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TAUHEED

Define Tauheed (Unity of Allah) in a scholarly manner describing its significance and effects on
human life. (2001)

Explain the belief of Tauheed in scholarly manner describing its effect on human life. (2004)

Identify the importance of the concept of "Towheed" and explain the practical results of this
principle on the private as well as public aspects of the human life. (2007)

Define Tauheed (Unity of Allah) in a scholarly manner describing its significance and its effects on
human life? (2013)

ZAKAT

While defining Zakat, examine its Socio-Economic significance in Islamic Society. (2002)

Islam pays a lot of stress on the circulation of money. Describe in the light
of Zakat system. (2008)

In Islam the purpose of Zakat is purity of wealth, abolishing poverty, hunger and ignorance but his
has not been achieved yet. What pratical steps are needed for attaining this end?(2009)

JIHAD

What is the significance of Jihad in the light of Quran and Sunnah? What are its kinds, principles,
and conditions? (2001)

Write down a detailed essay on the importance, necessity and different kinds of Jehad in
Islam. (2003)

"One Mans Terrorist Is Another Mans Freedom Figther",in Light Of The Preceding Quoted Probe In
To Causes Of Terrorism And Separate Both Jihad AndTerrorism From Each Other After Giving Solid
Arguments. (2006)

What is the significance of Jihad in the light of Quran and Sunnah? What are its kinds, principles
and conditions? (2013)

RELIGION

Define Religion, also describing its necessity, importance and kinds of distinguishing between
Revealed and Non Revealed religions. (2002)

Despite the scientific and technological advancement the present society is facing moral decline and
mental anarchy. In these circumstances elucidate the importance andeffectiveness of
Religion. (2007)

Differentiate between the Din and Religion. State the important points of Co-Existence among
Islam and world religions in the present scenario. (2010)

Describe the necessity and importance of religion for man and its effects on human life. (2012)

ISLAM

Describe the dignity and superiority of Islam with proof as compared to other religions. (2000)

Islam enjoys as exalted place in the religions of the world. Elaborate (2001)

Describe the basic beliefs of Islam and also explain that how Islam Reforms the life of Individual
and Society through them. (2002)

Write a detail note on the problems which Islam is facing in the contemporary world. (2002)

Define the religion of Islam. Explain also the idea and place of humanity in Islam. (2003)

Islam is a complete code of life. Discuss. (2012)

DIGNITY

Islam enjoys and exalted place in the religions of the world regarding human dignity, moral values
and Allahs vicegrency. Discuss with arguments. (2004)

What is Human Dignity? Explain how Islam recognized it and what efforts have been adopted to
maintain the superiority of man?(2013)

IJTEHAD

Explain in detail the basic sources of Islamic Law with special reference to Ijtihad. (2001)

1. Is Ijtehad is no more practical? Explain


2. What are required conditions for a mujtahid
3. Does a learned Muslim have the right of Ijtehad? Discuss its consequences (2005)

Describe in detail the four basic sources of Islamic Law. Explain Ijma and
Ijtehad specifically. (2004)

Produce a Juristic-definition Of Both Ijtihad and Ijma Elaborating Possible Role of Both the above in
Imslamization of a State in Modern Time (2006)

In order to meet challenges of modern times, there is a need to establish versatile institutions
of Ijtehad. What measure would you suggest? (2009)

In the present period the Muslim Ummah is facing different problems and for the solution of these
problem ijtehad is necessary, so point out such an institution that can offer solution of the new
problems with the help of Ijtehad. (2011)

IJMA

Produce a Juristic-definition Of Both Ijtihad and Ijma Elaborating Possible Role of Both the above in
Imslamization of a State in Modern Time (2006)

Describe in detail the four basic sources of Islamic Law. Explain IjmA and
Ijtehad specifically. (2004)

STATE

Describe the economical responsibilities of State in Islam. (2000)

LAW

Explain in detail the basic sources of Islamic Law with special reference to Ijtihad. (2001)

Describe in detail the four basic sources of Islamic Law. Explain IjmA and
Ijtehad(2004) specifically.

While describing in detail the four basic sources of Islamic Law, also explain that Maslih-e-Mursala,
Istihsan and Urf are the basic sources of Islamic Law. (2002)

Write down a comprehensive essay on the basic sources of law in Islam. (2003)

Explain with arguments the system of Law and Justice of Islam. (2003)

It is necessary to establish priority of law for the development of society. What is your point of view
that today Islamic punishments are regarded as Savagery? While discussing the Islamic philosophy
of the reward and punishment also describe the basic characteristic of Islamic concept of
punishments. (2011)

JUSTICE

What is meant by "Justice"? Explain its importance in Islam. (2000)

Explain the economical rules of Islam in the light of Social Justice. (2012)

POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC SYSTEM

To what extent is the modern political system i.e. democracy in consonance or against Islamic
principles? Discuss with reference (2005)

Islam-in The Mid of Contemporary Managements and Political Systems-possesses Its Own Political
Management and Political System. Discuss (2006)

State guiding principles of economic system is Islam? How can it be implemented in modern
times? (2005)

The political system of Islam guarantees the prosperity of State. Discuss. (2012)

Explain the economical rules of Islam in the light of Social Justice. (2012)

JUDIO-POLITICAL SYSTEM

Write down a comprehensive essay on the judicio-political system of Islam. (2001)

Define and explain the judio-political system of Islam. (2002)

Islam has distinguished status in Judio-political system explain comprehensively. (2004)

Define and explain Judicio-Political System of Islam? (2013)

CIVILIZATION

The world is heading towards the concept of Clash of Civilizations. Give your arguments for and
against this notion. (2008)

Islam gives a living and dynamic perception of civilization. Which steps do you consider to meet the
challenges of western civilization? (2009)

What is meant by civilization and culture and how it effects collective life and also analyzes the
foundation of modern civilization and highlights the problems caused by it? (2011)

Describe the concept of modern civilization and its effects on Muslim Ummah. (2012)

ISLAMIC SOCIETY

What is the role of man and woman in Islamic society? What are their responsibilities towards
character building of new generation? (2001)

Keeping in view today's international Political System, can Sheriah be adjusted in the Islamic
Societies? (2010)

CULTURE

There is a visible decadence in our society due to invasion /influence of liberal western culture. To
what extent is it harming our countrys youth and what can be done to arrest this moral
decline (2005)

