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SR.

NO

TITLE

YEAR

26

Flow-Induced Vibration and Noise


with Particular Reference to Heat 1965
Exchanger Tube Systems

11

Flow induced vibration of bluff


1974
structures

29

Flow-induced vibration of circular


1985
cylindrical structures

45

FLUIDELASTIC INSTABILITY IN
M[T.LTI-TUBE RISERS
SUBJECTED TO CROSS-FLOW

1991

27

Flow-induced vibration: 1992

1992

THEME
The large
number
of mechanisms
capable
of
producing vibration are discussed in detail in this
paper. The vortex shedding, galloping and buffeting
vibrations of structures are covered and flutter is briefly
mentioned. The complex vibration modes produced
by vortex shedding in tube systems of cross-flow type
heat exchangers are described in detail and the
production
of noise by resonance with
acoustic
standing wave frequencies of the heat exchanger
vessel is also covered.
A model has been developed for vortex induced
vibration of a circular cylinder. The model is based on a
control volume approach to the vortex shedding process
and the von Karman idealization of the vortex street.
The model predicts that the entrainment effect will
increase with decreasing structural damping and with
the ratio of displaced fluid mass to cylinder mass except
in the case of very small values of structural damping.
This is a report written on flow induced vibrations in
bluff bodies including different types of FIVs, geometry
arrangements, mathematical models and different
techniques to study the FIVs is circular cylindrical
bodies.
This thesis deals with the fluid lastic instability in multi
tube risers in cross flow. By quasi steady analytical
technique a methamatical model is formulated to
investigation of FEI in multitube risers.
The objective of this short course on FIV is to provide a
general background for, and an approach to solving FIV
problems in different fields. The emphasis is on
understanding the phenomena, analytical modeling,
and experimental techniques. The main purpose is to
develop diagnostic skills and an ability to establish
effective remedies for existing FIV problems, and more

REFERENCE
Dye, R. (1965). Paper 17: FlowInduced Vibration and Noise with
Particular Reference to Heat
Exchanger
Tube
Systems.
Proceedings of the Institution of
Mechanical Engineers, Conference
Proceedings, SAGE Publications.

Blevins, R. D. (1974).
induced
vibration
of
structures."

"Flow
bluff

Chen, S.-S. (1985). Flow-induced


vibration of circular cylindrical
structures, Argonne National Lab.,
IL (USA).

Chen, S. (1992). Flow-induced


vibration: 1992, Argonne National
Lab., IL (United States). Materials
and Components Technology Div.

16

37

33

44

Flow past a circular cylinder with a


permeable wake splitter plate

Fluid damping and fluid stiffness of


tube arrays in crossflow

Flow-induced vibrations
exchanger tube bundles

in

heat

1993

1994

1995

Fluidelastic instability in a tube array 1997


subjected to partial admission water
cross-flow

importantly, to develop an ability to anticipate and


eliminate problems at the design stage.
Measurements in the near wake region of a circular
cylinder in a uniform flow in the Reynolds number
range 2.5- 103 < Re < 1.8. 10 4 with permeable
splitter plates spanning the wake center plane are
presented.
Flow visualization results demonstrate that the
introduction of low solidity splitter plates does not
change the basic near wake structure, and that
sufficiently high solidity uncouples the large-scale
wake instability from the body, with the primary
vortex
formation occurring downstream of the
separation bubble due to instability of the wake
profile.
Motion-dependent fluid forces acting on a tube array
were measured as a function of excitation frequency,
excitation amplitude, and flow velocity. Fluid-damping
and fluid-stiffness coefficients were obtained from
measured motion-dependent fluid forces as a function
of reduced flow velocity and excitation amplitude.
A review is given of the most important parameters
which have to be evaluated for designing tea1 heat
exchangers to withstand flow-induced vibrations. After a
short description of the mechanism of excitation,
stability diagrams for fluid elastic instability are
discussed. The influence of non-uniform velocities in
multispan exchangers and a sectional calculation of
stability relations is explained by an example using a
fluid-dynamic
computer
program.
Some
recommendations for structural data and design details
are offered in conclusion.
An experimental investigation of the critical conditions
for fluidelastic instability is presented for a parallel
triangular tube array. all the data in a stability map, up
to three instability regions are shown for the lower

Cardell, G. S. (1993). Flow past a


circular cylinder with a permeable
wake splitter plate, DTIC Document.

