SOFTWARE
Notice: Unless otherwise noted herein, the information contained in these course notes is
proprietary and may not be translated or duplicated in whole or in part without the expressed
written consent of COADE Engineering Software, 12777 Jones Rd., Suite 480, Houston,
Texas 77070.
Copyright {c} 1985  1998 COADE, Inc.
1
2
11
3
4
In order to keep vessel stresses at piping connections within ASME Section VIII
allowable levels.

Documentation typically associated with stress analysis problems consists of the stress
isometric, the stress analysis input echo, and the stress analysis results output. Examples
ofthese documents are shown in Figures 11 through 15 on subsequent pages.
The stress isometric (Figure 11) is a sketch, drawn in an isometric coordinate system, which
gives the viewer a rough 3D idea of the piping system. The stress isometric often
summarizes the piping design data, as gathered from other documents, such as the line list,
piping specification, piping drawing, Appendix A (Figure 12) of the applicable piping code,
etc. Design data typically required in order to do pipe stress analysis consists of pipe
materials and sizes; operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, and fluid
contents; code stress allowables; and loading parameters, such as insulation weight,
external equipment movements, and wind and earthquake criteria.
Points of interest on the stress isometric are identified by node points. Node points are
required at any location where it is necessary to provide information to, or obtain information
from, the pipe stress software. Typically, node points are located as required in order to:
define geometry (system start, end, direction changes, intersection, etc.)
1
2
3
4
note changes in operating conditions (system start, isolation or pressure reduction valves, etc.)
retrieve information from the stress analysis (stresses at piping mid spans,
displacements at wall penetrations, etc.)
12
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Page 1
120
DX= FREE
DZ= FREE
Figure 13
15
RX= FREE
RY= FREE
CASE 3 (EXP)D3=D1D2
FILE:SSEI11
nODES
OURSTR
I1AXSTR
BHDlltG
TORS
AXIAL
STRESS
S'inBOL
BI'IDUIG
TORS
AXIAL
STRESS
COLOR
BI'IDItIG
TORS
AXIAL
STRESS
"~'"
1'I0DE= 123
OUERSTRESSED l'IODES
~"
~,
Figure 14
CASE 1 (OPEJW+DIS+T1+P1
F1LE:SSEnl
RESET
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GROW
COLORS
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I1AX. DISPS.
Figure 15
16
Loading type  these are segregated, and analyzed separately, as though they
occur in isolation, even though they actually are present simultaneously.
A summary of significant dates in the history of the development of the piping codes is
presented below:
1915
Power Piping Society provides the first national code for pressure piping.
1926
1955
1957
1968
Congress enacts the Natural Pipeline Safety Act, establishing CFR 192,
which will in time replace B31.8 for gas pipeline transportation.
1969
1971
1974
Winter Addenda B31.1 moves away from the separation ofbending and
torsional moment terms in the stress calculations and alters the intensification factor for moments on the branch leg of intersections.
1978
1987
17
Normal stresses: Normal stresses are those acting in a direction normal to the face of the
crystal structure ofthe material, and may he either tensile or compressive in nature. (In fact,
normal stresses in piping tend more to tension due the predominant nature of internal
pressure as a load case.) Normal stresses may be applied in more than one direction, and
may develop from a numher of different types of loads. For a piping system, these are
discussed below:
Longitudinal stress: Longitudinal, or axial, stress is the normal stress acting parallel to
the longitudinal axis ofthe pipe. This may he caused by an internal force acting axially within
the pipe:
  .....
Figure 16
SL =
Fax/ Am
Where:
SL =
Fax =
Am =
1t(do2  di 2 ) / 4
1t dm t
do
outer diameter, in
di
inner diameter, in
dm =
18
FAX
Figure 17
PAil Am
Ai
1t
SL
Where:
di 2 1 4
Replacing the terms for the internaI and metal areas of the pipe, the previous equation may
be written as:
For convenience, the longitudinal pressure stress is often conservatively approximated as:
SL
P do 1 4 t
Another component of axial normal stress is bending stress. Bending stress is zero at the
neutral axis of the pipe and varies linearly across the crosssection from the maximum
compressive outer fiberto the maximum tensile outer fiber. Calculatingthe stress as linearly
proportion al to the distance from the neutral axis:
Variation in Bending Stress Thru
Cross Section
Max compressive stress
Neutral Axis
Figure 18
19
Where:
Mb = bending moment acting on crosssection, inlb
c
Maximum bending stress occurs where c is greatest  where it is equal to the outer radius:
Smax
Where:
Ro
= 1/Ro
Summing aH components oflongitudinal normal stress:
SL
Fax / Am + P do / 4 t + Mb / Z
Hoop stress: There are other normal stresses present in the pipe, applied in directions
orthogonal to the axial direction. One ofthese stresses, caused by internaI pressure, is called
hoop stress. This stress acts in a direction parallel to the pipe circumference.
Figure 1 9
The magnitude of the hoop stress varies through the pipe wall and can be calculated by
Lame's equation as:
SR = P (ri 2 + ri 2 ro2 / r 2) / (ro2  q2)
110
ri
ra
The hoop stress can he conservatively approximated for thinwall cylinders, by assuming
that the pressure force, applied over an arbitrary length of pipe, l CF = P di 1), is resisted
uniformly by the pipe wall over that same arbitrary length (Am = 2 t 1), or:
SH =
SR
P di 1/ 2 t 1, or:
P di / 2 t, or conservatively:
Radial stress: Radial stress is the third normal stress present in the pipe wall. It acts in
the third orthogonal direction, parallel to the pipe radius. Radial stress, which is caused by
internal pressure, varies between a stress equal to the internal pressure at the pipe's inner
surface and a stress equal to atmospheric pressure at the pipe's external surface. Assuming
that there is no external pressure, radial stress may be calculated as:
= p
Figure 110
Where:
SR = radial stress due to pressure, psi
Note that radial stress is zero at the outer radius of the pipe, where the bending stresses are
maximized. For this reason, this stress componenthas traditionally been ignored during the
stress calculations.
Shear stresses: Shear stresses are applied in a direction parallel to the face of the plane
of the crystal structure of the material, and tend to cause adjacent planes of the crystal to
111
slip against each other. Shear stresses may be caused by more than one type of applied load.
For example, shear stress may be caused by shear forces acting on the crosssection:
Shear Distribution
Profile
~)
~= j
 ~
~IN=O
/MAX
Figure 111
VQ/Am
'tmax
shear force, lb
'tmax
Where:
These shear stresses are distributed such that they are maximum at the neutral axis ofthe
pipe and zero at the maximum distance from the neutral axis. Since this is the opposite of
the case with bending stresses, and since these stresses are usually small, shear stresses due
to forces are traditionally neglected during pipe stress analysis.
Shear stresses may also be caused by torsionalloads:
T
Figure 112
'tmax
112
2I
'tmax
Summing the individual components of the shear stress, the maximum shear stress acting
on the pipe crosssection is:
'tmax
v Q / Am + MT / 2 Z
Longitudinal stress: SL
Shear stress:
Hoop stress:
Mb / Z + Fax / Am + P do / 4 t
Calculations are illustrated for a 6inch nominal diameter, standard wall pipe (assuming the
piping loads are known):
Cross sectional
properties:
Piping loads:
da
6.625 in
4247 ftlb
di
6.065 in
33488 lb
0.280 in
Pressure (P)
600 psi
8.496 in3
8495 ftlb
Am
5.5813 in2
113
Longitudinal stress:
SL
15547 psi
Shear stress:
'[
= 5999 psi
Hoop stress:
SR =
S4
SR
:
'
SH
....
{SH
SL
Figure 113
There are an infinite number oforientations in which this cube could have been selected, each
with a different combination of normal and shear stresses on the faces. For example, there
is one orientation of the orthogonal stress axes for which one normal stress is maximized,
and another for which one normal stress is minimized  in both cases all shear stress
components are zero. In orientations in which the shear stress is zero, the resulting normal
components of the stress are termed the principal stresses. For 3dimensional analyses,
there are three of them, and they are designated as SI (the maximum), S2, and S3 (the
minimum). Note that regardless of the orientation of the stress axes, the sum of the
orthogonal stress components is always equal, i.e:
SL + SR + SR = SI + S2 + S3
The converse ofthese orientations is that in which the shear stress component is maximized
(there is also an orientation in which the shear stress is minimized, but this is ignored since
the magnitudes of the minimum and maximum shear stresses are the same); this is
appropriately called the orientation of maximum shear stress. The maximum shear stress
114
in a three dimensional state of stress is equal to onehalfofthe difference between the largest
and smallest of the principle stresses (SI and S3).
The values of the principal and maximum shear stress can be determined through the use
of a Mohr's circle. The Mohr's circle analysis can be simplified by neglecting the radial stress
component, therefore considering a less complex (i.e., 2dimensional) state of stress. A
Mohr's circle can be developed by plotting the normal vs. shear stresses for the two known
orientations (i.e., the longitudinal stress vs. the shear and the hoop stress vs. the shear), and
constructing a circle through the two points. The infinite combinations of normal and shear
stresses around the circle represent the stress combinations present in the infinite number
of possible orientations of the local stress axes.
A differential element at the outer radius of the pipe (where the bending and torsional
stresses are maximized and the radial normal and forceinduced shear stresses are usually
zero) is subject to 2dimensional plane stress, and thus the principal stress terms can be
computed from the following Mohr's circle:
TMAX
T
S2
'"
S,
T
TMAX
T
Figure 114
The center ofthe circle is at (SL + SR) / 2 and the radius is equal to [[(SL  SR) / 2]2 + 't2 ]1/2.
Therefore, the principal stresses, SI and S2, are equal to the centerofthe circle, plus or minus
the radius, respectively.
The principal stresses are calculated as:
SI
S2
As noted above, the maximum shear stress present in any orientation is equal to (SI  S2) / 2,
or:
'tmax
115
crYield
Strain
Tensile Test Results
Unixial Tensile
Test Machine
Tensile Test
Specimen
Figure 115
There are three generally accepted failure theories which may he used to predict the onset
of yielding in a material:
1  OCTAHEDRAL SHEAR, or VON MISES THEORY
2  MAXIMUM SHEAR, or TRESCA THEORY
3  MAXIMUM STRESS or RANKINE THEORY
These theories relate failure in an arbitrary three dimensional stress state in a material to
failure in a the stress state found in a uniaxial tensile test specimen, since it is that test that
is most commonly used to determine the allowable strength of commonly used materials.
Failure of a uniaxial tensile test specimen is deemed to occur when plastic deformation
occurs; i.e., when the specimen yields.
116
'tact
8Yield; 82 = 83 = 0
Therefore the octahedral shear stress in a uniaxial tensile test specimen at failure is
calculated as:
'tact
2 112
8Yield / 3
8Yield; 82 = 83 = 0
'tmax
80:
(SYield  0) / 2
= 8Yield / 2
117
SYield; S2 = S3 = 0
As seen previously, the maximum shear stress theory states that during the uniaxial tensile
test the maximum shear stress at failure is equal to onehalf of the yield stress, so the
following requirement is necessary:
tmax = [(SL  SR)2 + 4 1 2 ]112
<
Multiplying both sides arbitrarily by two saves the time required to do two mathematical
operations, without changing this relationship. Multiplying by two creates the stress
intensity, which is an artificial parameter defined sim ply as twice the maximum shear stress.
Therefore the Maximum Stress Intensity criterion, as adopted by most piping codes, dictates
the following requirement:
[(SL  SR)2 + 4 '(2 ]1/2 < SYield
118
Note that when calculating only the varying stresses for fatigue evaluation purposes (as
discussed in the following section), the pressure components drop out of the equation. If an
allowable stress based u pon a suitable factor ofsafety is used, the Maximum Stress In tensity
criterion yields an expression very similar to that specified by the B31.3 code:
[ Sb2 + 4
S~
] 1/2 < SA
Where:
Sb
St
SA
15547 psi
Shear stress:
5999 psi
Hoop stress:
7098 psi
Assuming that the yield stress of the pipe material is 30,000 psi at temperature, and a factor
of safety of 2/3 is to be used, the following calculations must he made:
[(SL  SH)2 + 41:2 ]112 < 2/3 x SYield, or:
[(15547  7098)2 + 4 x 5999 2 ]1/2 < 2/3 x 30000, or:
14674 < 20000
The 14674 psi is the calculated stress intensity in the pipe wall, while the 20000 is the
allowable stress intensity for the material at the specified temperature. In this case, the pipe
would appear to be safely loaded under these conditions.
119
120
Molecular pattern
in unstressed grain
~_
'\
~ocati'"
+
Slipping of a second
molecular surface after a
second application of
Slip'
stress
Dislocations beginning
to interact and tangle
.~
~
Figure 116
One Cycl e
TEST LOADING CURVE
Tensile Test
Specimen
Figure 117
121
Applied Cyclic
Stress (psi)
Cycles ta
Fa il ure
300,000
23
200,000
90
100,000
550
50,000
6,700
30,000
38,000
20,000
100,000
tO'I:"""rT""""rT"""".,
NOTH:
1" E . . . . . . .
131
_ _ _ _ . _ ..... _ _
IZI T_511O.1
_
""_
U1S 1II1151to1.
..of __
w
Cl
:::>
1
:::i
c...
(f)
(f)
cr:
1(f)
:::i
U
>U
FIG. 5110.1 DESIGN FAnGUE CURVES FOR CARIION, Law ALLOY, SERIES ~IOC, HM ALLOY STEELS AllO HIGH
TENSILE S1ULS FDII TEMPERATURES NOT EXCEEDING 7UO'F
Figure 118
Note that according to the fatigue curve, the material doesn't fail upon initialloading, despite
enormously high stresses that appear to be weIl above the ultimate tensile stress oftypical
carbon and low alloy steels. The reasons for this are:
1
The highly stressed areas under fatigue loading are normally very localized.
Catastrophic failure under onetime loading will normally occur only when the
gross crosssection is overloaded.
The stress shown in a fatigue curve is a calculated stress, based upon the
assumption that Hooke's law is applicable throughout the range of applied
loading; i.e., S = E E, where:
123
16"
~
1
(TYP,
41"
(TYP)
~IL,......_ _ _ _ _.....
a
angeo f ou tpane
RangeOfinPlaneL~
...&...~ _ _ _ _ _ _...J
ml!
a
a. . .
displacements
~~ Range of outplane
{('....
Range of inPlane/
displacement~
displacements
7'
"'Placements
Figure 119
If an initially applied displacement load causes the pipe to yield, it results in plastic
124
2Sy~~~"".r
2Sy
Sy~~~~~~~~~
2Sy~
Time~
Stress
Figure 120
Based upon this consideration, the initial limitation for expansion stress design was set to
the sum ofthe hot and the cold yield stresses  the maximum stress range which ensured
that the piping system eventually cycled fully within the elastic stress range. Incorporating
a factor of safety, this resulted in the following criterion:
SE <= F (SYe + Syh)
Where:
SE
SYe
Syh
125
Where:
f = cyclic reduction factor, as shown in the accompanying table
Factor f
7,000
1.0
7,001
14,000
0.9
14,001
22,000
0.8
22,001
45,000
0.7
45,001
100,000
0.6
100,001
200,000
0.5
200,001
700,000
0.4
700,001
2,000,000
0.3
cr",
..
::..
~ ,~
;~
CIl
,5
..
Ci
'j ~
~ ~
C~cles
alternating stress
For Design
t0 5
Sa from endurance
Tensile
10'
107
cr Yield
10 foilure
(b)
Figure 121
126
Mean Stress
Axis
cr Yield
Note that as the mean stress increases the maximum permissible absolute stress (Sa + Sm)
increases, while the permissible alternating stress decreases. The relationship between the
allowable alternating stress and the average stress is described by the Soderberg line, which
correlates fairly weIl wi th test data for ductile materials. The equation for the Soderberg line
is:
SaCAllowed) = SaCfor R=1) xCI  Sm/SYield)
Where:
R
Smin / Smax
Sa
(Smax  Smin) / 2
Sm
(Smax + Smin) / 2
Note that during the development of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III
rules and procedures for analysis ofnuclear piping, the Special Committee to Review Code
Stress Basis concluded that the required adjustments to a straincontroIled fatigue data
curve based on zero mean stress, occur only for a large number of cycles Ci.e. N > 50,000 100,000) cycles for carbon and lowalloy steels, and are insignificant for 188 stainless steels
and nickelchromeiron aIloys. Since these materials constitute the majority of the piping
materials in use, and since most cyclic loading events comprise much fewer than 50,000
cycles, the effects of mean stress on fatigue life are negligible for piping materials with
ultimate strengths below 100,000 psi. For materials with an ultimate strength equal to or
greater than 100,000 psi, such as high strength bolting, mean stress can have a considerable
effect on fatigue strength and should he considered when performing a fatigue analysis.
For a piping application, the implication of the Soderberg line on the fatigue allowable is
implemented in a conservative manner. The sustained stress Ci.e., weigh t, pressure, etc.) can
be considered to be the mean component of the stress range after system relaxation, and as
such is used to reduce the allowable stress range:
SE <= F f(SYe + Syh  Ssus)
127
Section
Figure 122
The stress intensifica tion factors (the ratio of actual ben ding stress to the calculated ben ding
stress for a moment applied to the nominal section) for elbows was known to be:
=
0.75/ h2/3
0.9/ h 2/3
10
li
flexibility characteristic
t R/r2
10
li
Where:
128
Markl found this to correlate fairly weIl wi th his test data and so adopted it. Tests on mitered
bends correlated weIl with those for smooth bends, providing an equivalent bend radius R
was used in the above equation for h. Markl's estimates of equivalent bend radius are shown
below:
Re
Re
Re
Where:
Markl found that the unreinforced fabricated tees could be modeled using the same formula
as that for single (widely spaced) miter bends could be use d, if a half angle of 45 degrees was
used. This produces a flexibility characteristic of:
h
tir
For butt welded tees (such as ANSI B16.9 welding tees) Markl again adapted the bend
equations, this time computing an equivalent radius (Re) and an equivalent thickness (te).
Markl's equation for weI ding tees was:
h
c ( te Re 1 r 2 )
Where:
c
te
Re
4.4 tIr
This is precisely the expression used today for ANSI B16.9 welding tees.
129
For reinforced fabricated tees, Markl used the expression he had previously used for welding
tees, with different equivalent wall thickness and bend radius:
h
Where:
c
te
tp
Re
c ( te Re / r 2 )
=
=
=
=
t + tp
thickness of reinforcing pad or saddle, in
r
The following tables compare the stress intensification factors suggested by Markl's test
results versus the values calculated with his equations (results are for 4" nominal diameter,
standard schedule pipe):
Bend inplane
(in
tR/r 2
Test
Calculated
0.062
4.49
5.7428
0.210
2.17
2.5476
0.129
4.38
3.5238
0.320
2.02
1.9238
0.319
2.10
1. 9286
0.316
1.90
1.9381
0.328
1. 70
1.8904
0.331
1.53
1.8809
0.324
1.36
1.9095
0.332
1.28
1.8762
0.328
1.46
1.8904
130
Test
Calculated
0.0390
Il.04
10.84
0.0455
6.12
7.06
0.0947
2.95
4.33
0.1111
2.34
2.89
Reinforced tee:
inplane (i;)
Calculated
Test
outplane (io)
Test
Calculated
0.12
2.21
2.63
2.43
3.17
0.237
1. 78
1. 74
1.83
1.98
0.5
1.10
1.14
1.08
1.18
tpad
These fonnulas for intensification factors were adopted (and expanded) by the piping codes.
Specifie fonnulas and/or fittings recognized by the individual ASME/ANSI B31 codes are
usually shown in Appendix D ofthose codes (see Figure 123).
131
APPENDIX D
FLEXIBILITY AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION
FACfORS
TABLE 01'
FLEXIBIUTY FACTOR t AND STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR 1
_ _ Ion
la)
fini"'"
fortor
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thoozurlstk
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0.75
"
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1.52
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.~_.!J".J,
y Z
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1.6~
bit "
"li'
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Ir'''
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:w.. i. +
OOod
.J!
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.
'2
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li
lb)
'. ~ ~0t..
Tc. :i!: 1.5 T
4.~
r,
lit
~~.
'.
~:r'2
.
I.~
tbt
Remforttd fabnc.t~ tn
~f"
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te)
lb)
lb)
o.
Urninforced f.ltricated Ue
IN.m 1Zl. I~). IIZl. mll
~l()+ '"
r,
Ii'''
o.,
'It
~I~
+ \.Ii
s.ddIe'
(1,+r.) i
hW
12
o.
. 1.
r,
'2
(b)
Wtlded~ln
contour InSfrt
wllII
r. '2:: 'tWL
"''
T(~l.sr
(ffote1
(0)
en
INo... (2). l.
I~).
0.9
Ir'''
1121)
Flaibllty
Factor k
Bult .eIdi!d joint. Nducer, or _t'Id neck fI"\1e
lb)
1.0
1.2
Cel
StmI
IlIlIn,ifiutioo
F_; INoto Illl
Note (14)
Lb
Z.l
C_ _ _
S""I~ ~I ...
Figure 123
132
Subsequent research has demonstrated that Markl's formulas, having been based on a
limited numher configurations (significantly having omitted reduced outlet tees) and
disregarding any need to intensify torsional stress, are inaccurate in some respects.
The major problem with reduced intersections tees lies in the outofplane bending moment
on the header. Stresses due to these moments can never he predicted from the extrapolation
of sizeonsize tests. Figure 124 below illustrates the origin of this problem.
Area of high
bending .............
stresses
Mob
Sizeonsize
Mob
Reduced Intersection
Figure 124
Errors due to these moments can be nonconservative by as much as a factor oftwo or three.
Furthermore, when the rlR ratio is very small, the branch connection has little impact on the
header, so use oflarge stress intensification factors for the header can produce unreasonably
large calculated stresses.
R.W. Schneider ofBonney Forge pointed out this inconsistency for reduced branch connections. His paper on the subject states that the highest stress intensification factors occur
when the ratio ofthe branch to headerradiiis about 0.7, at which point the nonconservativism
(versus Markl's formulas) is on the order oftwo.
i from Markl
0.7
1.0
1.0
r/R
Ratio of Actual i to Markl's i vs
Ratio of 8ranch to Header Radius
Figure 125
133
"In piping system analyses, it may be assumed that the flexibilityis represented
byarigidjointatthebranchtoruncenterlinesjuncture. However, the Code user
should be aware that this assumption can be inaccurate and should consider the
use of a more appropriate flexibility representation."
2)
ASME 2/3 and B31.1 users can use the ''Branch Connection" expressions for
unreinforcedfabricated tees wheneverrlR< 0.5. (Markl's formulas specified that
the same stress intensification factor be used on both the branch and header legs
of a tee, regardless of relative sizes. The codes noted above permit the reduction
ofthe stress intensification factor at the branch for relative diameters. CAESAR fi
automatically considers the effects ofreduced intersections on the stress intensification factors for these codes unless directed otherwise by the user through
the setup file.)
3)
B31.1 erred when including the calculations for branch connection stress
intensification factors; instead they should have included the calculations as
they appeared in ASME III. (Further clarification of this note is given in note
10 herein.)
4)
B31.3 should include the stress intensification factors for branch connections as
per ASME III. (B31.3 uses Markl's original formulas, thus specifying the same
stress intensification factor for both the branch and header of a tee, regardless
of relative sizes.)
5)
B31.3 should intensify the torsional moment at branch connections, with the
torsional intensification factor estimated as: it = (rlR)i o.
6)
B31.3 should eliminate the use of ii = 0.75io + 0.25 for branch connections and
tees. It can give the wrong relative magnitude for header moments, and may
underestimate the difference between Mo and Mi for rlR ratios between 0.3 and
0.95, and perhaps overestimates the difference for rlR ratios below 0.2 and for
rlR = 1.0.
134
7)
B31.3 and B31.1 should add restrictions to the stress intensification factor tables
indicating that they are valid for RIT < 50.
8)
The codes should add notes that indicate that the stress intensification factors
are developed from tests and/or theories based on headers being straight pipe
with about two or more diameters length of pipe on either side of the branch.
9)
The codes should also add notes to indicate that for branch connections/tees the
stress intensification factors are only applicable where the axis ofthe branch pipe
is within 5 degrees ofnormal to the surface of the header pipe.
10)
The stress intensification factors for unreinforced fabricated tees, weldolets, and
sweepolets should be changed to:
And:
lb
intensification factor for branch (to be linearly interpolated for rlR ratios
hetween 0.9 and 1.0)
rp
Ir
Ir
Where:
Additionally, if a radius of curvature r2 is provided at the connection, which is not less than
the larger of t/2, (Tb'+Y)/2, or T/2, then the calculated values of ib and ir may be divided by
2.0, but with the restriction that ib>1.5 and ir >1.5.
Also, where reduced outlets are discussed, branch ends should he checked using Z = p (r2)t
and i(tIT) in place ofi, with i(tIT) > 1.0.
135
Il)
There was not sufficient data available onreinforcedfabricated tees for Rodabaugh
to make any definitive recommendations regarding them. Rodabaugh does
however suggest that the normal usage whereby the width of the pad is taken
to be at least equal to the radius ofthe nozzle should be observed even though
not explicitly directed by the code.
12)
For t/T ratios of about one or more, stresses tend to be higher in the header, and
are fairly independent ofthe wall thickness ofthe nozzle. As the tlI' ratio gets
much smaller than one, the largest stresses shift to the branch. (This finding
originally came out of the research for WRC 297.)
Comparisons ofWRC 330's proposaIs for stress intensification factors for various types of
tees, versus B31.3 calculated values are shown on the following pages.
136
NO INTERSECTION RADIUS
"831.3" VS. 'WRC 330' UNREINFORCED, FA8RICATED TEE STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTORCOMPARISON
HEADER
NOM
BRANCH
SCH
WRC
B31.3
330 b
i ib
WRC
iob
iOb
B31.3
i oh
1 330 h
330 h
330 b
ioh
1 40.
40.
2.433
2.874
2.433
.853
1.081
2.433
.959
1.125
1 48.
2 48.
1 48.
2 40.
4.184
3.359
2.769
2.769
3.359
3.359
..m
.B24
.822
1.010
2. tHe
2.986
2.769
2.769
3.359
3.359
1.319
.927
1.6""
1.125
J 40.
l 40.
J 43.
1 414.
2 414.
3.479
4.769
3.4811
2.860
2.860
2.868
3.488
3.488
3.488
.822
.U8
1.011
.738
3.488
3.481
3.4811
l.b57
1.657
1.881
2.86B
2.868
2.86"
1.362
1.362
.822
2.111
2.111
3.893
.925
1.125
4 40.
4 40.
4 40.
1 48.
3.416
4.682
5.694
3.B92
3.169
3.169
3.892
3.892
.928
1.139
2.11111
.677
.831
3.169
3.169
3.892
3.892
.557
.684
l.0U
3.892
3.a92
1.5119
1.5B9
1.189
.916
1.953
1.853
1.468
.814
2.lem
2.665
3.46m
3.169
3.169
3.169
3.169
3.891
Z 40.
3 4B,
4 414.
1 48.
2 48.
4.589
3.441
3.Hl
1.1128
.758
.617
.54J
.889
1.271
.927
.763
.669
3.441
3.441
3.441
3.441
3.441
".255
4.255
4.255
4.255
4.255
1.639
1.639
2.826
2.826
1.817
1.488
1.125
.816
!.lm
2.m
.671
.589
.528
.885
.834
.732
.656
1.81l@
2.11111
.764
.671
.681
.549
.954
.837
.751
.686
.BU
1.811!
.747
.669
.612
.535
.936
.839
.671
.797
1.l!ea
.915
.837
.732
.654
4 49.
5 40.
S 48.
~ 411!.
5 40.
5 411!.
3 40.
3 411.
4 48.
5 48.
6 49.
2 48.
b 411!.
6 411!.
6 40.
6 4\J.
:) 48.
S 48.
:) 4f.1.
.. 48.
a 48.
B 411!.
49.
B 48.
4 U.
5 411.
6 48.
5 411.
b 4@.
B 411.
19 48.
.. 411.
III! 4B.
S 48.
18 48.
lB 48.
19 48.
8 411.
12 48.
12 48.
12 41.
12 48.
12 48.
14
14
14
14
14
48.
4B.
4B.
49.
4B.
b 48.
18
n.
5 48.
h 4B.
B 48.
18 48.
12 48.
b 48.
8 48.
10 48.
12 48.
14 48.
5.5BII
6.359
4.255
3.441
3.44J
4.255
4.255
4.255
4.255
4.255
4.477
5.444
6.282
6.919
4.548
3.655
3.655
3.655
3.b55
3.655
4.540
4.548
4.541
4.541
4.541
5.187
5.918
6.592
7.218
4.94'1
3.961
3.961
3.961
3.9bl
3.961
4.949
4.949
4.949
4.949
4.949
5.642
6.294
6.884
7.875
5.284
4.213
4.213
4.213
5.284
5.284
5.284
4.213
4.213
5.284
5.284
6.834
4.392
4.392
.728
.666
.592
.52@
.795
5.599
.697
.689
.545
3.348
3.441
b.bBB
7.549
8.443
5.523
40592
4.392
5.523
5.523
5.523
5.513
5.523
6.383
7.382
B.IM
8.569
5.599
4.458
4.45B
4.458
4.4Se
4.4511
5.599
5.599
5.599
5.599
4.392
.5J9
.795
Lltllll
.768
1.all'!
.877
.767
.686
.653
2.nll
2.1111
2.342
3.14B
3,783
2.711
3.374
4.836
3.655
3.655
3.655
3.655
3.655
3.an
1.478
I.H2
.91B
1.125
4.548
1.741
4.548
1. 741
4.548
1.348
1.883
.986
2.162
2.162
1.674
1.346
1.125
1.886
1.754
1.410
I.PS
.911
2.356
2.191
J.76J
1.472
1.125
1.122
2.516
2.282
l.a41
1.407
4.540
4.541
3.961
3.961
3.961
3.961
3.961
4.949
4.949
2.111
2.399
2.871
3.755
4.697
4.zn
2.@86
1.756
1.468
~.213
5.284
5.284
5.28"
5.284
5.284
.997
1.125
2.118
2.523
3.312
4.138
4.919
4.392
4.392
4.392
4.392
4.392
5.523
5.523
5.523
5.523
5.523
2.882
1.741
1.338
1.1163
.895
2.b18
2.189
1.673
1.337
1.125
2.328
3.847
4.458
4.45B
4.458
4.4511
4.458
5.599
5.599
5.599
5.5'19
5.599
1.911
1.468
2.405
1.839
1. Ib8
1.469
.982
.894
1.125
2.111
2.258
2.811
3.361
4.399
3.811
4.538
U188 . 4.977
137
4.213
4.213
4.213
4.949
4.949
4.949
1.236
NO INTERSECTION RADIUS
"B31.3" VS. 'WRC 330" UNREINFORCED, FABRICATED TEE STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR COMPARISON
HEADER
NOM
16 40.
16 48.
lb 4".
16 4@,
lb 48.
8RANCH
SCH
WRC
831.3
330 b
i ib
6.825
7.633
8.322
8.723
5.595
4.449
18 40.
7.281
7.B50
8.229
8.797
5.598
8 40.
I@ 48.
12 48.
14 40.
lb 48.
18
18
18
lB
18
48.
48.
40.
48.
20
20
20
2"
20
40.
48.
4".
48.
48.
12 40.
14 40.
16 4~.
18 4~.
20 40.
7.711
8.882
8.640
9.165
5.801
24 48.
24 40.
16 48.
18 40.
4~.
18 40.
12 40.
14 48.
lb
40.
i ib
iob
WRC
831 .3
iOb
330 b
330 b
330 h
i ih
4.446
5.595
.928
2.664
4.446
5.595
4.446
5.595
5.595
.651
.583
.534
.733
.672
.510
.795
.641
1.098
.618
.567
4.449
4.449
4.449
5.598
5.598
5.598
5.598
5.598
4.681
4.681
4.681
4.681
4.601
5.BBI
5.a61
5.B01
5.881
5.8@1
.597
.56Q
.532
.592
.793
4.707
.583
.549
.521
4.707
5.943
5.943
5.943
5.943
4.446
4.446
4.4~9
5.595
.541
.586
.795
3.332
I.6b9
1.334
2.1011
1.b79
3.961
4.352
4.446
4.446
5.595
5.595
1.123
1.822
1. 413
1.286
4.973
4.446
5.595
.894
1.125
.777 : 2.964
.713 : 3.523
.6811
3.871
.636 '4.423
1. 80~ l 4.976
4.449
5.598
5.598
5.598
5.598
1.5&1
1. 263
1. 149
1. "lib
1.889
4.449
.752
.718
.671
5.156
4.601
.736
3.512
.694
.658
3.951
6.52(1
6.520
1.113
.887
1.411
1.125
4.783
6.801
5.6lB
5.670
1.186
.945
.883
1.511
6.424
7.227
7.227
7.227
.783
.640
.733
1.89B
5.879
6.293
6.695
5.899
5.899
5.899
7.532
7.532
7.532
1.083
.937
.B81
.51l!
.m
5.446
49'1
.585
.784
.637
.746
5.830
6.283
6.563
5.788
S.7B8
S.788
7.384;1 U63
7.3B4 .993
7.384
.933
5.788
7.384
6.480
6.4110
6.40&
6.489
6.480
B.280
8.280
.788
1.800
4~.
10.394
10.134
7.227
5.670
5.670
5.m
7.227
7.227
7. '227,
.546
.560
.785
11.763
!lU17
7.532
5.899
5.899
5.899
7.5321
.501
7.532.
7.532!
.572
7.384 j
7. 384:
7.384,
7.384
.56 48.
36 41l.
36 48.
30 4B.
32 49.
34 48.
36 48.
36 48.
42
42
42
42
30
48.
48,
40.
4@.
42 40.
40.
32 U.
34 48.
36 40.
42 40.
11.210
5.788
11.599
5.788
9.902
7.384
5.788
5.788
11.5(18
11.9(17
b.400
12.231
12.633
8.209
b.UB
6.488
b.m
b.480
.79'l.
8.208 ;
8.208 ;
8.20~ :
8.2@0 ;
8.209
1.252
1.125
5.140
5.140
.672
34 40.
.'193
.B92
4.619
5.796
.530
30 4~.
32 411.
!.b10
1.4&9
4.707
6.520
6.520
34 411.
34 48.
1.m
1.483
1. 277
1.117
5.BiH
5.a81
5.BIH
5.801
4.391
5.140
5.140
14 40.
5.m
1.009 ; 5.282
9.782
6.528
32 40.
5.598 1 .894
1.446
1.2116
1.125
5.943
5.943
5.'143
24 4~.
3" 40,
24
4.601
1.589
4.797
4.787
4.7@7
30 48.
39 48.
36 40.
32 40.
4.601
4.601
4.681
,633
20
32 41Ll.
4.449
4.449
Lel8
24 40.
32 49.
3.281
4.449
3.604
4.1lB
4.633
24 40,
4.m
330 h
5.595
5.595
24 4@.
40.
330 h
ioh
4.446
4.446
8.076
8.566
9.@37
5.943
4.707
i ih
ioh
.,m '
.713
I.m
1.888
.713
.537
.521
.507
.780
138
.089
.6&8
.649
1.BS8
5.lbB
5.533
5.a86
6.228
7.289
S.670
5.943:
\,:)48
l.h92
1.191
1.504
!.lm
Lm
.B'11
I.! 25
l
i
i
i
1.204
1.125
1.281
1.197
1.125
1.35a
1.266
.8B2
1.198
1.125
1.238
! .157
8.m 1.087
S.2U 1 1.828
B.2BILl 1 .878
1.587
1.482
1.393
1.316
1.125
NO INTERSECTION RADIUS
BRAN CH
SCH
3 48.
3 48.
3 48.
..931.3..i ib
i ib
iOb
WRC
iOb
B31 ,3
i ih
i Oh
330 b
330 h
i ih
i oh
330 h
330 h
40.
2.433
1.097
1.897
.~51
.451
2.162
1.Il97
l.097
.588
.518
1.516
1.516
.371
.451
2.1110
1.516
1.516
1 ;::::
1.516
1.516
.371
:::
.451
2.986
1.516
1.516
.722
.588
.722
SilS
411.
2 4B.
3 411.
3.363
4.769
3.483
1. 570
1. 578
1.5711
1.570
1.570
1.570
.467
.329
.451
1 2.1110
.748
.748
1 2.11l0
1.571
1.571
.748
.748
i 3.093
1.57@
1.570
1. SHI
1.578
.329
.451
.508
.588
1
3.366
1
1 4.682
1.756
1. 756
1.756
.522
.522
2.110
1,756
1.75b
.83b
.B3b
1.756
.375
1. m
5.694
1.756
1.756
1.756
.308
.375 i 2.18e
.308: 2.665
1. 756
1. 756
.836
.659
.836
.659
.588
A0.
'1 40.
2 48.
WRC
, 330 b
330 b
.467
4 48.
4 411.
4 48.
1 40.
'1 411.
3 40.
4 41l.
4 40.
5
S
5
5
5
48.
4@,
48.
4@.
411.
il
40.
6 ~8.
6 4@.
6 4@.
1 411.
'1 411.
3 411.
4
411.
5 411.
2 40.
3 40.
4 40.
!.?Sb
l :. :9:
1
.::r .) __,
1.920
1 4.589
1. 920
1.928
1. 920
L92@
1.920
1.928
1.920
1.920
1.920
2.848
2.048
2.B48
2.048
2.848
2.048
2.848
2.048
2.848
2.1148
i 5.580
[ 6.358
: 4.255
4.47i
,5.444
6.2112
6.919
4.540
6 40.