How The Protection And Application Of Islamic Culture Is Possible In The Mid Of The Influences Of
Present Western Culture? Describe The Features Of Islamic Culture Prior To Have A Comparative
Study Of The Issue. (2006)

What is meant by civilization and culture and how it effects collective life and also analyzes the
foundation of modern civilization and highlights the problems caused by it? (2011)

STATUS OF WOMAN

Write down a comprehensive Essay on the Women's rights in Islam. (2000)

Comparatively analyze the rights of women in the light of Islam and other religions. (2002)

What is the meaning of the freedom of woman in Islam? What are the responsibilities of man and
woman in the building of character of new generation? Explain in detail. (2003)

Islam has pinpointed the rights of women and she has been properly regarded in all her capacities
in the family. Elaborate comparing the facts with other religions. (2004)

As per Quranic injunctions and sayings of the Holy Prophet (SAW), hijab is mandatory for Muslim
women. The larger percentage of the women in our country is totally oblivious to these Quranic
injunctions. Discuss reasons and suggest remedial measures. (2005)

Describe the Right of Education for a Female in Islam. (2006)

The application of Islamic Shariah is equal to man and woman, however, some injunctions are only
related to woman explain. (2007)

European and Human Rights Activists claim that Islam does not give proper rights to women. What
do you say about this statement? (2008)

Keeping in view the requirements of Global Society, determine the freedom and limitations of a
Muslim Woman in the light of Islamic teachings. (2010)

Discuss the concept of veil and freedom of woman from Islamic point of view while analyzing the
law against veil in France. (2011) (2013)

ETHICS

Describing the relationship of morality and faith in the concept of Islamic Ethics, also explain the
Islamic principles and methods of character building. (2002)

There is a clear relationship in between the morality and faith in concepts of Islamic ethics helping
in character building of a nation and generation. Explain. (2004)

What moral values are given by the Deen-i-Islam? Can these values be changed keeping in view
the western ethical system? (2008)

Describing the importance of Ethical values in Islam, write a comparative note on Islamic morality
code and Western code. (2010)

In the light of the Islamic teachings Faith and Ethics are closely united, in spite of that Islamic
Societies are in disorder. Discuss. (2010)

CHARACTER BUILDING

Describing the relationship of morality and faith in the concept of Islamic Ethics, also explain the
Islamic principles and methods of character building. (2002)

HUMANITY AND HUMAN RIGHTS

How does Islam regard humanity? What is the concept of Khalafat in Islam? (2001)

Define the religion of Islam. Explain also the idea and place of humanity in Islam. (2003)

The most important issue of humanity is the recognition of the role and privileges of a man.
Discuss how Islam may play a role in this regard in today's scenario. (2010)

It is the period of basic human rights. What is meant by human rights and what is a western
concept of human right, discuss human rights of Islam in the light of the sermon of Hajjatul
Widah. (2011)

Discuss human rights of Islam in the light of the sermon of Hajjatul Wida. (2012)

ROBLEMS OF HUMAN LIFE

Explain the basic problems of human life and their solution (2000)

UMMAH

Describe the role and objectives of Muslim Ummah. How can it contribute to solve the problems of
the present world? (2001)

Write down in detail the problems of Ummah in the contemporary world. (2003)

What is the role and objective of Muslim Ummah? How can it contribute to solve its own and
worlds problem? (2004)

In todays, world, Muslim every where are being castigated and condemned by the west as
extremists and terrorists having an evil ideology. Muslims are about 1/5th of the world population
but they dont have a collective voice. Do you think the concept of Muslim umma is viable in
todays world? Discuss (2005)

Ijtihad can play an important role in the establishment of Muslim Ummah and the making of
Humanity. Discuss. (2008)

Muslim Ummah comprises of 1/5th of the total world population, rich in natural resources but
lacking economic and political stability. Suggest measures for political and economic
stability. (2009)

In the globalization arena what role Muslim Ummah can play being custodian of Revealed
Knowledge to resolve the complex problems of human kind? (2010)

What is meant by civilization and culture and how it effects collective life and also analyzes the
foundation of modern civilization and highlights the problems caused by it? (2011)

Describe the concept of modern civilization and its effects on Muslim Ummah. (2012)

Write down in detail the problems of Ummah in the contemporary world. (2013)

SUICIDE ATTACKS

Suicide attacks have become norm of the day , particularly in Iraq, Chechneya and Palestine. The
common rationale for such activities reportedly is the persecution of the Muslims by western
imperialism and American dominated hegemonic world order under the prevailing circumstances
is the phenomenon of suicide attacks justified ? Give reasons (2005)

Muslim Are Being Persecuted Any Where In Chechnya, Palestine, Kashmir And Iraq Etc.in This
Scenario-are The Suicide Attacks By Muslims Are Justified? Unveil The Sharai Position Of The Issue
Supported By Relevant Reverences. (2006)

Suicidal and valiant attacks have become a routine. What is the difference between the two?
Suggest reasons for the legitimacy of these attacks. (2009)

ENLIGHTENED MODERATION

What do you know about the concept of "enlightened moderation" Give your arguments in for and
against this notion. (2007)

What do you know about the concept of enlightened moderation? Describe it in its historical
perspective. (2008

SOCIOLOGY
Sociology is the scientific study of human social life. Elaborate this statement
with research methods applicable in sociological studies. (1990)
As an officer how can you benefit yourself from the subject matter sociology?
(1992)
Sociology is social science of human interaction. Please elucidate. (1997)
Note Sociology of the Holy Quran (1998)
Sociology is the controlled observation and interpretation of differing patterns of
human relationships, their sources and consequences. (Wilson) Discuss it in
detail. (1999)
Chapter 1: Individual, Culture and Society
INDIVIDUAL AS A SOCIAL PRODUCT.
Prove that individual is a social produce. Highlight the contribution of culture
and society in this process. (1993)
METHODS OF SOCIALIZATION
How does socialization help in the development of personality? (1992)
What do you understand by socialization? Discuss its function in the family.
(1999)
What is the role of culture in socialization of an individual to become a useful
member of a society? Discuss with examples. (2001)
In your opinion what are the advantages of socialization? Is socialization
process applicable to the adults? Discuss it. (2005)