Chen, S., et al. (1994). Fluid


damping and fluid stiffness of tube
arrays in crossflow, Argonne
National Lab., IL (United States).

Gelbe, H., et al. (1995). "Flowinduced vibrations in heat exchanger


tube
bundles."
Chemical
Engineering and Processing: Process
Intensification 34(3): 289-298.

Parrondo, J., et al. (1997).


"Fluidelastic instability in a tube
array subjected to partial admission

31

38

20

Flow-induced
vibration:
findings and open questions

recent

1998

Fluid damping controlled instability of


1998
tubes in crossflow

Experimental study on interfacial area


transport in bubbly two-phase flows

1999

Flow periodicity and acoustic


resonance in parallel triangle tube 2000
bundles

range of the mass-damping parameter .


However ,
the low vibration amplitudes observed for the lower two
regions suggest that they may not be of practical
importance in engineering practice .
The purpose of this paper is to review some of the
recent findings in
the area of flow-induced vibration and to discuss some
of the remaining questions. Vibration excitation
mechanisms and damping mechanisms are described
with particular emphasis on fluidelastic instability and
damping in two-phase flows.
The mathematical model for fluid damping controlled
instability of tubes in cross flow presented in this paper
is based on unsteady flow theory Motion dependent
fluid forces are measured in a water channel. From the
measured fluid forces, fluid stiffness and fluid damping
coefficients are calculated as a function of reduced flow
velocity, oscillation amplitude, and Reynolds number.
In relation to the development of the interfacial area
transport equation, local measurements of the void
fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial
velocity, and Sauter mean diameter using the double
sensor probe method as well as the liquid velocity and
turbulence intensity using hot film anemometry, were
performed extensively for vertical upward bubbly air
and water mix flows in a round tube.
The data set obtained in this study will eventually be
used for the development of reliable constitutive
relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in
bubbly flow systems.
Parallel triangle tube arrays with pitch ratios in the
range of 1.2 4.2 have been tested at Reynolds
numbers up to 9 x 104 to investigate the vorticity
shedding and acoustic resonance mechanisms. Strouhal
number charts for the natural flow periodicities and for
the onset of acoustic resonances have been developed.

water cross-flow." Journal of Fluids


and Structures 11(2): 159-181.
Pettigrew, M., et al. (1998). "Flowinduced vibration: recent findings
and open questions." Nuclear
Engineering and Design 185(2): 249276.

Chen, S., et al. (1998). "Fluid


damping controlled instability of
tubes in crossflow." Journal of Sound
and Vibration 217(5): 883-907.

Hibiki, T. and M. Ishii (1999).


"Experimental study on interfacial
area transport in bubbly two-phase
flows." International Journal of Heat
and Mass Transfer 42(16): 30193035.

Ziada, S. and A. Oengren (2000).


"Flow periodicity and acoustic
resonance in parallel triangle tube
bundles." Journal of Fluids and
Structures 14(2): 197-219.

35

Flow-pattern identification for two


staggered circular cylinders in cross- 2000
flow.

23

Flow-Induced
Exchangers

18

40

Noise

in

Heat

2001

Flow Past Two Cylinders in Tandem:


Instantaneous and Averaged Flow 2002
Structure
Fluid force acting on two-dimensional
circular
cylinder
in
lock-in
phenomenon

