% of rated short-circuit current

are covered by the rated values defined in the standards for test

duties T10 and T30.

separate chapter on SLF).

triangular waveshape.

surge impedance and current. The rate-of rise is usually higher than

that experienced with exponential or oscillatory TRVs (with the same

current), however the TRV peak is generally low.

line

Circuit breaker

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 62

TRV Modification

GRID

Breaker Influence on TRV

RRRV and TRV peak) than when interrupting the related

symmetrical current because the instantaneous value of the supply

voltage at the time of interruption is less than the peak value.

SUPPLY VOLTAGE

CURRENT

TIME

Correction factors of the TRV peak and rate of rise of recovery voltage

(RRRV) when interrupting asymmetrical currents are given in

IEEE C37.081 IEEE Guide for Synthetic Fault Testing of AC HighVoltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis.

IEEE C37.081a Supplement to IEEE Guide for Synthetic Fault

Testing 8.3.2: Recovery Voltage for Terminal Faults; Asymmetrical

Short-Circuit Current.

IEC 62271-100 High-Voltage Circuit-Breakers (2012-09).

IEC 62271-101 Synthetic testing (2012-10): Annex I

The RRRV is proportional to the slope of current before interruption

D

F1 1 D

X /R

2

with

-D

+D

X/R

When time to peak TRV is relatively short (< 500 s), the correction

factor for the TRV peak is also F1.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 67

Correction factor for the TRV peak in case of long time to peak TRV

(> 500 s) :

circuit breaker:

by arc resistance,

by the circuit breaker capacitance or opening resistor (if any).

circuit breakers under identical conditions can be different.

calculated ignoring the influence of the circuit breaker.

The circuit breaker is considered to be ideal i.e. without modifying

effects on the electrical characteristics of a system,

when conducting its impedance is zero,

at current zero its impedance changes from zero to infinity.

When a circuit breaker is fitted with grading capacitors or with line-toground capacitors, these capacitors can reduce significantly the rateof-rise of TRV during short-line faults.

Opening resistors (R) are used to assist interruption by air blast circuit

breakers, they are used on some SF6 circuit breakers (Japanese

550kV 1 break & 1100 kV 2 breaks).

The RRRV (rate of rise of

recovery voltage) is reduced

as follows

du Z R di Z R

I 2

dt Z R dt Z R

The resistor (R) is in parallel

with the surge impedance of

the system (Z).

with opening resistor

Interruption with Opening Resistance

current interruption, a parallel resistance is used for this purpose

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 71

GRID

First pole to clear factor

CURRENT

TRANSIENT RECOVERY

VOLTAGE

Current - TRV - Recovery Voltage

RECOVERY

VOLTAGE

First Pole to Clear Factor (kpp)

During 3-phase faults interruption, the recovery voltage is higher on

the first pole to clear.

The first-pole-to clear factor is the ratio of the power frequency

voltage across the first interrupting pole, before current interruption

in the other poles, to the power frequency voltage occurring across

the pole after interruption in all three poles.

It is the ratio between the recovery voltage (RV) across the first

pole to clear and the phase to ground voltage of the system.

kpp

Recovery Voltage

Ur

3

First Pole to Clear Factor (kpp)

kpp

Ur

3

ER

ES

ET

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 76

Ur

3

B

When tests are performed on one pole (single-phase tests), the supply

voltage must be multiplied by kpp in order to have the recovery voltage

that would be met on the first pole during a three-phase interruption.

arrangements of the system and of the type of fault.

For systems with non-effectively grounded neutral, kpp is 1.5.

For three-phase to ground faults in systems with effectively grounded

neutral, kpp is 1.3 (see Annex A).

Note: for UHV systems (rated voltages 1100 & 1200kV) the ratio X0/X1

is close to 2 and the standardized value of kpp is 1.2.

Three-phase faults in non-effectively grounded systems

or three-phase ungrounded faults

Example of First-Pole-To-Clear Factor (kpp)

3-phase

ungrounded fault

in effectivelygrounded neutral

L

i

L

i

When pole A

interrupts.

voltage eA is

maximum = 1 p.u.

eB = eC = - 0.5 p.u.

di

eC 0

dt

di e eC

L B

2

dt

e eC

di

eP eB L eB B

dt

2

e eC

eP B

0.5

2

e A eP 1 (0.5) 1.5

eB 2 L

First-pole-to-clear

factor is 1.5

Example of First-Pole-To-Clear Factor (kpp)

3-phase to ground fault in non-effectively grounded system

When the first pole interrupts:

Voltage at neutral point N:

EN + ES = Xsc I

EN + ET = - Xsc I

ES

ET

then EN = 0.5 p.u.