Define social institution. What is the significance of family, religion and


education as institutions in the process of socialization? Explain your answer with
examples from Pakistani society? (2006)
Individual is product of society and culture. Different methods of socialization
lead to a variety of building norms and values in the personality of individuals.
Discuss:
(a) the relationship of individual, society and culture.
(b) Different methods of socialization
(c) the variation exemplified due to different methods of socialization in norms
and values. (2007)
ETHNOCENTRISM
Short note - Ethnocentrism and xenocentrism (1990)
Ethnocentrism leads to sectarianism. Is it so? How both are number one
problems of Pakistan? What are the remedies? (1997)
Short note - Ethnocentrism (2004)
NORMS AND VALUES
Short note - Value and norm (1997)
In what respects are your values similar to those of your parents? In what
respects do they differ? How do you explain these differences? (2008)
CULTURAL PATTERNS
Discuss the role of culture and social group in the formation of personality.
(1991)
Define culture. Use this definition as a framework and discuss the salient features
of Pakistani culture. (1992)
Prove that individual is a social produce. Highlight the contribution of culture
and society in this process. (1993)
Culture is everything which is socially learned and shared by the members of a
society. Discuss by giving examples from Pakistan society. (1994)
Define and corroborate Culture and sub-culture. (1997)
The cultural deception of the West and the cultural diffusion of the East lead to
anomic. Elucidate. (1998)

Often social change results in social disorganization. What cultural prerequisite


can avoid such situation? (1998)
Discuss Cultural implications of the small/nuclear family. (2000)
Why is culture indispensable to human society and what part do norms and
values play in social life. (2004)
It has been said that a person raised in one culture may learn to act like people in
an adopted culture, but will never be able to think and feel like a person of
adopted culture. Do you agree?
Chapter 2: Sociological Theory
THEORIES AND CONTRIBUTIONS
Short note Theory of differential association.
Discuss the contribution of Ibn-i-Khaldun as a Muslim Social thinker. (1990)
Who was Ibne Khaldun? What is his contribution to sociology with which
publication and what theory? Is he a father of Sociology? (1997)
Ibne Khaldun is quoted to have said, Solidarity with community lies in the
adoption of moral standards inculcated by family to each member collectively
responding to social responsibility. Please offer comments. (1998)
Max Weber has written the book Sociology of Religion. What are its main
contents? (1998)
Comprehensive note Ibne Khalduns contribution to Sociology. (1999)
Discuss the contributions of Ferdinand Tonnies to scientific sociology. (1999)
Keeping in view the contributions of Max Weber and Karl Marx, elaborate the
salient features of the school of sociological thought they present. (2000)
Ibne Khaldun is known as Father of Sociology. Briefly discuss his contributions
to sociology. (2001)
Discuss the concept of social solidarity and are the ideas of Ibne Khaldun and
Emile Durkheim on this regard.
Divisions of Labour has been discussed by various sociological theories. Discuss
in detail the point of view taken about divisions of labour by Karl Marx and Emile
Durkheim. (2002)

Max Weber is a strong advocate of bureaucratic forum of government system.


Explain in detail what lead Max Weber to write in favour of bureaucracy. (2002)
Describe the idea of philosophy of money as presented by George Simmel.
How and in what ways other scholars have presented their views to describe the
idea of philosophy of money. (2003)
What major contributions did Karl Marx and Ibne Khaldun make to our
understanding of the social experience? (2004)
What are different theories about origin of society? Discuss them in detail.
(2005)
What is the role of C. W. Mills in the development of Frankfurt School of
Conflict Theory? Where and how he differs from his contemporaries? Discuss
with evidence. (2006)
What major contributions were made by Emile Durkhiem and Max Weber to the
understanding of society theoretically? How far the two theories can be taken
relevant today? (2007)
Karl Marx has discussed labour theory of value in detail. What do you
understand by that theory; write your answer in detail. (2008)
Discuss the major contributors of Max Weber in understanding the society
theoretically. (2009)
Karl Marx Theory of Labour Discuss in detail. (2009), (2011)
Discuss critically the theories of social action and bureacracy presented by
Max Weber. How the theory of bureaucracy is relevant to situation in Pakistan?
Discuss with logic and evidence. (2010)
Write a note in detail on "Evolutionary Theory" given by Ibn-i-Khaldun.
(2011)
Chapter 3: Methods of Sociological Research
SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Sociological research findings are scientific to the extent sociologists use
scientific method of research. Discuss. (1991)
Distinguish between survey research and experimental research. Choose
anyone of the two and discuss it in detail. (1991)
Distinguish between probability and non-probability sampling. Discuss the
types of probability sampling in detail. (1992)

What do you understand by research design? Take any research which you think
is suitable to study human behaviour and discuss it in detail. (1994)
Is survey research really scientific? Illustrate by giving major scientific
characteristics of survey research.
What is hypothesis? Formulate five hypothesis indicating variable of facts.
(1997)
Which one of the designs of social research is more preferred by sociologists
and why? (2000)
Discuss briefly the method of sociological research. Formulate three hypothesis
indicating variable of each. (2001)
What do you understand by experimental method used in data collection?
Explain why some researchers preferred it over other data collection methods in
social sciences and for what kind of studies experimental method is used by
researchers. (2002)
When is survey research appropriate? What type survey research would you use
to study heroin users? Define the logic of your choice. (2003)
What do you understand by scales and indexes used in social sciences? When is
it necessary to shift the base of an index and how is the process carried out?
(2003)
Short Note Probability and Non-probability Sampling (2004)
Why is research essential to the scientific enterprise and what are the principal
theoretical methods available to sociologists in the study of social life? What are
the advantages and disadvantages of each? (2004)
Discuss the importance of social research for the study of sociology. Explain the
steps to be taken in Social Research Process. (2005)
What is a research design? What type of a research design can be used for
studying the problems of drug addiction/HIV/AIDS in Pakistani society? Discuss
with examples. (2006)
Discuss the salient features of experimental design of research. What are the
limitations in its application to the study of human behaviour?
A research design is a roadmap for investigation. Discuss the major decisions a
researcher makes in designing a study. While discussing decisions, identify a
research problem with reference to which the designing has been envisaged.
(2007)