The flow around two circular cylinders of equal


diameter, arranged in a staggered configuration, was
investigated using flow visualization and particle image
velocimetry. The study revealed that vortex shedding
frequencies are more properly associated with
individual shear layers than with individual cylinders;
more specifically, the two shear layers from the
downstream cylinder often shed vortices at different
frequencies.
Measurements of the flow-induced noise produced by
plate heat exchangers, arrays of cylinders, cylinders in
tandem, side by side cylinders, single cylinders of
constant diameter and hourglass shaped cylinders
inside a rectangular duct have been made. The acoustic
field in parts of the duct in which traveling
hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations produced by vortex
shedding do not contaminate the results was
investigated by measuring sound pressure levels. Many
of the results are believed to be unique. The
measurements were then used to infer noise source
strength and system damping using an acoustic model.
The acoustic model was based on the inhomogeneous
convected Helmholtz equation with a point dipole
source term, volumetric damping and damping at the
duct walls.
A technique of high-image-density particle image
velocimetry
is
employed
to
characterize
the
instantaneous and averaged patterns of velocity,
vorticity and Reynolds stress due to flow past two
cylinders in tandem. These features of the flow patterns
are characterized in the gap region as a function of the
distance between the cylinders.
In this paper, it is described that the fluid force acting
on a two dimensional oscillating circular cylinder in a
lock-in region. the experiment was carried out in an

Sumner, D., et al. (2000). "Flowpattern identification for two


staggered circular cylinders in crossflow." Journal of Fluid Mechanics
411(1): 263-303.

Rodarte, E., et al. (2001). "FlowInduced Noise in Heat Exchangers."


Urbana 51: 61801.

Lin, J. C., et al. (2002). "Flow Past


Two
Cylinders
in
Tandem:
Instantaneous and Averaged Flow
Structure." Journal of Fluids and
Structures 16(8): 1059-1071.
Okamoto, S., et al. (2002). "Fluid
force acting on two-dimensional
circular
cylinder
in
lock-in

32

Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube


heat exchangers: an overviewPart 1: 2003
flow, damping, fluidelastic instability

32

Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube


heat exchangers: an overviewPart 2:
2003
vibration response, fretting-wear,
guidelines

36

Fluctuating lift on a circular cylinder:


review and new measurements

2003

Flow-induced vibration of a long, 2004


flexible, straked cylinder in uniform
and linearly sheared currents

N.P.L blow down wind tunnel with a working section of


500mm x 500mm x 2000mm.
It was found that the mean drag and fluctuating lift
increase and become maximum in the lock-in region,
while the base pressure at the rear surface of the
cylinder decreases and attains a minimum.
Design guidelines were developed to prevent tube
failures due to excessive flow-induced vibration in shelland-tube heat exchangers. An overview of vibration
analysis
procedures
and
recommended
design
guidelines is presented in this paper. This paper
pertains to liquid, gas and two-phase heat exchangers
such as nuclear steam generators, reboilers, coolers,
service water heat exchangers, condensers, and
moisture-separator-reheaters.
An overview of vibration analysis procedures and
recommended design guidelines is presented in this
paper. This paper pertains to liquid, gas and two-phase
heat exchangers such as nuclear steam generators,
reboilers, coolers, service water heat exchangers,
condensers, and moisture-separator-reheaters. Part 2 of
this
paper
covers
forced
vibration
excitation
mechanisms, vibration response prediction, resulting
damage assessment, and acceptance criteria.
A part from providing some new experimental data the
paper reviews previous investigations concerning
fluctuating lift acting on a stationary circular cylinder in
cross-flow. In particular, effects of Reynolds number in
the nominal case of an infinitely long and non confined
cylinder in a smooth oncoming flow are discussed.
The bare pipe riser vortex induced vibration (VIV)
experiments were used to examine the influence of
various lengths of strake converge on riser vibration.
The objective of the tests was to demonstrate whether
present riser VIV prediction formulations provide a
robust basis for determining the effects of full and

phenomenon." JSME International


Journal Series B 45(4): 850-856.

Pettigrew, M. and C. Taylor (2003).


"Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube
heat exchangers: an overviewPart
1: flow, damping, fluidelastic
instability." Journal of Fluids and
Structures 18(5): 469-483.

Pettigrew, M. and C. Taylor (2003).


"Vibration analysis of shell-and-tube
heat exchangers: an overviewPart
2: vibration response, fretting-wear,
guidelines." Journal of Fluids and
Structures 18(5): 485-500.