Voltage EA = EN + ER = 1.5 p.u.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 80

Xsc

EN = (ES + ET)/2

ER is maximum = Emax cos(0) = 1 p.u.

ER

Xsc

Single-phase fault in an effectively grounded system

In this case, kpp is 1.0 as the circuit breaker interrupts under the phaseto-ground voltage.

E

I3

V3

I2

V2

I1

V1

Three-phase to ground fault in effectively

grounded neutral systems

The value of kpp is dependent upon the sequence impedances from the

location of the fault to the various system neutral points (ratio X0/X1).

3X 0

k pp

X1 2X 0

where

X1 the positive sequence reactance of the system.

Hence, for systems with effectively grounded systems kpp is 1.3.

Pole-To-Clear Factor

the first phase (R), the current is interrupted by the last two poles in

series under the phase-to-phase voltage (ES ET) equal to 3 times

the phase voltage

ER

ES

ES - ET

ET

I

I

Pole-To-Clear Factor

for the second and third pole to clear:

k pp

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 84

3

0.87

2

3 poles, the recovery

voltage is 1 p.u.

Pole-To-Clear Factor

a three-phase to ground fault

with a factor

k pp

3 X 02 X 0 X 1 X 12

X 0 2X1

See Annex B

Currents

TRVs

Pole-To-Clear Factor

k pp 1

E

I3

V3

I2

V2

I1

V1

Pole-To-Clear Factor

3-phase to ground case

Neutral

X0/X1

first pole

2nd pole

3rd pole

isolated

infinite

1.5

0.87

0.87

effectively

grounded

3.0

1.3

1.27

1.0

see note

1.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

Note: values of the pole-to-clear factor are given for X0/X1 = 1.0 to

indicate the trend in the special case of networks with a ratio X0/X1 of

less than 3.0.

kpp= 1.5 is taken for all systems that are not effectively grounded, it

includes (but is not limited to) systems with isolated neutral (it is also

taken for three-phase ungrounded faults).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 87

Rating & Testing

Current

CURRENT

SupplySupply

voltage

voltage

Transient recovery

TRANSIENT

RECOVERY

voltage

VOLTAGE

The TRV ratings for circuit breakers are applicable for interruption

of three-phase faults with

a rated symmetrical short circuit current

at the rated voltage of the circuit breaker.

In IEC

While three-phase ungrounded faults produce the highest TRV

peaks, the probability of their occurrence is very low.

Therefore, in IEC 62271-100 the TRV ratings are based on

three-phase to ground faults.

TRV parameters are given in subclause 4.102 of IEC 62271100.

For values of fault current other than rated and for line faults,

related TRV capabilities are given in subclause 6.104.5 of IEC

62271-100.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 90

In ANSI/IEEE

TRV withstand capabilities are given in ANSI/IEEE C37.04 and

IEEE C37.06.

In the case of terminal faults, for circuit-breakers of rated

voltages equal or higher than 100 kV, separate Tables give

TRVs for three-phase to ground and three-phase ungrounded

faults.

ANSI/IEEE C37.06 Table 10

ANSI/IEEE C37.06 Table 11

For circuit breakers applied on systems 72.5 kV and below, the TRV

ratings assume that the system neutrals can be non-effectively

grounded.

For circuit breakers applied on systems 245 kV and above, the TRV

ratings assume that the system neutrals are effectively grounded.

envelopes.

System TRVs

Standard TRVs

Test TRVs

A two-parameter envelope is used for oscillatory (underdamped)

circuit breakers rated less than 100 kV, at all values of breaking

current,

circuit breakers rated 100 kV and above if the short-circuit

current is equal or less than 30% of the rated breaking current.

Ur

2 k pp k af

3

u ' uc / 3

uc

t d 0.15 t3

t d 0.05 t3

delay segment defined by (td , 0)

and (t, u)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 95

and above if the short-circuit current is more than 30% of the rated

breaking current (cases with over-damped TRVs).

u1

Ur

2 k pp 0.75

3

uc

Ur

2 k pp k af

3

u ' u1 / 2

t 2 4 t1

The peak value of TRV is defined as follows:

U c k af k pp 2

Ur

3

where

kpp

kaf is the amplitude factor (ratio between the peak value of TRV and

the peak value of the recovery voltage at power frequency).

In IEC 62271-100 and IEEE C37.04, kaf is 1.4 at 100% rated breaking

current.

TRV envelopes for terminal fault (Ur < 100 kV)

VOLTAGE

0.1 I

0.3 I

0.6 I

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 98

1.0 I

TIME

Cable systems and line systems

In order to cover all types of networks (distribution, industrial and subtransmission) and for standardization purposes, two types of systems

are introduced:

Cable systems

Cable systems have a TRV during breaking of terminal fault at

100% of short-circuit breaking current that does not exceed the

envelope derived from Table 24 in Edition 1.2 of IEC 62271-100.