5 40.
6 411.
8 40.
3 48.
,5,187
2.233
2.233
8 40.
4
5
b
S
! 5.910
2.233
6.592
7.210
4.'149
2.233
2.233
2.233
2.233
2.233
8 40.
Il 40.
B 40.
40.
4iJ.
48.
40.
10 40.
4 U.
10 40.
10 4~.
10 40.
!~ 40.
S 48.
5.642
6.294
12
12
12
12
12
40.
40.
40.
41l.
40.
14
14
14
14
14
40.
40.
n.
40.
40.
2,233
2.233
il 40.
6.884
2.384
2.384
2.384
B 411.
7.S75
2.384
III U.
5.284
2.384
S 40.
(, 4@.
8 40.
6.034
III 41l.
8.443
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
6.6@0
7. 54'?
2.492
12 411.
6 40.
UB3
8 40.
10 40.
12 40.
7.3112
8.1bb
S.569
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.526
14 40.
5.599
2.526
.451 ~5t
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.526
I.ni
1. 928
I.cm
1. 928
.579
2.188
.418
.344
2.11'"
2.342
.382
.451
3.11411
3.783
Lm
t.m
1.920
2.1148
2.1148
2.848
2.1148
'4.@3b
2.848
2.848
2.148
2.848
2.148
2.1811
2.233
.451
.458
.458
2.108
.376
.3311
.296
.376
.331
.296
.451
2.101l
2.711
! 3.374
.451
.430
.378
.339
.318
.451
.422
.422
.379
.379
.451
.4311
.378
.339
.318
.346
.346
.303
.303
.m
.451
.378
.413
.378
.3311
.338
.~ .J
.295
1 .451
.451
\ .396
.346
.346
2.526
.396
.319
2.526
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.295
2.526
1 .451
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1.92i!
1. 7~
.579
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;!
3.m_~ ._1!756_~_~~m8
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2.384
2.384
2.384
2.384
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1.756
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' 2.258
\ 2.811
3.361
~.399
2.233
2.233
2.233
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2,848
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.5118
2.233
!.IIb3
t.m
2.233
2.233
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.794
.664
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.794
1.135
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L 135
.994
.831
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1.181
.987
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1.181
2.233
.., ,.,.,..,.
L.J..0~1
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.492
2.328
3.847
3.811
2.526
2.526
4.5311
2.526
2.526
4.917
139
2.526
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.755
.687
\2.lH!
2.492
.B20
.975
i 2.8711
! 3.755
! 4.697
2.523
'3.m
4.138
4.9119
.914
.'m
2.384
2.384
2.384
2.384
.914
.975
2.384
2.384
2.394
2.394
2.384
2.lBB
2.399
.914
.914
.820
.632
.528
2.384
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.526
.b~3
sile
1.885
.829
.663
.558
.588
.607
.664
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.987
.152
.603
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1.885
.829
.663
.558
.508
HEADER
NOM
1& 48.
16 48.
16 48.
16 4@.
16 48.
8RANCH
SCH
WRC
831.3..
330 b
i ib
330 b
330 h
8
11
12
14
lb
6.825
7.633
8.322
9.723
5.595
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
.3711
.331
.383
.371
.331
.289
.451
.289
.451
2.664
3.332
3.961
4.352
1
l 7.2111
; 7.858
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.52l,
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.526
.351
.322
.387
.287
.451
.351
.322
.387
2.9/,4
3.523
3.871
.287
4.423
.451
.339
.324
.383
.286
.339
.324
.31113
.286
.451
.332
.313
.297
.332
.313
.297
.451
48.
4a.
48.
48.
48.
i ib
iob
330 b
WRC
iob
.313
831.3..
i oh
i oh
330 h
330 h
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
2.524
.947
.758
.637
.5B8
.509
.947
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.521:
2.526
.952
4.976
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.526
2.526
3.28B
2.617
3.6114
2.617
4.118
4.633
5.156
2.617
4.973
i ih
.759
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19 48.
18 40.
18 4B.
18 41.
lB 40.
28 48.
20 41.
20 4!1.
21 40.
28 48.
24 48.
24 48.
24 48.
24 40.
10
12
14
16
,II.
4".
48.
46.
i1 8.229
! 8.797
18 411.! 5.598
2.~m
2.526
7.71l
8.182
8.648
18 411. 1 9.165
28 4&. i 5.811
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
8.176
8.566
2" 40 . 9.137
5.943
24 48.
2.681
2.681
2.691
2.6Bl
2.681
2.681
2.691
2.681
12 48.
14 n.
16 48.
16 40.'
18 48.
2.617
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.451
33 U.
38 48.
24 48.;
38 40.,
.6S3
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.653
.798
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.565
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.;98
.726
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2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
2.617
3.512
3.951
4.397
5.282
2.681
2.681
2.681
2.681
2.6Bl
2.681
2.681
2.681
.763
.679
.763
.679
.619
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2.617
.618
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.383
.451
4.619
5.796
2.942
2.942
2.942
2.942
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10.3114
1@.134
3.261
3.261
3.261
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.m
4.783
6.881
6.424
3.261
3.261
3.261
3.261
3.261
3.261
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.543
.518
.682
.322
.451
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7.227
3.261
3.261
3.261
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.6l]
24 40.
34 40.
3" 40.
11. 763
3.:m
3.398
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34 48.
34 40.
32 40.
34 40.
18.317
7.532
3.39!l
3.398
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.329
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5.879
6.293
6.695
3.398
3.398
3.398
3.3118
3.399
3.398
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.540
36 40.
36 48.
3.331
3.:)31
3.331
3.331
3.331
.297
.287
.336
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.297
.287
.336
.451
5.446
5.8311
6.283
6.563
3.331
3.331
3.331
3.331
3.331
3.331
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.571
56 40.
36 40.
30 40. ; Il.218
32 40. 1 II. 599
34 41!1. 1 9.962
7.384
36 40,
3.331
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3.331
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42 48.
42 40.
38 48. 1 11.588
32 40. 1 11. 9117
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.381
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5.168
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i 5.533
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.293
.451
.293
.451
6.228
1.289
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.&99
3.b99
3.&99
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4~.
42 48.
42 48.
34 4@.! 12.28!
12.633
42 48. 1 8.2111
36 40.
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2.942
2.942
31 40.
32 4111.
42
.5&8
2.942
2.942
32 48.
32 43.
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9.782
6.528
32 40.
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.588
.717
.852
.717
3.331
3.:331
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.6119
3.699
3.398
3.331
3.6119
3.699
3.699
3.699
3.699
1
1
"
140
.sIB
.543
.58a
.612
.571
.537
.508
.716
.669
.628
.594
.516
NO INTERSECTION
RADIUS
"831.3" VS 'WRC 330" SWEPOLET STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR COMPARISON
HEADER
8RANCH
NOM
SCH
WRC
831.3
330 b
i ib
iob
330 b
i ib
WRC
.. 831.3..
330 b
330 h
i ih
ioh
iob
i ih
330 h
ioh
330 h
1 48.
48.
2.43;>
.929
.986
.382
.372
2.1b2
.929
.9ib
.43i
.419
2 48.
2 48.
48.
2 48.
4.884
3.359
1.188
1.188
1.251
1.251
.291
.354
.316
.372
2.188
2.986
1.188
1.188
1.251
1.251
.566
.398
.596
.419
3 48.
5 48.
3 48.
48.
2 48.
2.618
4.155
1.222
1.222
1.296
1.296
.467
.294
.551
1.296
1.296
1.296
.617
1. 296
1.222
1.222
1.222
.582
1. 222
2.188
2.188
3.893
.582
3 40. 1 3. 480
.495
.312
.372
.395
.617
.419
4 48.
" 48.
4 48.
4 48.
1 48.
2 48.
3 41.
1.337
1.337
1.450
1.450
.372
3.461
1.337
1.337
1.337
1.337
1.458
1.4SB
1.45"
1.450
.637
.582
.386
.544
1.458
.;m
2.188
2.188
2.665
.698
1.458
.566
.356
.255
.637
1.337
I .n?
.522
.329
.235
5 4t1.
1 48.
.685
1.585
1.585
1.439
1.585
1.439
1.585
1.585
.4112
.284
.249
.372
1.439
1.439
1.439
.579
.365
.258
.226
.338
1.585
2
3
4
5
1.439
1.439
1.585
5 48.
1.439
1.585
1.585
.685
.614
.473
.380
.416
.279
.245
.311
.273
.219
.244
2.111
2.108
2.711
3.374
.334
.372
4.036
1.518
1.518
.355
.312
.290
.256
.372
2.1'8
2.258
2.B18
3.361
4.399
1.632
1.632
1. 632
1.632
1.632
.349
.313
.286
.258
.372
2.188
2.399
2.87i
3.7:15
4.697
1.726
1.726
1.726
1.726
1.726
.341
2.m
.312
2.523
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3.382
1.793
1.793
1.793
.244
.372
4.138
5 48.
5 48.
5 40.
il 4@.
il 48.
b 40.
2.563
4.868
5m
48'1 3.sn
! 2.483
41. i 3.940
411. , 5.588
41. ~ 6.358
48. : 4.255
3.738
2 40.
3 40.
5.444
., 41. ; 6.282
1.439
1.518
1.518
1.518
1.518
1.585
1.691
1.691
Lm
:; 48. i
6 48. !
6.919
4.540
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1.691
1.691
3 48. ,
5.187
1.632
1.843
4
5
6
8
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5.910
1.632
1.632
1.843
48.
4.949
10 48.
4 48.
10 48.
18 48.
5 48.
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1
8 48.!
UI 411'1
48.
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a 48.
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3 40.
10 48.
10 48.
12 48.
12 48.
12 48.
12 48.
5
b
8
111
1.632
1.632
1.843
1.843
1.843
.315
.276
.248
.226
.330
5.M2
6.294
6.884
7.875
5.284
1.726
1.726
1.968
1.968
.3@b
.274
1.726
1. 96B
1.726
1.726
1. 968
1.968
.251
.219
6.834
48. 1 6.688
41.
7.549
1.793
1.793
.297
2.857
2.857
.272
2.857
.237
2.857 1 .212
2.857
.325
6.592
7.218
48.\
48. Ii
8.443
12 48.
12 48.
14 4I!.
14 40.
48. i 6.3S3
7.382
8.166
18 48.
12 48.
8.569
14 4B.
5.599
14
40.
14 40.
14 41.
5.523
1.193
1.793
1.793
1.814
Il 48.
1.814
1.814
1.814
1.S14
2.885
2.885
2.885
2.885
2.085
.~27
.2B4
.248
.222
.212
.314
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.452
!
i
2. IIi
2.1811
2.342
3.848
3.783
4.989
.327
2.328
.286
3.847
.255
3.811
.243 . 4.530
.372 1 4.977
141
1.439
1.518
1.518
1.518
1.793
1.793
1.814
1.814
1.814
1.814
1.B14
Lm
.6911
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.755
.755
.677
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.723
.723
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.885
.568
.458
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1.691
1.691
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1.843
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1.691
1.691
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1.843
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.878
.816
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1.843
.486
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1.843
.371
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1.968
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1.843
.937
L968
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1.9b8
1. 968
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2.1157
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.719
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1. 968
2.i57
2.1157
2.857
2.857
2.085
2.885
2."85
2.885
2.885
.365
.6B6
.524
.419
.498
.419
.779
.896
.595
.684
.547
.46"
.476
.480
.364
.419
NO INTERSECTION
RADIUS
"831.3" VS 'WRC 330" SWEEPOLET STRESS INTENSIFICATION FACTOR COMPARISON
HEADER
9RANCH
WRC
931.3
NOM
SCH
330 b
i ib
!6 40.
8 48,
6.825
1.813
16 48.
16 48.
16 411.
18 411.
12 48.
14 48.
16 48.!
7.633
l.813
8.322
8.723
5.595
1.813
1.813
2.884
2.IS4
2.884
2.184
1.813
2. B84
18 48.
18 48.:
;.2111
18 4f1.
18 48.
lB 4f1.
7.858
J.C
1 8.229
16 41. i 8.797
1.814
1.814
1.814
2.885
1.814
18 40.
18 48.,
5.:5'18
1.814
1.@8S
2.885
1.878
1.878
1.878
1.878
1.B78
2.168
2.168
2.160
2.160
2.160
1. 9t8
1.918
1. 918
2.213
2.213
16 48.
12 41.
4".
28 48.
12 48.
7.711
28 48.
14 48.
8.882
2S 48.
28 48.
16 4e.
a.bU
28 48,
28 49.!
24
24
24
24
lb 48. i 8.176
18 4111.! 8.566
2e 48.: 9.1137
24 U.! 5.943
48.
48.
48.
40.
lB
48.
1
9.165
5.881
330 b
.2116
.231
931.3
330 b
330 h
i ih
ioh
330 h
330 h
.385
.273
.258
3.:m
2.664
1.813
2.884
1.813
.680
.544
.458
.417
.364
.782
.625
.479
.419
.612
.704
.515
.469
.418
.364
.592
3.961
l.813
1.813
.372
4.352
4.973
1.813
2.884
2.964
1.814
.zn
3.:i23
3.871
1. 81~
.2211
.286
.291
.266
.253
1.814
.324
.372
4.423
4.976
2.885
2.885
2.1185
2.085
1.814
2.885
.243
.231
.28S
.267
.251
.236
.372
3.288
3.614
4.118
4.633
5.156
1.878
1.878
1.878
2.168
2.163
2.163
.214
.372
3.512
3.951
4.:591
5.282
.25111
.372
.218
.288
.324
.239
2.885
.252
2.085
.231
2.213
2.213
.216
.284
.322
.236
.223
.211
.321
.258
.245
2.1b'
2.168
t.918
1. 918
1.910
2.213
2.213
2.213
2.213
.544
.483
.434
.362
.503'
.419
4.619
5.796
2.971
2.171
2.428
2.428
.448
.357
.419
4.783
6.811
6.424
2.269
2.269
2.269
2.692
2.692
2.692
.474
.378
.353
.563
.449
.419
2.354
2.354
2.354
2.B!5
2.885
.4r18
.374
.477
.446
2.B85
.352
.419
2.750
2.756
2.750
2.751
.425
.397
.585
.472
.443
.419
3.854
3.1154
3.854
3.854
.492
.459
.432
.418
.519
.4911
3.854
.349
.419
.213
UI.394
2.269
2.269
2.269
2.692
2.692
2.692
.218
.224
.314
.259
.266
.:512
2.354
2.354
2.885
2.885
2.885
.28M
.228
.315
.238
.272
.572
5.879
18.134
32 48.
32 48.
t 7.227
34 48.
48.! 11.763
32 48.1 10.317
34 48.! 7.532
2.354
.539
.471
.419
1.878
2.428
2.428
24 41l.
3111 48.
.526
1.870
2.m
.318
1.814
ioh
.570
.519
.454
.404
.363
2.1m
32 4i1.
32 48.
i ih
2.884
2.884
2.884
9.71l2
24 48,'
30 41l.
34 48.
34 48.
iob
WRC
iob
6.528
38 4!11.
38 48.
30
1.918
i ib
6.293
6.695
1.911
.659
.633
.560
.599
.525
.466
.419
.526
36 48.
3b 4f1.
2.312
42 48.
42 40.
32 48.
2.548
2.548
2.540
2.541
2.540
3b 48.
36 40.
42 48.
42 48.
42 48.
48.1
2.312
2.312
2.312
2.751
2.758
2.751
2.750
3.054
3.854
3.854
3.854
3.854
.2116
.245
15.446
.199
.237
5.838
.234.
.279
8~;) 3
.372
6.213
6.563
2.312
2.312
2.312
2.312
.221
.213
.287
.2S1
.310
.265 1 5.168
.256 i 5.533
.249
5.886
.242 1 6.228
.:m l 7.289
2.548
2.548
2.548
2.548
2.548
142
.373
.352
.591
.552
Markl's investigation of the fatigue problem, following the earlier recognition of the
maximum stress theory offailure, led to identification of the basic problem in the design of
piping systems. Not one, but two different criteria must be satisfied, one for primary loads,
which may lead to single application catastrophic failure, and one for cyclic, dis placementdriven loads that may lead to fatigue failure (especially in the vicinity offittings and other
discontinuities) after repeated applications. The main characteristics ofthese two different
types of loads are described below:
Primary loads are usually force driven (gravity, pressure, spring forces, relief
valve, fluid hammer, etc.).
Primary loads are not selflimiting. Once plastic deformation begins it continues
unabated until force equilibrium is achieved (through change of the external
boundary conditions or through material strain hardening), or until failure of
the cross section results.
3 
Primary loads are typically not cyclic in nature (and those that are, such as
pulsation or pressure variation, show characteristics of both primary and
secondary loads).
Allowable limits for primary stresses are related, through failure modes such as
those advanced by the Von Mises, Tresca, or Rankine theories, to the material
yield stress (i.e. the point where plastic deformation begins), the ultimate
strength, or, for sustained loads only, to timedependent stress rupture properties (such as creep characteristics).
5 
Excessive primary load causes gross plastic deformation and rupture. Failure
may occur with a single application ofthe load. Note that failures that occur due
to single load applications usually involve pressure (hoop stress) design failures
and are not directly addressed by CAESAR n or by the flexibility stress
requirements ofthe codes. Such pressure design requirements are encompassed
in the minimum wall thickness requirements discussed in detail in separate
sections of the codes.
Secondary loads are aImost always selflimiting, i.e. the loads tend to dissipate
as the system deforms through yielding or deflection.
143
Allowable limits for secondary stresses are based upon cyclic and fatigue failure
modes, and are therefore limited based upon requirements for elastic cycling
after shakedown and the material fatigue curve.
Primary Stress Failure: Springs were improperly sized to support the weight of the valve
operator on a system. When the line was fled for hydrotest, everything (stresses and
displacements) appeared fme, since the pipe could support the moment imbalance at
ambient temperature. However, heating up the fluid (and pipe) during startup, the valve
sagged and the guardrail was crushed in less than 30 minutes due to the decrease in strength
at the operating temperature.
Steps ta failure:
1
Weight loads were improperly accounted for. (The primary stresses were tao
high.)
Gross deformation began almost immediately and continued until force equilibrium was achieved (the spring bottoming out).
144
After about a dozen applications of the excessive load, cracks formed on the
highly stressed inside surface of the vessel at the junction with the nozzle.
Therefore, code compliance requires that the piping system be checked for both types of
loading  primary and secondary. The basic steps involved in doing code compliance are
outlined below:
1
Compute the primary stresses, i.e. the stresses due to the sustained primary
loads, usually weight and pressure, and those due to the occasional primary
loads, such as earthquake, wind, fluid hammer, etc.
Compute the range of the varying stress, i.e. the expansion stress range.
Compare the expansion stress range to its allowable, which is a factor of safety
times a value varying with the number of cycles such that it fits the material
fatigue curve (adjusted for mean stress), but never exceeds the sum of the hot
and cold yield stresses.
Note that due to the shakedown effect, and the fact that the primary and secondary stresses
have different failure criteria, these two load types are reviewed in isolation. Therefore, it
should he stressed that, as far as most codes are concerned, there is no such thing as
"operating stress".
145
calculation much more difficult. When considering the hoop and radial stresses, it is no
longer clear which of the principal stresses is the largest and which is the smallest.
Additionally, the subtraction of SlS3 does not produce a simple expression for the stress
intensity. As it turns out, the inclusion of the pressure term can be simplified by adding only
the longitudinal component of the pressure stress directly to the stress intensity produced
by moment loadings only. This provides an equally easytouse equation and sacrifices little
as far as accuracy is concerned.
The explicit stress requirements for the piping codes addressed by CAESAR II follow below.
Note that most codes allow Pdi2 / (d0 2  di 2 ) to be used in place ofPdo / 4t.
Sustained:
0.75i MA
P do
+
4t
Where:
Ssus, SI
MA
Sh
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
100% of the average stress for a 0.01 % creep rate per 1000 hours.
146
Expansion:
iMc
z
Where:
SE
Mc
SA
=
=
Sc
Occasional:
Soce
Pdo
0.75iMB
0.75i MA
+
4t
Where:
Soce = occasional stresses, psi
MB
occasionalload factor
Sustained:
B31.3 does not provide an explicit equation for sustained stress calculations, but only
requires that the engineer compute the longitudinal stresses in the pipe due to weight and
pressure, and then ensure that these do not exceed Sh. This is most commonly interpreted
to mean:
Fax
+
4t
147
Where:
Fax
Mi
Mo
li> 10
Sh =
2)
3)
4)
2/3 ofthe yield strength ofthe material at room temperature (90% of the
yield stress for austenitic stainless steels);
5)
100% of the average stress for a 0.01% creep rate per 1000 hours;
6)
67% of the average stress for rupture after 100,000 hours; and
7)
Expansion:
[(ii Mi)2 + Cio Mo)2 + 4MT2]1/2
z
Where:
Mi
Mo
range of outofplane ben ding moment due to expansion (secondary) loads, inlb
MT
Sc
148
Occasionsl:
The equation for calculating occasional stresses is undefined by B31.3, which simply states
that the sum of the longitudinal stresses due to sustained and occasionalloads shall not
exceed 1.33Sh. The default interpretation ofthis requirement is to calculate the sustained
and occasional stresses independently (as per the equation given for sustained stresses
above) and then to add them absolutely.
Note the differences between these two codes:
1
B31.3 calculation methods are undefined for sustained and occasionalload cases,
while they are explicit for B31.1.
In its most common interpretation, B31.3 neglects torsion in the sustained case,
while B31.I includes it.
B31.I neglects all forces, while in the default interpretation, B31.3 includes Fax
in the sustained case.
Note that both codes additionally cite a conservative value of SA, f(1.25S c + O.25Sh), which
may be used instead ofthe more liberal allowable off(1.25Sc + 1.25Sh  SI). This is a carry
over from precomputer days, when sustained stress calculations were rarely done, so SI was
not known explicitly, and conservatively estimated to be at its maximum allowable level of
Sh.
Specific requirements of other common codes are shown below as weIl.
Sustained:
Bl,B2
Slp
Ma
=
=
Sh
Ssus
Where:
149
1)
2)
3)
4)
2/3 of the yield strength of the material at room temperature (90% of the
yield stress for austenitic stainless steels);
5)
100% of the average stress for a 0.01% creep rate per 100 hours;
6)
60% of the average stress for rupture after 100,000 hours; and
7)
Expansion:
SE
[M~
Where:
Mc
SL =
+ M; + Mz2]1I2, inlb
Occasional:
The occasional stress equations are:
For Service Level C (Emergency):
Socc = BI x Slpmax + B2 (Ma + Mb) / Z < 1.8 Sh <= 1.5 Sy
For Service Level D (Upset):
Socc = BI x Slpmax + B2 (Ma + Mb) / Z < 2.4 Sh
Where:
Slpmax
Mb
Sy
150
Sustained:
SL
Where:
Slp =
Sb
Expansion:
Se =
Where:
Sb
St
Mt /2Z
Operating:
Sope = FIE a dT  v SH 1 + Se + SL( 1F ) < 0.9 SYield
Where:
F
% of pipe axial restraint (long buried pipelines are considered to be fully axially
restrained, i.e. F = 1; while pipelines above ground on slide plates are not axially
restrained, i.e. F = 0
dT =
v
151
SR
Pdo / 2t.
Occasional:
Soee
* 0.72 * SYield * k
occasionalload factor
Where:
Sustained:
Slp
Sb
St
Construction Type
SL
Where:
152
Factor F
Wasteland, Deserts, Mountains, Grazing Land,
Farmland, Sparsely populated areas and Offshore.
Fringe areas around cities, Industrial areas,
Ranch or Country Estates.
Suburban Housing Developments,
A
B
C
250 or l ess
300
350
400
450
Expansion:
Where:
Sb =
St
Operating:
Sope = Se + SL < S
Where:
terms are as defined previously.
Occasional:
Socc
* SYield * F * T * K
SI + Se
occasionalload factor
< 0.75
Where:
K
0.60
0.50
0.40
1.0
0.967
0.933
0.9
0.867
Se
0.72
153
Sustained:
SL
0.5
* Shoop + SB
~ S
*F * L *J *T
Where:
Shoop = hoop stress
Pd/2tn
SB
design factor
location factor
joint factor
Expansion:
SE = (Sb2 + 4St2 )112
0.72
*S *T
Where:
Sb
St
iMb/ Z
torsional stress
Mt/ 2Z
Occasional:
* Shoop + SB
*F *L *J *T *K
Fax / A + 0.5
Fax
SB
occasionalload factor
Socc
~ S
Where:
154
1.5.9 RCCM C
Sustained:
SL =
Pdo /4tn+O.75*i*MA/Z$;Sh
Where:
p
design pressure
do
tn
MA = resultant moment
(Mx2 + M; + Mz2
section modulus
)112
Expansion:
SE = i Mc / Z $; f(1.25S e + .25Sh ) + Sh  SL
Where:
Mc =
Sc
Occasional:
Sace = P max do / 4tn + 0.75 * i
* (MA + MB ) / Z $; 1.2 * Sh
Where:
P max = maximum pressure occurring
MB
155
1.5.10 Stoomwezen
Sustained:
SL =
P (De  d ) / 4d + 0.75
* i * MA
/ Z<f
Where:
p
design pressure
De =
outside diameter
MA =
resultant moment
section modulus
sustained allowahle, the minimum offive equations (see code for details)
Expansion:
SE
* MB / Z < fe
Where:
MB =
fe
Occasional:
Socc =
SL + 0.75
* i * (MA +
Where:
MB
Many of the nonpower codes separate the inplane and the outofplane stress
intensification factors (and do not intensify torsion). For the power codes the
SIF's can he computed for inplane, outofplane, and torsional moments using
SIF = 0.9/ h 2/ 3 . For the petrochemical and other nonpower codes:
156
li
0.9/h2/3
11
0.9/h2/3
li
0.9/h2/3
la
0.9/h2/3
la
Miters:
la
Welding tees:
la
Reinforced tees:
Unreinforced tees:
0.9/h2/3
li
=
=
=
=
li
0.75i o + 0.25
0.9/h2/3
0.75i o + 0.25
0.75i o + 0.25
The power codes do not recognize the extruded weI ding tee, the sweepolet, or the
weldolet. The nonpower codes do, and if any ofthese fittings are used in a power
application, the engineer must consider the validity ofusing the stress intensification factors from the chemical codes.
The power codes explicitly define the equation to use for the sustained stresses.
The nonpower codes do not. The nonpower codes do however tell the user to
compute the longitudinal stresses due to sustained loads, and B31.3 Interpretation 410 issued May 8, 1985 instructed the user to include the axial force term
in this longitudinal stress. The power codes explicitly omit this axial force term
from the definition of the sustained stress calculation.
0.75/h2/3
la
=
=
=
=
Bends:
Power codes do not include pressure stiffening effects on bends, while the
petrochemical and related codes do.
Note that the power codes use the term 0.75i in the sustained stress equation,
while the nonpower codes historically have not. In Interpretation 134 issued
February 23,1981 the B31.3 code permitted its us ers to employ the 0.75 i stress
intensification term for sustained and occasionalloads. (CAESAR II provides
this as an option.) In Interpretation 603 issued December 14, 1987, the B31.3
code permitted its users to ignore the stress intensification term for sustained
loads. It is recommended that this latest interpretation be ignored and that i or
0.75i be used as the stress intensification factor for sustained and occasional
loads.
Power codes provide special formulas for reduced branch connections. Nuclear
and fossil codes have not come together otl. their interpretations as ofthis time,
however. These rules come into effect whenever the branch diameter is less than
0.5 times the header diameter.
Class 1 piping rules also allow flexibility coefficients to be computed and inserted
into reduced branch intersections in order to consider the flexibili ty ofthe branch
relative to the header. No other piping code at this time includes this as an
option.
B31. 3 was the first piping code to instruct the user to rem ove corrosion allowance
from the section modulus before making sustained and occasional stress
calculations. Other piping codes simply warned of the deleterious effect of
corrosion when joined with cyclic loadings. Arguments are that B31.3 is
157
instilling a false sense of security when dealing with corrosion in this manner,
im plying that B31.3 is leading the user to believe that he is properly considering
the effects of corrosion. Other arguments state that B31.3 considers corrosion
in the wrong stress calculation, and that if anything it should have been
incorporated into the expansion stress calculation.
9
Some ofthe pi ping codes incl ude longitudinal weldjoint efficiency factors in their
allowable stress tables. In the majority of the codes where these factors are
included, the codes also instruct the user to divide the allowable stress by the
joint efficiency before using the table value for flexibility calculations, thus
increasing the allowable stress. Note that post1980 B31.3 codes DO NOT
include the longitudinal weld joint efficiencies in the stress tables.
10 
The piping codes are unanimously silent on the point ofBourdon pressure effects.
If included, the pressure will cause some distortion of the piping system. If
excluded there will be no displacements due to pressure.
Il 
European piping codes for the most part are formulated differently than the D.S.
codes. The Europeans use an effective stress calculation and compare the results
directly to an allowable without emphasizing the concern for fatigue. The
Swedish piping code does have a provision that allows its users to employ the
ASME B31.11977 code providing the Swedish allowables are used.
12 
Almost all piping codes allow the exact expression for pressure stress to be used
in place ofPdJ4t in the sustained stress calculations. The exact pressure stress
value is:
13 
Most piping codes also allow the use of a increased section modulus for the stress
calculations at the branch end of a reduced intersection. The reduced section
modulus is calculated as:
z =Cp) Cr2) te
Where:
14 
tnh
tnb
Note that the B31.3 and related piping codes do not intensify the torsional stress
term in the expansion or sustained stress equations, while the power codes do.
This is considered an oversight on the part of the code as Markl's tests clearly
indicate that the torsional moment should he intensified. This was con:firmed
by the research documented in WRC 330.
158
15 
Stress indices are used in ASME Section III, Class 1, 2 and 3 piping codes. There
are three different indices:
B
As a rule ofthumb, 2i =C2 * K2, where i is the stress intensification factor for the
In almost aIl cases, the cold modulus of elasticity and nominal dimensions are to
be used in the flexibility analysis of piping systems. Using the cold modulus
produces larger, and therefore more conservative stresses. BS 806 and ASME
Class 1 codes have provisions for using material properties in the hot condi tion.
NEMA SM23 also provides for using the hot modulus of elastici ty for evaluating
loads on turbine nozzles.
In these cases it is common to find that the tempe rature rises on sorne occasion to a maximum
value, say Te; then, as events occur during the normal course of operation the temperature
varies between Te and other lower temperature states, say Tl, T2, ... , Tn. In these cases the
piping codes have provided a simplified method by which the cumulative damage due to the
various thermal cycles may be evaluated by converting reduced thermal expansion cycles
into equivalent full temperature cycles. The user will find that cumulative damage rules
usually become important only either the number ofthermal variations is large, or when the
magnitude of the temperature variation is a large percentage of the maximum design
temperature expected. The following rules should be followed when evaluating systems with
multiple temperature variation cycles:
159
Te should be selected as the highes t operating tem perature of the pi ping system,
even if the startup cycle does not go directly to this temperature.
The expansion allowable stress should be based on Te, i.e. SA should be calculated
from Sh for temperature Te.
The range dTe is determined as the difference between Te and the ambient
temperature. Ne should be estimated as the total number oftimes during the life
of the unit that the temperature will be expected to vary from ambient to Te.
The temperature ranges between Te and each of the other reduced temperature
states should be calculated, i.e.:
dTn
The number of cycles associated with each operating mode should be estimated
as:
Temperature change dTl occur Nl times,
Temperature change dT2 occur N2 times, ... ,
Temperature change dTn occurs Nn times
The total number of equivalent full temperature cycles that these partial cycles
represent can be calculated as:
The cyclic reduction factor f should be selected based upon the number of
equivalent cycles, N, while other components of SA and SE should be based upon
tempe rature Te.
Example:
A particular process line varies in temperature as the quality of the catalyst
varies. The particulars of the operation are outlined below:
Ambient = 700 F
Startup goes to 5600 F
It is estimated that the maximum temperature ever required will be 650 0 F and
the minimum temperature required during operation will be 430 oF. The
temperature will fluctuate between 560 0 F and 650 0 F perhaps 10 times per day,
and between 560 0 F and 450 0 F perhaps 5 times per day. The design life ofthe unit
160
is 12 years, and it is estimated that the unit will be shut down at least once each
month for maintenance.
The range dTe is determined as the difference between 650 0 and the ambient
temperature of70 0 F, so dTe = 580 0 F. The estimate of Ne, the total number of
times that the temperature will be expected to vary through this range is:
Ne
= 1 shutdown/month X
12 months/yr X 12 yr
= 144
The temperature ranges between Te and each ofthe other reduced temperature
states are:
The cyclic reduction factor fis selected based upon 255 cycles, so f =1. 0 (for fewer
than 7000 cycles). As noted, the material allowable stresses SA and Sh are based
upon 650 0 F, and the expansion stress, SE, is calculated for the system operating
at 650 0 F.
Warning: These cumulative damage rules don't fully address those cases where
one part of the piping system stays at Te while another part ofthe piping system
undergoes a temperature fluctuation. In these cases it is common to simply
analyze each case separately. The ASME Section III, Subsection NB (Nuclear
Class 1 Piping) Code provides rules which may he followed should the user be
concerned about the cumulative damage where different parts of the piping
system cycle through different temperature states. The requirements are
described below:
Cumulative Damage: If there are two or more types of stress cycles which produce
significant stresses, their cumulative effect shan be evaluated as stipulated in Steps 1
through 6 below:
1
Designate the specified number oftimes each type of stress cycle oftypes 1,2,3,
... , n, will be repeated during the life of the component as nI, n2, ng, ... , nn,
respectively. In determining nI> n2, ng ... , nn consideration shall be given to the
161
For each type of stress cycle, determine the alternating stress intensity Salt,
which for our application is one half of the range between the expansion stress
cycles (as shown above). These alternating stress intensities are designated as
Saltl , Sa1t2, ... , Saltn.
On the applicable design fatigue curve fmd the permissible number of cycles for
each Salt computed. These are designated as NI, N2, ... , N n.
For each stress cycle calculate the usage factors VI, V2, ... , Vn, where VI = nl/
NI, V2 = n21N2, ... , V n = nnlNn
Calculate the cumulative usage factor V as V = VI + V2 + ... + Vn.
5
6
162
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.4
2.5
Note that primary loads are usually classified further, according to their duration ofloading.
Those primary loads which are nearly always present throughout operation are called
sustained loads, while those which occur less frequently are called occasionalloads. The
methods ofresisting these two types ofloads are similar, with the main difference beingfound
in the use of a higher allowable stress for occasionalloads (as seen in Section 1).
21
Pressure
AlI piping systems must be designed to withstand sustained loadings. Sustained loads are
classified as those caused by mechanical forces which are present throughout the normal
operation of the piping system. Therefore the se loads:
Are present for relatively extended periods of time, as opposed to those which
change dynamically.
Weight  uniform loads due to the weight ofthe pipe, fluid, and insulation, and
concentrated loads due to the weight of inline components (such as valves,
flanges, etc.), and
t +c
tm
tm
Where:
22
For thin wall (t < D/6), straight pipe under internaI pressure, t may normally he calculated,
through various approximations of Lame's equation, as:
t
PD 1 2SE, or:
=
=
outside diameter, in
Di
inside diameter, in
Where:
Temperature. oF
Material
<=900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
>1250
Ferriti c
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
Austenitic
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.7
Other ductil e
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
Cast iron
O.
Requirements for pressure design of other piping components are described in the following
sections. (For B31.3 y = 0.0, for B3l.l y =.4. The CAESAR II check uses 0.4 for ail codes
except B3l.3, where y = 0.0.)
23
[SE(T  C)/r2]
or:
Pm
r2
RI
effective radius of miter bend (defined as the shortest distance from pipe
center line to the intersection of the planes of adjacent miter joints  see
Figure 21), in
Pm
Where:
I   H    R,,i
Figure 21
24
300
400
600
900
1500
100
275
720
960
1440
2160
3600
150
255
710
945
1420
2130
3550
200
240
700
930
1400
2100
3500
250
225
690
920
1380
2070
3450
300
210
680
910
1365
2050
3415
350
195
675
900
1350
2025
3375
400
180
665
890
1330
2000
3330
450
165
650
870
1305
1955
3255
500
150
625
835
1250
1875
3125
550
140
590
790
1180
1775
2955
600
130
555
740
1110
1660
2770
650
120
515
690
1030
1550
2580
700
110
470
635
940
1410
2350
750
100
425
575
850
1275
2125
800
92
365
490
730
1100
1830
850
82
300
400
600
900
1500
900
70
225
280
445
670
1115
950
55
155
220
310
465
770
1000
40
85
160
170
255
430
25
Blanks are designed based upon formulas for the calculation ofbending stresses for plates
under pressure loading. The minimum thickness for a blank is calculated as:
tm
dg [3P / 16SE]1/2 + C
inside diameter of gasket for raised or flat face flanges, or gasket pitch
diameter for ring joint and fully retained gasketed flanges, in
Where:
dg
Limitlof
Nominollhickn...
r
ornozzr.
Thicknes:ll. measured
specification
.1
i
         t Pipe

Figure 22
For fabricated tees, with the angle between branch and header of at least 450, the area
required to replace the area of the opening is calculated as:
26
Where:
Al
th
dl
This required area must he exceeded by the total available reinforcement area, or:
Where:
A2
d2
Th
Tb
Ag
L4
tb
Tr
area ofwelds and reinforcement provided for the intersection within the area
of reinforcement as defined as a parallelogram extending a distance of d2 on
either side of the centerline of the branch, and from the inner wall of the
header pipe to a distance ofL4 along the axis of the branch, measured from
the outside of the header pipe.
