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- Static & Dynamic analysis of piping system
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- damped Vibration Report
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NO

TITLE

YEAR

26

with Particular Reference to Heat 1965

Exchanger Tube Systems

11

1974

structures

29

1985

cylindrical structures

45

FLUIDELASTIC INSTABILITY IN

M[T.LTI-TUBE RISERS

SUBJECTED TO CROSS-FLOW

1991

27

1992

THEME

The large

number

of mechanisms

capable

of

producing vibration are discussed in detail in this

paper. The vortex shedding, galloping and buffeting

vibrations of structures are covered and flutter is briefly

mentioned. The complex vibration modes produced

by vortex shedding in tube systems of cross-flow type

heat exchangers are described in detail and the

production

of noise by resonance with

acoustic

standing wave frequencies of the heat exchanger

vessel is also covered.

A model has been developed for vortex induced

vibration of a circular cylinder. The model is based on a

control volume approach to the vortex shedding process

and the von Karman idealization of the vortex street.

The model predicts that the entrainment effect will

increase with decreasing structural damping and with

the ratio of displaced fluid mass to cylinder mass except

in the case of very small values of structural damping.

This is a report written on flow induced vibrations in

bluff bodies including different types of FIVs, geometry

arrangements, mathematical models and different

techniques to study the FIVs is circular cylindrical

bodies.

This thesis deals with the fluid lastic instability in multi

tube risers in cross flow. By quasi steady analytical

technique a methamatical model is formulated to

investigation of FEI in multitube risers.

The objective of this short course on FIV is to provide a

general background for, and an approach to solving FIV

problems in different fields. The emphasis is on

understanding the phenomena, analytical modeling,

and experimental techniques. The main purpose is to

develop diagnostic skills and an ability to establish

effective remedies for existing FIV problems, and more

REFERENCE

Dye, R. (1965). Paper 17: FlowInduced Vibration and Noise with

Particular Reference to Heat

Exchanger

Tube

Systems.

Proceedings of the Institution of

Mechanical Engineers, Conference

Proceedings, SAGE Publications.

Blevins, R. D. (1974).

induced

vibration

of

structures."

"Flow

bluff

vibration of circular cylindrical

structures, Argonne National Lab.,

IL (USA).

vibration: 1992, Argonne National

Lab., IL (United States). Materials

and Components Technology Div.

16

37

33

44

permeable wake splitter plate

tube arrays in crossflow

Flow-induced vibrations

exchanger tube bundles

in

heat

1993

1994

1995

subjected to partial admission water

cross-flow

eliminate problems at the design stage.

Measurements in the near wake region of a circular

cylinder in a uniform flow in the Reynolds number

range 2.5- 103 < Re < 1.8. 10 4 with permeable

splitter plates spanning the wake center plane are

presented.

Flow visualization results demonstrate that the

introduction of low solidity splitter plates does not

change the basic near wake structure, and that

sufficiently high solidity uncouples the large-scale

wake instability from the body, with the primary

vortex

formation occurring downstream of the

separation bubble due to instability of the wake

profile.

Motion-dependent fluid forces acting on a tube array

were measured as a function of excitation frequency,

excitation amplitude, and flow velocity. Fluid-damping

and fluid-stiffness coefficients were obtained from

measured motion-dependent fluid forces as a function

of reduced flow velocity and excitation amplitude.

A review is given of the most important parameters

which have to be evaluated for designing tea1 heat

exchangers to withstand flow-induced vibrations. After a

short description of the mechanism of excitation,

stability diagrams for fluid elastic instability are

discussed. The influence of non-uniform velocities in

multispan exchangers and a sectional calculation of

stability relations is explained by an example using a

fluid-dynamic

computer

program.

Some

recommendations for structural data and design details

are offered in conclusion.

An experimental investigation of the critical conditions

for fluidelastic instability is presented for a parallel

triangular tube array. all the data in a stability map, up

to three instability regions are shown for the lower

circular cylinder with a permeable

wake splitter plate, DTIC Document.

damping and fluid stiffness of tube

arrays in crossflow, Argonne

National Lab., IL (United States).

tube

bundles."

Chemical

Engineering and Processing: Process

Intensification 34(3): 289-298.

"Fluidelastic instability in a tube

array subjected to partial admission

31

38

20

Flow-induced

vibration:

findings and open questions

recent

1998

1998

tubes in crossflow

transport in bubbly two-phase flows

1999

resonance in parallel triangle tube 2000

bundles

However ,

the low vibration amplitudes observed for the lower two

regions suggest that they may not be of practical

importance in engineering practice .