TRV values are those defined in the former editions of IEC

standard for high-voltage circuit breakers.

Line systems

Line systems have a TRV during breaking of terminal fault at 100%

of short-circuit breaking current defined by the envelope derived

from Table 25 in Edition 1.2 of IEC 62271-100. Standard values of

TRVs for line systems are those defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.06 for

outdoor circuit-breakers.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 99

Comparison of TRVs for cable systems and line-systems

Envelope of

Line system TRV

Envelope of

Cable system TRV

Uc

t3

The rate of rise of recovery voltage (RRRV) for line

systems is approximately twice the value for cable systems

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 100

Classes of Circuit breakers

Circuit breaker Ur < 100 kV

ClassCS

S1

Class

SLF ?

Cable-system

No

Class

Class S2

LS Direct connection

to OH line

Yes

Direct connection

to OH line

Yes

Line-system

Cable-system

Class S2

LS

Class

Short-line fault breaking performance is required only for class S2

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 101

Amplitude factor for terminal fault (Ur < 100 kV)

Class S2 circuit breakers

1,9

1,8

1,7

1,6

1,5

1,4

1,3

1,2

T10

10% I

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 102

T30

30% I

T60

60% I

T100

100% I

RRRV for terminal fault T100 (Ur < 100 kV)

Class S2 circuit breakers

1,6

RRRV

(kV/s)

72.5kV

1.47

1,4

1,2

1.33

52kV

1.21

38kV

1.05

1

0,8

0.91

24kV

15kV

0,6

0,4

12,5

22,5

32,5

42,5

52,5

62,5

72,5

Ur

(kV)

Calculation of standard RRRV: circuit breaker 72.5 kV class S2

Time to peak TRV was taken from ANSI C37.06: T2 106 s

Time t3 is 88% of T2 (1-COS waveshape):

t3 = 93 s

72.5 2

uc 1.5 1.54

137 kV

3

137

VATR

1.47 kV / s

RRRV is the ratio of uc and t3 :

93

it is the present value in IEC and IEEE standards.

RRRV for terminal fault T100 (Ur < 100 kV)

Class S2 circuit breakers

1,6

RRRV

(kV/s)

72.5kV

1.47

1,4

1,2

1.33

52kV

1.21

38kV

1.05

1kV/s 1

0,8

0.91

24kV

15kV

0,6

20kV

0,4

12,5

22,5

32,5

42,5

52,5

62,5

72,5

Ur

(kV)

RRRV

0.67

for T60

0.40

reduced short-circuit current is divided by the multiplier for time

t3 and multiplied by the increase of amplitude factor.

Example: T60 72.5 kV

RRRV

1.47 1.65

2.35 kV / s

0.67 1.54

TRV envelopes for terminal fault (Ur 100 kV)

Note: time to peak for T60 is shown here according to IEEE, it is half the IEC value

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 107

Amplitude factor for terminal fault (Ur 100 kV)

according to IEC and IEEE C37.06

kaf (p.u.)

1,8

1,7

1,6

1,5

IEEE k pp=1.5

1,4

1,3

1,2

1,1

1

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

% Isc

Case 10 % Isc: kpp x kaf = 2.46 (IEEE kpp=1.5) and 2.29 (IEC & IEEE kpp=1.3)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 108

Rate-of-rise-of-recovery-voltage for terminal fault

(Ur 100 kV)

8

RRRV (kV/s)

T10

T30

T60

T100

Application

or four parameter envelope drawn with rated parameters is equal or

higher than the two or four parameter envelope of the system TRV.

Voltage

time

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 110

Application

The parameters that define the circuit breaker TRV capabilities vary

with the circuit breaker voltage rating and short-circuit current

interrupting level.

The circuit breaker TRV capabilities at 10%, 30%, 60% and 100% of

rated short-circuit interrupting current (Isc), corresponding to terminal

fault test duties T10, T30, T60 and T100, are given in IEEE Std

C37.06.

short-circuit interrupting current below rated can be derived using the

multipliers given in Table 1 of IEEE C37.011-011.

is covered by the circuit breaker TRV capability demonstrated by type

tests, either when new circuit breakers are to be installed or following

a system change.

Application

between 30% and 60% of the circuit breaker rated short-circuit current.

capability and to avoid additional testing, a method of interpolation of

TRV capabilities demonstrated by type tests was introduced in the

former editions of IEEE C37.011.

description of TRVs, this method of interpolation in the current range

between T30 and T60 (terminal faults with respectively 30% and 60%

of Isc) was not clearly stated in the 2005 edition of IEEE C37.011.