What type of survey would you use to study young criminals? Defend the logic
of choice in detail. (2008)
Discuss the term Social Research and explain the important steps of inducting
social research. (2009)
What is internal validity that influences social science research design? What are
different threats to internal validity? Discuss with examples. (2010)
Define the term "Social Research" and discuss the procedure "How to conduct a
Research?" (2011)
Chapter 4: Social Interaction
CLASS
What advantages and disadvantages does a closed class system hold for a
society? For the individual? Mention some deliberate attempts to decrease
competition for status in Pakistan. (1990)
What is social class? Does it perform some functions in society? Give arguments
in support of your view point. (1991)
Discuss the significance of social class. (1994)
What is the difference of caste and class? How socio-cultural changes effect
both? (1997)
Discuss the class structure of Pakistani society with special reference to(a) the
influence of the class structure at the time of independence.(b) the determinants
of social mobility (c) the feudal system (2007)
BRADRI SYSTEM
What role biradri/caste system is playing in decision making on political issues
especially local bodies elections in rural areas of Pakistan? How this biradri based
political organization influences the community development processes? Discuss
in the light of issues/conflicts arising from the situation and their impact on the
individual, family and society. (2006)
What is role of biradri/castes in political system of Pakistan? support your
answer with data and evidence from previous general election results in Pakistani
society. (2010)
FEUDALISM

What is the difference of caste and class? Discuss the impact of Feudal System
in Pakistan.
Among the social problems Feudalism still plays negative role to build up
Pakistan as an egalitarian Islamic Republic. Please offer your own views with
justification. (1998)
Critically evaluate Feudal system in Pakistan. (2000)
What are the different forms of Social Classes? Discuss the impact of Feudal
System in Pakistan. (2001)
STATUS
Define status. Discuss the factors which decide status of an individual in society.
(2005)
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION AND MOBILITY
Define social mobility. Discuss its determinants in Pakistani society.
Discuss the concept of social mobility and compare the ideas of Ibne Khuldun on
the subject with those of Emile Durkehim.
What is social stratification? Discuss its significance by giving examples from
Pakistani society. (1992)
Do you consider yourself to be a highly mobility-oriented? What factors do you
think explain your mobility orientation? (1993)
What do you understand by social mobility? Discuss do transfer of payments aid
or discourage social mobility. (2008)
Chapter 5: Social Control
The world would be a hopeless muddle if we were allowed to do exactly as we
pleased and have all the freedom we wanted. Comment on the statement with
reference to social control. (1990)
Write an essay on social control highlighting the forces that become instrumental
in a change from its informal status to a formal status. (1992)
Discuss the means and processes whereby Pakistani society secures its members
conformity to its expectations. (1994)

Discuss briefly the internal and external means of social control with reference to
Pakistani society. (2001)
Define social control. What are the informal modes of social control?
Chapter 6: Social and Cultural Change and Social Policy Processes
SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CHANGE
What are some of the change promoting and change-resisting features of
Pakistani society? (1990)
Often social change results in social disorganization. What cultural pre-requisites
can avoid such situation? (1998)
Define and differentiate social and cultural change. Discuss the impediments to
change with the reference to the resistance to change in Pakistani society and
culture. (2000)
How socio-cultural change effects caste and class?
What factors are related to social and cultural change? Give examples of
Pakistan. (2001)
Highlight the factors that promote social change. Discuss the theories that
explain the nature of social change.
Note Incentives and inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan.
(2007)
Define the term Social Change. How it occurs in a traditional society? Discuss it
in detail. (2009)
Discuss the role of media in social and cultural change in pakistan. What type
of social planning/policy is needed to direct this change in the context of our own
social and cultural values. Discuss with examples. (2010)
Define the term "Social change" and discuss the process of social change in
group behaviour. (2011)
SOCIAL POLICY
Please write the salient features of social policy of Pakistan. Please also refer to
the constitution of 1973. (1998)
DIFFUSION

What do you understand by diffusion of innovation? Taking Pakistan situation


are we in a position to reach the stage of taking off economically? (2003)
INCENTIVES AND INHIBITIONS
Discuss the incentives and inhibitions to social and cultural change in Pakistan.
(1993)
Define social change and discuss the incentives to social and cultural change in
Pakistan. (1999)
SOCIAL PLANNING
Social planning is an attempt at the intelligent direction of social change. Discuss
by examining the difficulties the difficulties in directing social change. (1994)
Chapter 7: Community
COMMUNITIES
Differentiate between society and community. Discuss the characteristics of
community in detail.
The size of population could be one quantitative basis of distinguishing rural from
an urban community. Suggest qualitative criteria for differentiating the rural and
urban communities from each other.(1992)
Define the term Community and discuss the important characteristics of
rural and urban community. (2009)
RURAL
Using sociological concepts discuss the traditional characteristics of rural society
(1993)
There is a thesis that the development programs/strategies to change the fate of
poor farming community in rural Pakistan are not based upon the evidence-based
policy. Therefore, a failure in this regard is being faced for the last several
decades. How do you support this thesis? Make an evidence-based argument in
the light of different evaluations/assessments made for rural development in
Pakistan. (2006)
URBANIZATION

Pakistan is fast moving from a rural society to an urban society but people in the
cities dont seem to display urban way of life.(1991)
Note Issues of urbanization in Pakistan. (2000)
Urbanization in pakistan is increasing day by day. How do you look into the
future of major cities in pakistan? Discuss in light of terror and security situation
in these cities. (2010)
Discuss in detail "Urbanization as a process". (2011)
Chapter 8: Social Institutions
An institution is an organized system of social relationship which embodies
certain common values and procedures and meets certain basic needs of the
society. Comment on the society. (1990)
Why in a highly scientific society is religion still alive? What persisting human
needs explain the persistence of religious institutions? (1990)
Discuss the inter-relationship between economic and education institutions.
(1991)
Discuss variabilities in family organization. Use of sociological concepts is
essential. (1993)
The shift from agricultural occupations to non-agricultural occupations
(1994)
Comprehensive note Functions of social institutions, (1999)
Discuss in detail how social institutions/organizations have been useful in
social economic development of a society. (2002)
Define social institution and how can religion hold in check the explosive social
tensions produced by inequality and injustice.(2004)
Define social institution. What is the significance of family, religion and
education as institutions in the process of socialization? Explain your answer with
examples from Pakistani society. (2006)
has tremendous impact on the structure and functions of family. Explain each point
by giving examples from Pakistani society.
Note The nature and genesis of social institutions with special reference to
political institutions. (2007)

How do you perceive the future of family institution/system in pakistan.?