Norberg, C. (2003). "Fluctuating lift


on a circular cylinder: review and
new measurements." Journal of
Fluids and Structures 17(1): 57-96.
Frank, W., et al. (2004). Flowinduced vibration of a long, flexible,
straked cylinder in uniform and
linearly sheared currents. Offshore
Technology Conference.

43

Fluidelastic Instability Characteristics


of Helical Steam Generator Tubes

2004

48

Fluidelastic instability of
tubes subjected to two-phase
internal flow

2004

Jo, J. C., et al. (2004). "Fluidelastic


Instability Characteristics of Helical
Steam Generator Tubes." Journal of
the Korean Nuclear Society 36(4):
364-373.

flexible

13

Flow induced vibrations of a


triangular tube array in various
2005
arrangements of orientation and
natural frequency

46

Fluid-Elastic Instability In Tube


Arrays Subjected To Air-Water And 2005
Steam-Water Cross-Flow

partial strake coverage on riser VIV.


This study investigates the fluidelastic instability
characteristics of helical steam generator type tubes
used in operating nuclear power plants. To obtain a
natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and
participation factor, modal analyses using various
conditions are performed for helical type tubes.
Investigated are the effects of the number of turns, the
number of supports, and the status of the inner fluid on
the modal and fluidelastic instability characteristics of
the tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural
frequency, the corresponding mode shape, and the
stability ratio.

Cross flow induced vibrations of a triangular tube array


with a pitch ratio 1.33 were investigated experimentally.
The experiment was aimed to study the effects of the
array orientation, and the tubes natural frequency on
the flow induced vibration of the tube array. It is shown
by amplitude diagrams that fluid elastic vibrations exist
when the reduced velocity is above a critical value.

Employing controlled vibrations to 2006 In the present study the fluid forces are measured on a
vertical cylinder that is forced to vibrate transversely to
predict fluid forces on a cylinder
a water channel flow and compare directly to the forces
undergoing vortex-induced vibration

encountered by freely vibrating cylinders under


conditions where the amplitude, frequency and
Reynolds number (Re) of the two cases carefully

Chiang, C. H., et al. (2005). "Flow


induced vibrations of a triangular
tube array in various arrangements
of
orientation
and
natural
frequency." Journal of the Chinese
Institute of Engineers 28(4): 605616.
Mitra, D. R. (2005). Fluid-Elastic
Instability In Tube Arrays Subjected
To Air-Water And Steam-Water
Cross-Flow, UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA Los Angeles.
Morse, T. L. and C. H. K.
Williamson (2006). "Employing
controlled vibrations to predict fluid
forces on a cylinder undergoing
vortex-induced vibration." Journal of
Fluids and Structures 22(6-7): 877-

21

Experimental
Study
of
the
Characteristics of the Flow in the 2009
First Rows of Tube Banks

Experimental study of the propagation


of a far-field disturbance in the
2009
turbulent flow through square array
tube banks

Flow-excited acoustic resonance of 2009


two side-by-side cylinders in cross-

matched.
At low mass damping the excitation needed to balance
the energy dissipation is small and so the phase of the
fluid force is also small, in this case the peak amplitude
response of lightly damped body is quite unsteady, the
cylinder is subjected to an intermittent switching
between an upper and a lower response amplitude
branch.
This paper presents the experimental study of the flow
instabilities in the first rows of tube banks. The study is
performed using hot wire anemometry technique in an
aerodynamic channel as well as flow visualizations in a
water channel.
The main results show the presence of instabilities,
generated after the second row of the tube bank, which
propagates to the interior of the bank. In the resulting
flow, the three orthogonal components are equally
significant. The three-dimensional behavior of the flow
is responsible for a mass redistribution inside the bank
that leads to velocity values not expected for the
studied geometry, according to the known literature.
This paper presents the experimental analysis of the
propagation of a disturbance with a fixed frequency in
the incidence velocity of the cross flow through a
tube
bank,
and
its influence on the velocity
fluctuations inside the bank.
The results show that the frequency of the
disturbance
remains
unchanged
as
it
passes
through the bank, and of the fact that flow velocity
inside the bank varies with the position. This fact
indicates that external excitations can be transferred
to the solid boundaries of the bank maintaining
their original frequency.
The aeroacoustic response of two side-by-side circular
cylinders in cross-flow is investigated experimentally. In

884.