C37.011-2011 to define the circuit breaker TRV withstand capability for

short-circuit currents in this range between T30 and T60.

Application

In standards, it is considered that 30 % of Isc is the maximum shortcircuit current for which a two parameter TRV is applicable for circuit

breakers rated 100 kV and above.

and 60 % of Isc is then necessarily a four parameter TRV.

The Working Group in charge of IEEE Guide C37.011 has defined that

the TRV capability between T30 and T60 can be considered to have a

rate-of-rise (u1/t1) and a first reference voltage (u1) that have

intermediate values between those of T30 and T60.

Application

TRV parameters (u1, t1, uc, t2) for any terminal fault current between

30 % and 60 % of Isc can be obtained as follows:

u1 and t1 are linearly interpolated between u1 and t1 of T60 and uc

and t3 of T30

uc and t2 are linearly interpolated between uc and t2 of T60 and uc

and t3 of T30

next slide.

Application

245kVBreakerTRVEnvelope

500

450

T100

T75

400

T60

350

T55

T50

300

kV

T45

250

T40

T35

200

T30

150

T10

u1,t1

100

50

0

0

50

100

150

200

250

Time(s)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 115

Application

* When the system TRV has an initial slope that is higher than the value

specified for terminal fault type tests, Guide IEEE C37.011 authorizes

to combine the TRV withstands demonstrated during terminal fault and

short-line-fault (same range of currents).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 116

Testing

Tests are required at 100% (T100), 60% (T60), 30% (T30) and 10%

(T10) of rated short-circuit current with the corresponding rated TRVs

and recovery voltages.

each test duty, except T100 that is performed as follows

3 tests with symmetrical current and

3 tests with asymmetrical current (when interrupting asymmetrical

currents, the rate-of-rise and peak value of TRV are reduced but the

energy in the arc is higher).

for each test duty T10, T30, T60: 2 tests are required with

symmetrical current and 1 test with asymmetrical current.

test duty T100 is performed as in IEC

Testing

During testing, the envelope of the test TRV (in red) must be equal or

higher than the specified TRV envelope (in blue).

U

(kV)

Envelope of prospective test TRV

uc

u1

Reference line of specified TRV

u'

Delay line of specified TRV

0

td

t'

t1

t2

t (s)

regions where a restrike is likely: during the initial part of the TRV where

the RRRV is maximum and in the vicinity of the peak voltage (uc).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 118

Initial TRV

oscillation of small amplitude.

from the first major discontinuity along the busbar.

In most cases the ITRV withstand capability is proven during short-linefault tests.

Terminal fault

TRV & Arcing Times

Arcing time

1,5

Contacts separation

1

Interruption at 2nd

passage through zero

Current

0,5

Arcing time = 13 ms

0

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,035

0,04

0,045

Time

-0,5

1st passage

through zero

-1

-1,5

0,05

In the case of periodic

phenomena,

durations

can be expressed in

milliseconds

or

in

electrical degrees.

For a system frequency

of 50 Hz, the duration of

one half loop is 10 ms, it

corresponds to 180 el., it

follows that 18 el. = 1ms

For a system frequency

of 60 Hz the duration of

one half loop is 8.33 ms

so 18 el. = 0.83 ms

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 122

1,5

0,5

10 ms

0,002 0,004 0,006 0,008 0,01 0,012 0,014 0,016 0,018 0,02

-0,5

-1

-1,5

One period at 50 Hz

Current

Arcing time

1st pole

Arcing time

last poles

One period (360) at 50Hz is 20 ms

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 123

Contacts

separation

1st pole

clears

last poles

clear

Case 1: Reference case with contact separation at 29.67ms

Example

three-phase

fault

interruption

Fr = 50 Hz

Pole 3

interrupts first

Arcing time

pole 3 = 8.4ms

(minimum arcing

time)

System with non-effectively grounded neutral

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 124

Case 2: Contact separation advanced by 3.33ms (60) = 26.34ms

Arcing time

pole 1 = 8.4ms

Pole 1 interrupts

first with the same

arcing time as in

Case 1 by pole 3

i.e. same breaking

conditions in

terms of arcing

times

Case 3: Contact separation advanced by 2.33ms (42) = 27.34ms

Arcing time pole 1

= 15.7ms

= 8.4ms + 7.3ms

= 8.4ms + 132

maximum arcing

time

Pole 3 interrupts

first with the

longest arcing

time for a first

pole to clear

Arcing time

pole 3 = 10.7ms

= 8.4ms + 42

The range of arcing times for the first pole to clear is 42

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 126

Three-phase

faults

grounded

systems

ungrounded faults

in

non-effectively

or

three-phase

20000

Example with fr = 50 Hz

tarc min = 12 ms

10000

Iarc

Current (A)

Contact separation

-10000

18

-20000

Iarc

-30000

Contact separation

-40000

-50000

10

15

20

Time (ms)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 127

25

30

35

40

Three-phase faults in noneffectively grounded systems or

three-phase ungrounded faults

time [ms]

0

10

15

20000

20

25

30

35

40

Tmin = 12 ms

15000

phase) Tmin = 12 ms

10000

Iarc

current [A]

5000

by 18 el.