27
Ae
Fp
Pressure force, lb
Ae
De
Where:
When using restraints to absorb the unbalanced pressure load, it is recommended that
guides be located on the adjacent pipe runs in order to reduce the danger ofbuckling. The
Expansion Joint Manufacturers Association recommends that the first guide be placed a
distance no further than 4 pipe diameters from the expansion joint, with the second guide
placed no further than 14 pipe diameters from the first.
Figure 23 shows some typical piping layouts using expansion joints.
28
* O=Pipe
~+Vertical
....
0.0.
Support
/,f~
/Pipe
Anchor
Expans~_11
Joint
; C
~
Anchor
""
1st Guide
'~E
Figure 23
More information on the use ofexpansion joints is foundin Section 2.3.6 and Section 3 ofthese
seminar notes.
29
l l
~e
l L
1 e+e~
Figure 24
Elementary beam theory can be used to determine stresses in a member due to loading on
that member. Normally the member considered is onedimensional, homogenous with
respect to crosssectional and material parameters, and restrained in a number of degreesoffreedom atone or bothends. This model can only be usedifthe effects examined are limited
totwo adjacent support points and the straightrunofpipebetweenthose support points. The
question is what beam stress equation should be used?
Bearn theory states that ifboth support points are pinned (free to rotate):
w
JJHHHHHBB BBUBBB!!.
Figure 25
The maximum moment in the beam is in the center of the span, and has a value of:
w1 2/8
Mmax
length of beam, in
M max
where:
210
Mma
= w1 2/12
Figure 27
The clamp/pin/rod hardware allows rotation of the pipe, therefore simulating a pinned
connection. However, if an spans are of identicallength and loading, the reaction of the
adjacent pipe span prevents rotation at the support, therefore simulating a fixed connection.
The true condition is somewhere in between, so a compromise approximation is reached:
Mmax = w1 2/10
with the location of the maxim um moment being somewhere between the ends and the center
(i.e., anywhere) on the span.
211
Ofcourse, there sometimes are concentrated loads (valves, flanges, etc.)in the pi ping system.
The effect ofthese on the pipe stresses can he estimated as weil. For pinned connections:
p
lOI
"!"
C*J
LS.
1 ..
bj
h
.1
Figure 28
The maximum moment is located at the point ofloading, and has a value of:
Pab!l
Mmax
Where:
..tI
a t
~Ie~
Figure 29
The maximum moment is located at the end nearer to the load, and has a value of:
Mmax
pa2b!l2
In either case (or actually some case in between), the additional stress (MIZ) due to
concentrated loads should be added to the stress from the uniform load in order to determine
the total stress in the pipe. Or, examining the formulas above, it is evident that, as the
shorter portion of the span (b) approaches zero length, the moment, and therefore the stress,
approach zero as weIl. This points to an important rule of design  if supports are placed
as near as possible to concentrated loads, the effect ofthese loads from a stress point ofview
may be neglected. (They must still be considered for the support loads, of course.)
212
LalI
SalI
approximate allowable stress ofpiping material for weight stresses (Sh, less
pressure stresses, divided by intensification factor, for example), psi
LalI
Where:
If the piping system is then supported, such that no straight span exceeds Lall, the engineer
can be sure that allowable weight stresses are not exceeded in the system, and no analysis
per se need be done.
In order to save even the brief time required to calculate LaU, the Manufacturer
Standardization Society of the Valve and Fitting Industry has calculated allowable
piping spans for various piping configurations, and published them in their standard MSS
SP69 (Figure 210). They have calculated the maximum allowable piping weight spans
based upon the following criteria:
1
there are no changes of direction in the spans, which are assumed to run in the
horizontal plane,
the maximum allowable stress is assumed to be 1500 psi, combined bending and
shear,
Due to the low allowable stress value used, there is sufficient factor of safety that this
standard span may he applied to a wide range of piping configurations.
If the engineer supports a piping system such that no span in the system exceeds the
standard spans listed in the table, it is virtually certain that the system is adequately
supported for weight loading. However, it is rare that a piping system has no concentrated
213
loads, consists of only horizontal runs with minimal changes in direction, etc. Therefore,
standard practice dictates that standard spans be applied subject to the following four
caveats:
1
A developed length of 3/4 of the standard span or less should be used when the
piping run changes direction in the horizontal direction, in order to minimize
eccentric moments. The theoretically best location for a support is on an elbow;
however, this is not recommended due to the bend stiffening and increased local
stresses associated with attachments on a bend.
214
TABLE 3.
~....
'"d
1
NOMINAL PIPE
OR
TUBESIZE
t\:)
.....
1
01
l'
~
.....
COPPERTUBE
WATER
SERVICE
VAI'OR
SERVICE
ft
ft
ft
ft
1/4
2.1
2.4
I.S
I.S
J/8
2.1
2.4
I.S
1.8
1/2
2.1
2.4
I.S
1.8
WATER
SERVICE
VAPOR
SERVICE
2.1
2.7
I.S
2.1
2.1
2.7
1.8
2.4
1 1/4
2.1
2.7
2.1
8
9
2.7
1 1/2
2
2.7
12
J.7
2.4
.10
3.0
10
3.0
\J
4.0
2.4
21/2
Il
J.4
14
4.3
2.7
J/4
FIRE
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PRO
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TECTION PAESSlIRE
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. NOTE: (1) FOR SPACING SUPPORTS INCORl'ORATING TYPE 40 SHIELDS, SEE TABLE S.
(2) OOB NOT APPLY WHERE SPAN CALCULATIONS ARE MADE OR WHERE THERE ARE CONCENTRATED LOADS BE1WEEN SUPfORTS SUCH
AS FLANGB, VALVES, SPECIALTIES, ETC., OR CHANGES IN DIRECTION REQUiRING ADDmONAL SUPI'ORTS.
s.I:S
00
The standard span doesn't applyon risers, since no moment (and thus no stress)
develops regardless of the riser length. The number and location of supports
should be determined by the location and strength of building steel. However,
it is preferable to locate supports above the center ofgravity oflong risers in order
to prevent toppling.
The steps involved in supporting a piping system for sustained loads can he illustrated with
an exam pIe. In Figure 211, the system consists of a 12" diameter, standard schedule steel
pipe filled wi th water, wi th a design pressure of 150 psi, and a design tem perature of 3500 F,
which runs hetween two equipment nozzles.
The engineer first must determine the standard span for the system. For 12" diameter, water
filled pipe, the standard span is shown in MSS SP69 to he 23 feet. For changes of direction,
3/4 of this span is 17 feet4 inches.
Next, the engineer locates supports. The first concern is to locate them near concentrated
loads  supports should he located as close as possible to the two valves (for example, near
node points 20 and 70). The first ofthese is optional, depending on whether the nozzle at
node point 10 is assumed to act as an anchor, and whether it is desirable to minimize the
nozzle loads on the equipment.
The next concern is the placement of supports on the riser. Assume that the capacity of the
building steel dictates that the weight of the riser be split hetween two supports. It is
recommended that one ofthese be placed above the center ofgravity ofthe riser (for example,
15 feet below the top of the riser).
Now supports can be located elsewhere in the system, starting at the nozzle at node point
10. A support was located near node point 20 earlier; we now want to locate the next one
downstream within the standard span. It is evident that pipe changes direction within 23
feet, so the developed length to the next support should be maintained as less than 17 feet4 inches. The next run ofpipe accommodates a full 23 foot run, so two supports can be located
between node points 30 and 40. The line of action ofthe supports on the riser provide support
to the end of the horizontal 3040 run, so no additional support is required at node point 40.
Support locations can he continued to he selected in this manner until alilocations meet the
selection criteria; one solution is shown in the Figure 212.
Once completed, what does this accomplish? By using the standard span criteria, the
engineer can assume that the maximum stress in the piping system due to weight loading
does not exceed 1500 psi. Therefore, substituting this value for the weight component ofthe
stress equation:
Ssus
216
Figure 211
12" DIA  STD SCH PIPE
MAT'L  A106 GR B
FLUID  WATER
PRESSURE  150 PSI
TEMP  350 DEGREES F
ELBOWS  LONG RADIUS
INSULATION  2" CS
VALVES  150# GATE VALVES (WT=826#)
NOZZLES (ANCHOR POINTS) @10 & 90
Sc = 20,000 PSI
Sh = 20,000 PSI
THERMAL CYCLES <7000
PROPOSED
HANGER
LOCATION
Figure 212
217
Piping sag is not a problem, since dis placement is limited to 0.1 inches.
Therefore the engineer has demonstrated that this piping system meets the
sustained stress criteria, without having to do any actual "work".
This can be confirmed by actually doing an analysis of the supported system. The results
in Figure 213 show that the maximum sustained stress actually calculated for the
configuration shown in Figure 212 by CAESAR n is 2418 psi, showing that the shortcut
analysis is reasonably accurate, yet conservative. The CAESAR n analysis also shows a
maximum vertical dis placement under weight of 0.0046", which is also conservative.
PAGE:1
FILE:SUPT01
DATE:NOV 4.1992
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0040
.0046
.0039
.0000
.0000
.0012
.0008
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0005
.0009
.0016
.0000
.0024
.0010
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0009
.0067
.0073
.0012
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
218
.0000
.0000
.0010
.0024
.0034
.0052
.0065
.0075
.0004
.0030
.0027
.0013
.0012
.0032
.0041
.0017
.0010
.0042
.0042
.0029
.0003
.0007
.0004
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0002
.0003
.0004
.0004
.0005
.0005
.0005
.0005
.0004
.0004
.0004
.0004
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0002
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0017
.0044
.0031
.0024
.0022
.0015
.0012
.0011
.0010
.0007
.0004
.0003
.0002
.0002
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0010
.0012
.0000
PAGE: 10
2418.
@NODE
34
BENDING STRESS:
1255.
@NODE
34
54.
@NODE
22
AXIAL STRESS:
1300.
@NODE
46
3D MAX INTENSITY:
2631.
@NODE
22
TORSIONAL STRESS:
ALLOWABLE:
20000.
Figure 213
A further implication of this approach is that in order to eliminate a stress or deflection
problem due to weight loadings, the best solution is usually to reduce the unsupported span
of the piping i.e., add more supports.
219
NODE
FX
FY
Forces(lb. )
Fl
10
22
34
36
44
46
55
72
85
90
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
237.
2024.
2300.
2190.
3014.
3054.
1606.
2044.
803.
604.
l.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
l.
 Moments(ft.lb.)
MY
Ml
MX
3.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
397.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
3l.
o.
O.
O.
3.
100.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
ll10.
PAGE:
TYPE
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
ANC
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
ANC
Figure 214
The system support can probably be improved by moving the hanger a bit closer to the elbow
to reduce pivoting  but how close is enough? Figure 215 shows the restraint loads for a
configuration with the restraint at node point 22 moved 2'0 closer to the elbow (i.e., 3'0 from
the end of the valve). The sign is now correct (indicating a reasonably balanced system), but
the load on the nozzle is now 495 pounds, larger than before. It is not certain that this is an
improvement.
    Forces(lb. )
NODE
10
22
34
36
44
46
55
72
85
90
FX
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
FY
495.
1348.
2224.
2219.
3005.
3055.
1606.
2045.
804.
603.
Fl
l.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
l.

MX
239.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
30.
MY
4.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
5.
Figure 215
220
PAGE:
Ml
17l.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
ll09.
TYPE
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
ANC
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
ANC
However, this exercise demonstrates that support and nozzle loads may be
tailored by adjusting the locations of the supports. The best location for the hanger
may be estimated by interpolating between the two results, in order to minimize the load
acting on the nozzle. This shows that the best (where ''best'' is defined as minimizing Ydirection weight force on the nozzle at node point 10) location for the hanger is:
d
= 1.648 ft = 1'73/4"
Where:
d
Analyzed Case #1
237#
( 1"  7  3/4" )
Location
Distance of Support
from Valve, Feet
++......::.;0:+1
3.0
/
Interpolation Une
495#
'1
Analyzed Case #1
Figure 216
Tuning nozzle loads may also be done by varying the support loads, rather than the support
locations. This is done by refusing to allow the system weigh t to settle on its own, but rather
by forcing weight unbalance at certain support locations. In this way, ifthe support at node
point 22 is underloaded, the system is less likely to push up on the support. For example,
if the support at node point 22 only takes 1725 pounds, the shortfall will be split up between
the nozzle at node point 10 and the support at node point 32, with the bulk ofthe shortfall
going to the nozzle, which is doser. This shortfall, of approximately 300 pounds, will reduce
the upward load at node point 10 by approximately 225 pounds (with the support at node
point 34 being reduced by the remaining 75 pounds), down to approximately zero pounds.
(Proof of this is left to the reader.)
The load at selected supports can be forced to be unbalanced through the use ofpreIoaded
springs (i.e., the loads are set to something other than the naturally distributed weight load),
thus influencing the resulting loads on the nozzles. This is most easily done by releasing
degreesoffreedom at anchor points during the restrained weight phase ofhanger design,
as discussed in Section 2.4 of these seminar notes.
221
Figure 217
The axial force generated in the above configuration can be estimated to be the axial force
required to compress the pipe back to its originallength after it has been allowed to grow
freely. Its free growth is:
Figure 218
A
cd
Where:
A
ex
length of pipe, in
222
1~1 ..
e.lI
Figure 219
~
Pli AE
Where:
Considering a rather benign operation  a 12inch diameter, standard wall pipe (A = 14.58
square inches, E = 29E6 psi) operating at 3500 F (a. = 1.88E3 in/in)  the axialload is
calculated as:
P
From the point ofview ofmost piping codes, there is no stress, since no moment is produced
in the axial run (although the codes do state that the possibility of buckling must be
considered); however, this is not a good design.
An alternate is no restraint at one end, allowing the pipe to grow unimpeded; therefore no
load develops. However this is not good design either, since the pipe must normally attach
to sorne relatively fixed piece of equipment, and cannot usually be floating in space.
What is the solution to this problem? It is necessary to have sorne restraint on the system,
but too much may cause excessive forces, moments, and stresses. Looking at the examples
above, allowing no movement produces a force of about 800,000 pounds. Allowing 100% of
the pipe's desired free movement causes no force. Interpolating, ifwe could devise a means
by which the piping system remained intact, yet allowed 99.8% of the pipe's desired free
movement, the developed force would be approximately:
(1.0  0.998) x 800,000 = 1600 pounds
This is a much more manageable situation.
223
10 '0
12" cp STD
Les @350F
10'0
~
Cold
Hot
Figure 220
Pl3 / 12EI = cd
P1I2
r"""=
P
~
PI ...... 3 /
= PI
Figure 221
224
12EI
= ex
Solving for P: P
=12EI
d /13
= 6EI d /12
SE = 6EI d /12Z = 6ER d /12
Solving for M: M
Solving for SE:
Where:
l
I/R
R
Note that the calculated expansion stress range SE is independent of the wall thickness of
the pipe (on a systemwide basis). Therefore, increasing (or decreasing) the pipe wall is
usually not an adequate solution to an expansion stress problem. This equation also points
out that the stress range decreases with the square of the length of the absorbing leg, so the
longer the leg absorbing the displacement, the lower the stress range.
For the configuration shown in Figure 220:
d
SE
An expansion stress range of 17,700 psi is normally not a problem, however it must he
rememhered that this equation did not take into account the stress intensification factor
(SIF) at the elbow at the top of the leg. Considering an inplane stress intensification factor
for a long radius hend oftypical SIF value of2.8, this would result in a stress range of about
49,600 psi, which is probably excessive for typicallow carbon steel applications. (Note that
this value is actually conservative, since the guided cantilever model does not take into
account the fact that thejunction ofthe two legs will rotate some under the load, and further
neglects the additional flexibility of the elbow.)
Against what do we compare the 49,600 psi stress range? We compare it against SA, which
is:
SA
f(1.25 Sc + 0.25SH)
For a typicallow carbon steel (A106 Grade B, for instance) and a typical piping code (B31.3,
for instance), Sc and SH are both 20,000 psi, giving a conservative value for SA of30,000 psi
(the nonconservative value of SA cannot he calculated without knowing the sustained stress
S} at the point of interest).
The expansion stress range can he approximated for any run of pipe using the guided
cantilever equation shown above, as long as the displacements to be absorbed are known.
225
   t._.
due to
pipe leg
t::.
t::.
= PL~3/12EI
due to
support
+ P/10000
P = t::./(L~3/12EI + 1/10000)
M
t::. L/2(L~3/12EI + 1110000)
SE = t::. L/2(L~3/12EI + 1/1 oooo)/Z
)
Lateral Stiffness
of Support = 10000 lb/in
Figure 222
279.3 in4
Z = 43.8 in3
SE
2675 psi
226
This significantly reduces the stress range (from the previous value of 17,700 psi)  not
through any actual modification, but simply through a refinement of the model. From this
we can gain two insights:
1
Restraint stiffnesses may he calculated through any means and then entered by hand, or
simulated in the piping model through the use ofstructural or pipingelements. Vessel nozzle
stiffnesses may be calculated manually using Welding Research Council Bulletin 297 or
sorne equivalent. Modeling ofrestraints using CAESAR II's structural modeler and use of
WRC Bulletin 297 are discussed in Section 3 of these course notes.
Note that it is best not to selectively enter flexibilities for some restraints and not
for others. This willresult in the inaccurate distribution ofloads, resultingin nonconservative results.
It is evident that the stress analyst cannot easily change the terms 6, E, R, or delta. This
leaves only l, the length of the leg absorbing the thermal growth. This can be done through
the addition of an expansion loop. In this case, the thermal growth is partially absorbed by
each of the legs running orthogonally to the thermal growth:
SE
Ll
227
/'>,
/'>,
=
=
P(120)~3/12EI + P(240)~3/12EI
P(120~3 + 240~3)/12EI
~10'O
10'0
10'0
Figure 223
The expansion stress range in each ofthe legs is linearly proportional to the length ofthat
leg, so:
SEl
SE2
3937 psi
1918 psi
The stress range calculated in the longer leg is only 3937 psi (note that the maximum
expansion stress is found in the longest leg resisting the displacement), compared to 17,700
psi without the loop. Generically, the stress range in a legj, due to thermal expansion in a
direction perpendicular to that of leg j, is:
Where:
SEj
stress range in a legj Oegj must be orthogonal to the direction of the thermal
growth to be absorbed), psi
lj
length of leg j, in
li
length ofleg i (where leg i represents each leg helping to absorb the thermal
growth; normally, aIl legs running orthogonally to the thermal growth), in
Therefore, the calculated stress range should always decrease if expansion loops are added
in any direction perpendicular to a direction of thermal growth, since the denominator in the
expression for the expansion stress will increase.
228
2 
the system has no branches, and consists of only a single run between two
anchors,
3 
there are no intermediate restraint points (note that hangers are traditionally
excluded from consideration as restraints), and
4 
y =
L =
The term (L  U) represents the amount of extra pipe (i.e.,loops) in the system. Examination
of this equation reveals that, after factoring through constants, it is simply a form of the
guided cantilever stress equation:
This simplified check can be illustrated by applying it to the system shown in Figure 212.
It is clear that this system meets the first three criteria  the system is aIl of the same size,
material, etc.; the system has no branches, and consists of only a single run between two
anchors; and there are no intermediate restraint points except hangers. For the fourth
requirement:
D
12.75 in
[(11+12)x12x1.88E3)2+(50x12x1.88E3)2+45+33)x12x1.88E 3)2]1/2
xgrowth
ygrowth
zgrowth
2.154 in
11 + 45 + 50 + 33 + 12 = 151 ft
Dy / (L  U)2
229
0.03
Therefore the system illustrated in Figure 212 need not he explicitly analyzed for expansion
stresses.
How accurate is this simplified expansion stress check? Based upon the ratio of 0.0089 to
0.03 = .2968, one can infer that this system is stressed to approximately 29.68% of its
allowable stress. Assuming a low carbon steel of type A106 Grade B or similar and fewer
than 7,000 expected cycles, the allowable stress ofthe system at 3500 F can be conservatively
estimated as:
f(1.25 Sc + 0.25SH) = 1.0(1.25 x 20,000 + 0.25 x 20,000) = 30,000 psi
This would imply that the maximum expansion stress in the system is somewhere in the
range of:
SEmax
Figure 224 shows the actual maximum expansion stress found in this system through an
actual CAESAR II stress analysis  9051 psi (within 1 %), which demonstrates the accuracy
(at least for this particular case) ofthis simplified method.
PAGE: 10
(lb./sq.in.)
CODE STRESS %:
90S!.
@NODE
48
BENDING STRESS:
90S!.
@NODE
48
90.
@NODE
50
330.
@NODE
46
9252.
@NODE
48
TORSIONAL STRESS:
AXIAL STRESS:
3D MAX INTENSITY:
ALLOWABLE:
48681.
Figure 224
230
Pipe
,
\) Corrugations
expand and
contract
8ellows
Figure 225
Use of expansion joints is usually a last resort solution since expansion joints present
maintenance problems due to their fatigue failure mode. (lt should he noted that expansion
joints may on occasion actually offer an economical solution in extreme cases, such as when
the alternative is expansion loops ofvery large diameter pipe ofexpensive material such as
alloy or stainless steel.) Expansion joints also present problems due to the fact that they
cannot transmit tension through their wall. This problem is discussed in Section 2.1.5.
Since the failure mode of expansion joints is fatigue, the relative expansion displacements
hetween the start and end ofthe expansion joint must be checked against the manufacturer's
allowables. Note that the allowables provided will not he absolute values, but will be based
upon a specifie number of cyclic applications. The manufacturer must always provide a
fatigue curve or sorne other type of adjustment factor in order to determine the allowable
displacementforadifferentnumberofcycles. Forexample,amanufacturermayrequirethat
the allowables be divided by a factor based upon the numher of load cycles:
Factor
Cycles
1
0.49
200
0.56
1000
0.81
3000
1.00
15000
1.38
If the manufacturer provides allowable displacements in the axial, bending, and lateral
directions, aIl three movements should be evaluated using a linear interaction formula:
~act
}Cact
1ract
<= 1.0
231
Where:
Xact
eact
Yact
Xall
Sall
YaIl
Figure 226
AbIorption 01 MultlDilKtiona1
In the event that the manufacturer only provides allowable axial movements, the other two
displacements may he converted to equivalent axial displacements. In that case, the
following requirement must be met:
Xact + 0.00872665 De act + 3 DYact / 1 <= Xall
Where:
D
Expansion joints are especially weak in torsion, so this type ofloading should be kept to a
minimum.
Means of modeling various expansion joint configurations is discussed in Section 3 of this
document.
232
Other Solutions
Often expansion stress problems are due to the use offittings with large stress intensification
factors (SIF). In these cases, it may be possible to upgrade fittings to those with lower SIF
values. For example, miters can be upgraded to bends, which can be further upgraded to
bends with longer radii of curvature. Unreinforced fabricated tees can be upgraded to
reinforced fabricated tees, which can be further upgraded to welding tees. Threaded pipe or
socket weld connections may be upgraded to butt welds. SIFs are discussed in more detail
in Section 1.3 ofthese seminar notes.
Modification ofthe restraint configuration may also solve expansion problems. For exam pIe,
in most cases, removing restraints increases flexibility, decreasing expansion loads. Limit
stops may be used to allow some movement, thus reducing internaI generation of expansion
loads. Strategically placed restraints can be used to force thermal growth from areas ofhigh
stress to are as of lower stress.
233
Likewise, in systems supported only with rigid supports, it is possible that the pipe might
lift off of some supports and lock up against others once it thermally expands. This is
demonstrated through a review of the restraint loads during the operating load case for the
system shown in Figure 212, which shows that the pipe lifted off of the supports at node
points 36, 44, and 72 (rendering them inactive) and had a partiallock up at node point 55,
overloading the support.
FX
22.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
22.
 Forces(lb.)
FY
FZ
1074.
3023.
253I.
O.
O.
4940.
6238.
O.
1143.
602.
505.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
505.
MX
676.
O.
O.
o.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
18I.
 Moments(ft.lb.)
MY
MZ
4700.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
o.
5200.
325.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
1103.
PAGE:
TYPE
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
Rigid
ANC
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
+Y
ANC
Figure 227
It would be preferable if the pipe could move to its new position and, at the same time, onto
its supports; or even, if the support could move with the pipe. One solution is a weight and
pulley assembly:
Figure 228
234
The drawback to this is that the assembly is bulky, and requires restraint design for twice
the pipe load.
The mechanical implementation of this concept is the constant spring, or constant effort
support (Figure 229). This support has an internal pivot arm attached to a spring; as the
pipe moves up or down, the moment arm about the pivot and the spring force vary inversely,
creating a constant moment about the pivot, and therefore a constant force acting against
the pipe weight. The drawback of constant springs is that they are often too expensive for
the application; therefore they are usually used only when pipe movements are very large.
Figure 229
2.4.1 Variable Spring Hanger Design Basics
A less expensive alternative is a variable spring hanger, in which the spring load varies
somewhat as the pipe moves. From the analysis of the system shown in Figure 212 it was
evident that some change in the support loads as the pipe goes from the cold to the hot
condition is tolerable from a stress point ofview. The trick is to design the system with an
acceptable load range.
A variable spring hanger (Figure 230), preset to some load, provides support throughout
the range ofpipe movement; as noted above, there is some change in load as the pipe moves
from cold to hot position. As the pipe moves up, the load plate on the spring moves up,
allowing the spring to decompress, thus decreasing the load which the spring puts on the
pipe. As the pipe moves down, the load plate on the spring also moves down, further
compressing the spring, and thus increasing the load of the spring on the pipe.
235
Figure 230
The objectives of spring hanger design are to choose a spring which:
1
will provide the weight support load necessary to balance the pi ping system after
the pipe has moved from its cold (installed to its hot (operating) position,
permits the total movement ofthe pipe from its cold to hot position, and
does not cause an excessive expansion stress range in the pipe as the spring load
ranges from its cold to hot load.
Since the variable spring hanger load changes as the pipe moves from its cold to its hot
position, and one objective of hanger design is usually to provide the weight support load
necessary to balance the piping system in its hot position, it is necessary to install the spring
with an unbalanced "cold load". This unbalanced load can be determined by:
CL
= HL + k L1 th
CL
HL
hot load (desired target load to support balanced weight at spring location),
lb
il th
Where:
236
1 HL  CL 1 / HL = 1 k Ll th 1 / HL
Where:
Var
Since the hot load and thermal movement are dictated by the piping system configuration,
the variability of an individual spring can be controlled only by varying the spring rate. Most
manufacturers provide springs with three (or more) different spring rates per load size,
recommended for shortrange (0 to 1/2 inch), midrange (0.5 to 1 inch), longrange (1 to 2 inch)
displacements. Since all springs in a given load size support the same range ofloads over
their total travel, the spring rate (and therefore the variation) of a long range spring is
typically onehalf ofthat of a midrange spring, which in turn is onehalfthat of a short range
spring.
The use of a spring load variation criteria is normally a holdover from an earlier era, when
it was used as justification for not including spring stiffnesses in expansion loading cases.
If the spring stiffnesses are included in the analysis (as is normally the case with
CAESAR II), load variation criteria may probably be considered to be an unduly restrictive
requirement.
Var HL / 1 Ll th 1
2 
Determine the spring load size by finding the hot load in one ofthe columns of
the hanger selection table.
3 
For that size spring, select the spring series with a spring rate less than or equal
to that calculated above.
4 
Calculate the cold load (from CL = HL + k Ll th) and verify that the cold load also
falls within the working range ofthe spring.
5 
Ifthis is not the case, then try again with a different spring series of the same
size, or a spring of an adjacent size.
237
This process may he illustrated by an example. Assume that the target hot load of a spring
is computed as 613 pounds, the computed expected travel from cold to hot positions at that
point is 1.5 inches up, the load variation limitation is 20%, and the spring manufacturer
provides the selection table shown in Figure 231:
1 
1.5
= 82 lb/in
2 
The hot load of 613 pounds is within the range of spring load size 7 (with a
recommended range from 392 to 672 pounds), as shown in the selection table.
Therefore, a spring of this size is a preliminary candidate for selection.
3 
Looking at the bottom three lines of the column for size 7 shows that the only
springwith a stiffness helow the permissible springrate is the longrange spring,
with a stiffness of 56 lb/in.
4 
5 
= 726 lb
This load is within the recommended range of the spring; therefore a longrange,
size 8 spring preset to a Cold Load of 726 pounds must be specified.
238
..........
Ag.
....
fig.
fig.
12 0
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0
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sa 81 lOS 138 182
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78 113 146 1811
1
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fig.
fig.
0
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==
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0
1011
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Il
1'1(0
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30 42 54 70 114128 188 224 300 400 520 880 900 1200 1600 21110 3000 4000 5320 7080 Il4OO 12500 18670
15 21
7
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42 56 75 100 130 170 225 300 400 540 750 1000 1330 1710 2350 3125 4167
Figure 231
2.4.4 Hanger Design Process  Restrained Weight, Free Thermal, and More
The procedures described above assume that the hot load and thermal movement required
for spring selection are already known. How does the engineer calculate the hot loads and
thermal movements? The procedure for the entire hanger design process is as follows:
1 
Pick out support locations using standard span criteria, and do a weight
analysis, assuming that there are rigid Yrestraints at each location. This
analysis is called the "restrainedweight" analysis. The weight loads distributed
to each of the restraint during this analysis are used as the hot loads during
spring selection.
2 
Next, remove the restraints from the support locations, and do a thermal
expansion analysis. This analysis is called the "freethermal" analysis. The
thermal movements at each of the support locations are used as the thermal
travels for selecting the springs. (Note that due to the technical effects of possible
nonlinear effects in the system, CAESAR II performs not a true "freethermal"
load case, but rather a load case called "operating for hanger travel", which
includes the effects of thermalloads, weight loads, and the spring hot loads
calculated in the restrained weight case. Since the piping weight loads and the
spring hot loads essentially cancel each other out, this effectively results in a
thermal only load case, but with non linear effects considered.)
239
3 
Using the hot loads calculated from the restrainedweight case and the travels
calculated from the freethermal case, select a spring for each location from the
spring selection table as described above. Use the spring constant to determine
the required cold load (preset hanger load) for installation.
4 
Alter the model to reflect the presence ofthe springs by adding ares traint at each
support location with a stiffness equal to the spring constant ofthe spring, and
by adding the preset spring load (cold load) as a force active during the sustained
load case. Then reanalyze allload cases in order to get the effects ofhaving the
actual springs present.
The four steps ofthis procedure (except the locating of the supports) are done automatically
by CAESAR II whenever the user designates a hanger (i.e., a candidate for spring hanger
design) in a piping system
2.4.5 Restraint Placement Using Distance ta First Rigid Criteria
If the above procedure is followed exactly, it is likely that almost all support locations will
show some vertical movement, and will therefore require springs. For economic reasons, it
is best to try to limit the number of springs by using rigid supports at locations with small
movements.
How can this be done? The analyst can potentially impose zero movement at points where
it is safe from an expansion stress point ofview; ifthere is no vertical pipe run between points
of zero growth, all supports along that run should have zero growth as well. For example:
r~i~n:1
)
Down
Three Supports
with No Uplift
)
Position
Four Supports
with Uplift
Figure 232
The question is where can rigid restraints be placed without causing expansion problems?
If the expansion displacement is known at a given point, the minimum distance to the first
rigid restraint can be calculated using the guided cantilever stress formula:
S
6ERA /1 2 , so:
Imin
(6ERd /
SaU)1/2
240
Where:
lmin
= minimum distance to the first rigid restraint from a point ofknown vertical
dis placement, in
SalI
= an approximate allowable expansion stress value, based upon SR, Sc, f, any
intensification factors present, and the generallevel of expansion stresses
present in the system prior to addition of the rigid restraint (often a nominal
value such as 10,000 psi is used), psi
This can be illustrated by an example. In the system depicted in Figure 212, there are eight
hanger locations. If the procedure described in Section 2.4.4 is followed to the letter, there
will certainly be thermal growth at aIl ofthese locations, so eight springs will be selected.
In order to reduce this numher, sorne engineers impose a rigid displacement criteria  for
example, if the displacement at the hanger location is less than sorne value (such as 0.1
inches), they will select a rigid rod rather than a spring. (Note that this procedure is not foolproof, since using rigid rods at locations such as the tops of risers or near equipment nozzles
may cause lockup or liftoff despite having "freethermal" displacements ofless than 0.1
inches; therefore application of a procedure such as this must he reviewed carefully.) The
reader can confirm that rerunning this problem with a rigid displacement criteria of 0.1
inches actually leads to a reduction in springs used, with only five selected.
The engineer can do better than that by preselecting potential hanger candidates through
the use of the distancetofirstrigid criteria. AlI of the vertical thermal growth in this
problem is generated by the riser between node points 40 and 50; we can calculate that
growth as:
il = 50 x 12 x 1.88E3 = 1.13 in
The engineer can direct part of this growth upward, to be absorbed by the horizontal portion
between node points 10 and 40, and the rest ofit downward to be absorbed by the horizontal
portion between node points 50 and 90, by requiring a rigid restraint at one ofthe hanger
locations on the riser. Which ofthese two hangers is a better candidate for a rigid support?
Since the expansion stress is inversely proportion al to the square of the lengths of the
resisting legs, it is logical to direct the greater part of the thermal growth upward, since a
quick check reveals that the spans from node point lOto 40 are longer than the spans between
node points 50 and 90. Therefore, the hanger at node point 46 should be selected as the rigid
support, and the other one (at node point 44) must be a spring. This will force a thermal
displacement of(35 /50) x 1.13 = 0.79 inches upward, and a displacement of(15 / 50) x 1.13
= 0.34 inches downward.
Looking at the portion of the system from node point 10 to 40, one first considers the hanger
located at node point 36. A rigid support may be placed here if the span from node point 36
to 40 is long enough to absorb the displacement of 0.79 inches, or, if the distance from node
point 36 to 40 is greater than the calculated distance to the first rigid, which is (using SalI
= 10,000 psi):
lmin
241
The distance between node points 36 and 40 is only 13 feet, which exceeds the calculated
distance to the first rigid, so the support at node point 36 must he a spring. Looking at the
next support point, at node point 34, the distance from the riser is 36 feet, exceeding the
allowable distance to the first rigid. This indicates that a rigid support may be placed at node
point 34 without causing undue expansion problems. Next, since the pipe is being restrained
vertically at node point 34, there are no imposed displacements at the nozzle at node point
10, and there are no risers hetween node points 10 and 34, alilocations between the nozzle
and the restraint will also have no vertical thermal growth. This me ans that a rigid support,
rather than a spring, may be used at node point 22 as weIl.
The lower part ofthe piping system must absorb only 0.34 inches. The minimum distance
to the first rigid required to absorb this dis placement is:
lmin
194 in = 16'2
The distance between the riser and the hanger location at node point 55 is 11'4, which is
wi thin the minimum distance to the first rigid. Therefore, the support at this location should
he a spring. The distance from the riser to the support at node point 72 is 25 feet, which
exceeds the minimum distance criteria, and may therefore he a rigid support. This rigid
support holds the pipe to a zero vertical displacement, which when considered with the
anchor at node point 90, and the lack ofrisers inhetween, means that the hanger at node
point 85 may also be a rigid support.
By predeclaring these supports to he rigid supports, the engineer limits the number of
possible spring hanger candidates in this case to a maximum ofthree, a savings on hardware
heyond that achieved though use of the rigid rod displacement criteria method. It should be
noted that declaring that a support to he a rigid support does not mean that it must be
constructed as a twoway restraint; ifthere is no net uplift force, it may be built as a simple
rodhanger.
242
DISTANCE TO
20'0
RIGIDr~
>16'2~
\.\~Cl
\.\~l>.
Figure 233
In the event that a system which carries a fluid with a specific gravity less than
1.0 is to be hydro tested, the springs will generally have to remain pinned during
the hydro test. The hanger hardware (clamps, rods, etc.) and supporting
structure will have to he selected and/or designed to withstand the hydro test
loads, which will normally he the controlling design loads for these supports.
When specifying the spring hanger's Hot and Cold Loads, the anticipated weight
of additional hardware should be added to the loads calculated by CAESAR II,
especially if it is expected to he significant (such as in the case of large stock
clamps or a trapeze assembly made of structural steel). The spring must also
support the hardware, and if this is not considered when specifying the spring
parameters, the piping weight loading will he unbalanced by the weight of the
hardware.
Excessive use of spring hangers may create a dynamically unstable (low natural
frequency) system due to lack of restraint stiffness. These systems have
essentially no horizontal support, and typically small vertical stiffnesses resisting movement in the Y direction. Note that constant effort spring supports have
no dynamic effect on a piping system.
Selected hanger locations may actually hold the pipe down during the restrained
weight case due to unbalanced parts ofthe system pivoting about other supports.
CAESAR II flags these with a warning during the analysis and reports them as
zero load constant effort supports in the hanger table during output. When this
occurs, the offending supports should be removed, or the support locations in the
vicinity should be reconsidered.
There are special provisions to consider when cold spring and hanger design exist
in the same job. Cold spring should be omitted from the restrained weight case,
and included in the operating load case for hanger travel. The actual installed
load case should be run with the cold spring in order to determine the installed
hanger settings in the presence of cold spring. It is the user's responsibility to
verify that the displacements during the actual installed case are still within the
manufacturer's recommended load range. Problems usually only arise when
244
there is significant cold spring in a vertical run of pipe in the vicinity of one or
more spring hangers.
9
In a liquid filled line, the springs may he installed when the system is empty. In
this case it is necessary to ignore the "actual" cold load, and in some cases it may
be preferable to adjust the springs in the field to carry the cold load once the
system has been filled.