Discuss with examples especially keeping in view marriage, elderly and youth
problems in the families. (2010)
Chapter 9: Social Problems in Pakistan
POPULATION
The size of population could be one quantitative basis of distinguishing rural from
an urban community. Suggest qualitative criteria for differentiation the rural and
urban communities from each other. (1992)
Birth, deaths and migration are the three factors that determine the population
growth rate of a country. What is happening to these factors that the population
if Pakistan is growing at an unprecedented rate? Give arguments in support of
your answer. (1993)
Discuss Social consequences of high population growth rate. (2000)
Short note Implications of population growth. (2004)
Future of cities in Pakistan. (2004)
In what manner the size of the population affects the shape of the society. How
the mass exodus of rural population to urban areas and shift of agricultural nonagricultural occupations has affected the function of the family.
Rural-Urban convergence and the future of cities in Pakistan (2007)
Short Note Effects of Population Policy 2002 (2008)
ALIENATION
Political thinkers in Pakistan lament that man in the street is alienated. Do you
agree to the statement and if you agree give reasons. Discuss:
1. Nature of alienation
2. Integration
3. Integrative patterns in Pakistan (2007)
DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION
Prove that Pakistan is passing through the phase of demographic transitions.
Suggest measures to shorten this transitional phase. (1992)

Note Demographic transitions identifying the stage in Pakistan. (2007)


DEVIANT BEHAVIOUR
What is Deviant behaviour? Discuss the major types of crime in Pakistan with
your suggestions for their reformations. (1999)
What are the social effects of deviance and do crime fighting programmes
including imprisonment work in Pakistan. (2004)
SOCIAL CONFLICTS
Short note- Social conflicts (2006)
In the light of theoretical perspectives (Hegel, Marx, Coser,Mills) explain the true
nature of conflict. Discuss the various forms of pervasive conflict in Pakistan
Society. (2007)
INTERNAL AND INTERNATIONAL MIGRATION
Short note International migration (2001)
Rural-Urban migration is causing labour-drain form rural communities. What
problems this situation is creating in the labour market of rural communities. As a
subject scholar, what do you suggest to minimize these problems? Discuss with
examples. (2006)
Migration from rural to urban area is on the rise in Pakistan. Discuss all the
positive and negative points at the origin and destination keeping theory of
migration into consideration. (2008)
Short note Internal migration (2008)
Discuss Migration as a social phenomenon. (2009)
AGING
Short note Aging of population. (2003)
DRUG ABUSE
Drug abuse has become a critical issue of Pakistan. Analyze the factors that help
in the generation of this problem. (1994)

Note drug abuse and crime (2001)


Note Drug abuse (2006)
Note Drug abuse in Pakistan (2010)
Define the term "Social problem" and discuss the causes of drug abuse in
Pakistan. (2011)
SMUGGLING
Define social problem. Discuss the cause and consequences of smuggling
specially the socio-cultural dimensions of the problem. (2000)
Define social problems. Discuss the causes and consequences of smuggling.
(2009)
ILLITERACY
Prove that illiteracy is a social problem of Pakistan. (1993)
POVERTY
Note- Poverty issue in Pakistan (2002), (2010)
How you can define poverty and what strategies the Government of Pakistan has
adopted to alleviate poverty and also discuss the role of NGOs to address the
issue of poverty. (2004)
ABUSES AND CRIMES
Explain social, environmental and psychological factors associated with
young criminals. Answer the question with special reference to Pakistani society.
(2002)
Note Child and woman abuse in Pakistan. (2002)
The young criminals have been on the increase in Pakistan for the last many
years in jail. Write down critically the main effects associated with Juvenile
delinquency. (2003)
Note Factors influencing high divorce rate in Pakistan (2003)
Note Factions and feuds (2005)
Note Parole System in Pakistan (2005)

SUICIDE
Discuss Emile Durkheims analysis of suicide and its effects on human society.
(1999)
Durkheim wrote extensively on the suicide. Critically examine his views about
suicide. (2003)
PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT
Discuss the theories of personality development with supporting examples.
(1990)
How does socialization help in the development of personality? (1992)
MODERNIZATION
What do you understand by the term modernization? Discuss the important
factors associated with modernization of a society with special reference to
Pakistan society. (2002)
GROUPS
Short Notes- Group Dynamics(1990)
Short Notes- Reference Group (1990)
Why are human groupsnecessary? How does our present society foster the
growth of specialized groups? (1990)
Discuss the role of social groupand culture in personality formation (1991)
Are primary groups synonymous to the reference groups? Please argue
defining both and comparing them with examples. (1997)
If heredity makes what an individual is then how and what groupscontribute in
socializing us to become interactive useful member of society? (2000)
Differentiate between Primary and Secondary Groups. Discuss the character of
Primary Relations. (2005)
MISCELLANEOUS

The present status of women in Pakistani society cannot be changed unless they
go through the process of empowerment. Discuss. (1991)
Define the terms Race and Racism. Discuss the causes responsible for Race
Prejudices and how these can be eradicated. (2005)
Discuss the status of elderly people in Pakistani society. (2011)
Short notes:
o Looking-glass self (1990)
o Delinquent and offender (1997)
o Social environment and social ecology (1997)
o Social dynamism (1998)
SAP (1998)

JOURNALISM

Journalism is playing a very significant role in the present day societies. Comment. (2000)

Describe the functions of journalism as a challenging profession and devise guiding principles for
todays journalists, (2001)

Explain the concept of Embedded Journalism. Do you think that it had compromised news
objectivity and freedom of press? (2003)

Looking into latest developments taking place in the field of journalism determine the role of a
journalist in the 21st Century. (2005)

Explain the role of journalists in socio-economic development of the country like


Pakistan. (2006)

Define journalism. Discuss its main objectives and functions. How would you distinguish it
from other forms of communication?

What are ethical issues associated with online journalism and also suggest ways to solve
these ethical issues (2012)

NEWSPAPER

How do you perceive the role of newspapers in Pakistan looking into recent developments taking
place in the world? (2001)

Describe the factors that determine character of internal public in newspaper organization (2012)

REPORTING

How would you differentiate between T.V. news reporting and newspaper reporting?