(or 1 ms)

Contact

separation

-5000

-10000

18 el.

-15000

-20000

time [ms]

0

10

15

20

25

30

20000

15000

current [A]

10000

5000

Iarc

-5000

-10000

Contact

separation

-15000

-20000

T max = 19.33 ms

35

40

phase) = 14.33 ms

(Tmin + 60 - 18

= Tmin + 42)

Maximum arcing time (blue

phase) = 19.33 ms

(14.33 ms + 90

= Tmin + 132)

Three-phase faults in noneffectively grounded systems or

three-phase ungrounded faults

time [ms]

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

20000

Tmin = 12 ms

15000

current [A]

10000

5000

phase) Tmin = 12 ms

Iarc

Contact

separation

-5000

by 18 el.

(or 0.83 ms)

-10000

18 el.

-15000

-20000

time [ms]

0

10

15

20

25

30

20000

15000

current [A]

10000

5000

Iarc

-5000

-10000

Contact

separation

-15000

-20000

T max = 18.1 ms

35

40

phase) = 13.94 ms

(Tmin + 60 - 18

= Tmin + 42)

Maximum arcing time

(blue phase) = 18.1 ms

(13.94 ms + 90

= Tmin + 132)

Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Interruption

Three-phase fault in network with isolated neutral (Ur < 245kV)

Current

ER

ES

ET

Contact

separation

Time

Interruption of current in a first pole, followed cycle later by

interruption of the two other poles in series

Breaking Tests HV Circuit-Breakers Denis Dufournet

Three-Phase Short-Circuit Current Interruption

Three-phase fault in network with effectively grounded

neutral (Ur 245kV)

Voltages

Currents

ER

ES

ET

Contact

separation

different arcing times

Breaking Tests HV Circuit-Breakers Denis Dufournet

Three-phase faults in

non-effectively grounded

systems or three-phase

ungrounded faults

0.87

90

0.87

1.5

Currents

= Tmin + 132

= Tmin + 6.1 ms

Three-phase faults in

effectively grounded

systems

1.27

120

= Tmin + 162

= Tmin + 7.5 ms

1.3

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 132

1.0

Three-phase faults in

non-effectively grounded

systems or three-phase

ungrounded faults

0.87

90

0.87

1.5

Currents

= Tmin + 132

= Tmin + 7.3 ms

Three-phase faults in

effectively grounded

systems

1.27

120

= Tmin + 162

= Tmin + 9 ms

1.3

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 133

1.0

Pole to clear factor

Arcing time

el.

Reference = Minimum arcing time first pole

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 134

Pole to clear factor

Arcing times in ms FR = 60 Hz

Arcing time

el.

0

1.95

3.55 4.15

5.5

5.55

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 135

6.1

7.5

ms

Pole to clear factor

kpp=1.3

Increased

stress

el.

Reference = Minimum arcing time first pole Minimum arcing time + 180 -18

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 136

1,5

Contacts separation

1

Current

Single-phase tests

with minimum &

maximum arcing time

0,5

= 13 ms

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,035

0,04

0,045

0,05

Time

-0,5

-1

-1,5

1,5

Contacts separation

1

Current

Mximum arcing time = 22 ms

= 13 ms + 10 ms - 1 ms

= 13ms + 180 el. - 18 el.

0,5

0,005

0,01

0,015

0,02

0,025

0,03

0,04

0,045

Time

-0,5

time 12 ms

-1

-1,5

0,035

0,05

Generator Circuit Breakers

installed between a generator and a transformer.

A1

System-source fault

B1 Generator-source fault

For the two types of fault, the TRV has an oscillatory waveshape and

the first-pole-to-clear factor is 1.5 in order to cover three-phase

ungrounded faults.

TRV parameters, i.e. peak voltage uc, rate-of-rise (RRRV) and time

delay, are listed in ANSI/IEEE C37.013.

specified for distribution or sub-transmission circuit breakers ANSI/IEEE

C37.04.