The spring installation load is to he adjusted with the pipe resting on the spring
and free to move vertically otherwise (i.e. there isn't a steel strap around the
spring base and the load flange, preventing movement of the load flange when
the spring is adjusted in the cold position).
The piping adjacent to the spring is very flexible and/or the stiffness ofthe spring
is very high.
Fluid fled systems are installed and set empty, and the user wishes to know the
empty installation load.
Use short range springs  CAESAR II's hanger design algorithm first tries to select for
an application a short range spring, followed by a midrange, and then a long range, spring.
On some construction sites short range springs are considered specialty items, and are only
used where available spring installation clearance is small and where travel from cold to hot
is small. In these cases, the user may instruct the design algorithm to bypass consideration
of short range springs (and start with midrange springs frrst) unless space limitations
require it.
Allowable Load Variation  As noted above, this is computed as:
Var = 1 CL  HL 1 / HL = 1 k A th 1 / HL
The maximum possible load variation inherent in recommended ranges of the spring tables
approaches 100% when the Hot Load is less than the Cold Load, and is approximately 50%
when the Hot Load is greater than the Cold Load. Typical values for the permissible load
variation range from 10% to 25%. A constant support may he forced at a location by
specifying a minuscule load variation requirement at that location.
Rigid Support Displacement Criteria  Where feasible, rigid supports are considered
preferable to springs supports, for reasons of economy (purchase, installation, and mainte
245
nance) and vibration prevention. Therefore, if a rigid support can be chosen instead of a
spring at a location, the engineer will usually want this to occur.
One definition of a spring support is: "a restraint that supports a given load through some
thermal travel". If the thermal travel is zero, or very small, then it is hypothesized that a
rigid support can he used in place of the spring. This is indeed true providing that the
surrounding pipe is relatively flexible as compared to the rigid rod.
The extent to which rigid supports are chosen can be controlled by this criteria. At any
support location where the vertical displacement calculated during the operating load case
for hanger travel is less than the specified Rigid Support Displacement Criteria, a rigid rod
will be selected and used in subsequent load cases.
Note that this may not be desired at spring locations in the vicinity ofpumps or other rotating
equipment or on risers, since this may result in high nozzle loads or thermallockup/liftoff
of the support. It is best ifthis criteria is used in conjunction with some predesign of support
locations, such as that discussed in Section 2.4.5 of these seminar notes.
Manufacturer's Tables  This entry is used to designate the manufacturer of the springs
(and thus the hanger table) to he used, as weIl as certain design criteria relating to selection
of the hangers within this table. The selection criteria include:
1 
2 
3 
Most hanger vendors provide hanger tables with two ranges defined: 1) a restricted, or
recommended load range, and 2) a maximum allowed load range. In order to provide margin
against analytical uncertainties, it is best to use the recommended range. The maximum
allowed load range may be used in certain situations, such as to permit the use of variable
support hangers instead of the more expensive constant effort support, or when an alreadyowned spring is to be used over a new one.
246
In cases where the expected analytical uncertaintyis especially high, maximum margin may
he provided by selecting the spring which most closely centers the loads in the hanger table.
Cold load design balances the weight loads in the cold, rather than the hot, condition. This
may he desired in those systems where installation is difficult due to flange fitup problems
caused by unbalanced cold loads, and where nozzle operating loads are not critical.
Available Space  In certain cases, the distance between the top ofthe pipe and the steel
overhead; or between the bottom of the pipe and the foundation or platform below, govern
the type (and number) of springs which may he used at a specific location. This value may
be specified at individual hanger locations for use in spring selection. Figure 234 defines
the available space as used in the CAESAR II spring design.
Available clearance
for hanger. (Input
positive number
for hanger available
space.)
Available clearance
for cano (Input
negative number for
Cab available space.)
1;.
j
Figure 234
The available space option together with the "number of springs allowed" option lets the user
design multiple spring support systems.
247
Number of Allowed Springs  Ifthere is physicaUy more than one spring can at a given
hanger location, that numher may be specified here. Likewise, the maximum number of
springs that the user will permit may be specified (in the event that CAESAR II has to split
the load in order to meet space criteria). In the case of multiple springs, CAESAR II will
split the load evenly among aU springs.
User Defined Operating Load  In some piping configurations the program selected
operating (or hot) load on the spring doesn't unload the equipment nozzle sufficiently to
satisfy manufacturers aUowables. In these situations the user can force a hot load (higher
or lower), overriding the program calculated value in an attempt to tune weight distribution
and bring the equipment loads within the allowables. The user's entry in this case should
normaUy be a variation of the value initially proposed by the program spring selection
algorithm. Before adjusting the operating load the user should determine if a preferable
course of action is freeing the problem nozzle during the restrained weight case (as discussed
above).
Old Hanger Redesign  In cases where part of a piping system is redesigned, it is
preferable that the hanger design algorithm reselect the existing springs in the system
wherever possible. Where they can be reused, new load ranges may he identified for them,
and only a readjustment ofthe load flange in the field may be required. Where the existing
springs can't be used, new ones will be recommended. The Old Ranger Redesign capability
allows the user to do this.
Multiple Load Case Spring Hanger Design  This option is useful whenever the piping
system has multiple thermal states that are sufficiently different such that the results from
each thermal state should he considered when doing the spring hanger design. Figure 235
illustrates this idea:
Figure 235
248
The hanger at "A" should he designed with the main pump running, and the hanger at "B"
should be designed with the backup pump running. Once the springs are designed for their
respective thermal cases they are inserted into the piping system and the various operating
conditions run to check for stress or equipment overloads.
The options available in CAESAR II for combining data from the various design load cases
are shown below:
1
5
6
249
2.5
As noted earlier, piping systems must he designed to withstand primary and secondary
loadings. Sustained loads were discussed as beingthe most common types ofprimary loads.
There are additional requirements for the evaluation of occasionalloads, or primary loads
which are present for short time durations, typically 1% to 10% of the total operating time.
Failure criteria are typically the same for occasionalloads as for sustained loads, except that
creep failure is not a concern for occasionalloads. Because of this, the allowable levels for
the absolute sum of sustained and occasional stresses are the same as those for sustained
loads, but increased by a factor (typically 15% to 33%). For example, looking at the B31.1
equation for occasional stresses:
Ma
Mb
Slp
Sh
Typical of these types ofloads are wind loads, earthquake loads, and quickly applied loads
(reliefvalve, fluidhammer, etc.). These are dynamic (meaningthat they change as afunction
of time) loads, and are therefore discussed in greater detail in Sections 4 and 5 of these
seminar notes. However, the easiest (but less accurate), and therefore most common means
of analyzing dynamic loads is usually to model them as static (meaning that they are
constant throughout time) loads, with the magnitude increased to reflect the dynamic load
amplification.
P eq * S
* D sine
250
Where:
f
P eq
V2 /2g
design velocity ofwind (usually the 100year maximum wind speed), ft/sec
shape factor (or drag coefficient), based upon Reynolds number ofwind and
shape of structure; this typically varies between 0.5 and 0.7, with a value of
0.65 characteristic ofpiping elements, dimensionless
angle oforientation between pipe and wind, where 0 0 represents the pipe axis
parallel to the wind direction
Since this represents the force associated with a steadystate flow of air, the calculated value
is often increased by a gusting factor in the range of 1.0 to 1.3 to account for dynamic effects.
The linear force per foot, f, is calculated for each end of the element and the average taken.
The average is assumed to apply as a uniform staticload over the entire length ofthe element.
ASCE #7 (formerly ANSI A58.1) modifies this concept slightly to consider facility importance, proximity of hurricanes, etc. Its formula for wind load is:
0.00256 Kz (1 V)2
Kz
Exposure coefficient, based upon height above ground level and congestion
oflocal terrain (varies from 0.12 for 015 feet height in city environment to
2.41 for 500 feet height in wide open terrain), dimensionless
Gt Cd D sin
Where:
251
gusting factor, based upon height above ground level and congestion oflocal
terrain (varies from 1.0 for 500 feet height in wide open terrain to 2.36 for 015 feet height in city environment), dimensionless
CAESAR II's ASCE #7 wind input screen requests a number ofparameters, from which the
coefficients of the equation above are determined.
ASCE #7 provides a map of basic wind speeds in the Continental United States. The
following is a crude summary of the map:
Region
California
Other West Coast Areas
Rocky Mountains
Great Plains
NonCoastal Eastern U. S.
Gulf Coast
Florida  Carolinas
Mi ami
New England Coastal Areas
70 mph
80 mph
70 mph
80 mph
70 mph
100 mph
100 mph
110 mph
90 mph
ASCE #7 adjusts the importance factor according to the site's Distance from Hurricane
Ocean line. This typically translates into the distance from the east coast or the Gulf of
Mexico in the Continental U .S. Ifthe plant site is greater than 100 miles from either the east
or the gulfcoasts, then a value of 100 miles should be used (no credit may he taken for any
plant site greater than 100 miles from any ofthese hurricane prone areas).
The importance factor is further influenced by the Structural Classification, where the
options are:
CateQor.v
Description
II
III
IV
The exposure coefficient and gusting factor are influenced by the terrain's Wind Exposure
type, where the options are:
1 
2 
3 
Open Terrain
4 
Wind is a static, horizontal uniform load. Itmay act in any direction, and as such the engineer
has several items to consider:
How many directions should be analyzed for sensitivity to wind?
1
2
Do nonlinear supports (i.e. horizontal guides with gaps) and/or friction affect the
wind load?
Should the wind act on the piping system in the cold or hot condition?
The logic diagram shown in Figure 236 should serve as a guideline when setting up and
analyzing wind load cases to satisfy piping code requirements. (Note: The load cases shown
here only contain the basic analysis components. Other items such as imposed displacements, concentrated loads, etc. may need to he added to the load cases shown above for the
user's particular job.)
DOES THE PIPING SYSTEM
CONTAIN FRICTION,
1D RESTRAINTS, AND/OR
GUIDES WITH GAPS?
YES
NO~
IS THE MOST SENSITIVE
WIND DIRECTION
OBVIOUS?
YES~
RUN: JOB1
1
(OPE)
2
(SUS)
(OCC)
3
4
(EXP)
5 (OCC)
T+P+W
P+W
WIND
Di  D2
S2+S3
RUN: JOB1
(OPE) T+P+W
2
(SUS) P+W
3
(OPE) T + P + W + WIND1
4
(OCC) D3  Di
5 (EXP) Di  D2
6 (OCC) S4+S2
NO
RUN: JOB1
1
(OPE)
(SUS)
2
3
(OCC)
(EXP)
4
5 (OCC)
T+P+W
P+W
WINDX
Di  D2
S2+S3
JOB2
(SUS) P+W
2 (OCC) WINDZ
3 (OCC) Si +S2
JOB2 *
1 (OPE)
2
(SUS)
3
(OPE)
4
(EXP)
5 (OCC)
T+P+W
P+W
T + P + W + WIND 2
D3  Di
S4+S2
*REPEAT THIS LOAD SET FOR ALL OTHER WIND DIRECTIONS (BOTH + AND ) OF CONCERN
Figure 236
For nonlinear systems an additional algebraic case may be required to extract the occasional
bending moments from the operating hending moments. In perfectly linear systems an
occasionalload case can he run alone, with this used for the stress component due to the
253
occasionalload. With nonlinear systems, the effect the occasionalload has on the system is
linked to the effect of the operating loads on the system. The algebraic load cases shown in
Figure 236 permits these two effects to be separated.
Response spectrum: If seismic response spectra are available for the piping system, then,
given the natural frequency of the lowest mode of vibration of a piping system, the analyst
can find a corresponding acceleration from one of the curves. Ifthis acceleration lies on the
right side of the peak, this acceleration may be conservatively used an overall gfactor. For
more information on seismic response spectra, refer to Sections 4 and 5 of these seminar
notes.
Building code: Building codes provide ways to calculate seismic gfactors, based upon
earthquake potential, structure type, and structure fundamental frequency. For example,
the Uniform Building Code and the BOCA Basic/National Building Code calculates:
ZKCT
seismic coefficient based on earthquake zone, equal to 0.0 for Zone 0, 0.25 or
Zone 1, 0.5 for Zone 2, and 1.0 for Zone 3
g
Where:
254
ASCE #7: This standard calculates seismic gfactors in a manner similar to those of the
building codes, based upon earthquake potential, structure importance, structure type,
structure fundamental frequency, and soil parameters. The requirement is:
= ZIKCSW
Where:
Seismic Zone
Coefficient, Z
4
3
1
3/4
3/8
3/16
1/8
2
1
0
Category
Description
1.0
II
Primary occupancy 
III
1.5
IV
NIA
1. 25
= structure type constant from Table 24 of ANSI A58.1, ranging from 0.67 to
2.5 (use K=2.0 for structures other than buildings)
= soil type coefficient from Table 25 ofANSI A58.1, ranging from 1. 0 to 1.5 (note
that the product ofC and S neednot exceed the value 0.14, so this value should
he used as a conservative maximum).
The "g'" factor can be found be dividing both sides ofthis equation by W, so:
g
= V/W=ZIKCS
255
For piping, the generic equation for the maximum gfactor is:
g
Seismic Zone
Product
gload
(1)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.28
(3/4)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.21
(3/8)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.105
(3/16)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.0525
(1/8)(1)(2)(0.14)
0.035
= F(t)
Equating energies (where the kinetic energy added to the mass is Fx( t), while the crumpling
energy of the spring is Kx(t)2/2):
Fx(t) = Kx(t)2/2, or Kx(t) = 2 F(t)
The term Kx(t) represents internally induced forces/moments within the system. The DLF
is the ratio of the induced forces to the applied forces, or K x( t)max / F( t), which in this case
has its maximum value of2.0. It is often highly conservative to apply twice the calculated
force as a static load, but this is still often done. As the load ram pu p time (such as the opening
time of a relief valve) increases, or the load duration decreases (such as fluid hammer in a
short piping leg), the DLF will decrease as well. In order to take advantage of the "true"
(reduced) DLF, it is necessary to perform a dynamic analysis, such as a time history analysis
or a response spectrum analysis. In lieu of a dynamic analysis, the user can only estimate
a DLF, estimate the applied load, and apply a concentrated static force equal to the DLF
times the applied load to the piping system.
Fluid Hammer: It is not always so easy to calculate the applied loads. One method of
estimating fluid hammer loads is described in Crocker & King's Piping Handbook as:
F
= P c dv A /144g
256
Where:
F
Ef
Ep
1.3 for steam, 1.24 for ethylene, 1.27 for natural gas
temperature of gas, oR
dv
Relief valves: Relief valves are used in piping to provide an outlet on those occasions when
pressure builds up beyond that desired for safe operation. When the pressure setting is
257
reached, the valve opens, allowing sufficient fluid to escape from the piping system to lower
the pressure. This discharge initiates ajetforce, which must be resisted by the piping system.
Valve opening time and duration of the jet load affect the dynamic response of the system,
thus affecting the developed loads.
Reliefvalve jet loads are normally provided by the valve manufacturer. Ifthis is not the case,
the loads can he estimated by a thorough thermodynamic analysis. This methodis discussed
in detail in Section 5 of these course notes.
In lieu of thermodynamic and dynamic analyses, the B31.1 code provides a means of
estimating the discharge force (as an equivalent static force) of a relief valve venting steam
to atmosphere. The force is estimated as such:
DLF (M V 1 g + P A)
DLF
ho
a,b
Where:
Steam conditi on
a (Btu/lbm)
b (dimensionless)
291
11
823
4.33
Superheated
831
4.33
258
Pa
token at this
location

W =Weight of
entire assembly
Figure 237
The dynamic load factor (DLF) is used to account for the increased load caused by the sudden
application of the dis charge force. (Note that DLFs are discussed in great detail in Sections
4 and 5 ofthese seminar notes.) For the purposes ofthis estimate, the DLF varies between
1.1 and 2.0, depending upon the rigidity of the valve installation and the opening time ofthe
valve. If the piping system is relatively rigidly restrained, the DLF can he calculated by
fin ding the natural period ofvibration ofthe valve installation, treating it as a single degreeoffreedom oscillator:
0.1846 [ W H3 / g E 1]112
T
Where:
Next, the ratio of the valve opening time, to, to the fundamental period of vibration of the
valve installation, T, should be found. This ratio is then used to determine the DLF from the
chart in Figure 237. (Note that in the event that the opening time is not known, a
conservative value of 2.0 for the DLF should be used.)
259
2.2
2.0
1.8
u...
c5
1.6
1.4
1.2
0.1
0.2
2.0
Figure 238
260
20
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.5
3.6.2
31
o
@
~
"Stick" Member
Figure 31
Piping basic elements are modeled as centerline, or "stick" members. These elements are
defined by two node points (one at the "from" end, and the other at the "to" end), each with
fixed spatial coordinates and six degrees of freedom (three translational and three rotational). The elements are further defmed by a constant (nonvarying along the element
length) set of stiffness parameters (i.e., material and crosssectional properties). Response
of the elements under load is governed according to recognized strength of material
32
relationships (as described in Section 6 ofthese notes), subject to certain limiting assumptions. These assumptions, described on the followingpages, govern the relationship between
the mathematical model in the computer and the actual pipe existing in the power plant or
refrnery.
AlI elements remain stable under load (local buckling of crosssections is
ignored):
48" 00
0.375" Wall
Section AA
Figure 32
Center of Bending
Figure 33
The computer algorithm assumes that points A and B (of Figure 33) always lie on the same
crosssectional plane, whether in the deformed or the undeformed state.
33
:~
0
F
L'
Figure 34
In reality, the moment F x L (in Figure 34) does not produce a uniform "plane
".. Tensile
Normal
Uniform Bending Stress
Figure 35
4
Stress Distribution
Remains Unear
Figure 36
34
5 
Moments and forces applied to the beam are assumed to act about the neutral
axis:
Should not be
modeled as:
(Unless the F * L
moment can be
assumed negligible)
Figure 37
6
Element crosssections do not ovalize under load (except as adjusted for bend
elements):
0
~CTLAA
Figure 38
35
Applied loads are not affected by the deformed state of the structure (Pdelta
effect):
Np
6. =
F  ..
0.25 in
1000 lb
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Figure 39
In reality, there will be an addition al moment applied to the system, equal to the
load times its displaced distance from the neutral axis ofthe structure (i.e., 1000
pounds x 0.25 inches = 250 inlb). The computer software models this load as
strictly a force with no applied moment.
8
Sterling
From
y
About X
About Z
y
36
Node point rotations are added vectorially by the computer software. This is not
a valid representation of reality for large rotations, as demonstrated in Figure
310 for three 900 rotations.
9
NonLinear
Restraint Response
Different for Up and
Down Loads (OneWay Restraint)
Linear
Restraint Response
Constant Throughout
Load Range
Figure 311
The stiffness algorithm cannot solve for nonlinear restraint conditions, such as
onedirectional restraints, bilinear restraints (soil or bottomed out springs),
friction, etc. However, CAESAR II does include a procedure which overcomes
this limitation; see point 8 below.
These limitations are of the most concern when modeling the following situations (pointers
for increasing accuracy in each situation are also given):
Large Diameter/thin wallpipingorducts: In thiscase,itisadvisabletominimize
localized loadings by distributing them with pads or saddles, or do plate buckling
analysis (preferably with finite element software) when the loads cannot be
altered.
Localized stress conditions not explicitly covered by an SIF, i.e. a saddle: The
portion of the pipe impacted by the saddle may be modeled as a rigid element,
while saddle/piping local stresses may be estimated through the use of finite
element analysis or through the use ofWelding Research Council Bulletins, such
as 107 and 198.
Pipe connections to thin walled vessels: The flexibility of the connection may be
modeled by a flexible element (such as that generated using Welding Research
Council Bulletin 297), while stresses in the pipe and vessel may be estimated
through the use offinite element analysis orthrough the use ofWel ding Research
Council Bulletins 107 and 297.
Highly corrosive systems (especially when subjected to cyclic loadings): Corrosion of a pipe results in an irregular crosssection which is usually modeled by
using the uncorroded crosssection for load generation (weight and thermal
forces), and the fully corroded cross section for calculation ofthe section modul us
37
Elbows: Elbows ovalize significantly when subjected to bending loads. This can
be accounted for by increasing the flexibility ofthe elbow element in the computer
model and multiplying the calculated stress by a stress intensification factor
(this is done automatically by most programs such as CAESAR II). Code defined
"flexibility factors" for bends have been determined theoretically and verified
experimentally.
t_~dline
= "\
Flange .A" 1
r  rnean raJ
p:l
th: r
(From BS 8061975)
~tion
cross
Figure 312
The flexibility and stress intensification factors of bends must be reviewed in
those cases where ovalization is inhibited (such as when the elbow is stiffened
by flanges or welded attachments). The piping codes provide correction factors
for bends with one or two flanges, but omit geometries such as shown in Figure
313.
(A)
(8)
(C)
Figure 313
These attachments almost certainly affect the flexibility, and more importantly,
the stress intensification factors for the bends. The factors for heavily stiffened
bends, such as that shown in Figure 313(A), could he estimated using finite
element analysis, or stiffness could he increased by modeling the elbows as
38
Loadings which produce stresses which are weIl outside of the code allowable
ranges: These loads will tend to produce stresses weIl beyond the material yield
stress, stresses in the buckling range, large dis placements resulting in significant Pdelta loads, or large rotations Oeading to inaccurate results). This limits
programs such as CAESAR II as accurate analysis tools throughout the full
range of potential loadings. However accuracy is not affected for those loads
which are ofmost interest to the engineer code allowables are based upon the
fact that the analysis being done assumes linear material response.
Rigid elements: Rigid elements, such as valves and flanges are most difficult to
model due to the inability to represent their geometry, and their stress distribution with stick elements. Therefore, pipe stress software cannot be used to
accurately determine the effects ofthe piping system on rigid elements. Analysis
of these components is best left to fmite element analysis, test, or other
recognized methods. However, the effects of the rigid elements on the piping
system can he simulated by providing an element ofhigh relative stiffness in the
model (it is always more important to adequately model relative stiffnesses than
absolute stiffnesses when constructing a model). This is done by providing an
element with sufficiently large crosssection, and having the defined weight of
the rigid item. In CAESAR II, a rigid element is modeled as having:
a) aninsulationfactorof1.75Ccompared tothematchingpipe), unless a zero
weight rigid Ca modeling construct)
b) fluid weight of the matching pipe added, unless a zero weight rigid
c) the same inside diameter and 10 times the wall thickness ofthe matching
pipe
39
J
1\
Vl
L
50" diameter
1/2" wall
.J ____
_
4 trunnion support
shown. (Typ. both sides)
Figure 314
Simplest Method:
Figure 315
Limitations:
1
torsional resistance due to the restraint pair is not considered (see Figure 316)
310
Figure31G
More Accurate:
Kspring
Figure 317
Limitations:
1
Most Accurate:
~il,...____
Pipe element
/ 'modeling trunion
Kspring
Figure 318
311
Limitations:
1
local flexibilities and stresses only as close as WRC 297 and WRC 107 bulletins
(see discussion in this Section 3.4 of these seminar notes)
Figure 319
Simplest Model:
~point.
Apply SIF's forwelding tee here.
Incoming pipe with header~
properties coded to ~ intersection point.
Figure 320
Limitations:
1
312
More Accurate:
Figure 321
Limitations:
1
no provision for stress calculations in forging, but this isn't usually a problem,
because ofthe extra heavy wall of the fitting would ensure that the connecting
pipe would probably fail first. Any questions regarding load capacity should
probably be directed to the fitting manufacturer
Most Accurate:
Rigid element
modeling tlange.
Figure 322
313
Comments:
1
2
3
the flexibility ofthis model will he more accurate (but only marginally so for a
heavy fitting)

One of the most common types ofpipe support is shown in Figure 323:
Figure 323
Simplest Model:
Figure 324
314
Limitations:
1
the point of application of the stanchion is not at the correct location on the bend
curvature
pipe may lift off of (or lock up with) modeled support due to thermal expansion
between centerline of horizontal run and point of application on riser
More Accurate:
~ Pipe between
nodes Cand D
with properties of
stanchion
Figure 325
Limitations:
1
315
Most Accurate:
L
LL U1'
SiOO}
el
Aa
Ct
:'
Figure 326
Limitations:
1
points A and B aren't exactly at the same location (this can be resolved using
CAESAR n's "OFFSETS" feature, but other pipe stress software may have a
difficult time with this)
modeling the stiffening effect of the stanchion on the bend through the use of a
single flange bend is an approximate solution
local stresses at the stanchion are only as accurate as WRC 107 bulletin
316
L
Centerline of the structural 'stick" model
Figure 327
Because the elbow in Figure 328 connects directly to the equipment flange and the
equipment flange is anchored, the stiffness ofthe model in this local region is very high. If
the stanchion connects at A and the equipment centerline is at B, the differential thermal
growth of the elbow between those points could put enormously high loads on both the
stanchion and the equipment model. This is also in reality, a difficult problem to design for.
Unless the user is willing to put a spring at the stanchion location, the differential thermal
growth in this small area might result in large nozzle loads.
A
Rotating Equipment Centerline
Figure 328
In the Figure 329, a small, but heavy process monitor and actuator is mounted on the line.
The rigidity, weight, and moment due to the offset is best modeled using a weightless rigid
element going from the centerline of the pipe out to the center of gravity of the process
monitor, at which point a small rigid element with the weight ofthe equipment should be
modeled. The rigidity ofthe body of the monitor (within the pipeline) should be modeled as
317
a rigid as weIl. (Note that some engineers may prefer to model the effects ofthis equipment
by applying a force equal to the weight and a moment equal to the weight times offset at the
centerline ofthe pipe. This approach, although acceptable for static analysis, is absolutely
incorrect for dynamic analysis, and should therefore be avoided since it cannot be promised
that no dynamic analysis will he conducted on a system in the future.)
Pump
Figure 329
In Figure 330, the large 18 inch line comes directly from a fluegas furnace, passes through
a small exchanger and enters a waste heat boiler. This is a very stiffsystem relative to the
vessel connections. Therefore, instead ofmodeling the connections as rigid anchors (which
would give the same relative stiffness to the restraints and to the piping), WRC Bulletin 297
should he used to estimate and model the nozzle flexibilities. This method will provide the
best approximation of the distribution of the piping loads to the vessels.
Soiler
~~~~~
~ ~umace
Figure 330
318
In Figure 331, rectangular ducting connects the two separators, which are rigid relative to
the ductwork. In order to size each spring for i ts share ofthe distributed weight ofthe whole
assembly plus the connected piping, it is best to simulate the stiffness of the duct through
the use of an equivalent structural member or piping element.
Separator
~{!Sprin9
stee'
"Ri9idElem7
!
Separators
modeled as pipe
Location
Figure 331
An angle valve could be modeled as shown in Figure 332. It may be necessary to model it
as three rigid elements if the weigh t of the operator is significant in com parison to the valve
body.
Figure 332
The following sections of these seminar notes provide more detailed methods for modeling
and analyzing specifie components of the piping model.
319
Figure 333
For the most part, these details are taken care ofby the expansion joint manufacturer. A
typical expansion joint piping design proceeds:
The decision is made to use an expansion joint in the piping system. (In many
design problems the joint is used to protect a sensitive piece of equipment from
excessive nozzle loads.)
Based upon the design temperature and pressure, a standard expansion joint is
selected from a manufacturer's catalog. The properties ofthat bellows are then
inserted into the piping model.
Ifthe bellows reduces loads and stresses as intended then the range ofexpansion
movements on the bellows must be checked. For each bellows there is a limit to
the cumulative axial, bending and lateral displacement that can be absorbed by
the joint without excessively deforming the convolutions or causing fatigue
failure. These limits are presented in different ways in different manufacturer' s
catalogs, but are always functions of the number of applied cycles, bellows
material properties and convolution shape. Where excessive displacement is a
problem, increasing the number of convolutions can be the solution.
4
Once the bellows movement is within the allowable range of movements, the
design is completed. A competent expansion joint manufacturer should be able
to provide assistance throughout the design stage as required.
320
Where:
F
axial force in each convolution (also the axial force throughout the entire
bellows), lb
= NKax
N
Kax
ex
X/N
Mr
is the effective diameter of the joint (equal to the inside diameter plus the
height of one convolution), in
er
(rxD)/(2N)
= fD
Where:
ey /
(2 1)
Where:
shear force in each convolution (also the shear force supported by the entire
bellows), lb
321
3Dy/(NI)
ey
These expressions can easily be converted into stiffness and flexibility coefficients:
F/x
Lateral Stiffness:
Axial Stiffness:
Kax
V/y
These stiffness values are provided in most manufacturer's catalogs. In the event that the
manufacturer only gives axial stiffness, the other two can be calculated once the effective
diameter and length are known. (Note that torsional stiffnesses are not usually provided,
since unprotected expansion joints are not designed to carry torsionalloads and may fail
catastrophically if inadvertently exposed to even moderate torsional moments.)
Note however that the bending flexibility coefficient should not he used in any
piping program. The bending stiffness that should be used is exactly four times
the hending flexibility.
This is because the socalled bending flexibility is calculated by applying a moment (M r ) to
the free end of an expansion joint and observing its end rotation (9). A computer model,
however, expects a bending stiffness to be the ratio of the applied moment to the angular
rotation at the end of an expansion joint that is fixed against translation  i.e., a
representation of guided cantilever. This angular stiffness for a guided cantilever expansion
joint model is calculated as:
Mrfr
(Kax) (D2) /2
FLEXIBILITY
STIFFNESS
Figure 334
Some pipe stress programs only offer "point", or zeroIength expansion joint models. (In
CAESAR II the user can define "fmite length" or ''point'' expansion joints.) There is a
difference in terms of how the two models are entered. As seen above, for finite length
expansion joints, the lateral and bending stiffnesses are related by the equation:
322
Bending Stiffness
=V/y x 12/3
Because ofthis exact relation, and since the length is known, the user can only enter one of
these two values. CAESAR II computes the other value using this equation. For a "point"
expansion joint, the length is unknown, so aIl three stiffnesses must be definedfor the model.
[4 x 19.6/ pi
M!r
]1/2
= 4.9955 in
R D / 2 , or:
Er
0.00872665
eD
323
3DY/l
Er
Ey
Ey
Where:
x + 0.00872665 D e +
3 DY /1 <= Xall
Where:
Xall
Example: Assume that the expansion joint used in the example from Section 3.3.1 must
be checked for its range of applied expansion displacements. The following parameters
apply:
Number of Convolutions = 12
Manufacturer's allowable axial displacement (for 3000 load cycles) = 1.43 in
The expansion joint runs between node points 120 and 125, with the axis of the bellows
coincident with the global Xaxis, in the stress analysis model. The range of expansion
displacements (assume that fewer than 3000 cycles are expected) from the stress analysis
output are shown below:
NODE
DX
DY
OZ
RX
RY
RZ
120
0.3
0.25
0.0
0.0
1.23
0.03
125
0.1
0.12
0.0
0.0
0.02
0.89
324
Now it is necessary to compute the relative dis placements between the ends ofthe expansion
joint. This is often not a simple task since the rotations ofthe expansionjoint ends can cause
lateral translations which don't produce axial deformation of the joint. In the event that
displacements and rotations are small, and the expansion joint runs along a global axis, the
relative dis placements of the expansion joint can he fairly closely approximated:
x
e
Using the interaction formula, the range of expansion movements is checked as:
x + 0.00872665 D e +
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Il
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
Nodei
Nodej
N
L
D
Xi
Yi
Zi
X'~
Zj

DXi
DYi
DZi
RXi
RYi
RZi
DX'J
DYj
DZj
RX'J
RY'J
RZj
325
120.000
125.000
12.000
4.447
4.996
.000
.000
.000
4.447
.000
.000
X Displacement of "from"
Displacement of "from"
Z Displacement of "from"
X Rotation of "from" end
y Rotation of "from" end
Z Rotati on of "from" end
.300
.250
.000
.000
1.230
.030
.100
.120
.000
.000
 .020
.890
X Displacement of "toN
Displacement of "to"
Z Displacement of "to"
X Rotation of "to" end
y Rotation of "to" end
Z Rotation of "to" end
y
More
326
More
OUTPUT:
AXIAL DISPLACEMENTS PER CORRIGATION
Axial
Axial
Axial
Axial
Displacement
Displacement due to Lateral
Displacement due to Rotation
Displacement TOTAL
.033
.044
.006
.083
.401
.158
1.517
.019
"j"
X Displacement
Y Displacement
Z Displacement
Rotation about X (deg)
Rotation about Y (deg)
Rotation about Z (deg)
"j"
.399
.132
.095
.000
1.250
.860
Input Output
More
Figure 336
Results  e(total)  are given in terms of equivalent axial displacement per convolution
 in this case, 0.083 inches per convolution. The accuracy of the initial estimate (done
without the benefit ofthe ERATE program) of an equivalent axial extension of 0.904 inches
can be determined by multiplying 0.083 times 12 convolutions, for a total equivalent
extension of 0.996 inches (an error of approximately 9%). It can he seen that the bulk of the
error is due to the underestimation of the lateral displacement (see x, y, theta, tors  the
total axial, lateral, rotational, and torsional displacements respectively on the bellows as a
whole) on the expansion joint  the estimate was 0.13 inches, while ERATE calculated it
asO.158inches. Thisisimportant,sincelateralloadingisverycritical. Additionally, without
the use of a calculational aid such as ERATE, the lateral displacement will be the most
difficult to estimate, especially as the rotational angle increases.
Torsion on the expansion joint should be approximately zero. Ifnot, it is recommended that
the acceptability of the bellows for the torsionalload be verified by contacting the expansion
joint manufacturer.
327
Figure 337
12 inch nominal diameter pipe, standard wall (Di = 12 in), P = 250 psi
Axial Tension = Area x Pressure = pi/4 di2p
Where:
Deff
Di
P (pi/4) De#
Fp
Fp
Where:
The pressure force is actually developed at the point where the pressure encounters the first
metal area perpendicular to the axis ofthe expansion joint  for example, a capped end or
a change in direction. The distribution of the pressure thrust loads in a number of
configurations is shown in Figures 338 through 342.
328
~_.E~: ]10
"
Tl
P (pi/4) DetF
Figure33S
~,
" T2
Tl
T2
totalload on anchor, lb
P (pi/4) DetF
Figure 339
329
:'~~iF  Tl
T~~
Ts
tension in bellows, lb
Tl
T3
Tl
9i
Tl
Tl
Il
\
Figure 340
Pressure thrust loads in rotating equipment without tie bars (ends anchored):
tension in bellows, lb
Tl
T2
T4
=
=
P (pi/4) DetF
Figure 341
330
Tl
T2
T3
tension in bellows, lb
P (piJ4) Di 2
P (piJ4) Di 2
P (piJ4) De~
Figure 342
Note that there are no reaction loads (T4) when tie bars are used.
Most pipe stress programs such as CAESAR II automatically calculate the unbalanced
pressure thrust load and simplify the model by applying the entire magnitude at either end
of the bellows. In most cases, this is an adequate approximation of the actual situation.
Greater modeling accuracy can be achieved by disabling the application of pressure load at
the bellows (by defming an effective diameter as 0.0), and calculating and applyingthe thrust
load manually to the model as so:
Apply the force T  Tl at the ends of the bellows.
Apply the force T2  Tl at the locations identified by the T2 arrows.
Expansionjoint, tie rod, and reaction loads T, T3, and T 4 will be calculated correctly by
the program.
In any event, even though the tension/compression in the pipe wall may not be completely
accurate in the default computer model, the load tending to open the bellows will be; this is
usually a much more critical detail to consider when designing a system to absorb the
pressure thrust. It is left to the user to confirm that this is normally not a major design issue.
331
1
2
explicitly, by including both the tierods and the pressure load in the model.
Assuming that the tie rods absorb 100% of the load, the net effect ofboth ofthese models on
the piping system are the same.
If the compression is less than the pressure thrust load, there is not a problem.
If the compression exceeds the pressure thrust load, then the tie rods will be in
compression. The compression must be checked to ensure that it is not so great
that it buckles the tie bars. If the tie rods are tension only (i.e., lock nuts are
placed only on the outside ofthe expansion joint flanges) then some redesign is
required, either:
a) put nuts on the tie bars on both sides of the expansion joint flanges, or
b) redesign the piping system so that the compressive load is not so great.
332
In the event that a single pipe element is used to represent the tie rods, the best way to provide
the same axial stiffness as the tie rods is to leave the diameter equal to the diameter of the
attached piping and set the wall thickness approximately equal to:
(N/4) Drod2 / Do
Drod
Do
t
Where:
If a rigid element is used to model the tie rods, again the diameter should be set to that of
the attached piping; the wall thickness should be set to:
t
(N/40) Drod2 / Do
The rigid element should be given a weight equal to the total weight of aU of the tie rods,
which, if made of steel, is approximately:
W
Where:
The tie rods are modeledin CAESAR II to resistonly axialloads through the use ofrestraints
with "CNODEs" (other nodes in the system to which a restraint is connected). Consider the
expansionjointltie rod assembly shown in Figure 343. The bellows element is modeled as
running between the two node points 5 and 10. The tie rod element is then run from node
point 5 to node point 20, using the same deltacoordinates as for the expansion joint. This
puts node points 10 and 20 at a coincident location, without any actual attachment. The
attachment is provided by placing a restraint at the far end of the tie rod (node point 20) in
the direction of the expansionjoint axis, in this case the Y direction. Placement of a restraint
here in this manner restrains node point 20 (the end of the tie rod) against a rigid point in
space; this can be adjusted by defining the restraint node point 10 as a CNODE. This means
that node point 20 is not restrained against a point in space, but rather that it cannot move
in the global Ydirection relative to node point 10  the end of the expansion joint  an
effective representation of a tied expansion joint.