The purpose of this paper is to review some of the

recent findings in

the area of flow-induced vibration and to discuss some

of the remaining questions. Vibration excitation

mechanisms and damping mechanisms are described

with particular emphasis on fluidelastic instability and

damping in two-phase flows.

The mathematical model for fluid damping controlled

instability of tubes in cross flow presented in this paper

is based on unsteady flow theory Motion dependent

fluid forces are measured in a water channel. From the

measured fluid forces, fluid stiffness and fluid damping

coefficients are calculated as a function of reduced flow

velocity, oscillation amplitude, and Reynolds number.

In relation to the development of the interfacial area

transport equation, local measurements of the void

fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial

velocity, and Sauter mean diameter using the double

sensor probe method as well as the liquid velocity and

turbulence intensity using hot film anemometry, were

performed extensively for vertical upward bubbly air

and water mix flows in a round tube.

The data set obtained in this study will eventually be

used for the development of reliable constitutive

relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in

bubbly flow systems.

Parallel triangle tube arrays with pitch ratios in the

range of 1.2 4.2 have been tested at Reynolds

numbers up to 9 x 104 to investigate the vorticity

shedding and acoustic resonance mechanisms. Strouhal

number charts for the natural flow periodicities and for

the onset of acoustic resonances have been developed.

and Structures 11(2): 159-181.

Pettigrew, M., et al. (1998). "Flowinduced vibration: recent findings

and open questions." Nuclear

Engineering and Design 185(2): 249276.

damping controlled instability of

tubes in crossflow." Journal of Sound

and Vibration 217(5): 883-907.

"Experimental study on interfacial

area transport in bubbly two-phase

flows." International Journal of Heat

and Mass Transfer 42(16): 30193035.

"Flow periodicity and acoustic

resonance in parallel triangle tube

bundles." Journal of Fluids and

Structures 14(2): 197-219.

35

staggered circular cylinders in cross- 2000

flow.

23

Flow-Induced

Exchangers

18

40

Noise

in

Heat

2001

Instantaneous and Averaged Flow 2002

Structure

Fluid force acting on two-dimensional

circular

cylinder

in

lock-in

phenomenon

diameter, arranged in a staggered configuration, was

investigated using flow visualization and particle image

velocimetry. The study revealed that vortex shedding

frequencies are more properly associated with

individual shear layers than with individual cylinders;

more specifically, the two shear layers from the

downstream cylinder often shed vortices at different

frequencies.

Measurements of the flow-induced noise produced by

plate heat exchangers, arrays of cylinders, cylinders in

tandem, side by side cylinders, single cylinders of

constant diameter and hourglass shaped cylinders

inside a rectangular duct have been made. The acoustic

field in parts of the duct in which traveling

hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations produced by vortex

shedding do not contaminate the results was

investigated by measuring sound pressure levels. Many

of the results are believed to be unique. The

measurements were then used to infer noise source

strength and system damping using an acoustic model.

The acoustic model was based on the inhomogeneous

convected Helmholtz equation with a point dipole

source term, volumetric damping and damping at the

duct walls.

A technique of high-image-density particle image

velocimetry

is

employed

to

characterize

the

instantaneous and averaged patterns of velocity,

vorticity and Reynolds stress due to flow past two

cylinders in tandem. These features of the flow patterns

are characterized in the gap region as a function of the

distance between the cylinders.

In this paper, it is described that the fluid force acting

on a two dimensional oscillating circular cylinder in a

lock-in region. the experiment was carried out in an

staggered circular cylinders in crossflow." Journal of Fluid Mechanics

411(1): 263-303.

Urbana 51: 61801.

Two

Cylinders

in

Tandem:

Instantaneous and Averaged Flow

Structure." Journal of Fluids and

Structures 16(8): 1059-1071.

Okamoto, S., et al. (2002). "Fluid

force acting on two-dimensional

circular

cylinder

in

lock-in

32

heat exchangers: an overviewPart 1: 2003

flow, damping, fluidelastic instability

32

heat exchangers: an overviewPart 2:

2003

vibration response, fretting-wear,

guidelines

36

review and new measurements

2003

flexible, straked cylinder in uniform

and linearly sheared currents

500mm x 500mm x 2000mm.

It was found that the mean drag and fluctuating lift

increase and become maximum in the lock-in region,

while the base pressure at the rear surface of the

cylinder decreases and attains a minimum.