Short Note - Ethics of reporting; objectivity and conflict of interests (2001)

MASS COMMUNICATION

What do you know about Mass Communication? Describe its importance in the present
age. (2006)

Mass communication is considered important in modern age. Discuss the concept and process
of communication. (2010)

Explain functions of Mass Communication with relevant examples (2012)

NEWS

What is news; its function and value may be explained in detail. (2006)

Inspite of having clear criteria by which to judge news, the fact is that the news is what we
make of it. Discuss. (2001)

Describe the criteria and parameters of selecting and structuring the news. (2005)

Four main factors determine the value of news, size, timelessness, proximity and importance.
Briefly comment on each factor.

Differentiate news components from news values (2007)

News is drama and story telling". Discuss. (2004)

Short Note Difference between structure of news story for radio and newspaper, (2003)

News is the real soul of Journalism. What are the major functions and values of news? Discuss in
detail. (2008)

News have in depth influence in any society. Discuss the effects of different news on Pakistan
Society

Describe news, "which is the real soul of journalism" with examples? (2010)

PRESS

Discuss the state of freedom of press in Pakistan. (2000)

Press is the vital necessity in the progress and welfare of a nation because it is through the press
that a nation can be guided and its opinion moulded. In the light of Quaid-e-Azams statement,
look into the obligation and responsibilities of todays press of Pakistan. (2005)

What do you know understand from freedom of press? What laws govern it? Discuss with
reference to the Defamation Ordinance 2002. Argue for and against its provisions giving your own
opinion.

Short note Press council (2002)

Short note Press ethics (2002)

Short note Press note (2006)

Short note Press conference (2006)

Short note Press communiqu (2006)

Freedom of Press and Responsibility are two common issues in the filed of journalism. Discuss
and evaluate the case of Pakistan regarding these concepts? (2008)

Describe an ideal Press Code of Ethics for Pakistan Journalists. (2009)

In a globalized world, discuss and evaluate the concepts of "Free Press" and "Responsibility" in the
developing and developed societies. (2010)

PRESS RELEASE

Write a detailed press release on an imaginative public meeting which turned out to be a law and
order situation.

Short note Press release (2006)

ADVERTISEMENT

What do you know about advertising? Explain its function and importance in the modern
age. (2006)

What are the social implications of advertising? (2000)

Is it correct that you cannot sell even gold without advertising? (2002)

How do you define advertising? Describe the functions and discuss the scope and prospects of
advertising as a profession in Pakistan. (2005)

Explain how a typical advertising agency operates.

What is advertising? Discuss its nature as a mass medium and its impact on different sectors of
the society. What are its advantages and disadvantages? Suggest a code of ethics for advertisers.

Survey the development of Advertising in Pakistan (2007)

Short Note - Importance of research and creativity in advertising (2003)

"Public relation and advertising is not everybody's cup of tea". Discuss (2004)

Define Advertising? What are the principles of successful advertising? Discuss the latest
trends in advertising being practiced in our society? (2008)

Advertising is spinal cord of any media organization. Discuss all aspects. (2009)

How does Advertising influence society? Discuss the latest trends and practices in society
and the principles of successful advertising? (2010)

Critically evaluate socio-economic impact of mobile package advertisements on Pakistani


youth. (2011)

Suppose u have developed a new diet drink, and are ready to market it..develop a research study
for identifying the elements topics that should be stressed in your advertisement(2012)

PUBLIC RELATIONS

Public Relations is actually Image Building Activity. Explain. (2006)

Define Public Relations and explain the role of Public Relations Officers (2006)

in any organization. How does Public Relations differ from advertising? Does Public Relations
offers advantages not available through advertising? Explain. (2001)

What are the functions of the Public Relations consultancy? How could a Public Relations man
be aided by using the services such consultancy? (2003)

An efficient Public Relations effect is the result of four-step process: a) Info gathering b)
Planning c) Communication d) Evaluation. Discuss (2005)

What is public opinion? Assess the Role of Public Relations in formation of an opinion.

An able Public Relations Officer keeps an organization from sinking. Explain. (2002)

Public Relations Importance in the world of communication

What is your opinion about the present status of Public Relations Practice (2007)

in Pakistan? "Public relation and advertising is not everybody's cup of tea". Discuss (2004)

What is the purpose and scope of Public Relation in any organization? Describe the major
responsibilities of a Public Relation Officer? (2008)

What is difference between Public Relation Officer and Personal Assistant? Mention the
role and responsibilities of a good P.R.O. (2009)

In modern society what role does public relations and P.R.O play in any organization? (2010)

"Public Relations is deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain mutual
understanding between an organization and its public", explain. (2011)

COMMUNICATION

Communication is a process, a series of action, always in motion and directed towards a


particular goal. Elaborate.

How do you define communication? With the help of different models describe the progress of
communication. (2005)

Please identify the salient features of successful communication.

The Two-steps Flow Model of Communications divides media audience into active and passive
members; there is absolutely no reason why there should not be three, four or five steps flow of
communications? Please comment.

What is meant by Cognitive Theory of Communication and Cognitive Dissonance? Suggest


measures to welcome physical and psychological barriers causing cognitive dissonance. (2003)

What are the essentials of effective communication? Support your answer with
arguments? (2007)

What do mean by a communication theory and how it is constructed? (2004)

Discuss the concept and process of communication? What is the importance of Mass
Communication in this modern age? (2008)

Discuss the concept and barriers of communications. Are these barriers also existing in this
modern information age? (2009)

TELEVISION

Describe the potentials of T.V. medium and make critical analysis how far we have been able to
make its effective use for natural development. (2001)

Cable T.V. has made possible transmission of foreign satellite T.V. channels content at mars level
in Pakistan. Suggest measure, to check delinquency, violence, vulgarity, indecency and hate crime
of their content. (2003)

Inspite of being highly potential and popular medium T.V. in Pakistan has failed to play a key role
in national development and to promote our values and culture. Critically analyze. (2005)

Evaluate critically the performance of private T.V channels in Pakistan (2009)

Discuss the role of private TV Channels in political and social mobilisation after their inception in
and after 2002 in Pakistan. (2011)

In the light of karl marx media theory: analyze the role of at least 3 tv channels with the special
reference of flood disaster. what is national development? and how media can play role in national
development (2012)

MUSLIM PRESS

What role did the militant Muslims press played in the sub-continent? (2000)

Urdu journalism is divided into three periods i.e. before the creation of Pakistan, from 1947 to
1980 and from 1980 upto the present times. What in your opinion, are the differences among these
periods. (2002)

Can the journalism of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad or Maulana
Mohammad Ali Johar succeed in todays world? Of not, give reasons. (2002)

The history of Pakistan Movement and of journalism in the sub-continent is inextricably woven with
each other. Elaborate the role played by any two distinguished Muslim journalists in the freedom
movement. (2003)

During 1936 to 1947 number of Muslim newspapers appeared. Elucidate role of any four
newspapers for the cause of Pakistan Movement.