This is due to the fact that the TRV frequency is dominated by the

natural frequency of the step-up transformer.

rated power.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 140

TRV parameters for System-Source Faults

Table 5a TRV parameters for system - source faults

Inherent TRV

Transformer

Rating

T2 -Time to - Peak

E2 -Peak Voltage

TRV Rate

(MVA)

(s)

(kV)

(kV / s)

Line

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

10 - 50

0.68 V

1.84 V

3.2

51 - 100

0.62 V

1.84 V

3.5

101 - 200

0.54 V

1.84 V

4.0

201 - 400

0.48 V

1.84 V

4.5

401 - 600

0.43 V

1.84 V

5.0

601 - 1000

0.39 V

1.84 V

5.5

1001 or more

0.36 V

1.84 V

6.0

TRV

define precisely the determination of the TRV rate.

E2 is equal to 1.84 V where V is

the rms value of the rated

maximum voltage and the value

1.84 is equal to

2 x 1.5 (= first-pole-to-clear3

factor) x 1.5 (= amplitude factor)

T2

t3

E2

TRV for system-source faults (Contd)

between the circuit breaker and the transformer. It is also reduced in

the special cases where the connection between the circuit breaker

and the transformer(s) is made by cable(s) [29].

TRV RATE FOR SYSTEM FED FAULTS TRANSFORMER 50MVA<<=100MVA

3,6

3,4

3,2

81MVA

100MVA

2,8

2,6

65,5MVA

2,4

2,2

2

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

TRV for system-source faults (Contd)

step-up transformer, the TRV peak is increased (explanation: see

general considerations).

E2 MULTIPLIER FOR SYSTEM FED FAULTS TRANSFORMER 50MVA<<=100MVA

TRV peak

increase (p.u.)

1,3

1,25

E2 MULTIPLIER (p.u.)

65.5 MVA

1,2

81 MVA

1,15

100 MVA

1,1

1,05

Capacitance

(pF)

1

0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

TRV for generator-source faults

RRRV for generator-source faults is roughly 2 times the values

specified for distribution or sub-transmission circuit breakers.

Table 6a TRV parameters for generator - source faults

Inherent TRV

Generator

Rating

T2 -Time - to Peak

E2 -Peak Voltage

TRV Rate

(MVA)

(s)

(kV)

(kV / s)

Line

Column 1

Column 2

Column 3

Column 4

10 - 50

1.44 V

1.84 V

1.5

51 - 100

1.35 V

1.84 V

1.6

101 - 400

1.20 V

1.84 V

1.8

401 - 800

1.08 V

1.84 V

2.0

801 or more

0.98 V

1.84 V

2.2

TRV in case of asymmetrical currents

Due to the large time constants of generators and transformers

(high X/R), generator circuit breakers are required to interrupt

currents with a high percentage of dc component (high asymmetry).

The rate-of rise and peak value of TRV during interruption of

currents with large asymmetry are significantly reduced.

In this case, the stress is mainly due to the current amplitude and

the energy in the arc (mechanical and thermal stresses), and to a

lesser extent to the TRV.

The more severe TRV stress is obtained during interruption of

symmetrical currents.

First-pole-to-clear factor

Effectively earthed systems

Rating

TRV with 2 or 4 parameters

Classes S1 and S2 for rated voltages < 100 kV

RRRV:

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

Introduction

The severity of SLF with its associated very fast rate-of-rise-ofrecovery-voltage (RRRV) was identified at the end of the 1950s.

First SLF tests were performed in 1956-1958 in the USA (G.E.), also

at Mettlen substation (CH), Fontenay (EDF High Power Laboratories)

and CESI. The aim was to compare theoretical studies and

experiments.

C.H. Titus, W.R. Wilson (G.E.) in Transactions AIEE, submitted in

April 1957 and published in February 1958.

Bulletin de la Socit Franaise des Electriciens in Nov. 1958.

Introduction

Systems, Part III, Transactions of

the

American

Institute

of

Electrical Engineers. Publication

in February 1958

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 150

Electric in 1957 to test air-blast

circuit-breakers. It was 1.6km long,

short-circuit power of the source was

50kA under 31kV.

Introduction

during the session of 1958.

Two reports were presented during the CIGRE session of 1960 (by

France and Switzerland).

in 1971.

Introduction

great influence on the design of high-voltage circuit breakers.

It was already the case with air blast type that had to be fitted with

opening resistors for SLF interruption.

SLF is also a critical test duty for SF6 type circuit breakers.

Sufficient pressure build-up and mass flow rate are necessary for SF6

circuit breakers to interrupt at current zero.

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

kilometers down the line.

L90: short-line fault with 90% of rated short-circuit current

L75: short-line fault with 75% of rated short-circuit current

After current interruption, the line-side voltage exhibits a characteristic

triangular waveshape.