333
J!j)
~~

"""""::iilif1
'1
,~
~
.... 
Figure 343
The tie rods should be set to the ambient temperature, if they are outside of the piping
insulation, or to a temperature doser to the operating temperature ifthey are inside ofthe
insulation.
Tie rods may also be modeled in a more complex fashion, using multiple rigid elements, as
shown in Figure 344. In this model, loosening of the nuts on the rods due to rotation of the
expansion joint flanges will be simulated.
2025
3025<1.. ~~.... 1025
4025
15
Figure 344
As noted, tie rods must be checked for potential buckling loads after the analysis is complete.
Or alternatively, they may be designed to take tension only. This is done by placing locknuts
only on the outside of the flange, as shown in Figure 345. In this case, the expansion joint
is prevented from extending by the nut, while the flange can move freely during joint
contraction. This configuration can be modeled in CAESAR n by using oneway restraints
(or even gaps, ifappropriate) between the end of the tie rodelement and the CNODEs. For
example, if the tie rod shown in Figure 342 was tension only, it would be modeled by placing
a +Y restraint at node point 20, with 10 as the CNODE, indicatingthat the end of the tie rod
cannot move down against the expansion joint (but can move up).
334
Possible free
movement of
tie bar end:.,:
Figure 345
Complex expansionjointltie rod models are cumbersome to build and check, but where hot,
large diameter tight piping systems are being analyzed they yield the most accurate model.
This is especially true where tie rods are long and not designed for compression. In these
cases a slight rotation of the expansion joint can put one side ofthe tie rods in compression
and the other side in a greater tension.
335
Ringe Joints:
Hinge expansion joints are shown in Figure 346.
;HingeArm\
r/
l
[1[1
fi 
_ /
Hinge Pi/"
][
ilU
"'
'Hinge Pin
Figure 346
The hinges restrict angular rotation of the beIlows to a single plane, and may be used in a
single or doublehinged configuration, the latter ofwhich comes as a single unit. When using
a pair of single hinged joints, the joints should be placed as far apart as possible to reduce
angular rotations as weIl as forces and moments. In most cases, the hinges are designed to
pass through the full pressure thrust load, so there is no need for tie rods. In some cases, the
hinge connections may be slotted to permit axial displacement of the bellows, however, then
the pressure thrust must be absorbed by adjacent anchors. A typical hinge application is
shown in Figure 347. Note that the piping system requires bending in one plane only.
..
J:'''~::~
1 .. ;..( .. 1
_        _....
PG
EOU"MfNT
'L
1
1
1
"", 1
7'
~
7""
,', !~~
,
..
~
'.;;;r
DIA
Figure 347
336
~
lA
A computer model for a single hinge expansion joint is shown in Figure 348.
Hinge axis
d&~.~~~==~.C=~~4~
Remember: Hinges are
almost always used in pairs.
40
44
45 46
47
50
Figure 348
A zeroIength expansion joint is placed between node points 45 and 46. The axial, lateral and
torsional stiffnesses ofthe expansion are set to rigid (lE 12), with the hending stiffness taken
from the manufacturer's catalog (or calculated from Deff2 Kax / 2. The effective diameter
for the pressure thrust may be set to zero. The bending restriction is modeled by placing a
rotational restraint, in the direction perpendicular to the axis of the pipe and the hinge, at
node point 45, with a CNODE at 46. Halfofthe weight of the hinge hardware is assigned
to each of the rigid elements, as it may he important for hanger design and/or equipment
loadings.
Gimbal Joints:
Gimbal expansion joints are shown in Figure 349.
~HingePin
l} gTI
U/Gimbal Ring
r~~,,!11'i nngepln l
,
(
"
\..1
1 1
1 1
i 1 )
1 1\'1
'1
L:J
r+P
1 1
Il
11
..l' Il
S=r i IlflfJ i ~ U
1
1 Ir
1 Il.
11
1.1
t
1
1
1
141. 1!
10151020 Bellows
t o'I' U
1
L.....I
2530 Gimbal
10351040
Bellows
Figure 349
337
Gimbals are designed to permit angular rotation in any plane. The hinges and gimbal ring
are capable of absorbing axial pressure or vacuum loads, dead weight ofadjacent piping, and
torsional moments. Like hinges, if gimbals are used in pairs, they should be located as far
apart as possible to maximize absorbed dis placement, and reduce rotation and forces and
moments. A typical gimbaljoint application is shown in Figure 350. Note that the piping
system requires bending in two planes.
~ss
.....
PG
Figure 350
A computer model for a gimbaljoint, such as the first one shown in Figure 349 is very simple
to build  one simply defines an expansion joint with rigid axial, lateral, and torsional
stiffnesses, and a bending stiffness equal to that ofthe actual expansionjoint used, since the
gimbal is free to bend in all directions. (Rigid elements with weights equal to the weight of
the gimbal assembly may be included as weIl.) Sometimes, however, a gimbal may be used
in conjunction with hinges, as shown in the diagram ofthe angular/transversejoint in Figure
349. A computer model for something like this is more complex to build  one solution is
shown in Figure 351.
~20
3~~
14 .~.
2530
1040 45
1020
Figure 351
The hinges/gimbal are modeled as the rigid series of elements running from 10 to 45 along
the top ofthe figure, while the bellows and spool piece are modeled as the elements running
along the bottom of the figure.
338
Element 10 to 15 is a rigid element, having a length equal to the distance from the face of
the inlet flange to the axis of the first hinge, with a weight equal to approximately onequarter of the total weight of the hinge/gimbal hardware (note that fluid and insulation
weigh t is automatically added to nonweightless rigid elements, so that should be considered
when assigning a weight to these elements). The hinge (element 15 to 20) is modeled as a
zeroIength expansion joint with rigid (lE12) axial, lateral, and torsional stiffnesses, and a
bending stiffness of 1 (which is effectively zero). The hinge is restricted to onedirectional
rotation by restraining node point 15 rotationally about the Xaxis, with a CNODE of20.
Element 20 to 25 is another rigid element, having a length equal to the distance from the
axis of the first hinge to the midpoint ofthe gimbal, and again a weight equal to onequarter
of the total hardware weight. The gimbal (element 25 to 30) is a zeroIength expansionjoint
with rigid axial, lateral, and torsional stiffnesses, and a bending stiffness of1 (unrestricted
by any restraints). Element 30 to 35 is a third rigid element, having a length equal to the
distance from the midpoint of the gimbal to the axis of the second hinge (again with onequarter of the total hardware weight). The second hinge (element 35 to 40) is modeled in the
same way as the first, except that the rotational restraint applied at node point 35 is about
the Yaxis, with a CNODE of 40. The final rigid element, from node point 40 to 45, has a
length equal to the distance from the axis ofthe second hinge to the face of the outlet flange,
and provides the fmal quarter of the hardware weight. Since neither the hinges nor gimbals
are internally pressurized, the expansion joints which are used to model them should be
given effective diameters of zero as weIL
The expansion joints and spool piece will be modeled from node point 10 to 45 as weIl,
indicating that the centerlines of the two assemblies are coincident, but connections are
present only at the end points. Elements 10 to 1015 and 1040 to 45 are rigid elements with
the length and weight ofthe two end flanges. Elements 1015 to 1020 and 1035 to 1040 are
finite length expansion joints modeled with the exact properties of the actual bellows used
(including effective diameter). Element 1020 to 1035 is modeled as a normal pipe element,
representing the spool piece between the two expansion joints.
Universal Joints:
A univers al expansion joint is shown in Figure 352.
Universaljoints consist oftwo unrestricted expansion joints flanking a spool piece. They are
usually used to absorb large lateral movements in any direction. By increasing the length
of the center pipe the amount of lateral displacement absorbed can be increased, with a
corresponding reduction in the lateral forces and hending moments. In most cases univers al
joints are tied to prevent the pressure from blowing apart the assembly. (When a univers al
expansion joint must absorb axial movement other than its own axial growth, an untied
univers al should he used  in that case, adjacent restraints must be designed to handle the
pressure thrust.) A center support may be provided on the tie rods to help support the weight
of the center piece, to provide limit stops for the displacement, and/or to reduce the length
of compressive rods (and the corresponding tendency of the rods to buckle).
339
Figure 352
A simple model of a universal expansion joint is shown in Figure 353.
~~
.006
Figure 353
340
Since the tie rods isolate the pressure loads and thermal axial growth of the joint from the
remainder of the system, the assembly can be simply modeled by calling the effective
diameter of the bellows zero, the axial stiffness of the bellows rigid, and the temperature of
the assembly ambient. Elements 4 to 5 and 1006 to 7 are rigid elements (with the weight
of the tie rods, etc.), elements 5 to 1005 and 6 to 1006 are expansion joints with effective
diameters ofzero, axial stiffness ofrigid, and bending and lateral stiffnesses as determined
from the manufacturer. Element 1005 to 1006 is simply a pipe element representing the
spool piece. The totallength of the elements from node point 4 to node point 7 should be the
same as the length of the tie rods, and, as noted above, the assembly should all be set to
ambient temperature.
More complex models involve entering as accurately as possible the bellows, tie rods, and
all supporting mechanisms. These models are very cumbersome to build but will give the
most accurate representation of the loads, movements, and other conditions in and around
the joint. More complex univers al joint models are shown in Figure 354.
J(x
1002
/i
1~==I=*lH'~r
:J"
1036
1030
1003
1003
Figure 354
341
342
343
assemblage ofrigid elements, with varying degrees of complexity. In either case the forces
considered when evaluating the equipment are those forces which the pipe stress analysis
shows are acting at the equipment connection. The load cases for which the nozzle loads are
to be checked are the greater of those from the cold and the hot cases  that is, from the
sustained and the operating load cases (except when cold spring is considered, in which case
the cold case would be sustained plus the effects of cold spring).
Typically suction, discharge and extraction lines are included in separate pipe stress models.
Once all of the loadings on a particular piece of equipment have been computed, the
equipment can be evaluated to determine whether these loads are acceptable (i.e., in
accordance with the governing standard).
CAESAR II provides the ROT program, which may be accessed from the main menu, to
automatically evaluate piping nozzle loads against the requirements of a number of these
standards. Equipment (and standards) covered include:
1
In order to use this program, the user is required to enter some description ofthe equipment
(geometry, nozzle sizes, etc.) and the applied loads. Specific requirements ofthese standards
(and the corresponding use of the ROT program) are described below.
3.4.1.1 NEMA SM23 Standard for Steam Turbines
NEMAStandard SM23 requires that ste am turbines be evaluated by two sets of simple force/
moment calculations. The two types of computations are used to satisfy:
1
First, the loads on each individual suction, discharge, and extraction nozzle must satisfy the
equation:
3F + M< 500D
Where:
F
344
Ifthe loads on the individual nozzles are acceptable, the cumulative load on the equipment
from all nozzles must be checked next. Cumulative equipment allowables require that forces
and moments on aH connections he resolved at the discharge nozzle; the absolute magnitude
ofeach of the force and moment components must then fall below a multiple of De, as:
Fx <= 50 De
Fy<= 125 De
Fz <= 100 De
Mx <= 250 De
My <= 125 De
Mz <= 125 De
Fe + M e /2 <= 125 De
Where:
Fx
total Xforce (from ail nozzles) on the equipment (where the Xaxis is defined
as being parallel to the equipment centerline), lb
Fy
total Yforce (from ail nozzles) on the equipment (where the Yaxis is
coincident with the direction of gravity), lb
Fz
total Zforce (from all nozzles) on the equipment (where the Zaxis is defined
by the right hand rule form the other two), lb
Fe
Mx
My
Mz
Me
= total resultant moment acting on the equipment, resolved about the dis
charge nozzle, ftlb
De
345
An example of a NEMA SM23 analysis is shown in Figure 355. In this example, the turbine
is modeled as a series ofrigid elements, so both the discharge and suction nozzle loads appear
on the same pipe stress analysis output.
20
10
2~3
30~IL T~'~55
35:i<,50
TURBINE MODELED AS
THREE RIGID ELEMENTS
45
............t
"\
1:~ TURBINE
...............
Figure 355
The forces and moments acting on the elements connected to the turbine (excerpted from the
CAESAR II output for this piping system) are shown below:
NODE
FX
FY
Fl
MX
MY
Ml
30
108
49
93
73
188
603
35
108
67
93
162
47
481
50
192
11
369
522
39
55
192
63
11
78
117
56
Since the sign conventions of these forces is that of forces acting on the elements, it is
necessary to reverse the signs to get the forces and moments acting on the turbine nozzles
at points 35 and 50, or:
NOZZLE LOADS AT
TURBINE NODE
FX
FY
Fl
MX
MY
Ml
35
108
67
93
162
47
481
50
192
7
11
369
522
39
346
When running the NEMA portion of the ROT program, there are two input spreadsheets
upon which descriptive and load data must be entered, which in this case would be fIlled out
as shown in Figure 356.
EquipMent ID
NEMATl
35.0000
4.0000
50.0000
8.00130
1.013130
................
................
PgUp/PgDn/HoMe/EndChange Page
[EsclExit
EquipMent ID
[Ftl Execute
= NEMATl
34.0000
.0000
15.0000
'i
108.0000
G7.000ll
93.0000
lG2.0000
47.0000
481.0000
192.0000
7.0000
11. 000ll
3G9.0000
522.0000
39.0000
'i
'i
X
't
Z
X
'i
PgUp/PgDn/HoMe/EndChange Page
selExit
Figure 356
347
[Fil Execute
The program then proceeds to check the loading on each nozzle, and then resolves the loads
about the discharge and checks the cumulative loading on an equivalent nozzle, as described
above. The two page NE MA output report for this particular example is shown in Figure 357. The results first show that the discharge nozzle passed (only reaching 30.4% of the
allowable), the suction nozzle passed (reaching 49% ofthe allowable), and the cumulative
load passed, with the highest summation load (Zmoment) reaching only 56% of the
allowable. If the turbine had failed, the symbol **FAILED** would have appeared in the
"STATUS" column next to the load combination that was excessive.
Nozzle
Node
Diameter Diameter
(Nom)
(USED)
(i n. )
(i n. )
(i n. )
8.000
4.000
8.000
4.000
.000
34.000
.000
.000
(i n.
DISCHARGE
SUCTION
50
35
.000
15.000
Nozzle
Components
Resultants
(lb. & ft.lb.) (lb. & ft.lb.)
FX=
FY=
FZ=
192
7
11
F=
MX=
MY=
MZ=
369
522
39
M=
640
FX=
FY=
FZ=
108
67
93
F=
157
MX=
MY=
MZ=
162
47
481
M=
83
398
189
DISCHARGE
50
SUCTION
35
Values/Allowables
3F+M
1216
500*D(used)
4000
192
% of ALLOW.
30.40
3F+M
980
500*D(used)
2000
% of ALLOW.
49.00
509
Summation Calculations.
Diameter Due to Equivalent Nozzle Areas. OC =
Nozzle Loads Summations
( 1b. &
Allowables
8.94 in.
% of ALLOW.
ft. 1b. )
SFX
SFY
SFZ
FC(RSLT)
84
74
82
138
50*DC =
125*DC =
100*DC =
447
1118
894
18.79
6.62
9.17
SMX
SMY
SMZ
MC(RSLT)
447
170
631
792
250*DC =
125*DC =
125*DC =
2236
1118
1118
20.00
15.25
56.51
535
125*DC =
1118
47.85
FC + MC/2 =
Figure 357
348
Status
API Standard 610 basically presents reference tables ofnozzle loads which a specified size
pump nozzle must be good for. The 6th edition of the standard provides separate allowables
for two types of support/base plates:
1
heavy duty
standard
The "heavy duty" pump is typically a reinforced standard pump which can withstand higher
piping loads. (The criteria necessary to meet the requirements of a heavy duty base plate/
support are discussed in paragraph 2.4.6 of API 610, 6th Edition.) AlI force components
acting on each nozzle of a heavy dut y pump must be less than two times the value shown in
Table 2 for that specific load component. For pumps with heavy duty base plates, this is the
only requirement. A copy of Table 2 (from the 7th edition) is shown in Figure 358.
160
200
130
290
240
300
200
430
160
130
200
290
240
200
300
430
200
130
160
290
300
200
FX
FY
FZ
FR
Each side nozzle
FX
FY
FZ
FR
Each end nozzle
FX
FY
FZ
FR
Each nozzle
MX
MY
MZ
340
MR
460
260
170
240
430
700
530
350
950
10
12
14
16
320
400
560
700
260
570
1200
1500
1000
1010
850
1100
700
1560
2200
1500
1800
1200
2600
1600
2000
1300
2900
190C
230(
150C
330(
560
460
700
1010
850
700
1100
1560
1200
1000
1500
2200
1500
1200
1800
1600
1300
190C
150C
2000
230C
2600
2900
330(
700
460
560
1010
1100
700
850
1560
1500
1000
1200
2200
1800
1200
1500
2600
2000
230C
1300
1600
2900
150C
190C
330(
1700
1300
870
2310
2600
3700
4500
2800
3400
2200
4700
3500
540C
1900
1300
3500
460
320
260
400
570
400
260
320
570
980
740
500
1330
1800
5000
6100
2300
6300
400C
270C
720C
F = force, in pounds; M = moment, in footpounds; R = resultant. See Figures 15 for orientation 01
nozzle loads (X, Y, and Z).
Figure 358
349
The "standard" API 610 pump has a slightly more complex scheme for compliance:
In no case shall any of the individual force or moment components on either the
suction or discharge nozzles exceed twice the allowable value for the component
as shown in Table 2.
2
Providing that the first is satisfied, the pump passes ifthe resultant forces and
moments on both the suction and discharge nozzles are within the allowables
given in Table Cl, shown in Figure 359 (note that resultant allowables are
included in Table 2 of the 7th edition).
2
430
690
640
860
1400 2000
6
I~
3~
10
12
Figure 359
3
Ifthe pump passes the first requirement, but fails the second, the pump may still
pass ifboth conditions described below are satisfied as weIl:
CONDITION 1 CRITERIA
a) The ratio ofthe appliedresultantforce to the allowable resultantforce from Table
Cl for each nozzle is less than or equal to 2.
b) The ratio of the applied resultant moment to the allowable resultant moment
from Table Cl for each nozzle is less than or equal to C; where C=2 for nozzles
6 in. and smaller, and C=(D+6)/D for nozzles larger than 6 in.
c) For each nozzle, the sum of the force ratio and the moment ratio found in (a) and
(b) above must be less than 2.
CONDITION 2 CRITERIA
The summation ofthe forces and moments from both the suction and the dis charge nozzles,
taken about the base point (which is the intersection of the shaft axis and the pedestal
centerline), must he less than the sum ofthe force and moment resultant allowables for both
the suction and discharge taken from Table Cl.
The 7th edition ofthis standard modified the requirements to a small extent. The differences
in the 7th edition are:
350
this edition does not recognize separate provisions for heavy duty baseplates; the
methodology for evaluating any pump under this edition is the same as that for
as standard base plate pump under the 6th edition
different allowables are provided for vertical inline pumps that are supported
only by the attached piping
the allowables for larger diameter nozzles have been increased in some cases
An example of an API 610 analysis (if evaluating under the 6th edition, the pump is
considered to have a standard baseplate) is shown in Figure 360. For this example, the
suction and discharge piping were analyzed in separate models  the 8inch suction piping
was analyzed in ajob called ''1NLET3" and the 6inch dis charge pipe was analyzed in ajob
called "DISCH3". In both cases the pump nozzles were modeled as anchors. The forces and
moments acting on these anchors, as printed in the CAESAR fi output report, are the nozzle
forces and moments (with the same sign) that should he entered into the rotating equipment
input spreadsheets. These reactions are shown below:
REACTION LOADS AT
PUMP NODE
FX
305
50
507
105
FY
FZ
MX
MY
MZ
111
231
490
3950
46
2861
51
2189
201
30
..=:::D
CONTINUE ON WITH
JOB "DISCH3"
c=.
CONTINUE ON WITH
JOB "INLETS"
SUCTlON~ ~~__
/
305 (ANCHOR)
50 (ANCHOR)
~~SE
1_'_3lJJ
BASE
POINT
351
POINT
Z~X
9'
Figure 360
111'
When running the API 610 portion of the ROT program, there are three input spreadsheets
upon which descriptive and load data must be entered, which in this case would be filled out
as shown in Figure 361.
EquipMent ID = G10T1
100.0000
1.0000
305.0000
3.0000
8.0000
50.0000
1.0000
5.0000
1.0000
EquipMent ID
Nozzle Orientation
Base Point to Nozzle
Cin.)
2 ..... Cin.)
11.0000
.0000
.0000
X..... <lb.)
<lb. )
111. 0mm
Z .... <lb.)
231.0000
(ft.lb.)
.. (ft.lb. )
Z.. (ft.lb.)
3350.0000
2851.0000
2189.0000
~ .....
Forces on Nozzle
MOMents on Nozzle
X..
~PI
EquipMent ID
G10T1
507.0000
= G10T1
Nozzle Orientation
Base Point to Nozzle
X <in.)
y (in.)
Z (in.)
Forces on Nozzle
X... (lb.)
Y..... <lb.)
Z ..... <lb.)
MOMents on Nozzle
X (ft.lb.)
y (ft.lb.)
Z <ft.lb.)
Figure 361
352
.0000
15.0000
9.0000
105.0000
30.0000
490.0000
45.0000
51.0000
210.0000
The program then performs the compliance check, as described above. The two page API 610
output report for this particular example is shown in Figure 362. The results first show the
status of the individual nozzle checks  each of the load components on both the discharge
and the suction are within twice the Table 2 allowable; however, the resultant moment on
the suction nozzle exceeds the allowable from Table Cl. Because ofthis failure, Conditions
1 and 2 must he checked. Since both of the se conditions are satisfied, the pump meets the
requirements of API 610  despite the one failure.
INPUT DATA'
BASE POINT NODE
1BB
BASE PLATE TYPE
STD.
SUCTION
TYPE
END
DISCHARGE TYPE
TOP
SHAFT PARALLEL TO X AXIS
NOZZLE
NODE
DISCHARGE
SUCTION
DIAMETER
SB
3B5
(in. )
X
( in. )
(in. )
Z
(in. )
6.BBB
8.BBB
.BBB
l1.BBB
15.BBB
.BBB
9.BBB
.BBB
,
NOZZLE
NOZZLE LOADS
Z><ALLOUABLES
NODE
(
DISCHARGE
SB
a ft. lb.)
lb.
~=
FZ=
MX=
M'/=
MZ=
SUCTION
3B5
% OF ALLOU.
FROM TABLE Z
lb. a ft.lb.>

FX=
FX=
lBS
3B
498
UZB
7BB
9ZB
9.38
4.Z9
53.26
46
51
21B
34BB
26BB
1749
1.35
1.96
12.B7
14BB
17BB
23.B5
7.93
13.59
5ZBB
3BBB
26BB
75.96
75.29
B4.19
FZ=
587
111
231
MX=
M'/=
M2=
395B
2B&1
ZlB9
~=
1.BB
22BB

STATUS

NOZ2LE
NOZZLE LOADS
( lb.
DISCHARGE
SUCTION
ALLOWABLES
% OF ALLOW.
FROM TABLE Cl
ft. lb.) ( lb. a ft. lb.>
SB
FR=
MR=
5BZ
Z2B
15BB
35BB
33.47
&.31
3B5
FR=
MR=
56B
5345
Z3BB
52BB
24.78
IBZ.B1
1.B8)
STATUS
""FA 1 LED""
Suetion Nozzle
IS WITHIN ONE AND TWO TIMES THE ALLOWABLES FROM TABLE Cl.
THE PUMP MA~ STILL SATISF~ API61B REQUIREMENTS IF
CONDITIONS #1 AND #Z BELOW ARE MET.
CONDITION #1
NOZZLE
NODE
DISCHARGE
SB
UALUE
(Fa'Fr>+(Ma~Mr)
CONDITION
=
Fa'Fr
Ma'Nr
SUCTION
3B5
(Fa'Fr)+(Ma~Nr>
Fa,yr
Ma'Nr
.4B
.33
.B6
1.28
.25
1.B3
< or =
< or =
< or =
STATUS
2.BB
2.BB
2. BB
< or = 2. BB
< or = 2.BB
<
or =
1.75
CONDITION #2
SUMMATION OF APPLIED FORCES
MOMENTS AT THE BASE POINT
7121
125BB
Figure 362
353
STATUS
uge"d
1. Tubesheet
2. Plu, sheet
3. Top and bouom plates
4. Endplate
~.
9. Noule
Tube
6. Pus partition
7. Stiffener
8. Plu,
Figure 363
(lb)
Nominal
Diameter
FX
FY
FZ
MX
(ftlb)
MY
MZ
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
12
14
100
150
150
500
750
1200
1500
2000
2500
150
200
250
400
750
2000
2000
2000
2500
100
150
300
500
600
850
1000
1250
1500
50
70
200
400
800
1100
1250
1500
1750
70
120
300
600
1500
3000
3000
3000
3500
50
70
200
400
1050
1500
2000
2500
3000
354
the sum of the forces and moments on each fixed header (i.e. each individual
bundle) will be less than 1500 pounds transverse to the bundle, 2500 pounds
axial to the bundle, and 3000 pounds axial to the nozzle centerline, while the
allowed moments are 3000, 2000, and 4000 footpounds respectively (referenced
as Table allowables)
The input to the API 661 portion ofthe ROT program is relatively selfexplanatory; typical
input screens are shown in Figure 364 and the output report is shown in Figure 365.
API 661 Input Data
EquipMent ID
= H661
EquipMent ID
= H661
Nozzle Orientation
(in.)
18.0000
X..... (lb.)
Z . (lh.)
100.0000
302.0000
50.0000
X (ft.lb.)
(ft.lb.)
Z (ft. lb. )
203.0000
300.0000
2300.0000
'f . . . . .
Forces on Nozzle
'f
MOMents on Nozzle
'f
Figure 364
355
(lb.)
File
Date
TiMe
2B
8
8
.BB
.BB
Allo~able
Allo~able
in lb ft.lb . in.
Suction
't
Distance
H661
DEC 16.1992
11: 6 pM
Figure 8
Values
Force li MOMent
Ratios
Status
18.121
X
't
Force
Force
2 Force
1121121.121
31212.121
5121.121
12121B.
2121121121.
85B.
.1218
.15
.B6
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
MOMent
MOMent
2 MOMent
2B3.B
3BI2I.B
Z3121121.B
1113121.
3BBB.
151313.
.18
.113
1.53
PASSED
PASSED
FAILED
Discharge
Figure 8
Values
X
't
't
Distance
Force li MOMent
Ratios
Status
18.121
Force
Force
Z Force
21213.13
23.13
2ZZ.B
12BB.
2121121B.
8513.
.26
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
MOMent
MOMent
Z MOMent
3BB.12I
3BI2IB.12I
3121Z.121
11BB.
3121121121.
15121121.
.27
1.BB
.ZB
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
X
't
X
't
.17
.131
[EnterlContinue
Resultant
Force~MoMent
Check
Resultant
Table
Allo~able
Ratios
Status
X
't
Force
Force
Z Force
3B3.B
279.13
172.13
25BB.
3I21BB.
15BB.
.12
.B9
.11
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
MOMent
MOMent
Z MOMent
911.13
33BI2I.12I
2756.5
2I21BB.
4BBB.
3BBB.
.46
.82
.92
PASSED
PASSED
PASSED
X
't
MM
FAILED
MM.
[EnterlContinue
Figure 365
356
The HEl Standard for Closed Feedwater Heaters provides a method for evaluating the
allowable loads on shell type heat exchanger nozzles. This method is a simplification of the
WRC Bulletin 107 methodology (discussed in Section 3.4.2 ofthese seminar notes), in which
the allowable loads have been linearized to show the relationship between the maximum
permitted radial force and the maximum permitted resultant bending moment. If this
relationship is plotted (using the moment as the abscissa and the force as the ordinate) a
straight line can be drawn between the maximum permitted force and the maximum
permitted moment. Then, plotting the actual combination of applied force and moment, if
these loads fall outside of the line, the nozzle is considered to fail, while ifit falls inside of the
line, it is considered to pass.
The maximum permitted force and moment is calculated from dimensionless parameters
based upon the shell geometry; these parameters have been linearized for lookup by
CAESAR II's ROT program.
A sample input to the HEl portion of the ROT program is shown in Figure 366. Note that
the program automatically calculates and includes the pressure thrust load (internaI area
ofthe pipe times the internaI pressure) whenever the entered design pressure is greater than
zero.
EquipMent ID = HEITl
[Esc]Exit
PgUp/PgDn/HoMe/EndChange Page
150.0000
30.0000
75. 7500
.7500
31500.0000
17500.0000
Z0000.0000
8333.3330
1. 0000
[FU Execute
Figure 366
The output report corresponding to this input is shown in Figure 367. Note that the nozzle
failed for this application, since the load combination fell outside of the allowable load
combination line.
357
HEITl
DEC 16.1992
1B:44 pM
15B.BB
3B.BB
75.75
. 75
315BB.BB
175BB.BB
2BBBB.BB
8333.33
1. BB
9569B.95
IbJsq. in.
in.
in.
in .
IbJsq. in.
IbJsq. in.
lb.
ft. lb.
ft. lb.
lb.
[Enter]  Continue
44B.BB
.35
5B.BB
34B.BB
11BB.BB
=
=
=
53213.78
5B337.35
86B81.13
5B337.35
lb.
ft. lb.
ft. lb.
ft. lb.
MrM
444B4.
The Max allowed force for the input MOMents
Note. applied force includes pressure thrust if P > B. B.
lb.
Figure 367
358
If fatigue analysis is not required, then Appendix 4 states that the following
limits must be satisfied:
a) General pressure membrane stress intensity must be less than Sm.
b) Primary membrane plus primary bending stress intensity must be less
than 1.5Sm.
c) Primary plus secondary stress intensity must be less than 3Sm.
Note that the 3S m limit applies to the range of stress intensity. The quantity 3Sm is defined
as three times the average of the tabulated Sm values for the highest and lowest
temperatures during the operation cycle. In the determination of the maximum primaryplussecondary stress intensity range, it may be necessary to consider the superposition of
cycles of various origins that pro duce a total range greater than the range of any of the
individual cycles. The value of3Smmay vary with the specific cycle, or combination of cycles,
being considered since the temperature extremes may be different in each case.
359
The sum of the pressure stress intensity in the vessel and the local sustained
stress intensity at the nozzle connection, computed using WRC 107, must be less
than 1.5Sm.
The sum of the pressure stress intensity in the vessel, the local sustained stress
intensity at the nozzle connection, and the local expansion stress intensity at the
nozzle connection, computed usingWRC 107, must be less than 3S m (where Sm
is the average of the Sm at the operating and installed temperature).
Because it is often difficult to include pressure in the localloading condition in a WRC 107
analysis, and because the area reinforcement requirements are supposed to take care of the
pressure stress requirement at the intersection, it may sometimes be convenient to simplify
the se requirements to the following:
1
The local sustained stress intensity at the nozzle connection, computed using
WRC 107, should be less than 0.5S m.
The sum ofthe local sustained stress intensity at the nozzle connection and the
local expansion stress intensity at the nozzle connection, computed using WRC
107, must be less than 2.0S m.
This is based upon the worst case assumption that the full value of Sm is used to satisfy the
pressure stress; this leaves 0.5Sm to satisfy the local stresses from the sustained external
loads. The same rationale can be applied to the second requirement as weIl, leaving 2.0Sm
to satisfythe local stresses from the sustained and expansion externalloads. Ifthese reduced
allowables are not satisfied then the engineer should review the magnitude of the pressure
loading and revert back to considering it within the full local stress analysis.
3.4.2.1
The Welding Research Council Bulletin No. 107 (WRC 107) has been used extensively since
the mid 60's by design engineers to estimate local stresses in vessel/attachment junctions.
Welding Research Council Bulletin 107 is a parameterization of the results of a set finite
element analyses examining stresses in vessels due to loaded attachments. WRC 107
contains equations and nondimensional curves (based upon parameters such as ratios ofthe
nozzle to vessel diameter and the vessel diameter to vessel thickness) which are used to
extract coefficients for the calculation of stresses in the vessel wall at the point of attachment.
Note that WRC 107 computes stresses in the vessel shell at the nozzle/vessel interfacestresses in the nozzle wall (which in sorne cases can be higher than the stresses in the vessel
wall) are not computed. Stresses in the nozzle wall may become greater than the stresses
in the vessel wall as the tlT (nozzle to vessel thickness) ratio becomes less than one.
WRC 107 may be used to analyze cylindrical or spherical vessel at attachments. The
attachments may be round, square, or rectangular; the round and square attachments may
be solid or hollow (i.e., a round hollow attachment represents a pipe or nozzle connection),
360
while only solid rectangular attachments (Lugs) are considered  the nozzle thickness does
not effect the calculation. Appendix B to WRC 107 provides information on weldment stress
intensification factors. Applications include vessel nozzles, pipejunctions, welded lugs and
trunnions.
The techniques introduced in this bulletin were updated and extended in WRC Bulletin 297,
which may be used in a similar way as that explained here.
The convention adopted by WRC 107 to define the applicable orientations ofthe applied loads
and stresses for both spherical and cylindrical vessels are shown in Figure 368.
V1
(or ~ )
VL
u
Mf
Mf
Stress positions A. B. C. 0
u  on outside surface
1 on inside surface
Stress positions A. B. C. 0
u  on outside surface
1 on inside surface
The WRC 107 bulletin is used as follows. Based upon various dimensional ratios of the vessell
nozzle configuration, the engineer selects 12 dimensionless parameters from as many
different figures in the bulletin. These 12 parameters are used with local loads in 15
equations to calculate 80 different stresses  circumferential membrane, circumferential
bending, longitudinal membrane, longitudinal ben ding, and shear stresses (in two directions) at each of eight locations in the vessel. These eight locations are the at the inner and
outer edges (identified by the subscripts 1and u respectively) ofthe vessel, at the 00 ,90 0 , 1800 ,
and 270 0 azimuth (identified as Figure 368 locations A, D, B, and C respectively) around the
nozzle.
361
It has also been a common practice to use WRC 107 to conservatively estimate vessel shell
stress state at the edge of a reinforcing pad, if any. The vessel wall stress at the edge of a
nozzle reinforcing pad can be obtained by considering a solid plug (solid inclusion), whose
outside diameter is equal to the O.D. of the reinforcing pad, subjected to the same nozzle
loading.
Before attempting to use WRC 107 to evaluate the stress state of any nozzle / vessel junction,
one shall always make sure that the geometric restrictions limiting the application ofWRC 107
are not exceeded. These are dependent on the configuration and curves used (see AppendixA.2
ofWRC 107 for details). The CAESAR II WRC 107 module notifies the user when the bounds
of the curves are exceeded.
The WRC 107 method should NOT be used when the nozzle is very light or when
dimensionless parameters fall outside the limits oftheir respective figures. The parameters
in the WRC 107 figures should not be unreasonably exceeded. Output from the WRC 107
program includes the figure numbers for the curves accessed, the curve abscissa, and the
values retrieved. The user is urged to check these outputs against the actual curve in WRC
107 to get a "feel" for the accuracy ofthe stresses calculated. For example, ifparameters for
a particular problem are al ways near or past the end of the figures curve data, then the
calculated stresses may not be reliable.
The WRC 107 program can be actived from the Main Menu. The user will be prompted for
a job name as shown in the figure below.
JobnaMe
Entr~
Mter the user selects WRC 107 option, the processor will request an input file name, this
entry will also be used for the subsequent output files. The user is then presented with a list
of the current units used by CAESAR II. Input for an existing WRC 107 calculation data will
always be referred to in its original units setting. Ifthese units are not acceptable, a different
unit set must be identified using the DATABASE configuration.
The input data is accumulated by the processor in six spreadsheets. The first sheet is a title
block, the second and third sheets colle ct the vessel and the nozzle (attachment) geometry
data, respectively. The nozzle loading is specified on the last three spreadsheets, according
to specific load cases, which are sustained, expansion and occasional cases. These loads are
found in the CAE SAR II output restraint load summary under the corresponding load cases.
362
The WRC 107 specific input coordinate system has been incorporated into the program. The
user only needs to define two vectors specified on the geometry data sheets. The first vector
defines the direction of the centerline of the vessel where postitve is from "B" to "A". The
second vector defines the direction of the piping/nozzle orientation, with the positive
direction of this vector pointing from the nozzle connection towards the vessel centerline.
Note, these two vectors must be perpendicular to each other. There is no need to convert the
CAESAR II globalloads to the local WRC 107 orientation.
Notice that the curves in WRC Bulletin 107 coyer essentially aIl applications ofnozzles in
vessels or piping; however, should any of the interpolation parameters, i.e. Beta, etc. fall
outside the limits of the available curves, sorne extrapolation of the WRC method must be
used. The current default is to use the last value in the particular WRC table. If one wishes
to control the extrapolation methodology interactively, you may do so by changing the WRC
107 default from "USE LAST CURVE VALUE" to "INTERACTIVE CONTROL" in the
Computation Control option located inside the ConfigureSetup module of the MAIN
MENU. Once again, data beyond the limits of the bulletin curves should be treated with
skepticism.
The following page was reprinted from WRC Bulletin 107 to illustrate how the specified data
is used to calculate the stress intensitites at the eight points on the vessel around the nozzle.
In the event that a reinforcing pad is defined around the nozzle, the corresponding vessel
stresses at the edge of the reinforcing pad will be calculated automatically using the rigid
plug assumption discussed earlier.
363
_., .....,...
1:. ~"L.
g ...........,.