Role of press in promoting cause of Pakistan movement. (2006)

Discuss the role of Muslim press during the war of independence 1857 and afterwards.

Give a comparative analysis of writing styles of Maulana Zafar Ali Khan and Maulana Abul
Kalam Azad. (2004)

Discuss the role played by the Muslim Press during Pakistan Movement? (2008)

Zimindarplayed very effective role against British imperialism. Discuss in detail. (2009)

Critically examine the role of Muslim press during Pakistan Movement. (2010)

"Maulana Zafar Ali Khan's 'Zamindar' introduced many new trends in Urdu journalism".explain
in detail. (2011)

Explain the historical perspective of journalism in subcontinent (2012)

MAGAZINES

Write a critical note on the present status of magazine journalism in Pakistan. Evaluate the
personality of any magazine, you like the most. (2004)

Short Note - Scope of news magazines (2001)

Short Note - Scientific society magazine (2000)

Short Note - Magazine journalism; its scope and social aspects. (2005)

Survey the status of Magazine Journalism in Pakistan? What are the functions and scope of
magazines in our society? (2008)

What role does magazine journalism play in Pakistan and what are the functions and
scope of magazines in our society? (2010)

EDITORIAL

Short Note - Editorial cartoon (2001)

Editorial is the voice of newspapers. Evaluate any three editorials of any English/Urdu national
daily of your choice, (2003)

Describe the need and significance of editorial. (2007)

Define editorial. Discuss its important aspects. How successfully and in what manner it can mould
public opinion.

Describe the major types of editorial perform for its readers?What function does an editorial
perform for its readers? (2011)

MEDIA

It is said that if the Taliban had the media with them they would never have been defeated. Do
you think so? Give a comprehensive answer. (2002)

Significance of folk and traditional media in creating mass awareness about development
activities in rural areas. (2003)

Considering that Media are given greater importance, describe the freedom of media. (2010)

"Todays media has taken centre stage role in the daily life and society". Give your comments on
this statement in the light of media system dependence theory (2012)

In the light of karl marx media theory: analyze the role of at least 3 tv channels with the special
reference of flood disaster. what is national development? and how media can play role in national
development (2012)

ELECTRONIC MEDIA

Survey the development of electronic media in Pakistan? (2007)

Evaluate the role of electronic media in Pakistan. (2000)

In the west, electronic media has not succeeded in taking the position of the print media.
Explain. (2002)

The mass media in Pakistan are confronting many problems Please comment. (2007)

Short Note - Opening up of electronic media to a private sector in Pakistani. (2003)

The present era is considered as the era of development of electronic media in Pakistan.
Critically evaluate the role of present TV Channels in social development? (2008)

Media laws in Pakistan are hindrance in the way of free media. Give your arguments for or against
the comment keeping in view the current laws and ordinances relating to electronic media in
Pakistan. (2011)

MASS MEDIA

Mass media's dominant educational function relates to informal education, comment and justify
with the help of relevant examples. (2011)

Discuss the importance of people's participation in the process of development and subsequent role
of mass media (2012)

PRINT MEDIA

Give your evaluation of the role of print journalism in Pakistan? (2007)

Short Note - Code of ethics for print media (2005)

How Print Media is so important in Pakistan society after the development of electronic Media?
Argue in detail. (2009)

MISCELLANEOUS

What are the implications of information explosions for the countries like Pakistan? (2000)

"Concept of responsibility precludes objectivity". Do you agree? Write your argumentative


answer. (2004)

Write short notes on any two column writers (Urdu/English) of your choice. Also give the
reason(s) of your selection. (2004)

"FM radio channels have revolutionized the broadcast landscape in Pakistani and have become one
of the preferred source of entertainment for youngsters", give your arguments for or against this
statement. (2011)

SHORT NOTES

Hand out (2006)

APNS (2000), (2002)

Manshoor

Global village (2000)

Free flow of information (2001)

CNN (2002)