U

line

Circuit breaker

TRV, neglecting the contribution from

the supply-side

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 153

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

the supply voltage and the di/dt are both maximum (in amplitude). The

voltage on the circuit-breaker terminals (U0) is a fraction of the supply

voltage Us0.

LS

Us0

Supply side

Voltage (point B)

LL

line

U0

Us0 = (LS + LL ) di/dt

U0 = LL di/dt

where di/dt is the current

derivative at current zero

Example Ur = 245kV

U s0

U0

Line side

Voltage (point C)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 154

Ur

3

200 kV

90

L90 : U 0 U s 0 1

20 kV

100

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

transmission line with distributed elements.

The line side voltage oscillates as travelling waves are transmitted with

positive and negative reflections at the open breaker and at the fault,

respectively.

After current interruption

The supply voltage varies

much more slowly than the

line-side voltage

The TRV is mainly due to the

voltage variation on the line

side.

Line-side

voltage (point C)

Supply side

voltage (point B)

Short-Line-Fault (SLF)

Supply-side and line-side voltages

Current

t

Supply-side voltage

Um

U=0

Uo

UL

Line-side voltage

Uo: voltage on circuit breaker terminals at the time of interruption

Example L75: Ur = 245kV : Um= 200 kV, Uo= 50 kV, UL= 80 kV

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 156

Voltage decreases linearly towards 0 at the fault point

It is considered to be sum of two voltage waves moving in opposite directions.

TL = Travel time for wave to travel from one end of line to the other and back.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 157

Traveling waves that

reach the fault point are

reflected with an opposite

polarity.

Traveling waves that

reach the open point, at

the

circuit

breaker

terminal, are reflected

with the same polarity.

Voltage at any location

on the line is the sum of

each component.

Voltage on the line after current interruption

VOLTAGE (p.u.)

2

tL/4

0.5 tL

3 tL/4

tL

1.5 tL

TIME

Voltage at x = 0.75 L

-2

Voltage half-way

to the fault x = 0.5 L

Voltage at circuit-breaker

Terminal x = 0

Voltage on Circuit Breaker line-side terminal

Line side Voltage

(p.u.)

1,5

0,5

0

0

0,25

0,5

0,75

1,25

1,5

1,75

-0,5

-1

-1,5

Time / TL

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 161

SLF TRV

Voltage (kV)

TRV

Supply voltage

Line voltage

Time (s)

SLF / RRRV

of the slope of current before interruption and of the surge impedance

of the line:

du

di

RRRV

Z

ZI 2sI

dt

dt

Z

L

C

L and C are respectively the self inductance and the capacitance of the

line per unit length

I

pulsation

at 50 Hz

Z 2 0.2 10 6

Assumptions: conductors of infinite length, the electrical field and magnetic field

do not penetrate the ground.

D = 2 h with h = height of line

r = radius of conductor

Ln = natural logarithm 0 = magnetic constant = 4107 H/m

= electric constant = 8.8541012 F/m

with

L

D

2h

60 Ln 60 Ln

C

r

r

(1)

the distance between one conductor and the image of the other conductor, and r

represents the distance between the two conductors (see next slide).

mutual couplings. Modal analysis done by digital calculations gives the relevant

modes of travelling waves (see Annex C in [39] and [47]).

d12

Bundle 1

Bundle 2

Bundle 3

D12

Ground

D

Z M 12 60 Ln 12

d12

Image of bundle of conductors 2

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 165

Geometry of a conductor

Arrangement of the conductors in relation to the towers and the ground

(single or double circuits..)

Frequency of the TRV: Z decreases by 4% when the frequency increases

from 1 to 100 kHz.

In case of bundled conductors, they can clash if the current is high enough.

The surge impedance is higher after conductor clashing and reach the

value for a single conductor: 450 .

Line height: the surge impedance of lines increases with the conductor

height above ground.

Earth resistivity: the surge impedance increases by 5.7% at 1kHz and

3.2% at 100 kHz when earth resistivity changes from 10 to 1000 -m.

Tower footing resistance: if it rises from 0 to 10 the surge impedance

increases by about 2%.

Short-line-fault

Percentage of SLF (or M)

V

I S LG

XS

IL

VLG

XS XL

Short-line-fault

surge impedance ( Zeff) of the faulted line and a peak factor (d)

uL

uO

uL

u L Z eff di / dt 2 / v

uo X L I L

uO

d 2

Z eff

XL v

v is the velocity of light (0.3 km/s), is the line length

is 2 system power frequency (314 or 377 rad/s for 50 or 60 Hz)

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 168

U0 X L IL

US X S IS

U0

US

IL M IS

M

XS

XS XL

or M X L X S M X S

U0 X L M IS

U0 X S M X S IS

U 0 1 M X S I S 1 M U S

U 0 1 M U S

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 169

The rated values for the line surge impedance Z and the peak factor

d are defined in standards as follows:

Z 450 d U L / U 0 1.6

wave as follows (where IS is the rated short-circuit current) :

U L 1.6 (1 M )

2

Ur

3

du

di

Z

Z M IS

dt

dt

the rate-of-rise of recovery voltage increases with M

circuit breaker has more difficulty to interrupt.