Olinto, C. R., et al. (2009).


"Experimental
study
of
the
characteristics of the flow in the first
rows of tube banks." Nuclear
Engineering and Design 239(10):
2022-2034.

Endres, L. A. M. and S. V. Mller


(2009). "Experimental study of the
propagation of a far-field disturbance
in the turbulent flow through square
array tube banks." Journal of the
Brazilian Society of Mechanical
Sciences and Engineering 31(3):
232-242.
Hanson, R., et al. (2009). "Flowexcited acoustic resonance of two

flow

order to investigate the effect of the gap between the


cylinders on the acoustic resonance mechanism, six
spacing ratios between the cylinders, in the range of T/
D = 1.253, have been investigated.
In this case, acoustic resonances occur at a Strouhal
number, which is between those observed before the
onset
of
resonance.
The
acoustic
resonance
synchronizes vortex shedding in the two wakes and
thereby eliminates the bistable flow phenomenon.

side-by-side cylinders in cross-flow."


Journal of Fluids and Structures
25(1): 80-94.

34

Flow-induced vibrations of two


circular
cylinders
in
tandem
2009
arrangement. Part 1: Characteristics of
vibration.

This paper presents the results of an investigation on


the flow-induced vibration characteristics of two circular
cylinders in tandem arrangement, with L/ D = 0.13.2
and reduced velocity Ur =1.526, where L is the gap
spacing between the cylinders and D is the cylinder
diameter.

Kim, S., et al. (2009). "Flow-induced


vibrations of two circular cylinders
in tandem arrangement. Part 1:
Characteristics of vibration." Journal
of Wind Engineering and Industrial
Aerodynamics 97(5-6): 304-311.

47

Fluid-elastic instability in tube arrays


subjected to air-water
and steam-water cross-flow

30

2009

Experimental study and large eddy


simulation of turbulent flow around
2010
tube bundles composed of wavy and
circular cylinders

Flow-induced vibration of nuclear 2011


steam generator U-tubes in two-phase
flow

This paper presents the results of an investigation on


the effects of
wavy cylindrical tubes in a staggered
heat
exchanger
tube
bundle.
Experimental
measurements and large eddy simulation (LES)
technique were used to study the turbulent flow
characteristics in a staggered tube bundle arrangement
at a sub-critical Reynolds number of Re = 7500. The aim
of this investigation is to compare the flow
characteristics of a new configuration of cylindrical
tubes with that of a similar arrangement which
comprises purely circular cylinders.
Flow-induced vibration characteristics of a U-tube
bundle were experimentally investigated in airwater
two-phase flow. The test section was equipped with 39
U-tubes, simulating the innermost region of an actual
steam generator. Two sets of experiments were
performed to investigate an onset of fluid-elastic

Lam,
K.,
et
al.
(2010).
"Experimental study and large eddy
simulation of turbulent flow around
tube bundles composed of wavy and
circular cylinders." International
Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow
31(1): 32-44.
Chu, I.-C., et al. (2011). "Flowinduced vibration of nuclear steam
generator U-tubes in two-phase
flow." Nuclear Engineering and
Design 241(5): 1508-1515.

Experiments and computations of a


loosely supported tube in a rigid 2012
bundle subjected to single-phase flow

instability, damping ratio, and hydrodynamic mass of


the U-tubes.
In this paper the problem of computing the nonlinear
vibro-impact responses of loosely supported heatexchanger tubes subjected to fluidelastic coupling
forces, as well as to the turbulence excitation from
transverse flows, is addressed. Emphasis is on the
fluidelastic modeling within a time domain nonlinear
framework, as well as on the stabilizing effect of
impacts on the fluidelastic coupling forces.

Piteau,
P.,
et
al.
(2012).
"Experiments and computations of a
loosely supported tube in a rigid
bundle subjected to single-phase
flow." Journal of Fluids and
Structures 28: 56-71.