Design guidelines were developed to prevent tube

failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration in shelland-tube heat exchangers. An overview of vibration

analysis

procedures

and

recommended

design

guidelines is presented in this paper. This paper

pertains to liquid, gas and two-phase heat exchangers

such as nuclear steam generators, reboilers, coolers,

service water heat exchangers, condensers, and

moisture-separator-reheaters.

An overview of vibration analysis procedures and

recommended design guidelines is presented in this

paper. This paper pertains to liquid, gas and two-phase

heat exchangers such as nuclear steam generators,

reboilers, coolers, service water heat exchangers,

condensers, and moisture-separator-reheaters. Part 2 of

this

paper

covers

forced

vibration

excitation

mechanisms, vibration response prediction, resulting

damage assessment, and acceptance criteria.

A part from providing some new experimental data the

paper reviews previous investigations concerning

fluctuating lift acting on a stationary circular cylinder in

cross-flow. In particular, effects of Reynolds number in

the nominal case of an infinitely long and non confined

cylinder in a smooth oncoming flow are discussed.

The bare pipe riser vortex induced vibration (VIV)

experiments were used to examine the influence of

various lengths of strake converge on riser vibration.

The objective of the tests was to demonstrate whether

present riser VIV prediction formulations provide a

robust basis for determining the effects of full and

Journal Series B 45(4): 850-856.

"Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube

heat exchangers: an overviewPart

1: flow, damping, fluidelastic

instability." Journal of Fluids and

Structures 18(5): 469-483.

"Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube

heat exchangers: an overviewPart

2: vibration response, fretting-wear,

guidelines." Journal of Fluids and

Structures 18(5): 485-500.

on a circular cylinder: review and

new measurements." Journal of

Fluids and Structures 17(1): 57-96.

Frank, W., et al. (2004). Flowinduced vibration of a long, flexible,

straked cylinder in uniform and

linearly sheared currents. Offshore

Technology Conference.

43

of Helical Steam Generator Tubes

2004

48

Fluidelastic instability of

tubes subjected to two-phase

internal flow

2004

Instability Characteristics of Helical

Steam Generator Tubes." Journal of

the Korean Nuclear Society 36(4):

364-373.

flexible

13

triangular tube array in various

2005

arrangements of orientation and

natural frequency

46

Arrays Subjected To Air-Water And 2005

Steam-Water Cross-Flow

This study investigates the fluidelastic instability

characteristics of helical steam generator type tubes

used in operating nuclear power plants. To obtain a

natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and

participation factor, modal analyses using various

conditions are performed for helical type tubes.

Investigated are the effects of the number of turns, the

number of supports, and the status of the inner fluid on

the modal and fluidelastic instability characteristics of

the tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural

frequency, the corresponding mode shape, and the

stability ratio.

with a pitch ratio 1.33 were investigated experimentally.

The experiment was aimed to study the effects of the

array orientation, and the tubes natural frequency on

the flow induced vibration of the tube array. It is shown

by amplitude diagrams that fluid elastic vibrations exist

when the reduced velocity is above a critical value.

Employing controlled vibrations to 2006 In the present study the fluid forces are measured on a

vertical cylinder that is forced to vibrate transversely to

predict fluid forces on a cylinder

a water channel flow and compare directly to the forces

undergoing vortex-induced vibration

conditions where the amplitude, frequency and

Reynolds number (Re) of the two cases carefully

induced vibrations of a triangular

tube array in various arrangements

of

orientation

and

natural

frequency." Journal of the Chinese

Institute of Engineers 28(4): 605616.

Mitra, D. R. (2005). Fluid-Elastic

Instability In Tube Arrays Subjected

To Air-Water And Steam-Water

Cross-Flow, UNIVERSITY OF

CALIFORNIA Los Angeles.

Morse, T. L. and C. H. K.

Williamson (2006). "Employing

controlled vibrations to predict fluid

forces on a cylinder undergoing

vortex-induced vibration." Journal of

Fluids and Structures 22(6-7): 877-

21

Experimental

Study

of

the

Characteristics of the Flow in the 2009

First Rows of Tube Banks

of a far-field disturbance in the

2009

turbulent flow through square array

tube banks

two side-by-side cylinders in cross-

matched.

At low mass damping the excitation needed to balance

the energy dissipation is small and so the phase of the

fluid force is also small, in this case the peak amplitude

response of lightly damped body is quite unsteady, the

cylinder is subjected to an intermittent switching

between an upper and a lower response amplitude

branch.