L._M_..
T...............
_L.oo",
__ L ....
" z ___
J".
..,
IIC,: _ _ ift.11h
1I1.:' _ _ lftoolft.o
III,
1", Ibo
VC,="~
=__
(J
VL::I\.
v..... .......
................
(0.175)
~:..
::
2. G.....,
v.........e.......
+=
.) 
T _ _ _ 1.
'.1:1 _ _ 1
1.=
..........
  R.,.
  1
teft ...
.i_
CUINDRICAI.. SHELL
S  0x' 0, or COx 
0,'
364
l;:z
WRC 107 Example Problem
365
In the figure, the user may also notice that there are two nodes occupying the same space
at the nozzle/vessel surface junction: nodes 55 and 56. An anchor at 55 with a connecting
node at 56 could be used to model the local vessel flexibility as "rigid". The anchor could
then be replaced with a WRC 297 local vessel flexibility model, and the job be rerun to get
a good idea of the "range" of loads and displacements that exist in the system around the
vessel nozzle. In either case, the various restraint loads (forces and moments due to
sustained, expansion and occasional loads) can be obtained from the appropriate
CAESAR II restraint report. These loads reflect the action of the piping on the vessel. The
sustained and expansion restraint report of the "rigid" anchor model are shown in Figure 370. For purposes of illustration, both the global system loads and the corresponding local
WRC 107loads are summarized in Figure 371.
CAESAR Il
RESTRAINT REPORT
CASE 2 (SUS) W+P1
Sustained~
FilE: EX107
DATE:JUN 19, 1987
;; Forc:lb.)FZ
MX
MY
MZ
55
70
5
26.
26.
26.
1389.
22216.
32.
32.
65.
355.
127.
288.
4235.
O.
O.
1296.
o.
O.
O.
O.
O.
32.
5
5
5
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
14233.
96.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
661.
156.
O.
O.
TYPE
RIGID ANCHOR
RIGID ANCHOR
DISPL. REACTION
DISPL. REACTION
DISPL. REACTION
DISPL. REACTION
DISPL. REACTION
DISPL. REACTION
Expansion~
NODE
55
70
5
5
5
 Forces(lb.)FX
FilE: EX107
DATE: JUN 19, 1987
FY
FZ
MX
MY
MZ
TYPE
6573.
8573.
8573.
23715.
23715.
5866.
5866.
31659.
44599.
5414.
34744.
52583.
282611.
O.
O.
O.
23715.
O.
O.
O.
5866.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
O.
366
RIGID ANCHOR
RIGID ANCHOR
DISPL. REACTION
DISPL. REACTION
DlSPL. REACTION
(lb)
X
(lb)
Z
(tUb)
MX
(tUb)
MY
(ft. lb)
MZ
SUSTAINED
26
1389
32
65
127
4235
EXPANSION
8573
23715
5866
31659
5414
52583
WRC107LOCALCOMPONENTS
FORCE
P(+X)
FORCE
VL(Y)
FORCE
VC(+Z)
MOMENT
T(X)
MOMENl MOMENT
MC(+Y)
ML(+Z)
SUSTAINED
26
1389
32
65
127
4235
EXPANSION
8573
23715
5866
31659
5414
52583
The total sustained axialload on the nozzle may not be reflected in the restraint report. A
pressure thrust load will contribute an additional axial load to the nozzle. The pressure
thrust force always tends to push the nozzle away from the vessel. For example, with a
pressure of 275 psi over the inside area of the 12 inch pipe, the total P load becomes:
P
26  P(A)
31,128
The P load may be adjusted automatically for the input by CAESAR II's WRC 107 module,
if the user so requests.
The actual preparation of the WRC 107 calculation input can now begin. One of the most
important steps in the WRC 107 procedure is to identify the correlation between the
CAESAR II global coordinates and the WRC 107 local axes. The CAESAR II program
performs this conversion automatically. The user will, however, have to identify the vectors
defining the vessel as well as the nozzle centerline. The following figure is provided to
illustrate the definition of the direction vectors of the vessel and the nozzle.
367
NOZZ_E DIRECTIOr;VECTOR
..
e
..  . A
VESSE~
DI~ECTION
VECTOR
y
. x
Figure 372
Notice that in order to define a vessel direction vector, the user first needs to designate the
output data points (A>D) as defined by the WRC 107 Bulletin. Note that the line between
data points B and A defines the vessel centerline (except for nozzles on heads, where the
vessel centerline will have to be defined along a direction which is perpendicular to that of
the nozzle). Since, in the vessel/nozzle configuration shown, pointAis assigned to the bottom
of the nozzle, the vessel direction vector can be written as (0.0, 1.0, 0.0), while the nozzle
direction vector is (1.0, 0.0, 0.0). The nozzZe direction vector is aZways defined as the vector
pointing {rom the vesseZ nozzZe connection to the centerZine ofvesseZ.
The program first prompts the user for the entries of geometric data describing both the
vessel and nozzle, followed by spreadsheets for loadings. The values of the geometric entries
in this example are shown in the following printouts from the program.
368
Shell'AttachMent ID = EXP14
UESSEL DATA SHEET
&0.0000
1.0000
119.8250
0.&250
1. 0000
PgUp'PgDn'HoMe'EndChange Page
[EsclExit
20000.0000
20000.0000
[F1l Execute
Shell'AttachMent ID
[?lHelp
EXP14
55.0000
12.7500
0.3750
1.0000
1.0000
PgUp'PgDn'HoMe'EndChange Page
[EsclExit
[Fil Execute
369
[?lHelp
The user may enter up to three sets of loadings representing Sustained (SUS), Expansion
(EXP), and Occasional (OCC) load cases. The program automaticaIly performs the stress
calculation ofeach of the load cases consecutively. In the present case, we only have to be
concerned about the sustained and thermal expansion cases. The loads are shown in the
foIlowing two screens. The user can elect to leave any input ceIls blank ifthey are found not
applicable. After checking aIl the entries made, the user should press [Ft] to initiate the
analysis.
Shell/AttachMent ID = EXP14
21).0fl00
1389.0000
32.0000
1)5.0000
127.0000
4235.0000
275.0000
1.0000
PgUp/PgDn/HoMe/EndChange Page
[EsclExit
[Fll Execute
[1lHelp
Shell/AttachMent ID = EXP14
8573.0000
23715.0000
581)1).0000
31G59.0000
5414.0000
52583.0000
PgUp/PgDn/HoMe/EndChange Page
[EsclExit
Nozzle Loads
Figure 374
370
[Fll Execute
[1lHelp
After the input echo, the parameters extracted from the WRC 107 figures are printed on the
screen. This step is similar to determining the data hy hand. These nondimensional values
are comhined with the nozzle loads to calculate the two normal stresses and one shear stress.
The stresses will he reported on the outer and inner vessel surfaces (upper & lower,
respectively) of the four points A, B, C & D located around the nozzle. The program provides
the normal and shear stresses and translates them into stress intensities which can he used
for comparisons against material allowahles.
The output of the stress computations are shown in the four pages shown in Figure 375. As
the output shows, the largest expansion stress intensity (117475 psi) occurs at the outer
surface of point B (Bu).
WRC 107 Stress Ca1cu1ations
Attachment/She11 ID = EXP14
Page =
1 of
Dimensions
Rm=
T =
ro =
t =
59.688
0.625
6.375
0.375
in1
in1
in1
in1
1
1
(SUSTAINED)
Axial
Force P
Circ. Sh. Force VC =
Long. Sh. Force VL =
Circ.
Moment MC =
Long.
Moment ML=
Tors.
Moment MT=
95.50
Dimensionless Loads for Cylindrical Shells
Beta
/
1
/
/
/
1
( p/Rm )
( P )
( MC/(Rm**2 *
*
( MC/(Rm
( ML/ (Rm**2 *
*
( ML/(Rm
N(x)
M(x)
N(x)
M(x)
N(x)
M(x)
/
/
/
/
/
1
( p/Rm )
( P )
( MC/(Rm**2
( MCI (Rm
( ML/(Rm**2
( ML/(Rm
Figure
Value
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
4C
2Cl
3A
lA
3B
lB
14.994
0.059
3.449
0.085
10.793
0.035
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
3C
1C1
4A
2A
4B
2B
12.082
0.097
5.631
0.045
3.511
0.051
Stress
N(PHI)
M(PHI)
M(PHI)
3C
1C
1B1
12.082
0.094
0.035
N(x)
M(x)
M(x)
/ ( p/Rm )
/ ( P )
1 ( ML/ (Rm
4C
2C
2B1
14.994
0.060
0.052
*
*
*
*
* Beta) )
0.093
0.093
0.093
Figure 375
371
31128.
32.
1389.
127.
4235.
65.
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
Page =
2 of
Type of
<Normal, Mono>
Stress
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Memb.
Bend.
Memb.
Bend.
Memb.
Bend.
Loadl
P
P
MC
MC
Pl
Q
Pl
Q
ML Pl
ML Q
Au
Al
Bu
Bl
Cu
Cl
Du
Dl
10081 10081
44865 44865
25
25
358
358
0
0
0
0
33179 13429
54563 34451
55329 35117
12510 12510
28748 28748
41
41
190
190
0
0
0
0
48372 29924
41489 16387
Long.
Long.
Long.
Long.
Long.
Long.
Memb.
Bend.
Memb.
Bend.
Memb.
Bend.
P
P
MC
MC
ML
ML
Pl
Q
Pl
Q
Pl
Q
48325 18035
64736 42860
41027 16089
VC Pl
VL Pl
MT Pl
2
0
4
2
0
4
2
0
4
2
0
4
0
110
4
0
110
4
110
4
0
110
4
106
106
114
114
48372
29924
64736
42860
54563
34451
55329
35117
Shear
Shear
Shear
Stress Intensity
372
Page
3 of
DESCRIPTION:
THIS IS INPUT TITLE PAGE FOR CAESAR II
APPLICATION GUIDE, EXAMPLE NO.14.
Nozzle Node:
55
Nozzle Type: Roundhollow
Nozzle Ori.: 1.00, 0.00, 0.00
Dimensions
Vessel Mean Rad.
Vessel Thickness
Noz. Outside Rad.
Nozzle Thickness
Rm=
T
ro
t
Nozzle Loads
59.688
0.625
6.375
0.375
in1
in1
in1
in1
1
1
(EXPANSION)
Axial
Force P
Circ. Sh. Force VC
Long. Sh. Force VL
Circ.
Moment MC =
Long.
Moment ML
Tors.
Moment MT =
8573.
5866_
23715.
5414.
52583.
31659.
Gamma
Figure
Value
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
4C
2C1
3A
lA
3B
lB
14.994
0.059
3.449
0.085
10.793
0.035
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
Beta)
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
0.093
3C
1C1
4A
2A
4B
2B
12.082
0.097
5.631
0.045
3.511
0.051
3C
1C
1B1
12.082
0.094
0.035
0.093
0.093
0.093
4C
2C
2B1
14.994
0.060
0.052
N(PHI)
M(PHI)
N(PHI)
M(PHI)
N(PHI)
M(PHI)
1 ( p/Rm )
1 ( P )
1 ( Mcl (Rm**2 *
*
1 ( MCI (Rm
1 ( ML/(Rm**2 *
*
1 ( MLI (Rm
N(x)
M(x)
N(x)
M(x)
N(x)
M(x)
1 ( P/Rm )
1 ( P )
1 ( MC/(Rm**2
1 ( MC/(Rm
1 ( MLI (Rm**2
1 ( MLI (Rm
N(x)
M(x)
M(x)
1 ( p/Rm )
1 ( P )
1 ( MLI (Rm
*
*
*
*
* Beta) )
373
lb.
lb.
lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
ft.lb.
Date
Time
= Mar
6, 1996
2:02 pm
Page
4 of
Type of
Stress
Au
Al
Du
Dl
Circ. Memb. P 'Q 1 3445 3445 3445 3445 2776 2776 2776
7778 7778
7778 12356 12356 12356
Circ. Bend. P 'Q 1 7778
Circ. Memb. MC 'Q 1
0
0
0
0
1076
1076 1076
0
0
0 15282 15282 15282
Circ. Bend. MC Q 1
Circ. Memb. ML Q 1 32728 32728 32728 32728
0
0
<Nor
Circ. Bend. ML Q 1 61318 61318 61318 61318
0
0
2776
12356
1076
15282
0
Loadl
Bu
BI
Cu
Cl
Memb.
Bend.
Memb.
Bend.
Memb.
Bend.
P
P
MC
MC
ML
ML
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
82823 24257105269
32923
1226
4626 31490
23786
3445
7917
1758
8120
0
3445
7917
1758
8120
3445
7917
1758
8120
0
3445
7917
1758
8120
0
0
90330
1484
1890 21240
10834
468
0
1894
2380
1894
2380
0
1894
2380
2776
12799
0
2380
468
0
2380
468
0
2380
2380
0
1894
2380
2848
2848
1912
1912
486
486
4274
4274
Stress Intensity
87691
70459 117475
90393
2879
4709
33038
25069
Shear
Shear
Shear
468
374
The vessel does not experience localized high stress due to heating.
d) The full range of stress intensities due to mechanical loads (including piping
reactions) does not exceed Sa from the fatigue curve for the expected number ofload
fluctuations.
Once the user has decided that an elastic analysis will be satisfactory, the comprehensive
approach as used in the CAESAR II local stress evaluation is appropriate. This method will
be described in detail below, after a discussion of the Section VIII Div. 2 Requirements.
375
Ideally in order to address the local allowable stress problem, the user should have the
endurance curve for the material ofconstruction and complete design pressure / temperature
loading information. If any of the elastic limits are approached, or ifthere is anything out
of the ordinary about the nozzle/vessel connection design, the code should be carefully
consulted before performing the local stress analysis. The material Sm table and the
endurance curve for carbon steels are given in this section for illustration. Only values taken
directly from the code should be used in design.
There are essentially three criteria that must be satisfied before the stresses in the vessel
wall due to nozzle loads can be considered within the allowables. These three criteria can
be suIDmaried as:
Pm <kSmh
Where P ID, Ph Pb, and Q are the general primary membrane stress intensity, the local
primary membrane stress intensity, the local primary bending stress intensity, and the total
secondary stress intensity (membrane plus bending), respectively; and k, Smh, and Smavg are
the occassional stress factor, the hot material allowable stress, and the average material
allowable stress intensity (Smb + Sme) / 2.
Due to the stress classification defined by Section VIII, Division 2 in the vicinity of nozzles,
as given in the Table 4120.1, the bending stress terms caused by any externalload moments
or interal pressure in the vessel wall near a nozzle or other opening, should be classified as
Q, or the secondary stresses, regardless of whether they were caused by sustained or
expansion loads. This causes Pb to disappear, and leads to a much more detailed
classification:
sure);
Local primary membrane stress intensity, which may include:
Membrane stress due to internaI pressure;
Local membrane stress due to applied sustained forces and moments.
Q 
376
Each of the stress terms defined in the above classifications contain three parts: two stress
components in normal directions and one shear stress component. To combine these
stresses, the following rules apply:
1) Compute the normal and shear components for each of the three stress intensities, i.e. Pm, Ph and Q;
2) Compute the stress intensity due to the Pm and compare it against kSmh;
3) Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to Pmand Pl;
compute the resultant stress intensity and compare its value against 1.5k~;
4) Add the individual normal and shear stress components due to Pm, Ph and Q,
compute the resultant stress intensity, and compare its value to against 3Smavg '
5) If there is an occasionalload as well as a sustained load, these types may be
repeated using a k value of 1.2.
These criteria can be readily found from Figure 4130.1 ofAppendix 4 ofASME Section VIII,
Division 2 and the surrounding text. Note that the primary bending stress term, Pb, is not
applicable to the shell stress evaluation, and therefore disappears from the Section VIII,
Division 2 requirements.
Under the same analogy, the peak stress limit may also be written as:
Pl + Q + F < Sa
where: F represents fatigue stresses.
The above equation need not be satisfied, provided the elastic limit criteria of AD160 is met
based on the statement explicitly given in Section 5100, which is cited below:
"If the specified operation of the vessel meets all of the conditions of AD160, no analysis for
cyclic operation is required and it may be assumed that the peak stress limit discussed in 4135 has been satisfied by compliance with the applicable requirements for materials, design,
fabrication, testing and inspection ofthis division."
377
1995 SECnON Il
T.... ZA
TAlLEZ'
SEcnON Ill. CLASS 1 AND SEtnON VIII, DIVISION 2
DESIGN STRESS INTENSITY VALUES S. FOR FERROUS MATERIALS
Lm.
NonIIIII
e..
No.
C
PI'DCIICI ....
Sar."p,W1d._
sNo.
..45
K01700
1(01700
ElA
SlA
A
1(02504
1(Q2504
1(02!O1
C
C
CSi
WlcL_
S"'5)
Smls.DiIIe
S"'5)
SA1Clf>
Sar,_
8
q
C
C
C
C
10
11
12
l3
14
Plaie
SA215
SAo",
SAoU3
CUn
17
lB
19
20
CSi
Pla
5m1S.DiIIe
5 ... 516
SA524
5 .....71
5 .....71
WId..,.
ew.si
Wld.1I.
WId.JI!Ie
CSi
CSi
W1d.
CU~Si
WId.
WId.DiIIe
p
5 .....72
5 .....7Z
5 .....7Z
5 .....72
21
CU....si
CU....si
C$i
":Si
c.inoJs
S"'U1
5 ...Z16
29
';Si
F_
SA411of>
JO
CU....si
CSi
CSi
C
CMII
25
2110
27
n
32
33
34
35
3&
37
38
39
40
41
42
Plaie" . . . . . . . . .
F.......
SA)5O
Bar._
SAo352
SAIIoIIoO
S..... 75
SAo765
c.tDille
F. . . . .
CM~Si
Pla
Pla
CSi
CUneSi
C4I....si
CSi
Cu..$i
CSi
C~i
>2
KOZIOI
K03001
KO:JOOI
KOHOl
KO)OOl
>2
55
KOllOO
KOUOK02IOI
KOZm
Il
CAS5
cas
AS5
B55
C55
E55
5"'"
SMrf>Z
F.......
c.
KOZZOO
KOZ2OO
SA,,.
SA".
C~i
S"'515
in.
50
B
B
A50
55
Wld.DiIIe
Smls. .....
WId._
S...... _
CU"
S ...ZI5
5 .....72
5 .....75
CMII
CMII
lS
23
24
sar._
WId.*
5 .....75
SAW
110
21
2Z
Pie
Plaie
SIW
~
SM72
SmIS._
CImI
CGIIIlJ
T_
UNS ND.
45
f>
10. .
AI.,
DIIi9I
S.....75
5A415
T.""
A
WCA
1
KOZI01
K02OO1
K01100
KOZZOZ
I(OZ_
K01701
1(0)502
J02!02
K03_
WCA
Ka_
J02504
J025o
IloO
1
KOlO46
LFl
LCA
IloO
IloO
WId.
WId."
WId.III11C
SASU.
5 .....71
S.....71
SA671
C860
CCIIoO
CEIIoO
WId. JI!Ie
WId._
WId.DiIIe
$M72
S.....72
S.....72
CIIoO
EIIoO
B60
IloO
K02401
K02100
K02401
K02100
K02402
K02401
K02100
K02402
.,u
378
PND.
'ND.
PARl'DMlOPIkIES
T..... 2A
TABLE2A
SEC1ION III, CLAIS 1 AND SECTION VlIL DMSION Z
DESIGN STRESS INTENSI1Y VALUES S. FOR FERROUS MATERIALS
MIlL
T_
LiIR
No.
S.
.,.....
MIL
5.......
bI
4S
4S
45
22.5
NP
700
24
700
700
7DO
48
48
48
30
700!SPn
700!SPn
HP
70CI
50
50
2S
Z7
7DOCSPn
50
50
27
10
27
11
55
27.5
700
700
700CSPn
12
55
55
55
700
700
700
700
700
NP
16
55
55
30
30
30
3D
30
700
7DO
4
5
6
7
1
CJ
13
14
15
24
JO
JO
CSl
CSl
Gu
G4,521
G4, 0. "
700
csa
G4,1iZ1
7DO
7DO
CSl
CS!
CSl
GZI
GZl
G4.621
G4.G5,GI
G21
NP
NP
NP
700
NP
700
CSl
7DO
csz
IIP
17
5S
3D
70CI
II
55
NP
7DO
7DO
19
55
20
55
JO
JO
JO
700
700
NP
NP
21
55
30
22
JO
2l
55
55
24
S5
3D
3D
700
700
700
700
NP
NP
NP
NP
25
sa
J'
700CSPn
2.
27
SI
40
NP
fIG
fIG
fIG
30
JO
700
700
700
7DO
7DO
7DO
7DO
za
29
3D
31
32
33
]4
3D
JO
JO
fIG
fIG
fIG
30
fIG
fIG
JO
JO
700
700
700
700CSPn
GZI
GZI
G4.GZ1
CSZ
G4.GZI
G4
cs.z
GZI
GZI
700
700
CSz
CSz
700
19
fIG
32
40
fIG
41
fIG
fIG
li
li
700
N'
NP
J2
700
NP
~.GZI
G4.&21
csz
42
CSz
c:s.,
NP
NP
3.
J2
G4.G5.GI
' G5.GI
G4.Iii5.GI
G4.65.GI
7DO
700
700
700
700
700
l2
' 621
GZl
G4.65.GI
G4.G5.GI
CSZ
CSZ
csz
fIG
fIG
fIG
loCI
CS2
CS.z
104.521
G4
104,&21
G4,&21
G4
700
36
37
35
CSZ
CSz
700
7DO
NP
.....
CIIM
No.
YIII2
GI
,......
EzIInIII
(N' ...........
(Spr . . . . .~
HP
NP
NP
G4.GZ1
G4.GZl
G4.1ii5, GI
G4.65.'"
G4.65. ...
G4.Iii5.GI
G G5.GI
G4.65.GI
269
379
1995 SECTION D
T.... U.
TULEn
SECTION m, CLASS 1 AND SEcnON VIII, DIVISION 2
DESIGN STRESS INTENSITYVALUES S. FOR FERROUS MATERIAU
DaiIJa sans I/IWIItr, !IIi (....... .., 1000 .. Clll..1IIil.... MetIt Til....... "F, NIt CIdI9
L.itIf
No.
3
4
,.
7
8
.,
10
11
12
13
14
15
le.
1.
17
19
20
21
2Z
ZJ
24
Z5
2e.
27
21
29
:JO
31
32
J3
)4
35
36
)7
3.
39
40
41
42
2010 100
150
200
2SO
300
4ClO
soo
1303
600
OSO
700
15.0
15.0
15.0
13.7
14.c.
15.0
12.9
13.7
13.7
12.1
11.1
14.2
14.2
12.9
12.9
11.'
10.9
11.6
11.9
ll.b
10.lI
n.5
11.5
160
16..0
16..0
16.0
10.0
16..0
16.0
16.0
16..0
16.0
16.0
16..0
16.0
le O
16..0
14.8
14.1
14.8
t4.5
14.5
14.5
14.4
14
14.4
16.7
16.7
10.1
110.7
18.3
15.2
16.4
16..4
16..4
16..7
14.8
16.0
16..0
16..0
lU
14.3
15.4
15.4
15
15.7
13.5
14
14
14
14.9
12.3
13.3
13.3
13.J
13.6
12.1
13.1
13.1
13.1
13.3
12.0
13.0
13.0
13.0
13.2
18.3
lllo3
11.3
11.3
11.3
lU
18.3
11.3
lU
lU
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.2
17.2
17.2
17.2
11.2
110.2
110.2
16..2
16.2
110.2
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
14.4
11.3
lU
lU
lU
11.3
11.3
lU
11.3
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.2
11.2
17.2
17.2
16..2
16..2
110.2
16..2
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.1
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14
14.4
lU
18.3
lU
lS.J
lll.J
lU
lU
18.3
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.2
17.2
17.2
17.2
16..2
110.2
16.2
16..2
14 .
14.1
14..
14"
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14.4
14
19.3
19.3
20.0
20.0
20.0
19.3
19.3
lU
11.3
11.3
19.3
19.3
17.7
17.7
17.7
19.3
19.3
17.2
17.2
17.2
19.3
19.3
16.2
lU
lU
17.7
19.3
14.1
14.1
14..
17.4
19.3
1 .5
14.5
14.5
17.3
19.2
14.4
14.4
14.4
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
20.0
18.3
lU
11.3
18.3
18.3
11.7
17.1
17.7
17.7
17.7
17.2
17.2
lU
lU
17.2
11.1
17.Z
110.2
110.2
110.2
14"
14..
14
14.1
14.8
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.5
14.4
14.4
14.
14.4
14.4
20.0
20.0
20D
20D
18.9
11.9
18..
18.9
18.9
lU
lU
lU
lU
lU
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
17.3
15.8
U.I
l5.I
15..
l5.5
lS.5
l5.5
lS.5
20.0
19.5
19.5
19.5
19.5
19..5
15.5
20.0
20.0
20.0
19.5
19.5
19.5
11.9
111.9
11.9
lU
lU
17.3
17.3
17.3
15.1
l5.8
15.8
15.5
15.$
15.5
lU
1.5.1
750
l.S.4
15..
15..
15.4
U.4
15.4
15..
15.4
270
380
800
850
900
_:
.UE . . . ....
IZIT_
' ......
' _
_ _ . _ ..... _ _ _ .. _ _
1
Z I.._
U1S ._
.'l1Il11L
>
...
i
z~
.,;:;
.~
::~
1
3:
.,>>
Z
...
'0
_..FIG. 5110.1 DESIGN FATIGUE CUIIVU FOR CA_. LOW ALLOY. SERIES 4XX, KIION ALLOY STEELS AllO
"110" TEIISILE STEELS FOR TEMPERATURES NOT EXCEEDING 7IIII'F
Step 2 
IfWRC 107 is applicable, check to see whether or not the elastic approach as
outlined in Section VIII, Division 2, AD160 is satisfactory;
Step 3 
Step 4 
Calculate pressure stresses, Pm, on the vessel shell wall in both longitudinal
and circumferential (hoop) directions for both sustained and occasional cases.
Notice that two different pressure terms are required in carrying out the
pressure stress calculations. P is the design pressure of the system (sustained), while Pvar is the DIFFERENCE between the peak pressure and the
design pressure of the system, which will be used to qualify the vessel
membrane stress under the occasionalload case. Note that the Pm stresses
will be calculated automatically if a pressure value is enter by the user.
381
Step 5 
Run WRC 107 to calculate the Ph and Q stresses as defined earlier. Note that
the local stresses due to sustained, expansion and occasional loads can be
computed simultaneously.
Step 6 
Under the above procedure, the equations used in CAESAR II to qualify the various stress
components can be summarized as follows:
P m(SUS) < Smh
P m(SUS + DCC) < 1.2Smh
P m(SUS) + Pl(SUS) < 1.5Smh
Pm(SUS + OCC) + Pl(SUS + DCC) < 1.5(1.2)Smh
P m(SUS + DCC) + Pl(SUS + OCC) + Q(SUS + EXP + OCC) < 1.5(Smc + Smh)
382
Date
Time
=
=
Mar 6, 1996
2:03 pm
Page = l of 1
Type of
Stress Intensity
Stress values at
(lb. /sq. in.)
Au
Location
Al
Bu
B1
Cu
Cl
Du
Dl
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Circ.
Pm
Pl
Q
Q
(SUS)
(SUS)
(SUS)
(EXP)
Long.
Long.
Long.
Long.
Pm
Pl
Q
Q
(SUS)
(SUS)
(SUS)
(EXP)
0
0
0
9224
9224 10938 10938
39148  39148 53798 53798
86026 70284117176 90330
Shear
Shear
Shear
Shear
Pm
Pl
Q
Q
(SUS)
(SUS)
(SUS)
(EXP)
2
4
2848
2
4
2848
2
4
1912
2
4
1912
0
110
4
486
110
4
486
110
4
4274
110
4
4274
S.1. Pm (SUS)
26125
26125
26125
26125
12994
12994
12994
12994
36000
36000
41270
41270
25463
25463
25545
25545
143059 100299
52607
47992
55893
39087
34819
20533
Max. S.1.
S.1. Allowab1e
(lb. / sq. in. )
Type of
Stress Intensity
S.1. Pm (SUS)
S.1. Pm+Pl (SUS)
S.1. Pm+P1+Q (TOTAL)
26125
41270
143059
20000
30000
60000
Result
Fai1ed
Failed
Failed
Figure 378
Since the present nozzle loading will cause stress intensities that are not acceptable to the
ASME Section VIII, Division 2 criteria, it will have to be corrected. One way of dealing with
this type of situation is to adjust the nozzle loading at its source, while the other option might
be to reinforce the nozzle connection on the vessel side either by increasing the vessel
thickness or by adding a reinforcing pad. The same analysis procedure can be repeated until
the final results become acceptable. Note that once a reinforcing pad is seZected, the program
will automatically compute the stress state at the edge of the pad as well as at the edge of the
nozzZe.
383
To Rack
Pump Suction
Figure 380
With the connection at node point 5 modeled as rigid, the loads from the thermal growth of
the rack piping are taken by the nozzle and kept off of the pump battery. However, if the
nozzle is truly flexible, it will deform, loading up the pump flanges. It may be necessary to
perform a sensitivity study ofthe model to shed light on the true condition ofthe system. The
results ofmodeling a system with rigid and flexible nozzles may fall in one ofthree regions,
as shown in Figure 381.
384
x x
o
00
Region 1
Region 2
Region 3
 Case Studies
Figure 381
In Region 1, stresses are high for both models  the model is insensitive to vessel flexibilities.
A redesign of the piping or reinforcement at the intersection is needed. (This is mostly the
case with smaller diameter piping and heavy vessels.)
In Region 2, stresses are high in the rigid model and low with the flexible model, indicating
that the job is very sensitive to local flexibility. In this case it is necessary to take a closer
look at the intersection:
1
Are the dimensionless parameters weIl within the limits of the theory? If not,
vessel calculations may be way off.
Is the nozzle truly an isolated nozzle? Ifnot, stresses near the nozzle could be
much higher.
In most cases ofthis type the WRC 297 stiffnesses are so much smaller than the
rigid stiffness the user can adjust the WRC 297 results toward stiffer junctions,
(i.e., greater wall thicknesses, smaller radii) without affecting the piping
solutions. Manytimes even a WRC 297 junction 10 to 100 times stifferthan what
is normally calculated will still produce similar results. In these cases the analyst
can comfortably put more confidence in the WRC 297 solution providing (1) and
(2) above are answered in the affirmative.
Is the local vessel model very sensitive to changes (i.e., if the "L" dimensions
change, or if the reinforcing pad is left out do the stiffnesses change very much)?
If so, then it is necessary to build a range of solutions to study the parameters
that effect the model and try to extract the results that are most in line with the
assumptions that surround each parameter being varied.
Are other stresses (i.e., those due to pressure) high? If other stresses are high
then the room for error is small.
385
Is the material highly susceptible to cracking or corrosion? In this case, the room
for error is also small.
In Region 3, stresses for both models are low. In this case there is probably no problem, need
for concern, nor need for extensive time and energy to be devoted to modeling of the nozzles.
Circumferential moment
~f~
Axial
Figure 382
WRC 297 limits configurations to the following conditions:
386
Where:
d
thickness of nozzle, in
thickness of vessel, in
The particular checks on the nozzle diameter and thickness are not that critical when dealing
with flexibilities (i.e., solid plugjunctions are not that much more or less flexible than hollow
nozzle junctions). The effect ofreinforcing pads should be considered if the width of the pad
is at least 1.65(DT/2)l/2. In that case, the vessel wall should be increased to Twall + Tpad.
The WRC 297 nozzle stiffnesses come from three values extracted from the two curves shown
in Figures 383 and 384. These values (a, MrJ(ET3 e ), and Mc/(ET3 e are based upon
the following geometric parameters:
equivalent vessellength L
A
L / (DT)1/2
(d/D)
thickness ratio
(D/T)l/2
T/t
Where:
Ll, L2
387
...
...
<fi
oc
'"1
,.
!!!
~
;;
.6
~
Q
.3
i..
g
il
~
1S
Figure 383
388
."
fi
r
!II
1
~
1
1
!!.
i
Figure 384
Mter fin ding a , Mr/CET3 8 ), and Mc!CET3 8 ), the nozzle stiffnesses are calculated as:
Kax
KL
Re
This can be illustrated with an example problem. The dimensions are shown in Figure 385 for a nozzle/vessel combination made of a material with a modulus of elasticity of 29E6
psi.
389
d  18 in.
t = 0.25 in.
+~~~~~~~
0 =48in.
T = 0.25 in.
L2
130 in.
225 in.
Figure 385
The first step is to check the WRC 297 limitations in order to determine whether it can apply
to this situation:
d/D
dit
= 18 1 0.25 =
72> 20
DIT
dIT
= 18 1 0.25 =
18/47.75 =
47.75/0.25
72> 5
Therefore this nozzle/vessel configuration meets the requirements of the WRC 297 bulletin.
The stiffness calculations are:
L
T/t
Kax
From Figure 384, the curves are off of the scale for the longitudinal moment, so KL can be
assumed to be rigid.
390
= 5.21,
3.7.
= 29,262 inlb/deg
CAESAR II provides a feature, accessed from the Kaux menu of the input spreadsheet,
whereby the user may define nozzle and vessel parameters for a WRC 297 flexibility
calculation. If a nozzle has been defined in the input, during error checking CAESAR II
automatically performs the WRC 297 calculations, including lookup of the stiffness parameters from the digitized curves. A zerolength element with the calculated stiffnesses is then
automatically inserted into the piping model at the nozzle location between the pipe and the
vessel. The CAESAR II input and stiffness calculations (produced during input error
checking) for the Figure 385 example are shown in Figures 386 and 387 respectively.
WRC 297
N022LE/VESSEL
FLEXIBILIT~
SPREADSHEET
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
(in.)
Figure 386
391
5.000
18.000
.250
48.000
.250
CAUTIONS:
URC 297
130.000
335.699
47.750
18.000
97.161
DZ
T/t =
T =
t
j
ZZ5.000
1.000
.Z50
.Z50
5.Z10
N022LE CALCULATIONS
UESSEL DMean(in.)=
N022LE O.D. (in.)=
5
UESSEL THK. (in.)=
N022LE THK. (in.)=
47.75e
18.eee
.25e
.25e
THICKNESS RATIO
SMALL LAMBDA
ge.eeee
=
=
1.eee
5.210
<C> TO CONTINUE
<P> TO PRINT
Figure 387
3.4.3.2 Modeling Nozzles for Flexibility Calculations
N ozzle flexibilities are most often modeled by describing two separate entities  the piping
system and the vessel, and then connecting them with the zeroIength WRC 297 flexibility
element. Therefore there will be two node points at the exact same location in the space the node representing the surface ofthe vessel, and the node representing the nd ofthe pipe.
This usually means using a rigid element to represent the radius of the vessel.
392
Various examples of how to model nozzle to vessel connections are shown in Figures 388,
389, and 390.
Figure 388 represents the simplest model. In this case, there are no thermal movements
imposed from the vessel, and the overall stiffness ofthevessel is insignificant when compared
to the localized flexibility. Accordingly, the vessel proper is not modeled, but is represented
by an anchor with the WRC 297 stiffnesses.
A Il
:'\.
~
/11mr""""'\
~\l
AA
~V'v
.,
610
Point located on
vessel surface
Figure 388
In this model, the user defines a vessel flexibility at node point 5 (with no vessel node point
defined). This causes CAESAR II to insert a flexibility element between node point 5 and
an infinitely rigid point in space (effectively a flexible anchor). Element 5 to 10 is defined as
a normal pipe element. Note: The user should not put any anchors, restraints or non zero
displacements at any WRC 297 nozzle or vessel nodes. CAESAR II inserts all the necessary
restraints and/or anchors into the model to define the nozzle/vessel connection (i.e., 3
translational restraints and 3 rotational restraints).
A more complex model is shown in Figure 389. In this case the radius ofthe vessel is modeled
as a weightless rigid element. This incorporates the effect of the radial expansion of the
vessel on the piping system; also, other thermal expansion of the vessel may be entered as
imposed displacements at node point 5. This model, as does the previous one, still assumes
that the overall stiffness of the vessel is insignificant when compared to the localized
flexibility.
ct
20
1
Figure 389
393
In this model, element 5 to 10 is coded as a weightless rigid, with the length equal to the outer
radius of the vessel, and the material and temperature that ofthe vessel. Thermal growth
at the centerline of the vessel at the elevation of the nozzle is calculated and imposed at node
point 5. A nozzle is defined at node point 15, with a vessel node of 10, so a WRC 297 flexibility
element is automatically inserted between these two nodes. Element 15 to 20 is defined as
a normal pipe element.
An even more complex model is shown in Figure 390. In this case the entire vessel is modeled
using pipe and weightless rigid elements, and anchored at its base. This automatically
incorporates the effect of aIl thermal expansion of the vessel, as weIl as its overall stiffness,
on the piping system.
20
25 & 30 at same point in
space at vessel surface
1
15===.
~_
25 30
35
10
Figure 390
In this model, the vessel is built of three pipe elements going from node point 5 to 20. The
diameter, thickness, material, and temperature of the elements are the same ofthose of the
portion of the vessel which they represent (for example, element 5 to 10 may represent an
ambient skirt). An anchor is coded at node point 5 to represent the base anchorage of the
vessel. Element 15 to 25 is a weightless rigid, with the length equal to the outer radius of
the vessel, and the material and temperature that of the vessel this provides the radial
growth of the vessel. A nozzle is defined at node point 30, with a vessel node of25, so a WRC
297 flexibility element is inserted here. Element 30 to 35 is entered as a normal pipe element.