The critical value of M is close to 90% for SF6 circuit breakers

(generally in the range 90%-95%). it is between 75% and 80% for

air blast circuit breakers.

Short-line-fault

stresses during test duties L90 and L75, respectively at 90% and 75%

of rated short-circuit current, for a circuit-breaker 245kV 40kA 50Hz.

The current and RRRV are higher during L90, but the (first) peak

voltage is higher during L75.

L90

L75

Current (kA)

36

30

RRRV (kV/s)

7.2

UL (kV)

32

80

Voltage on the line side only is considered

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 171

140

120

4.8 kV/s

100

U (kV)

Ur = 245kV

L60

80

Isc = 40kA

fr = 50Hz

L75

6 kV/s

60

40

L90

7.2 kV/s

20

0

0

10

15

20

25

30

35

T (s)

When current decreases (longer line), the slope decreases but the peak

value increases. It is generally considered that for SF6 circuit breakers

interruption is more influenced by the voltage slope (RRRV).

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 172

Short-line-fault

from the line side (eL) and a contribution from the supply side (eS):

e e L eS

with (in a first approximation)

eS 2 M (TL t d )

where

2M

TL

td

Short-line-fault

Fault current = 0.9 x 50 = 45 kA (assuming time delay tdL= 0 s)

Short-line-fault

This rate-of-rise of TRV during SLF is much higher than the values

that are met during terminal fault interruption:

Test duty

RRRV

(kV/s)

I

(kA)

F

(Hz)

SLF

L90 50 kA

10.8

45

60

SLF

L90 50 kA

45

50

SLF

L90 40 kA

8.64

36

60

Terminal fault

T60

30

50/60

Terminal fault

T100

50

50/60

For SLF, this table gives the RRRV of the line side voltage

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 175

Standard values of lines characteristics for SLF

IEC values are shown, ANSI/IEEE values cover rated voltages up to 800kV

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 176

Short-Line-Fault

Influence of an Additional Capacitor

between terminals or phase to ground (see figure).

it decreases the oscillation frequency and the RRRV of the line

side contribution to TRV;

it increases the time delay of the line side contribution to TRV.

XS

VLG

C.B.

XL

60

[ kV ]

50

40

30

1 2

20

10

0

0

(file t r v 2 .pl4 ; x - v ar t ) v :P 0 0

8

v :P 1

v :P 4

16

[ u s]

20

v :P 1 0

TRV without

capacitor

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 179

12

(capacitance increase from 1 to 3)

Equation of the line-side contribution to TRV up to the first peak:

e(t ) Z (di / dt ) t Z C Z C e t / Z C

reduction of the line side RRRV can be estimated by a simple

calculation, as detailed in the next slide, with

Cadd

line inductance;

CL

Ce

with the inductance L, gives the line frequency of oscillation

By definition of Ce

fL

1

2 LCe

2u *L

The period of oscillation is equal to

du

du

and Z I L 2

dt L

dt L

Z

fL

It follows that

4X L

and

with u *L 2 X L I L 2

4L

4 CL

Ce 2

2 0.4 CL

2

Z

the line side is reduced in the same manner as the line frequency of

oscillation.

TRV HV Circuit Breakers P 181

The RRRV on the line side is then

2 LCe

du

Z IL

dt

2 L(Ce Cadd )

Ce

du

Z IL

dt

Ce Cadd

CL

du

Z IL 2

dt

C L 2.5 Cadd

Short-Line-Fault

Influence of an Opening Resistor

Some circuit breakers, mainly air-blast, have an opening resistor to

assist a short-circuit interruption.

It was introduced to improve the SLF breaking capability of air-blast

circuit breakers, but it has been used also to facilitate the interruption

of fast TRVs by some SF6 circuit breakers.

In case of SLF, the RRRV (or du/dt) is modified as follows:

du Z R di Z R

I

dt Z R dt Z R

where R = value of opening resistor

Z = line surge impedance

I = short-circuit current

Product of fault current derivative by surge impedance

Standard value of surge impedance = 450

Test duties L90 and L75 (+ L60 is some cases)

Single-phase tests that cover all SLF conditions

additional capacitor (or opening resistor)

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