EVERYDAY SCIENCE
Muslim Scientists

Ibne Rushd - 1987

Al Farabi - 1991

Ibn e Nafis - 1991

Al Kinidi - 1991

Ibn Hayyan - 1987, 2001, 2011

Ibn al Baitar - 1995, 2001

Abu Ali Sina - 1991, 2001, 2008, 2011

Biruni - 1995, 2005, 2010

Ibn Al-Haitham -1987, 1995, 2005, 2010, 2012

Muhammad bin Musa Al-Khawarizmi - 2008, 2012

Umer Al Khayam - 1991, 2001, 2009

Zakariya Al Razi - 1987, 2001, 2009

Balanced Diet

Balanced diet 1993, 1994, 2002, 2007, 2008,2012

Pasteurization 1987, 1995, 2001, 2008

Disease caused by deficiency 1987

Sources of Vitamins 1990

Vitamin A - 2012

Vitamin C - 2012

Iron - 2012

Calcium - 2012

Iodine - 2012

Computers

Software 1991, 2000, 2002

Registers 1998, 2000

Computers 1991

Microcomputers 1991

Peripheral uses 1991

Hardware 1991

CPU 1996

RAM 2000

Byte 2000

Mouse 2000

Icons 2000

Control Unit 2000

LAN 2000

Modem 2000

ALU 2000

Computer Viruses 2008

Millennium Bug - 2009

Internet - 2010, 2011

Energy

Renewable energy resources 1996, 2001, 2008, 2011, 2013

Geothermal energy 2005, 2008

Non conventional source of energy 1994

Magnetic resonance Imaging 2006

Tide energy 2006

Dam and barrage 2006

Voltage Stabilizer - 2010

Forms of energy - 2011

Types of energy- 2011

Nuclear energy - 2013

Universe

Solar System - 1999, 2002, 2003, 2008

Planets 1986, 2002

Lunar Eclipse 1994, 1999

Solar Eclipse 1999

Hovering Satellite 1994

Steroid 2002

Mercury 2004

Plato 2004, 2011

Communication satellite 2005

Satellites 2007

Artificial Satellite - 2011

Supernova 2008

Synchronous satellite - 2009

Big Dipper - 2009

Nebula - 2009

Big Bang Theory - 2011

Galaxy - 2011

Hazards of Sciences

Water pollution 1995, 2000, 2001, 2005

Global warming 1998, 2004, 2006, 2010, 2013

Green house effect 1998, 2001, 2009

Acid rain 1990, 2002

Environmental pollution 1988

Reclaim a saline soil 1989

Water logging 1989

Salinity 1989

Ozone depletion - 1996

Geography

Earthquake 1989, 1998, 2008, 2012

Heavy water 1989, 1985, 2013

Structure of earth 1997, 2003

Minerals 2002, 2009

Lightening 1985

Seasonal variation 1991, 2010, 2012

Movements of the earth and its atmosphere 2000

Earth hour movement - 2013

Seismograph 2004

Tsunami 2005, 2012

Sedimentary rocks 2007, 2012

Days and nights 1991

Volcanoes 1999, 2012

International Date Line 1998

Deforestation 1995

Igneous rocks - 2009

Typhoons - 2011

Tornadoes - 2011

Physical characteristics of earth - 2012

Ocean Tides - 2012

Floods - 2012

Metamorphic rocks - 2012

Biology

Pollination (cross) 1988, 1991, 2001, 2003

Photosynthesis 1987, 1988, 1998, 2001, 2012

Ecosystem 1994, 2000, 2001, 2002

Positively and negatively phototropic parts of plant 1987

Nitrogen cycle 1992, 2012

Structure of animal cell 1994

Cellulose 1992

Viruses 1994

Osmosis 1997

Transpiration 1997

Important parts of flower 2001

Fertilization 2001

Animal cell 2008

Producers and consumers of ecosystem 1989

Balance of nitrogen in atmosphere 1985

Glycolysis 1997

Phototaxis 1997

Root tubers 1987, 1992

Food chain 1987

Symbiosis 1987

Biochemical cycle 1992

Diffusion 1994

Catabolism 1995

Epiphytes 2007

Similarities and differences between animals and plants - 2009

Amphibian - 2009

Vertebrates - 2010

Invertebrates - 2010

Flying mammal 2010

Bird 2010

Ribosome - 2011

Mitochondria - 2011

Lysosomes - 2011

Chloroplasts - 2011

Golgi apparatus - 2011

Nucleic acids - 2011

Human Biology

Endocrine glands 1990, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2007

Human eye 1985, 1990, 2002

Hemophilia 1987, 1989, 1992

Excretory system 1995, 2000

Human brain 1990, 1994

Principle of immunization 1987, 1995

Chromosomes 1988, 1989

Composition of blood 1995, 1999

Hormones 2001, 2008

Human kidney 1988

Human blood 1988

Clotting 1988

Heredity 1989, 2010

Hereditary disease transferred from parents to offsprings - 2010

DNA 1990, 2012

Digestion 1991

Feedback mechanism of human system 2000

Characters transmitted from parents to offsprings 2007

Blood pressure 1987

Immunity 1987

Blood groups 1998

Ovulation 2003

Gene 2006

Biotechnology 2003, 2013

Receptors and receptor organs in human body - 2009

Genetic Engineering - 2009

Coronary artery - 2010

Sino- Auricular Node - 2010

Aortic valve - 2010

Auricle - 2010

Reflex Action - 2010

mRNA - 2012

Proteins - 2012

Chemistry

Polymer (synthetic) 1994, 2001, 2002

Heavy water - 2011

Soft water

Hard Water - 2011

Carbon cycle 1992, 1998, 2000

Suplhide Cynnabar (Hgs) 2003

Catalyst 1992

Fermentation - 2009

Aqua Regia - 2009

Enrichment of Uranium - 2009

Allotropy - 2009

Isomers - 2010, 2011

Isotopes - 2010, 2011

Diseases

Virus 1987, 1994

Meningistis 2000

Pollen allergy 2006

Bird flu 2006

Short sightedness 1998

Dengue Virus - 2009

Swine flu - 2010

Physics

Nuclear fission 1986, 1987, 1998, 2001

Fusion 1986, 1998, 2001

Radioactivity 1989, 2008

Law of gravitation 1992

Conductor 1998, 2012

Resistor 1998

Transistor 1998

Escape velocity 1999

Optic fiber 2003, 2013

Insulator - 2012

Semiconductor - 1990, 1998, 2000, 2008, 2011, 2012

Superconductor - 2012

Inventions of Science

Laser 1986, 2001, 2003, 2007, 2008, 2012, 2013

Pesticides 1990, 1995, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2010, 2012, 2013

Antibiotics 1989, 1996, 2001, 2002, 2011, 2012, 2013

Antibody 1998, 2011

Ceramics 1996, 2001, 2007, 2008

Telephone 1990, 1994, 2000

RADAR 1986, 2001

Vaccine 1990, 1996, 2001, 2011, 2012

Television 1999, 2001

Plastics 1986, 2008, 2011

Fertilizers 2002, 2004, 2011

Microwave oven 2001, 2008, 2010, 2011

Immunization 1995

Transmistor 1998

Escape velocity 1999

Photovoltaic Cell 2001, 2012

Tape recorder 2001

Camera 2008

Teleprinter- 2009

Vacuum Cleaner - 2009

Microwave oven 2001, 2008

Pace Maker 2010

Antiviral Drug - 2012

MMR Vaccine - 2012

Miscellaneous

Ultrasonic waves 1986, 2005

Plaster of Paris 1998, 2006, 2010

Radio waves 1990

Scavenger 1998

Superconductivity 2004

Night Vision Technology 2004

Supersonics 2006

Short circuit 1998

Shockwaves 2005

Second barrier 2005

Solar cell 2005

Reaction time 1998

Quartz 2003

Allele 2002

Pressure cooker 2001

Paramagnetism and diamagnetism 2001

CNG 2001

Super fluid 2005

Photovoltaic cell 2005

Theodolite 2006

Hygrometer 2005, 2010

Role of Nitrogen and phosphorous in plant 1990

Modulation 1995

Saponification 1997

Nuclear reactor 2007

Hydrometer 2010

Plaster of Paris 2010

Perimeter 2010

Telemeter 2010

Microscope - 2011

Telescope - 2011

Ultrasonics - 2011

Infrasonics - 2011

Antigens - 2011

Nanotechnology 2013

Chemotherapy 2013

Radiotherapy 2013

Porifera - 2013