Flexibilities of configurations not explicitly covered by WRC 297 may be approximated using
the bulletin  the results, although not completely accurate, will probably be more accurate
than using rigid connections. For example, using WRC 297 for a pipe attachment to the head
of a vessel may yield adequate results when choosing values ofD, LI, or L2 as shown in Figure
391. Because this is an extension ofthe WRC 297 application, the user may wish to perform
a sensitivity study of the effects of selecting different values of these dimensions.
394
f fd
Tray Elevation
D (?)
Figure 391
In the event that the nozzle is not normal to the vessel surface, WRC 297 may still give
For example, one me ans ofmodeling a hillside nozzle is shown in Figure
392. Element 30 to 35 should be modeled as a weightless rigid, with a length equal to the
outer radius ofthe vessel, and the outer diameter, wall thickness, material, and temperature
equal to those ofthe vessel. WRC 297 flexibilities are calculated and inserted between node
points 35 and 40. Element 40 to 45 is a 1/4" long pipe element (with the same properties of
the nozzle) extending along the same line as element 30 to 35. Element 45 to 50 is the pipe
nozzle connection itself. Note: The idea of the 1/4" long nozzle element is to properly orient
the local vessel flexibilities with respect to the axial, longitudinal and transverse vessel
directions.
reasonab~e results.
395
_+1'"
""'45
~d,t
50
Figure 392
This same idea can be used to model a lateral branch connection, as shown in Figure 393.
In this case, the WRC 297 flexibilities are inserted between node points 110 and 115, and
element 115 to 120 is the 1/4" long element used to orient the local axes.
105
Figure 393
396
3.5.1.1 Anchor
An anchor is a restraint which fully restrains the pipe; i.e., in aIl degrees offreedom  three
translations and three rotations. An anchor is anywhere these degrees of freedom are
restrained  it may be explicitly built for restraint purpose, it may be a byproduct of a
connection to an equipment nozzle, or it may be due to a construction practice such as
grouting a wall penetration through which the pipe travels. Examples of anchors are shown
in Figure 394. Anchors may be defined in CAESAR II by entering a type of Anchor, coding
in six individual restraints (X, Y, Z, RX., RY, and RZ), or using a WRC 297 nozzle stiffness
(see Section 3.4.3 of these seminar notes).
'~
'Atlached ta
Pump F~ange
Figure 394
397
3.5.1.2 Restraint
The term restraint, although technicaIly applicable to any of these boundary conditions of
the piping system, coIloquiaIly is confined to those restraints which have a relatively rigid
stiffness, and restrain the pipe in a direction other than sim ply in the downward direction
(i.e., a hanger, support, etc.). Restraints may act in more than one degree of freedom (but
less than six, which would be an anchor). Restraints may be classified yet further in terms
oftheir direction  for example, axial restraint, or guide (a restraint in both directions of the
horizontal plane when applied to a riser, or in the lateral direction when applied to a
horizontal run), or in terms oftheir function (for example, limit stop, where a gap is closed
as the pipe moves, before the restraint kicks in). Restraints may consist almost entirely of
manufacturer's hardware (i.e., clamp and sway strut assemblies), or may be built up of
structural steel. Restraints are coded in CAESAR II as various combinations of restrained
degrees offreedom (X, Y, Z, RX, RY, and RZ). Restraints in a skewed direction can be defined
with direction cosines (or direction vectors)  i.e., 0.707, 0, 0.707 is equivalent to 1,0,1.
Friction can be activated by defining a Mu value (coefficient of sliding friction) for the
restraint (Mu values for steel on steel typicaIly range on the order of 0.3). Friction is
represented by applying a force equal to Mu times the restraint load on the pipe along the
direction of movement.
Examples ofrestraints are shown in Figures 395 through 397. Figure 395 shows a simple
restraint, consisting of a sway strut. A sway strut, due to the pins at the brackets, aIlows
the pipe to move lateraIly (to the strut). The clamp aIlows the pipe to rotate in any direction.
Therefore, the strut restrains only in one degree offreedom (i.e., Z). The radius of gyration
of the strut is sufficient to prevent buckling, so the strut restrains in both directions of the
degree offreedom. Since the pipe does not rub against anything as it moves, friction is not
modeled.
Figure 395
Figure 396 shows three restraints built up of structural steel. In (a), the restraint is only
in a single degree offreedom (Y), but in two directions (both up and down). In (b), lateral
restraint is added as weIl, giving a two degree offreedom restraint. In (c), lugs are welded
to the pipe to provide axial restraint, creating a restraint in three degrees of freedom (not
an anchor, since the pipe is free to rotate about three axes). In these cases (although the third
case is moot), friction should be modeled, since the pipe would rub against the restraint ifit
moves.
398
'==
()
(al
( bl

(c)
il
(1
Se<;t/On AA
Figure 396
Figure 397 shows a restraint in four degrees offreedom  X, Z, RX, and RZ, since the lugs
prevent lateral translation of the pipe, and the double lugs resist any moments about the Xor Zaxes. This restraint should also be modeled using friction.
Plpe+
Concrete
Eltlatlng wall aleeve
Figure 397
3.5.1.4 Hanger
The most common type of restraint is that which rigidly resists weight; in other words it only
acts against the downward movement of the pipe. Because it is the most common type, it
merits two names  hanger and support. A hanger is specifically a rigid restraint, resisting
only downward pipe movement, with a point of attachment above the pipe, that is, using
a rod hanger assembly of some type. Typical hangers are shown in Figure 398. These are
coded in CAESAR II as +Y restraints (where  or + preceding the restraint direction
indicates oneway restraint), indicating that the restraint acts in the +Y direction against
the pipe. Since the pipe has no structure to rub against, friction is not modeled.
"
'0. 0
"
Figure 398
3.5.1.5 Support
Supports are those restraints which rigidly resist only the downward movement of the pipe,
with the point of attachment below the pipe, that is, either with the pipe resting on a
structure, or with an intervening saddle or trunnion. Typical supports are shown in Figure
399. These are coded in CAESAR II as +Y restraints, indicating that the restraint acts in
the +Y direction against the pipe. Under certain circumstances, it may be desirable to model
the trunnion or saddle with a rigid construction element (in order to consider the offset ofthe
friction load, for example). Since the pipe slides against the structure, friction should be
modeled (unless a roller, as in Figure 399f, or a teflon slide pad, is used).
3100
(a)
( b)
(c)
(d)
If)
(e)
Figure 399
3.5.1.6 Snubber
A snubber is a type of engineered hardware which, due to its internaI mechanisms, offers no
resistance to slowIy applied (i.e., static, such as weight or thermal) Ioads, but Iocks up and
acts as a restraint when loads are applied quickly (i.e., dynamic loads such as earthquake
or fluid hammer). There are two types ofsnubbers  hydraulic and mechanical which
are shown in Figures 3100 and 3101 respectively. Snubbers are modeled in CAESAR II
by defining the restraint as XSNB, YSNB, or ZSNB (or with direction cosines). Any restraint
defined as such is made inactive duringthe weight and thermalload cases, but activated for
uniform load, wind, or any dynamic loads. Snubbers are discussed further in Section 5 of
these seminar notes.
3101
 ReseNoir
Pivot
,. . . Snubber valve
 Clevispin
Piston rod eye
Figure 3100
Stepup
gearing
Figure 3101
3102
1
1
Figure 3102
3.5.2.1 Friction
Friction may be present whenever the pipe can move, and in the process of moving, rub
against a restraint. As noted earlier, the maximum magnitude of the force resisting sliding
is equal to Mu times the restraint force, where Mu is the dynamic (i.e., sliding) coefficient of
friction. The frictional force is applied along the direction of the pipe movement.
This is a nonlinear effect, and requires an iterative solution, since applying a friction load
to the piping system alters the results, changing the load at the restraint and the direction
of pipe movement. Therefore, friction will have to be calculated again, and reapplied to the
system, again changing the results. This continues until the frictionalload is unchanged,
3103
within a tolerance (which can be adjusted by the user). In the event that there are numerous
frictional restraints, this process may take a while (or may even not converge).
Friction restraints have two states: sliding and not sliding. The restraint is not sliding if the
force tending to move it is less than F times Mu. The restraint is sliding ifthe force tending
to move it exceeds F times Mu.
Friction is activated at a restraint in CAESAR II by entering a nonzero Mu value.
3.5.2.3 Gaps
Gap restraints are those restraints which do not touch the pipe upon installation (and
therefore are not active), but are close enough to the pipe that they may become active during
the normal movement of the pipe. The gaps may have been installed intentionally (such as
in a limit stop), unintentionally (such as when a structural steel support is not fit up closely
to the pipe), or simply by chance (such as when a pipe runs through a wall penetration).
Examples of gap restraints are shown in Figure 3103.
3104
zl
x
, 2.5"
, 0.275"
Figure 3103
Gap restraints have two states  closed and active or open and inactive. Analysis ofthese
restraints require an iterative solution similar to that of oneway restraints: the analysis is
initiaUy done without the restraint. The pipe's movement at that location is checked  if
it is insufficient (or in the wrong direction) to close the gap, the analysis is complete. Ifit is
sufficient to close the gap, an imposed displacement is put on the pipe to close the gap, the
restraint is reinserted into the model, and the analysis is redone. The results are then
rechecked  ifthe load on the restraint is in the right direction (tending to further close the
closed gap), the analysis is complete. Ifit is in the direction where it is trying to reopen the
gap, the imposed displacement and the restraint are removed and the system is reanalyzed.
This process is repeated until the status of aU gaps converge.
Gap restraints may be entered with friction, which further complicates the nonlinear
solution (since the friction wiU act at the gap restraint once the gap at the closes and the
restraint begins to work, but not otherwise). In the event that gaps are unequal on either
side of the pipe (as in the penetration in Figure 3103), the gap restraints may be entered
as multiple oneway restraints, each with unique gaps.
sin 1 (il / L)
3105
Where:
length of rod, in
Since the length of the rod must remain constant, the pipe will be forced to travel through
the arc defined by the rod rotating about its point of attachment to the structure. This is
illustrated in Figure 3104. Note that the effect of the swing is much more pronounced when
using short rods.
Thermal
Elevation change
forced on the pipe.
Figure 3104
3106
These types of restraints are solved by initially doing the analysis with the restraints acting
along their asinstalled line of action. Mer the analysis is complete, the movement of the
pipe at that location is noted. Based upon the movement of the pipe orthogonal to the line
of action of the restraint, a new position on the arc of the restraint is calculated. The
component ofthat position representing forced displacement along the line of action of the
pipe is then used as an imposed displacement for the next analysis. Mer this analysis, the
position of the pipe is checked again, the new position on the arc is recalculated, and the
process is repeated, until the line of action of the restraint (and the position of the pipe) is
unchanged (within a tolerance, which can be set by the user) from one analysis to the next.
Large rotation restraints are entered in CAESAR II through the use of the term XROD,
YROD, or ZROD. The direction in which the rod runs from the pipe is designated by the sign
(+ or , where no sign is taken to be the same as +). This type of support can be used to model
supports where load bearing is sensitive to the angle of the line of action.
PIPE IN A TRENCH:
Lx
Ultimate Lateral Load = 120,000 lb.
Estimated Lateral Stiffness = 60,000 Ib./in.
Force
Force
4=======+ Y
Jf. X
K1
Ultimate
Load
(120,000)
Ultimate
Load
(240,000)
Figure 3105
3107
The iterative technique used for these restraints is explained below. The analysis is first
do ne using a linear restraint with the first stiffness (KI)' The restraint load (F) is then
checked, ifit is less than the transition load (Fy), then the analysis is complete. Ifnot, sorne
modification is done to the model. First, a CNODE is added at the end of the restraint. A
displacement equal to Fy/KI and a force equal to Fy are imposed on the CNODE, with a
corresponding Fy placed on the restrained point. The stiffness of the restraint is then
changed to the second input stiffness K2, and the system is reanalyzed. The restraint load
is then reexamined, and the process is repeated until the status of aIl restraints converges.
Bilinear restraints are entered in CAESAR II through the use of the designation X2, Y2,
Z2, RX2, RY2, or RZ2. The user is also required to enter the two stiffnesses, as weIl as the
ultimate, or transition, load. This type ofrestraint is discussed further in Section 3.6.2 of
these seminar notes.
1"CP/,
Rad
Figure 3106
3108
The stiffness of the support is calculated as the inverse of the displacement of the support
under a one pound load at the pipe, or (for this particular case):
Where:
k
LI
El
L2
length of rod, in
E2
20,392 lb/in
This stiffness is far from 1E12. However the impact ofmodeling a restraint such as this as
rigid depends on the characteristics ofthe piping system, since the true goal is to simulate
a reasonable estimate of the relative stiffness ofrestraints to pipe. It is best to be concerned
about modeling stiffnesses at restraints which obviously do not appear to be "rigid" relative
to the pipe. Examples of anchors that should probably be modeled with a less than rigid
stiffness are shown in Figures 3107 and 3108.
3109
k?~~======::
Figure 3107
Figure 3108
The basic question that should be posed when reviewing restraints for possible modeling of
the stiffness is "What is the relative stiffness of the restraint compared to the pipe and the
loads being applied?" Influential factors include:
3110
Large, hot, thick walled pipe usually has high axial stiffness and large loads,
implying that impacted restraints may be less than rigid in comparison.
Alternatively, for small bore pipe, a restraint ofvirtually any stiffness probably
appears to be rigid in comparison  when analyzing a 2inch diameter line,
results may not change noticeably even if the restraint stiffnesses are entered
as 10,000 lb/in or 1E12 lblin.
It is often difficult to build structures which can "rigidly" restrain moments. This
is due both to the low torsional resistance of open sections, and due to the fact
that structural members cannot be loaded in the strong axis for aIl three
rotational directions. Performing the analysis using more realistic, flexible
moment restraints will most likely cause the restraint to rotate slightly,
transferring the moment load elsewhere in the system, and potentially dissipating it.
Connections at the top oftall towers may be flexible due to the lateral flexibility
of the structure.
Soil anchors are cumulatively stiff, but locally very weak. It is common to
continue buried pipe models for several hundred feet after the pipe has become
buried. It is only after this distance that a "cumulative" (virtual) anchor is
considered to have been formed. Waterhammer loads at buried elbows can cause
pipes to "kick out" of the ground. In this case the local soil strength is smaIl, and
the localload is very high. (Where this is considered a problem, concrete blocks
and supports are poured around elbows that are part oflong elbowelbow pairs.)
In general, it is safe to say that the results of most analyses will increase in
accuracy as the modeled restraint stiffnesses increase in accuracy.
Restraint stiffness can be calculated manuaIly, as was done for the restraint shown in Figure
3106 and simply entered into CAESAR II when coding in the restraint. An alternative is
to construct a partial model of the restraint as part of the piping system, using either pipe
elements or structural members. For example, the flexibility oftall vessels can be modeled
with pipe elements down to the foundation. In the case of structural steel models, often
including only a small part of the model is sufficient to improve the behavior of the restraint.
Complex structural steel models may be incorporated in to the piping system using the
structural steel modeler, accessible from CAESAR II's main menu.
3111
Almost aIl joints between piping elements are assumed to be fixed connections
(i.e., aIl three forces and aIl three moments are transferred between adjacent
piping elements). In steel structures, the connections may transfer only selected
loads between adjacent elements, depending upon the actualjoint construction.
For example, the clip anglejoint shown in Figure 3109 is one ofthe most common
connection types  it is assumed to transmit forces, but no moments. Moment
connections require welding of the flanges of the wide flange, since moments are
carried in the flanges and shear is carried in the web. Therefore the user must
be careful to accurately model the internaI connections between members. (Note
that the default connection provides full fixity.)
I~
1
BllI~
1
1
F"mIITI!;3
!,~
~~/~!
Figure 3109
3112
Structural members perform very similarly to pipe elements except that the
structural elements are not symmetric about their member axis; in fact,
structural elements are usually weak for loading in one direction and strong in
another. This means that the local orientation ofthe element is very important.
Element orientation is specified through the use of the ANGLE parameter,
which specifies the angle which the element is rotated away from its "standard"
orientation. In CAESAR II's structural modeler, "standard" orientation is
defined as follows:
a) for elements running in the horizontal plane (beams), the element's weak
axis coincides with the global Yaxis
b) for elements running in the vertical plane (columns), the element's strong
axis coincides with the global Zaxis
c) for elements running in a skewed plane (bracing), the projection of the
element's weak axis on the vertical plane coincides with the global Yaxis
Correct orientation of elements can be easily checked by using the structural modeler's PLOT
commando
CAESAR II's structural modeler uses keyword input, which may be entered interactively
or through a file. Commonly used keywords are listed below:
HELP
DEL
EDIM
EDIT
ERR
FIX
LIST
LOAD
MATID
PLOT
QQUIT
QUIT
SECID
STAT
UNIF
Gives help
Repeats last command
Deletes input
Defines structural element
Leaves interactive for full screen edit mode
Error checks input
Defines restraint conditions
Lists input
Defines concentrated loads
Defines material properties
Plots structure
Exits model building mode, does no error checking,
does not build analysis files
Exits model building mode, does error checking, builds
analysis files
Defines cross sectional properties
Gives current model status
Defines uniform loads
Where more data is required for a command, the program prompts the user for it.
The program includes over 900 standard steel shapes, the properties of which may be
accessed byname. Three databases are availablethe 1977 AISC, 1989 AISC, and the 1991
German (DIN) standards. The user may enter the specifie crosssectional parameters for
nonstandard shapes.
3113
A sample problem, showing co ding of a pipe rack, is shown in Figure 3110. The
accompanying input illustrates the use the most common keywords to define a model.
1015
SECID = 1, W8X1 0
;Define column cross section as #1
SECID = 2, W6X9
;Define beam cross section as #2
MATID = 1, YM=29E6 POIS=.3 G=11 E6 DENS = .283
DEFAULT SECID = 1
EDIM 1005 1010 DY=120
EDIM 1010 1015 DY=120
EDIM 1035 1030 DY=120
EDIM 1030 1025 DY=120
DEFAULT SECID = 2
EDIM 1015 1020 DX =50
EDIM 10201025 DX=50
EDIM 1010 1030 DX=100
FIX 1005 ALL
FIX 1035 ALL
.~~.
1025
12'0"
;Define ail columns
1010
1030
12'0"
W8x10
1005
1
10'0"
1035
1
Figure 3110
Note that a no de point (1020) must be placed along a structural member whenever an
intersection with the piping system is to occur. The structure is included in the piping
problem by entering the file name through an option of the Kaux menu. The pipe is then
attached to the structure by usingthe attachment no de point on thestructure as the restraint
CNODE.
Many structures (such as building frames or continuous racks) have a high degree of
repeatability. The user can take advantage of this through the use of no de and element
generation commands.
For example, the large structure shown in Figure 3111 can be created using generation
commands. The process is to first define one corner node, then fill a single column line of
nodes, then sweep the line of nodes out into an area pattern, and finally sweep the area
pattern up into a volume pattern of nodes, each step of which takes a single commando
Elements can then be generated in a similar manner.
3114
188
@Fill
VoluMe
~3
@Fill Line
_____ ,)
(!) First
Node
Figure 3111
The entire structure can be entered using only 14 commands to define the geometry, crosssectional properties, material properties, and boundary conditions:
SECID 1 W14Xl20
SECID 2 WI0Xl2
COLUMNS
BEAMS
NODE
NGEN
NGEN
NGEN
1
(1) LAST=5 NODEINC=l DX=100
1 TO 5 LAST=30 NODEINC=5 DZ=150
1 TO 30 LAST=180 NODEINC=30 DY=220
EGEN 1 TO 31 LAST=60
DEFAULT SECID=2
EGEN
EGEN
EGEN
EGEN
31 TO
(151)
31 TO
(271)
GENINC=30 GENLAST=180
FIX 1 TO 30 ALL
3115
Figure 3112
3116
Figure 3113
CNODES can also be used to accurately model the effect ofsettlement. In Figure 3114, the
pipe rests on the ground at node point 95. The ground at this point is expected to settle in
the y direction; the pipe may or may not settle with it dependingon the stiffness ofthe nearby
pipe. This configuration can be modeled with a +Y restraint at node point 95, with a CNODE
of1095 (friction is optional). The settlement displacement of 0.325 inches in the Ydirection
is then imposed at node point 1095. This allows node point 95 to either liftoff, or to settle,
according to the configuration of the piping system as a whole .
..J...;.=t
Figure 3114
3117
0.325'
reduce the magnitude ofloads on equipment and restraints, since often, only a
single application of a large load is sufficient to damage these elements
Note that no credit can be taken for cold spring in the stress calculations, since the expansion
stress provisions of the piping codes require the evaluation of the stress range, which is
unaffected by cold spring (except possibility in the presence of nonlinear boundary
conditions, as discussed below). The cold spring merely adjusts the stress mean, but not the
range.
Many engineers avoid cold spring due to the difficulty of maintaining accurate records
throughout the operating life of the unit. Future analysts attempting to make field repairs
or modifications may not necessarily know about (and therefore include in the analysis) the
cold spring specification.
Due to the difficulty of properly installing a cold sprung system, most piping codes
recommend that only 2/3 of the specified cold spring be used for the equipment load
calculations.
An example of how to calculate the amount of cold spring necessary to reduce equipment
loads is provided in Figure 3115.
In the example shown, the pipe expands between the anchor and the equipment,
placing excessive thermalloads on the nozzle. The ide a is to calculate the total
thermal expansion which the pipe wishes to make between the two pumps, and
then to offset the pipe by approximately half ofthat amount through the use of
cut short elements.
3118
10'0
~.I
~
5'6
EQUIPMENT
ANCHOR
2'6
3'9
Figure 3115
Where:
Ci
Li
=
=
dT
change in temperature, oF
For the case in Figure 3115, assume that the operating temperature is 1170oF, ambient
temperature is 70oF, and the coefficient of me an coefficient of thermal expansion between
the two for the material is 7E6 in/in/oF. In that case:
Lx
431 in
Ly
210 in
3119
Lz
(30)(12) + (23)(12) + 7
643 in
Cx
1.659 in
Cy
0.809 in
Cz
2.475 in
Therefore, one of the pipe runs in the Xdirection should be cut short by approximately 15/
8 inches, one of the runs in the Ydirection should be cut short by approximately 3/4 inches,
and one of the runs in the Zdirection should be cut short by approximately 2112 inches, as
shown in the figure.
Note that the (1/2) in the equation for the cold spring amount is used such that the mean
stress is zero. In some cases it is desirable to have the operating load on the equipment as
close to zero as possible. In this latter case the (1/2) should be omitted. The maximum stress
magnitude will not change from a system without cold spring, but will now exist in the cold
case rather than the hot.
AlI pipe stress programs provide very specific methods of modeling cold spring. As of this
writing (Version 3.18), CAESAR II provides two methods of specifying cold spring. (This is
scheduled to change with Version 3.20 of the program, when cold spring will be more easily
manipulated as a separate loading case.)
In the first method, elements may be specified as being made of cut short or cut long
materials. Cut short de scribes a cold sprung section ofpipe fabricated short by the amount
of the cold spring, requiring an initial tensile load to close the final joint. Cut long describes
a cold sprung section ofpipe fabricated long by the amount of cold spring, requiring an initial
compressive load to close the final joint. The software models cut shorts and cut longs by
applying end forces to the elements sufficient to reduce their length to zero (from the defined
length) or increase their length to the defined length (from zero) respectively. (It should be
remembered to make the lengths ofthese cold spring elements only 2/3 oftheir actuallengths
to implement the code recommendations.) This is effectively what occurs during application
of cold spring. The end forces applied to the elements are then included in the basic loading
case F (for force), whereby they can be included in various load combinations.
The drawback to this method occurs when other forces are present, such as applied external
forces or spring hanger loads. In this case, the cold spring forces cannot be segregated from
these other forces in the basic load case F. Therefore, the second method of modeling cold
spring is more appropriate  using a second (or third) thermal case to represent the effects
of cold spring. In this way the effects of cold spring can be isolated from all other loadings
through the specification of the extra thermal case. This is done as follows:
1
model the system as normal, but use at least one element with a length and
direction corresponding to the specified cold spring (the same as in the first
method, but make it of the same material as the pipe, not of a special cut short
or long material)
apply the normal operating temperatures to all elements ofthe model as thermal
load case Tl  this represents the expansion of the system during operation
3120
create thermalload case T2 representing only the effects of the cold spring  for
this case:
a) all noncold spring elements are given a temperature equal to ambient
b) all cut short elements are given an alpha value (instead of a temperature)
of 0.6667, representing a shrinkage of 2/3 of its defined length
c) all cut long elements are given an alpha value of 0.6667, representing an
expansion of 2/3 of its defined length
Note that in order to enter an alpha value on the order of 0.6667, the alpha tolerance value
of the CAESAR II setup file will probably have to be changed. For more information on
changing the alpha tolerance, and modeling cold spring in general, the user is referred to the
CAESAR II User's Manual.
When analyzing a system with cold spring, a different set of load cases should be run.
Assuming that the cold spring load case is T2 (as described in method 2 above), the following
load cases probably constitute a good recommendation:
Load Case 1 P+W+F+T2 (OPE)  This is effectively a "cold operating" case  i.e., it
represents the piping system in the cold condition, but includes both primary (P+W+F)
and secondary (T2) loads, so it cannot be used for stress purposes. The reactions from
this load case should be used for checking the restraint and equipment loads.
Load Case 2  P+W+F (SUS)  This is a sustained case from the point ofview that only
primary loads are considered, and should therefore be used for checking the system
sustained stresses. However, ifthere are nonlinear effects such as oneway restraints,
gaps, etc. present in the system, the restraint configuration should be examined to verify
that it is a true representation of the restraint status during hot or cold operation.
Load Case 3  P+W+F +Tl +T2 (OPE)  This is the hot operating case, representing the
piping system after thermal expansion. It is not used for stress purposes, but again the
reactions from this load case are used for checking the restraint and equipment loads
(they should be checked for the maximum loads from the cold or hot operating case).
Load Case 4  D1 D3 (EXP). This is the algebraic difference between, or the range of
loading through which the pipe goes when heating up between, the cold and the hot
cases. Therefore this is the expansion case, and is used to check the expansion stress
requirements ofthe codes. Note that for completely linear systems, the expansion range
(i.e., the difference between load case 3 and load case 1) is Tl, eliminating the effect of
the cold spring.
Care must be exercised when running cold spring and hanger design simultaneously. Cold
spring in vertical runs of pipe adjacent to hanger design locations can cause inordinate
weight loads to appear at the hanger positions. Cold spring effects should be omitted from
the restrained weight run and included in the hanger operating run.
3121
Morrix Loyers
(Exaggercieci)
Res!"
MCTrix
Figure 3116
Note that today a nonwrapped form ofFRP pipe is also available. In this type ofpipe, the
glass, in very small pieces, is enclosed in the matrix, and then sprayed into a piping mold.
This method of construction provides for essentially isotropie properties, as the glass fibers
are oriented at random in the matrix. In this instance, the standard CAESAR II pipe
element can be used. Other plastics, such as PVC, also exhibit isotropie properties, and can
therefore be modeled by the standard element as weIl.
TheCAESAR II plastic pipe element is based upon a model ofwrapped fiberglass reinforced
plastic pipe. When this element is requested, the following addition al material properties
are required:
G
Eaxial
3122
Eaxial/Ehoop
* Vb/a
CAESAR II prompts for these values whenever material #20 (plastic pipe) is selected.
Unless otherwise entered, the following default values are used:
Shear Modulus
80,000 psi
3.2E6 psi
0.15273
12.0E6 inlinloF
When analyzing plastic pipe, one primarily looks for points where the pipe is undersupported both horizontally and verticaIly. Piping designers used to working with steel pipe
tend to undersupport plastic pipe because they often use rules ofthumb and a "design eye"
for the much stronger steel pipe. As a result supports near vertical risers may be placed too
far from the verticalleg, causing excessive bending, and leakage at weakjoints. Horizontal
supports should be provided liberally because they are inexpensive and lightly loaded, and
because they prevent the pipe from buckling or moving into a position that is potentially
dangerous. In fact, any horizontally unsupported line can "walk" its way off of supports, into
neighboring lines, etc., if the designer is not careful. These types of problems seem to be
exacerbated when working with plastic pipe.
PracticaIly, the pressure stresses in plastic pipe should be considered before any flexibility
analysis is done (this is consistent with the way any other pipe stress analysis is done). These
pressures determine the required thickness of the pipe, and the degree ofwrap.
N ext the pipe stress analysis should be done. There are few explicit piping codes or allowable
stresses available for plastic pipe; it is up to the user to determine the appropriate flexibility
and stress intensification factors, load combinations, and allowable stresses. CAESAR II
models flexibility factors for plastic pipe elbows as 1.0, since the hoop modulus is generally
considerably higher than the axial modulus, thus resisting cross sectional ovalization.
Intersections and curved fittings are generally assumed to be approximately three times as
thick as the matching pipe. When this is done an SIF of2.3, a value recommended by CibaGeigy for plastic pipe systems, is typically used. If the user has better stress intensification
factor data, those values may be specified at individual fittings.
It is conservative, and a practical approach, to combine aIl simultaneous loadings together
to determine the maximum stress in the pipe. This includes the effects ofweight, pressure,
and thermal effects. (When pressure is specified in plastic pipe, CAESAR II always
activates the Bourdon pressure effect. This accounts for the displacements due to pressure
elongation of the pipe, which can be significant in plastic pipe.) Preferably, the analysis
results should be reviewed with the plastic pipe manufacturer to verify that the model is
accurate and that the pipe supplied is capable ofwithstanding the stresses, pipe forces and
3123
moments, and restraint reaction loads. Otherwise, the resulting operating stresses (both
code and bending stresses) can then be compared to the maximum allowable stresses as
specified by the pipe manufacturer.
In some cases, the manufacturer does not provide allowable stresses, but rather, maximum
allowable pressures and maximum recommended weight spans. In this case, the user can
convert this information to allowable stresses by proceeding through the steps outlined
below:
1
N ext a plastic pipe model comprised of straight pipe elements resting on vertical
supports should be built. The model should include at least six equally spaced
supports, with a node point placed at the midpoint of the middle span. The
distance between supports should be equal to the maximum allowed pipe span
obtained from the manufacturer's data.
Making sure that the modeled pipe is filled with water and pressurized at the
maximum allowable pressure (obtained from the manufacturer's data), a weight
plus pressure analysis on the pipe should be run.
The large st code stress and the large st bending stress found on the three node
points of the middle span should then be used as the limits to the operating
bending and code stresses found in the analysis of the actual system.
The real benefit of analysis of plastic pipe is that it helps to eliminate poorly supported
systems that will eventually leak, or will cause distortion problems with the line. Whereas
hot steel pipe can be easily oversupported, plastic pipe typically cannot. The tendency is to
undersupport it, or to support it incorrectly, producing large thermal moments at intermediate elbows. Both of these design flaws should be discovered easily with a stress analysis
of the system.
3124
Mu (W + W + Wp)
Mu
Su
Wp
= Mu (2p
D H + Wp)
Where:
a. Trenched pIpe
b. Soil pressure
c. Idealized model
Figure 3117
The soil density and friction coefficient can be obtained from soil tests performed along the
pipe route. Where data is not available, the foIlowing values are typical:
Silt  0.3
Sand  0.4
Gravel  0.5
Pressure forces are caused when the pipe tries to move lateraIly, pushing against the soil.
Three different lateral soil forces normaIly encountered in piping analysis are shown in
Figure 3118. Each lateral restraint response can be idealized, as shown in Figure 3118d,
into two response stages: elastic, where the resisting force is proportional to the pipe
displacement, and plastic, where resistance remains constant regardless of displacement.
This type of restraint can be modeled using a bilinear restraint, specifying an elastic
stiffness, an ultimate load (for the elastic to plastic transition), and a plastic stiffness (which
should be near zero). The soil will not only restrain the pipe against movements, but through
couples, against rotations as weIl.
3125
Displacement _
b. Downward
a. Upward
c. Sideward
d. Force displacement
Figure 3118
The stiffness of the soil restraint (in lb/in per inch of pipe) can be calculated as the product
of the soil modulus of elasticity times the outer diameter of the pipe. In the event that the
soil modulus is not known, the stiffness can be determined from other soil parameters. For
example, for sidewards motion, a passive pressure is created at the front surface of the pipe.
According to L. C. Peng's paper "Stress Analysis Methods for Underground Pipelines"
(published in the May 1978 edition of Pipe Line Industry), the ultimate load and idealized
elastic response can be estimated from various soil parameters, as:
U
Where:
U
<p
= eD
e
In order to sufficiently simulate the continuous effect of soil restraint, it is often necessary
to break underground piping into a finer mesh than would be necessary for plant piping.
At least 200300 feet of the buried pipe should be included in order to model the
effect of a cumulative anchor
N odes (and associated restraints) should not bespaced further than 20 diameters
apart for pipe greater than 12 inch in diameter, or greater than 30 diameters
apart for 12 inch and under diameters.
3126
Where:
A
Li
Di
For example, the contributory area for node 20 of the 12" nominal diameter pipe
shown in Figure 3119 is calculated as:
A
15
= 3060 in2
25
20
10
Figure 3119
4
The subgrade modulus of elasticity for the type of soil is then determined,
preferably from actual soil tests. In lieu ofbetter information, the following data
(taken from Joseph E. Bowles, "Foundation Analysis and Design", 3rd Edition,
1982) is available:
Sail type
loose sand
medium dense sand
dense sand
clay and dense sand
silty and dense sand
clay qu < 4 ksf
clay qu < 800 ksf
clay qu > 1600 ksf
30100
60500
400800
200500
250700
75150
150300
>300
3127
<1>
<1>
/2), or:
/2)
The effective soil restraint stiffness for each node is calculated by multiplyingthe
contributory area for each node times the soil subgrade modulus.
Next the density of the pipe should be set to zero, since the weight ofburied pipe
is uniformly supported along its length. Weight loads in buried pipe do not cause
deflections, stresses, or forces in the pipe. (Note that this step should be skipped
when doing dynamic analysis of underground pipe, since the mass distribution
is important in the dynamic analysis.)
Any axial stops in the form oflarge flanges or concrete anchors, designed to resist
the thermal expansion of buried pipe, should then be coded into the model. If
these are present, it is recommended that the restraint stiffnesses calculated
above be reduced by approximately 25% in order to yield more conservative
anchor loads.
CAESAR II provides an automatic underground pipe modeler, accessed from the main
menu, which markedly simplifies this modelingprocess. The underground modeler provides
two services to the user:
If soil properties are not known, or if a good mathematical model of the soil is not
available, CAESAR II provides a default soil model that may be used to
approximate "typical" soil support characteristics.
Given soil support stiffnesses either from user input or from the default model,
CAESAR II distributes the buried restraint stiffnesses over the buried part of
the piping system. This is probably the most useful part of the buried pipe
modeler. Properly breaking down the model into a finer element mesh and
distributing restraints over the piping system is a very time consuming task to
do accurately by hand, which the buried pipe modeler can do in seconds. The
distribution of restraint stiffnesses over lateral bearing lengths, transition
lengths, and over axial bearing lengths is described in detail in the CAESAR II
user's manual.
Sel dom are soil properties known very accurately. Often there is absolutely no quantitative
data available on the soil at the site. In these situations, the default soil model will probably
provide as good an estimate of the actual soil properties as any. This model is based on a
3128
combination of data available from a variety of sources (many from research on driven piles).
After evaluating this data, it was determined that there was insufficient accuracy to
differentiate between the horizontal and vertical soil restraint stiffnesses.
Intuitively, it seems plausible that the downward stiffness of a buried pipe will be greater
than both the lateral and upward stiffnesses, and the lateral stiffnesses will be greater than
the upward stiffness, which will vary according to the buried depth. When there is good soil
data and a good soil model available, it should be used in place ofCAESAR II's default soil
model. These numbers can be input directlyto the buried pipe modeler. This improved model
can take into account the differences among lateral, upward, and downward distributed soil
stiffnesses.
The underground piping modeler provides the user the opportunity to enter the following soil
properties:
FRICTION COEFFICIENT
SOI L DENSITY
BURIED DEPTH TO TOP OF PIPE
FRICTION ANGLE
UNDRAINED SHEAR STRENGTH
OVERBURDEN COMPACTION MULTIPLIER
THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT
TEMPERATURE CHANGE (Installed to operating)
Note that the overburden compaction multiplier is a degree of compaction of the backfill, and
is calculated by multiplying the Proctor Number (a measure ofbackfill efficiency defined in
most soils textbooks as a ratio ofunit weights) by 8. The underground pipe modeler defaults
to a value of the overburden compaction multiplier of8; this results in somewhat conservative restraint stiffnesses. Under common practice, this value is often reduced to somewhere
in the range from 5 to 7.
From this data, the underground pipe modeler calculates the axial friction loads, the
transverse ultimate load and elastic stiffness, and automatically inserts the appropriate
restraints, adding additional nodes as necessary. A diagram of a pipe for which soil restraints
were generated by the underground piping modeler is shown in Figure 3120.
3129
Figure 3120
3130
Do (CORE)
Di (JACKET)
Ep
~@Ie
l''::'L.O
~
~
Figure 3121
Jacketed piping systems are modeled by running the jacket elements directly on top of the
core elements where the two are concentric. InternaI supports (spiders) offer negligible
resistance to relative bending and axial displacement, so rigid restraints should be placed
between the inner and outer pipe (for example between node points 15 and 1015) only in the
local Yand Zdirections. The end caps connecting the core to the jacket ofthe pipe are usually
much stiffer than either the core or the jacket. For this reason at end cap locations (node
3131
points 10 and 25), the inner and outer pipes should share the same node point (i.e., node
points 1010 and 1025 should not be used)  this ensures that the rotations and displacements are identical for the two pipes at these locations.