This paper presents the experimental study of the flow

instabilities in the first rows of tube banks. The study is

performed using hot wire anemometry technique in an

aerodynamic channel as well as flow visualizations in a

water channel.

The main results show the presence of instabilities,

generated after the second row of the tube bank, which

propagates to the interior of the bank. In the resulting

flow, the three orthogonal components are equally

significant. The three-dimensional behavior of the flow

is responsible for a mass redistribution inside the bank

that leads to velocity values not expected for the

studied geometry, according to the known literature.

This paper presents the experimental analysis of the

propagation of a disturbance with a fixed frequency in

the incidence velocity of the cross flow through a

tube

bank,

and

its influence on the velocity

fluctuations inside the bank.

The results show that the frequency of the

disturbance

remains

unchanged

as

it

passes

through the bank, and of the fact that flow velocity

inside the bank varies with the position. This fact

indicates that external excitations can be transferred

to the solid boundaries of the bank maintaining

their original frequency.

The aeroacoustic response of two side-by-side circular

cylinders in cross-flow is investigated experimentally. In

884.

"Experimental

study

of

the

characteristics of the flow in the first

rows of tube banks." Nuclear

Engineering and Design 239(10):

2022-2034.

(2009). "Experimental study of the

propagation of a far-field disturbance

in the turbulent flow through square

array tube banks." Journal of the

Brazilian Society of Mechanical

Sciences and Engineering 31(3):

232-242.

Hanson, R., et al. (2009). "Flowexcited acoustic resonance of two

flow

cylinders on the acoustic resonance mechanism, six

spacing ratios between the cylinders, in the range of T/

D = 1.253, have been investigated.

In this case, acoustic resonances occur at a Strouhal

number, which is between those observed before the

onset

of

resonance.

The

acoustic

resonance

synchronizes vortex shedding in the two wakes and

thereby eliminates the bistable flow phenomenon.

Journal of Fluids and Structures

25(1): 80-94.

34

circular

cylinders

in

tandem

2009

arrangement. Part 1: Characteristics of

vibration.

the flow-induced vibration characteristics of two circular

cylinders in tandem arrangement, with L/ D = 0.13.2

and reduced velocity Ur =1.526, where L is the gap

spacing between the cylinders and D is the cylinder

diameter.

vibrations of two circular cylinders

in tandem arrangement. Part 1:

Characteristics of vibration." Journal

of Wind Engineering and Industrial

Aerodynamics 97(5-6): 304-311.

47

subjected to air-water

and steam-water cross-flow

30

2009

simulation of turbulent flow around

2010

tube bundles composed of wavy and

circular cylinders

steam generator U-tubes in two-phase

flow

the effects of

wavy cylindrical tubes in a staggered

heat

exchanger

tube

bundle.

Experimental

measurements and large eddy simulation (LES)

technique were used to study the turbulent flow

characteristics in a staggered tube bundle arrangement

at a sub-critical Reynolds number of Re = 7500. The aim

of this investigation is to compare the flow

characteristics of a new configuration of cylindrical

tubes with that of a similar arrangement which

comprises purely circular cylinders.

Flow-induced vibration characteristics of a U-tube

bundle were experimentally investigated in airwater

two-phase flow. The test section was equipped with 39

U-tubes, simulating the innermost region of an actual

steam generator. Two sets of experiments were

performed to investigate an onset of fluid-elastic

Lam,

K.,

et

al.

(2010).

"Experimental study and large eddy

simulation of turbulent flow around

tube bundles composed of wavy and

circular cylinders." International

Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow

31(1): 32-44.

Chu, I.-C., et al. (2011). "Flowinduced vibration of nuclear steam

generator U-tubes in two-phase

flow." Nuclear Engineering and

Design 241(5): 1508-1515.

loosely supported tube in a rigid 2012

bundle subjected to single-phase flow

the U-tubes.

In this paper the problem of computing the nonlinear

vibro-impact responses of loosely supported heatexchanger tubes subjected to fluidelastic coupling

forces, as well as to the turbulence excitation from

transverse flows, is addressed. Emphasis is on the

fluidelastic modeling within a time domain nonlinear

framework, as well as on the stabilizing effect of

impacts on the fluidelastic coupling forces.

Piteau,

P.,

et

al.

(2012).

"Experiments and computations of a

loosely supported tube in a rigid

bundle subjected to single-phase

flow." Journal of Fluids and

Structures 28: 56-71.

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