.
The +y support acting on the jacket at node point 1020 does not cause any restraint to be
inserted between nodes 20 and 1020. Node 20 is included in the model so that interference
with the outside diameter can be checked at the 201020 cross section. Should there be
concerns about interference, a restraint with a gap equal to the clearance between the inner
and outer pipes can be entered. If a load develops at that restraint, this indicates an
interference.
The specific modeling process is fairly simple. The inner pipe is modeled first, with the user
taking care to place a node point at each location where there is an internaI spacer support.
Next the inner pipe is duplicated using the element block copy feature (accessed with the List
hot key from the input spreadsheet). The entire run of the inner pipe should be copied, with
a suitable node increment to ensure that no nodes are duplicated between the two copies.
The second copy becomes the outer pipe. It is necessary to first change the diameter and wall
thickness (and possibly the fluid density and temperature) of the pipe on the first screen of
the outer pipe; these changes propagate through. N ext the user must go through and change
the bend radii of each of the elbows in the outer pipe. The first and last node numbers of the
outer pipe should then be changed to the same node numbers as those of the first and last
point of the inner point  this serves to connect the inner to the outer pipe, a fact that can
be confirmed by using CAESAR II's PLOT option.
Finally, the internaI supports are modeled by placing guides (and vertical supports on
horizontal runs) at each of the support points on the inner pipe, with CNODES to the
corresponding points on the outer pipe. Any pipe restraints are then placed on the outer pipe
only.
P + Pe
Pe
3132
Where:
Ptotal
Pe
This method is widely recognized to give highly conservative results, indicating failure in
flanges which actually have quite a bit ofreserve strength. However, it has long been used
due to the lack of any easy method for evaluating flanges under piping loads.
One alternative is to perform a flange analysis according to the requirements of Section VIII,
Division I of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. However, these calculations are
only intended to assure that the flange will not be overstresssed by the necessary joint
tightening loads that are required for a leak tight joint.
The problem with these stress calculation methods is that they hold piping loads, which
usually cause leakage failure in flanges, to standards for pressure and tightening loads,
which usually have a different failure mode  stress failure. Stress calculation methods fail
to address the deformation of the flange and its effect on gasket compression and leakage.
The basic problem offlange leakage is a complex one not readily availing itselfto analysis.
Facing selection, gasket type, operating temperature, and initial fitup loads are aIl factors
that are either difficult or impractical to evaluate analytically.
3133
that the CAESAR II flange leakage calculation starts and upon which it depends. It is
recommended that the user aim for an "m" factor greater than 1.0. This should provide a
safety factor greater than 2.0, and is consistent with other safety factors used in pipe stress
analysis. If the flange analysis module predicts an "m" factor less than 1.0, then the loads
on the flange should probably be reduced.
The flange modeler determines the initial pressure on the gasket due to the tightening of the
bolts, and the loss of pressure on the gasket due to the line pressure and the forces and
moments acting on the flange. If the resulting pressure on the gasket (i.e., the initial minus
alllosses) exceeds the gasket factor "m" times the line pressure, then the flange is considered
to be "safe".
There are a great many different types offlanges, facings, an gaskets. For the purpose ofthe
flange modeler, an of these were generalized into a single model for leakage. Once this
was done, the critical variables affecting leakage were retained in the analytical model, and
the unnecessary variables were eliminated. It was determined that the deformation of the
annular plate forming the flange, in conjunction with the deformation ofthe bolts and gasket,
when subjected to bending, pressure, and axial forces were the critical variables to be
evaluated.
Various simplified elastic models were tested and a final model agreed upon that most closely
correlated the results from finite element analyses of several typical flange configurations
subject to bending and axial loads. Loads on the gasket were predicted within 15% for
standardly dimensioned flanges, and other calculated values were within similar tolerances.
The modeler also confirmed leakage of numerous flanges in actual plant applications as weIl.
The basic flange deformation modes assumed to contribute most significantly to the
unloading of the gasket are shown in Figure 3122.
3134
"
/lloment
DiltribuUon
Gaaket
BoIt.
Load
a:::::D
.rv:r2"7"""":lv,~1r"7"""":l7~1"'""'7i
;;
Guket
SWfne
and ReacUon
PA
BoIt.
Load
ADgular
RotaUon
])ue
To Moment
AD Remain ellsenUally
\
\
BoIt
Force
Figure 3122
3135
The gasket reaction and stiffness are concentrated at a point load at the center
of the gasket loading area.
The boIt reaction and stiffness are concentrated at a single point and is assumed
to be uniformly distributed around the annular plate which models the flange.
The gasket is assumed to be fairly stiff, so that the flange rotational stiffness is
of the same order of magnitude as the gasket stiffness.
The effect of the hub and pipe wall are not variable, and so are considered only
approximately.
Leakage analysis for joints made up of flexible gaskets should not be attempted,
since the effect ofvery flexible gaskets on leakage tends to be a function offactors
other than the flexibility of the annular flange plate and boIts.
Complete instructions for the operation of the flange leakage analysis module are provided
in the CAESAR II U ser's Manual. A brief description if given here.
The data screen for the module is broken into two sections. The first section contains the
input required for the leakage calculations, while the second section contains the additional
input required for making the ASME Section VIII, Division 1 stress calculations.
The flange leakage module permits (much of the data is optional) entry of the following
information:
Flange dimensions:
3136
BoIt data:
= 12 x T / (K d)
S
Where:
S
nut factor (as per the Standard Handbook of Machine Design, Figure 3123)
23.30
NUl factor
Source
1
5
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
Cadmium plate
Zinc plate
Black oxide
Baked on PTFE
Molydisulfide paste
Machine oil
Camaba wax (5% emulsion)
60 Spindle oil
As rcccived steel fasteners .
Molydisulfide grease
Phosphate and oil
Copperbased anti seize compound
As received steel fasteners
Plated fasteners
Grease. oil. or wax
Reponed
mean
Reponed
range
0.1940.246
0.332
0.1630.194
0.0920.112
0.155
0.21
0.148
0.22
0.20
0.137
0.19
0.132
0.20
0.15
0.12
0.153~.328
0.262~.398
0.I09~.279
0.0640.142
0:140.17
0.200.225
0.120.165
0.210.23
0.1580.267
0.100.16
0.150.23
0.080.23
0.1610.267
Figure 3123
If not entered, the program defauIts to a boIt prestress of 45000/d 1l2 psi, a typical rule of
thumb applied when field tightening bolts.
3137
Gasket data:
Load data:
Flange dimensions:
FLANGE TYPE
FLANGE OUTSIDE DIAMETER
SMALL END HUB THICKNESS
LARGE END HUB THICKNESS
HUB LENGTH
As above, dimensional data for standard flanges can be accessed from a built in database in
the program. Any of eight standard flange types recognized by Section VIII can be selected
from a graphie representation.
DESIGN TEMPERATURE
GASKET SEATING STRESS
Permissible gasket seating stresses are provided in the program HELP facility.
3138
Material allowables:
3139
39.569
4.969
38.599
32.999
1.599
33.888
.963
.396
2.759
399999.999
.999
.999
499.999
<?>For Help
<Keypad>
Inputt
Outpllt!
More J.
3a.56a
4.969
38.599
32.999
1.599
33.888
.963
.396
2.759
399999.a99
.999
.999
499.999
<?>For Help
<Keypad>
Inputt
Figure 3124
3140
Output!
More J.
FLANGE
LEA~AGE/STRESS
More t
CALCULATIONS
2.74
OPERATIHG
3285.
ALLOW
26259.
17599.
17599.
17599.
25999.
3685.
971.
3485.
9619.
SEATIHG
5685.
6379.
1688.
6932.
2683.
ALLOW
26259.
17599.
17599.
17599.
25999.
FLANGE
<?>For Help
LEA~AGE/STRESS
Inputl
<~eypad>
More l
Output!
More t
CALCIJLATIONS
OPERATIHG
3285.
3685.
971.
3485.
9619.
ALLOW
26259.
17599.
17599.
17599.
25899.
SEATIHG
ALLOW
5685.
26259.
6379.
17599.
1680.
17599.
6832.
17589.
25999.
2683.
1
2
3
4
<?>For Help
STRESS
Longitudinal Hub
Radial Flange
Tangentiel Flange
"axinun Average
5 Bolting
Inputt
<~eypad>
OPEHATINC
3285.
3685.
971.
3485.
9619.
RLLOURBLE
26258.
17588.
17588.
17588.
25888.
Output!
SEATING ALLOUABLE
5685.
6379.
16BB.
6832.
2683.
5 ............_..._ ........
Note<l'
show
the index
~he
general location
Dr
the stress.
Figure 3125
3141
26258.
17588.
Ib./sq.in
2588B.
Ib./sq.in
Ib./sq.in
1758B. Ib./sq.in
17588. Ib./sq.in
4.2
4.3
4.5
41
Dynamic Loads
1 
Load Types
The force vs. time profiles of the dynamic loads most often encountered during the design of
piping are usually one ofthree types  random, harmonic, and impulse. These profiles, and
the load types having them, are described below.
Random: With this type ofprofile, the loadchanges direction and/or magnitude unpredictably
with time, although there may be predominant characteristics within the load profile. Major
types ofloads with random time profiles are:
Wind: Wind velocity causes forces as described in Section 2.5.1 ofthese seminar
notes, that is by the decrease of wind momentum as the air strikes the pipe,
creating an "equivalent pressure" on the pipe. Wind loadings, even though they
may have predominant directions and average velocities over a given time, are
subject to gusting, i.e., sudden changes in direction and velocity. As the observed
time period lengthens, the observed number of changes increases in an unpredictable manner as weIl, eventuaIly encompassing nearly all directions and a
wide range ofvelocities. A typical plot ofwind velocity vs. time is shown in Figure
41.
42
WIND
SPEED
(MPH)
TIME (SEC)
Figure 41
Note that to date, almost aU wind design (excluding specialized conditions such
as vortex shedding) is done using a static equivalent of adynamie loading model,
increasing the static load by a "gust factor" to account for potential dynamic
efIects.
2
Time, sec
Figure 42
(Figure 42 from Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Desi~ of
Structures by Ajaya Kumar Gupta.)
43
Note in many cases, for simplification's sake, seismic design is done using a static
equivalent of a dynamic loading model, as described in Section 2.5.2 of these
seminar notes, however dynamic simulations of seismic loads are usually more
accurate. Dynamic analysis of earthquake loads is discussed in detail in Section
5 of these notes.
Harmonie: With this type ofprofIle, the load changes direction and/or magnitude following
to a sine profile, ranging from its minimum to its maximum according to a fixed time period.
For example, the load may be described by a function of the form:
F(t)
= A + B sin(Ct + D)
Where:
F( t)
=
=
Displocement ot
Pump Flonge
time

Figure 43
Analysis of equipment vibration is discussed in detail in Section 5 of these
seminar notes.
44
Acoustic vibration: Iffluid flow characteristics are changed within a pipe (for
example ifflow conditions change from laminar to turbulent when the fluid goes
through an orifice), slight lateral vibrations may be set up within the pipe. Often
these vibrations fit harmonie patterns, with predominant frequencies somewhat
predictable based upon the flow conditions. For example, Strouhal's equation
predicts that the developed frequency (in cycles/sec, or Hz) of vibration caused
by flow through an orifice will be somewhere between 0.2 V!D and 0.3 V!D, where
V is the fluid velocity (ft/sec) and D is the diameter of the orifice (ft). Wind flow
around a pipe sets up lateral displacements as weil (a phenomenon known as
vortex shedding), with an exciting frequency in the area ofO.lB V!D, where V is
the wind velocity and D is the outer diameter of the pipe. Vortex shedding is
discussed further in Section 5 of these seminar notes.
L
Unbalanced Force
on Elbow Pair
time

Figure 44
Analysis of pulsation is discussed in detail in Section 5 of these seminar notes.
Impulse: With this type of profile, the load magnitude ramps up from zero to sorne value,
remains relatively constant for a time, and then ramps down to zero again. For rapid
ramping times, this type of profile resembles a rectangle. Major types ofloads with impulse
time profiles are:
45
Force
Time
Relief
Valve
Opening
Time
Relief
Valve
Closing
Time
Figure 45
In some cases, analysis ofreliefvalve loads is done using a static equivalent of
adynamie loading model, as described in Section 2.5.3 ofthese seminar notes,
however dynamic analyses are usually more accurate. Dynamic analysis ofrelief
valve loadings is discussed in detail in Section 5 of these seminar notes.
2
Fluid hammer: When the flow offluid through a system is suddenly halted at
one point, through valve closure or a pump trip, the fluid in the remainder of the
system cannot he stopped instantaneously as well. As fluid continues to flowinto
the area of stoppage (upstream of the valve or pump), the fluid compresses,
causing ahigh pressure situation at that point. Likewise, on the other side of the
restriction, the fluid moves away from the stoppage point, creating a low pressure
(vacuum) situation at that location. Fluid at the next elbow or closure along the
pipeline is still at the original operating pressure, resulting in an unbalanced
pressure force acting on the valve seat or the elbow.
The fluid continues to flow, compressing (or decompressing) fluid further away
from the point of flow stoppage, thus causing the leading edge of the pressure
pulse to move through the line. As the pulse moves past the frrst elbow, the
pressure is now equalized at each end of the pipe run, leading to a balanced (i.e.,
zero) pressure load on the frrst pipe leg. However the unbalanced pressure, by
passing the elbow, has now shifted to the second leg. The unbalanced pressure
load will continue to rise and fall in sequentiallegs as the pressure pulse travels
46
back to the source (or forward to the sink). A typical forcetime profile for a fluid
hammer load in a single leg is shown in Figure 46. The ramp up time (and
corresponding profile) roughly coincides with the elapsed time from full flow to
low flow, such as the closing time of the valve or trip time of the pum p. Since the
leading edge of the pressure pulse is not expected to change as the pulse travels
through the system, the ramp down time is the same. The duration ofthe load
from initiation through the beginning of the down ramp is equal to the time
required for the pressure pulse to travel the length of the pipe leg.
Length of Leoding
Edge Based on
Closing Time
p r
Unbalanced
Force
Leg Length
Speed of Sound
Time
1.. ,1 _
CD
Valve Closing
Figure 46
Analyses offluid hammer loadings are often done using a static equivalent ofa
dynamic loading model, as described in Section 2.5.3 of these seminar notes,
however these types of analysis can he extremely inaccurate. Dynamic analysis
offluid hammer loadings is discussed in detail in Section 5 ofthese seminar notes.
3
Slug flow: Most piping systems are designed tohandle singlephase fluids (i.e.,
those which are uniformly liquid or gas). Under certain circumstances, however
the fluid may have multiple phases. For example, slurry systems transport solid
materials in liquids, and gases may condense, creating pockets of liquid in
otherwise gaseous media. Systems carrying multiphase fluids are susceptible
to slug flow.
47
Flow
I~
.. 1
Slug Length
(2Phase Flow)
Figure 47
In general, when fluid changes direction in a piping system, it is balanced by the net force
on the elbow. This force, shown in Figure 47, is equal to the change in momentum with
respect to time, or:
F
= dp
1 dt
= pv
A .J(1cos8)/2
Where:
dp
dt
Normally this force is constant, and is small enough that it can be easily absorbed through
tension in the pipe wall, to be passed on to adjacent elbows which may have equal and
opposite loads, therefore zeroing the net load on the system. Therefore these type of
momentum loads are usually ignored by the stress analyst. However, ifthe fluid velocity or
density changes with time, this momentum load will change with time as weIl, leading to a
dynamic (changing) load, which may not be cancelled by the load at other elbows.
For example, consider a slug ofliquid in a gas system. The steady state momentum load is
insignificant, since the fluid density of agas is effectively zero. Suddenly the liquid slug hits
the elbow, increasing the momentum load by a factor ofthousands. This load lasts onlyas
long as it takes for the slug to traverse the elbow, and then suddenly drops to near zero again.
A typical profile is shown in Figure 48. The exact profile of the slug load depends upon the
shape of the slug  the force can be calculated at any given time from
48
"/(1
F = pv 2 A
cosE / 2 , where the A used is the crosssectional area of the slug
instantaneously impactingthe elbow. The time duration ofthe load depends upon the length
of the slug divided by the velocity of the fluid.
Force
Profile 8ased on
\IU
(~eading Edge of
Profile 8ased on
Trailing Edge of
Slug
~
Time
1..
Slug Length
Velocity of Flow
1
Figure 48
Analysis of slug flow is usually very difficult because the exact shape and length of the slug
is rarely known (and rarely constant). Dynamic analysis of slug loads during twophase flow
conditions is discussed in detail in Section 5 ofthese seminar notes.
49
Force
10
15
20
25
30
35
Time (Milliseconds)
IP
li
L.
tR2
tRI
SYSTEM CON FIGU RATION
(b)
Time (Milliseconds)
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
PIS
Total
System
Reaction
(R 1 +R2)
P
Figure 49
410
Now consider a system identical in all respects except that its restraint loads respond fully
to any imposed load in only 1 millisecond. For the imposed load prome and configuration
shown in Figures 49a and 49b, the restraint loads would follow a force versus time profile
similar to that shown in Figure 410  virtually identical to that of the applied load.
Therefore, when a system responds rapidly to applied loads, the induced reaction loads,
member forces, etc. are approximately the same as those which would occur under the same
static load.
Time (Milliseconds)
5
10
15
20
25
30
Total
System
Reaction
(R1+R2) _P
35
Expected
____ Static
Response
SYSTEM RESPONSE
Figure 410
Thepertinentquestionisthen, whatisafastresponsetime,andwhatisaslowresponsetime.
In truth, there is no absol ute answer  what is really important is the relative response time
ofthe system as compared to the rate of change ofthe applied load. For example, what if the
load applied to the system in Figure 49 had a duration of 25 seconds, instead of 10
milliseconds? The restraint loads would have sufficient time to fully respond to the applied
load, and the reactions would be the same as for a static load. In fact, a static load is simply
a dynamic load with a duration long enough that aU systems have the opportunity to respond
fully to it.
From the above, it is evident that system response to dynamic loads can produce at least two
possible results, based upon the system response time. Slowly responding systems result in
response loads lower than the applied loads, while rapidly responding systems result in
response loads approximately the same as the applied loads. Whathappens when the system
response is somewhere in between?
Consider the systems described in Figure 49 and 410 (i.e., with response times of 25
milliseconds and 1 millisecond, respectively), this time loaded with a harmonic load, cycling
between P and P, with frequency of 1 cycle per 25 milliseconds. The responses of the two
systems are shown in Figures 411a and 411b. The frrst system again lags behind and fails
to fully develop response loads. The second system responds almost instantly andjust about
fuUy responds to the applied load, as before.
411
Devoloped
Response
(R1 +R2)
p
Applied
Load
(
Time
p
(a)
Time
Force
r~4~r~4~~r++~~~
p
(h)
Figure 411
Now consider a system which has a response time somewhere in the middle  about 12.5
milliseconds. Upon initialloading, the system initially attempts to respond to the load P,
with restraint loads each equal to P/2. Since the system response lags, it does not fully
develop these restraint loads, but, after 12.5 milliseconds, will have total system response
(restraint loads) of somewhere around 0.7P. Considering the cyclic load, the applied load
on the system will be, at 12.5milliseconds, P,for a net loadon the systemofl. 7P(seeFigure
412).
412
Applied
Load
p
\
\
\
Force I'\~t+It~ Ti m e
\
25ms
\ \
\.~
Response
\
p
\.
.......
Figure 412
The system now attempts to resolve the net load of 1. 7P with two restraint loads of +0.85P.
Assuming that at time T=25 milliseconds, these loads have actually reached only +0.6P (due
to the response lag), or a total of +1.2P, the externalload will now be +P, so the net system
load will be +2.2P, as shown in Figure 413.
2P
Developed Response
(R1+R2)
p
Applied
Load
\
\
Force
p
1'\'1+'.+1:.
\
\ \
',j
Ti m e
25ms
\"
Figure 413
This net load will then be resisted by total restraint loads (system response) of 2.2P, which
will have reached approximately 1.5P by T=37.5 milliseconds, at which time the load will
have reversed again, creating a net load on the system of 2.5P. Continuing in this way, the
net load on the system will be approximately 2.8P at 50 milliseconds, 3.0P at 62.5
milliseconds, 3.1P at 75 milliseconds, and so forth. The total developed load (total restraint
loads) is shown as a function oftime in Figure 414.
413
Devoloped
Response
(R1 +R2) (
2P
"
""
1
1
\
\
Applied
Load
\
Time
Foree I+_;'I_+I_ _t;.._++.....
I +I+_
1
175ms
1
p
" _.....
1
1
/
Figure 414
This may continue until the developed load spirals out of control, and the structure fails.
From this example, it is clear that there is a third possibility for a system response under
dynamic loading  the induced load may far exceed the applied load. This is the type of
response with which the engineer must normally he concerned.
This concept is illustrated in Figure 415. In Figure 415a, a weight rests on a spring, and
the spring compresses 1 inch. In Figure 415b, the same weight is suddenly applied to the
spring. In this case, the spring oscillates, eventually coming to rest at the static deflection.
However, initially the maximum deflection overshoots the static compression by an
additional 1 inch.
414
i
1
~
~
Ii
Weight ot
Rest
Settles ot
Stotic
Displocement
1. \
,~Time
T
2"1
String is Cut,
Loading the
Spring Instontly
./
\....~
1".J
~T
(a)
(b)
Figure 415
The Dynamic Load Factor for this case is the maximum dynamic response (2.0 inches)
divided by the static response under the same load (1.0 inch):
DLF
.2...Q
1.0
2.0
In fact, the DLF for an instantaneously applied constant load (not a harmonic or impact load)
is always exactly 2.0. This is easily proven by equating work done by a weight while
compressing a spring with the energy stored by the compressed spring:
WX
= KX2/2, or:
2W
Where:
W
weight, lb.
Note: The force in the spring is KX., which, equal ta 2W, is exactly twice the static load, for
a DLF of2.0.
System responses may be classified based upon the value of the resulting DLF. Possible
system responses are:
1)
The system response may be much lower than the applied load. In this case, the
DLF will be much smaller than 1.0. This type ofresponse is called a flexible
response. Example: When one end of a rope lying on the floor is pulled quickly,
415
most ofthe rope will not feel the pull and will continue to lie undisturhed in the
pile on the floor.
2) The system response may he much higher than the applied load. In this case,
the DLF will he much greaterthan 1.0. This type ofresponse is called a resonant
response. Example: When one end of a whip is swung over a small distance, the
other end of the whip moves in a large arc and cracks with a great force.
3) The system response may be about the same as the applied load. In this case,
the DLF will be approximately equal to 1.0. This type ofresponse is called a rigid
response. Example: When one end ofa baseball bat is swung, the free endfollows
along simultaneously, over roughly the same distance as the batter's hands.
In which of these categories a system's response falls is dependent upon the relation
hetween the system characteristics (system response speed) and load characteristics (force
time profile). A system, in and ofitself, is not flexible, resonant, or rigid. For example, in
the first example above, the rope no longer has a flexible response if the duration of the
applied load is increased significantly  i.e., if someone pulls indefmitely, eventually the
entire rope will get up and follow the pulled end.
416
Figure 416
The singledegreeoffreedom oscillator consists of a mass M attached to ground by a spring
with a stiffness K and a dashpot with a damping value of C. The spring pulls on the mass
with a force proportional to its extension or contraction (or the displacement of the mass);
the dashpot provides a frictional force proportional to the velocity of the mass. Any
unbalanced force accelerates the mass. The hehavior of a single degreeoffreedom oscillator
can then he descrihed by the dynamic equation of motion:
M
Where:
M
x(t)
=
=
=
=
=
=
x(t)
K
x(t)
F(t)
This equation cannot he explicitly solved, unless the damping term, C, is zero and the
imposed load is harmonic (i.e., of the form F(t) = asinb(t+c. Therefore, the damping value
417
is often dropped (since it is usually small) in order to simplify the equation. The equation
can he simplified further by taking the simplest external harmonic load  a load of zero. If
there is no externalload, and dam ping is approximately zero, the equation descrihes the free
vibration of an undamped singledegreeoffreedom oscillator:
M x(t) + K x(t) = 0
Its solution, as a function of time t, is:
x(t)
= Xo
x(t)
= . Xo
sin .JK/M t
Where:
Xo
.JK 1M
Iftime history analyses are done like this for a number of different types ofloads, and for
systems with various characteristics (expressedin terms ofnatural frequency and damping),
DLF functions for various types ofloads can he estimated. Use of predetermined functions
simplifies the analysis, since time history analyses need not be redone every time a dynamic
load on a system is evaluated.
For example, the Dynamic Lo~d Factor for a harmoncally applied load, as a function of
damping and natural frequency of the singledegreeoffreedom oscillator has heen discovered to be:
418
DLF
Where:
DLF
Cc
COn
Note the implications ofthis function when comparing the forcing frequency of the load to
the natural frequency of the oscillator. Approximating Cc as zero, when:
ron
CO[,
COn
CO[,
COn
CO[,
As Cc increases, the DLF approaches 1.0 (increasing the flexible response and decreasing the
resonant response). Damping prevents the DLF from ever actually reaching infinity.
A set of curves (for various damping values), in terms ofDLF versus COn can be plotted for
a specific harmonic load, as shown in Figure 417. Knowing the natural frequency and
damping of a system, the induced load in the system can be easily determined by reading the
DLF off of the curve and multiplying it by the applied load.
1 % Critical Damping
2% Damping
3% Damping
DLF
10% Damping
1.0
Figure 417
419
This demonstrates that potential problems may occur when the natural frequency of the
oscillator is very close to the forcing frequency of an imposed load.
DLF curves can be estimated for othertypes ofloads as weIl. For example, the instantaneous
DLF of a rectangular load is relatively unaffected by damping, and is:
td
The plot of the maximum DLF versus COntcV21t for a rectangular load is shown in Figure 418.
Note that as the maximum DLF for this type ofload is 2.0, and as the duration td increases,
the DLF curve moves to the left, exciting lower frequency oscillators.
2.0
1.6
1.2
li
J:
i4:
....
0.8
0.4
1
1
FIt)
Forr
td
r
/1
.,
0.05
0.10
1
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
10
(Figure 418 from Structural Dynamics Theor.y & Computation by Mario Paz).
An impulse load (such as due to a relief valve, fluid hammer, etc.) is similar to a rectangular
load, except that it may have rampup and rampdown times that are notinstantaneous. The
effect of an extended, rather than an instantaneous ramping time is to lower the maximum
DLF from 2.0.
This is illustrated in Figure 419, which shows three forcetime profiles, each with different
ramp up times and durations. The corresponding DLF curves are also shown for these
prof:.es, demonstrating that as the force durationincreases, the curve shifts left, encompassing more loworder frequencies; and as the rampup time approaches zero, the maximum
DLF nears 2.0.
420
1..35
1.135
. 875
.75
d
)
".
.................
'.,
,,,
.................
'.,
ft
"
r
c
e
n
0
r
l'II
a.
1
i
z
e
..1J4"Ilt"lto<Jllt~_.t!."l'JIoJo_~++........
1..
F
0
'.,
.......
'.'
'\"
; ....... .
.
.
.
.
. ...... ." ..........  ...... .
....... . ................
'." ....... , .................
","
".
. 635
.
...... : ....... :. ........ :......... .:....:.PFiOFLE
'Ii::i .
.5
"
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
..... , .................
'., ...... , ....... "' ....... .
.375
.35
.
.
.
.
...... ................
'." ...... , ................ .
.135
.
..... , .................
.8
".
15
.8
38
45
68
75
Ti .... e
".,
...................... " .
185
98
(l'IIsec)
138
135
158
"."
3.4 ......
','
"
.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
"."
_,
.
.
. ............
. ....
....... ., ................
' . ' .......
"
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
,,"
_,
.....
ft
. ..... . . .................
.
.
'.'
"
3.1
1.8
1)
L
F
1.5
:. '1:.
:. +:.
:.
.
.:+
.
.'J'"+.i:.:..+~:+
PROFILE 112 ... :........ : ....... ........ :........ : ....... ....... .
.. .. . . . .. . . . . . [. .. . . . . . ;. . . . ': . . . .
'l'~ ~ ~
.6
.3
.8
..: .......
:. . . . ..
f ....... ; ....... .
1.3 .. .
.9
4" :
:. . . ..
t . , : l :. l: l. '
+'~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~,~~~~~r~~~~~~
:"8
13
16
38
34
Ma.tural Frequency
3S
33
(Hz)
421
36
48
~2
~1
Figure 420
= {F(t)}, or:
= FI(t)
= F2(t)
= fOl, or:
=0
[::]
[~]
The solution to this (other than when al and a2 are both zero) is found when the determinant
of the matrix is zero, or:
Using the quadratic equation, this equation has two solutions in 002:
0012
0022
Two sets of displacements (an, a21 and a12 , a22) can be solved for relative values by
substituting the two values of 002 into the earlier set of equations:
a21
an [KI + K2  Ml 001 2] / K2
a22
Since these displacements can only be solved for relative to each other, rather than exact
values, they are often unity normalized, with the maximum displacement in each set being
given a value of1.0, and aU other displacements in the set being given relatively lowervalues.
Or, more often these sets of dis placements are normalized using a computationally more
convenient method, caUed mass normalization. This method normalizes the sets of
dis placements such that:
[<I>]T [M] [<I>]
= [1], or:
~]
Where:
[<I>]
matrix ofmassnormalized relative displacements, where columns correspond to sets of displacements, and rows correspond to directions and mass
points
[<I>]T
[1]
identity matrix
423
The implication to this analysis is that the displacements XI(t) and X2(t) at any given time
are the sum of two independent cyclic displacement functions:
XI(t)
X2(t)
Where:
Cl, C2
Individual equations of dynamic motion can be written for each of the independent cyclic
displacement functions by allocating a proportional share of the system mass and stiffness
to each:
=fl(t)
m2 Z2(t) + k2 Z2(t) =f2(t)
ml Zl(t) + k l Zl(t)
Where:
ml
m2
Mlan 2 + M2a 21 2
k2
=
=
=
=
=
=
Zl(t)
Z2(t)
flet)
f2(t)
(J)22 m2
relative displacement versus time, through displacement set 1
relative displacement versus time, through displacement set 2
share of system loading versus time allocated to cyclic function 1
anFI(t) + a2IF2(t)
share of system loading versus time allocated to cyclic function 2
424
ln fact, the free vibration response of any system with N degreesoffreedom (i.e. mass points
times displacement directions) is the sum ofN independent cyclic functions. Each ofthese
vibration functions are called "modes of vibration" of the system  each one has its own
natural frequency (cOi) and has a single degreeoffreedom, vibrating back and forth about
the set ofdis placements <Pi, The advantage to this is that, since each ofthe modes ofvibration
ofthe system is independent of each other, each mode responds to externalloading in exactly
the same way as does a single degreeoffreedom oscillator.
Therefore, the dynamic response of any system can be determined using modal analysis.
Modal analysis breaks up a complex system into a number of modes of vibration, each of
which can be considered to behave like a single degreeoffreedom oscillator  i.e., having
a unique vibration response. The total response of a system is the superposition of ail
individual modal responses. The specific procedure consists of:
1) Using the formulas described above, solve for the natural frequencies and
normalized shapes of all N modes of vibration in the system.
2) Determine the constants Cl through CN by which each ofthe modal responses are
to be multiplied. These constants are a function ofthe magnitude of the imposed
load, the DLF (corresponding to the frequency of each mode on the DLF curve for
the imposed load), and the mode and load participation factors for each mode
(discussed below).
3) Multiply each mode shape by its corresponding multiplier constant to get each
individual modal contribution.
4) Sum the individual modal responses together to get the total system response.
4.3.2 Modal Response Multipliers 
As noted, a system has one mode of vibration for each degreeoffreedom (translational and
rotational) at each mass point in the model. In reality, systems are continuous, and therefore
have an infinite number of modes of vibration. For example, for a cantilever, the natural
frequency of any ofthese infinite modes of vibration can be calculated as:
Where:
mn
n
E
1
m
L
=
=
=
=
=
=
425
Note that this shows that the natural frequency of the second mode of vibration of the
cantilever is four times that of the first mode of vibration, and the natural frequency of the
third mode is nine times that of the first.
The mode shapes correspondingto the first few modes ofvibration ofthe cantilever are shown
in Figure 421. As noted earlier, the actual magnitude ofthe mode shape displacements may
change, but the ratios of dis placements at various points to each other will remain constant.
I<==><
f==>c=><
pc:><=><
1stMode
2nd Mode
3,d Mode
4th Mode
Figure 421
We note that with ascending frequencies, more points on the cantilever are tied to their
original position, so higher order modes are tied more tightly to their original position. This
me ans that the higher order modes are less likely to vibrate. Conversely, the lower order
modes are more likely to predominate in the total system response (in the absence ofimposed
loading) than will the higher order modes. (This explains why the free vibration of a system
often seems to resemble the vibration of the first mode, and why people often speak of a
system having a natural frequency, rather than a natural frequency ofthe first mode.) The
measure of the tendency of the mode to get involved in the vibration is called the mode
participation factor, and is calculated (in vector form) for each mode as:
{MPFl
= {c,I>l T [M]
Where:
{MPFi}=
{c,I>i}
The degree to which a mode is excited is also influenced by the mode shape and the load
distribution. For example, if the cantilever is loaded as shown in Figure 422, the first and
third modes will be excited (since the load occurs at high points ofthose modes), while the
second mode will not be excited at all.
426
1 st Mode
I<=>r<
1
2nd Mode
1
1
P0<
1
3rd Mode
Figure 422
This demonstrates the concept of the load participation factor, which is a measure of the
coincidence of the high points of the load to the high points of the mode shape. Therefore,
the mode participation factor is further multiplied by the mode shape, giving the mass
participation factor, r:
Where:
{Fi}
DLFi
{cI>l
[M]
{F}
The results ofthe individualmodalloads are then calculated and summed to provide the total
system response (using one ofthe methods describedlater, in Section 4. 6.2.4 ofthese seminar
notes).
427
la
..
IDa
.97416 Hz.
1.54213 Hz.
2.28722 Hz.
2.78333 Hz.
3.41256 Hz.
3.81449 Hz.
4.35438 Hz.
5.63579 Hz.
6.17498 Hz.
7.38423 Hz.
Elused
ElaDsed
EliDStd
Elu5td
Elusld
Elund
El aDsed
Elused
ElaDsed
ElaDsed
Ti ..
Tiu
Tiu
Tiu
Ti.1
Ti I l
Ti It
Tilt
Ti u
Tilt
= 1: 1:56
= 1: 1: 9
= 1: 1:44
:; 1: 1:46
:; Il 2: 1
= 1: 2:26
= 1: 2:42
1:
1: 3:23
.. 1: 3:41
.. 1: 4:23
Figure 423
As noted earlier, associated with each mode is a shape and a frequency, which together define
the system's tendency to vibrate; the mode shape defines the shape the system would like
to take when it vibrates, and the natural frequency defines the corresponding rate of
vibration. The eigensolver returns a set ofthese for each mode, with the dimensionless mode
shape called an eigenvector, and the frequency returned as the square of the angular
frequency (0)2), known as the eigenvalue.
428
Mode #1
=1'
...,
3.412 Hz
I1r
0.974 Hz
......
..
..,.
MIll
:,. ....
Mode #6
III'
1.542 Hz
3.8144 Hz
IIf
...,
IIOIIS
1
R
1
U
Mode #3
III'
2.287 Hz
Two component
"twisting" mode.
Mode#7
...
IW
4.35 Hz
MIll
fIJ
..II!
MIll
,.
cac.
AI.
&1.
Xdirection swinging
of "U"s opposite ta
one another.
Mode#4
...,
2.783 Hz
Model8
lit'
5.636 Hz
...
Bf
Figure 424
429
Given the eigenvalue, the modal frequency can be expressed in angular frequency (radians
per second), cyclic frequency (Hz), or period (seconds per cycle):
eigenvalue
angular frequency
cyclic frequency
period
Basic mode shapes of a simple piping system, as determined by CAESAR II's eigensolver
are shown in Figure 424.
The absolute magnitude of a mode shape dis placement computed by an eigensolver is
unknown, with only the shape being given (i.e. onlythe ratios ofthe displacements at various
degrees offreedom are known for each mode, with these ratios heing constant for each mode).
For example, the eigensolution can only predict that the magnitude of A (as shown in Figure
425) is twice that ofB, and four times that ofC, etc.
RISI!'
tolr
NOlIS
~~
...................... _~
lm!
SPICIY
If'
COLOIS
OIIGIIL
IUNI
IIIIX JI
Ingr.
Figure 425
One eigenpair can potentially be calculated for each degree of freedom in the model that
contains sorne nonzero mass (node point) and sorne nonrigid stiffness (i.e., is not fully
restrained). CAESAR II, as well as most other pipe stress programs, typically omit
rotational degrees offreedom from dynamic models in orderto simplify the calculation  this
is usually acceptable since rotational modes ofvibration usually have very high frequencies,
and correspondingvery low mode participation factors. Figure 426 demonstrates how many
modes can he extracted for sorne simple systems.
430
10
12 
6 
=3
30 
15 
=7
10
Figure 426
}f+~
.
If)
;~
Fi rst Mode
in "Y" Direction
Jx
Z
T
Identical branches will display (4) equal
frequencies in the X. and probably the Z
directions.
Figure 427
431
2) Natural frequencies for a system modes can he zero, but this condition results in
the termination ofthe eigensolver. Zero natural frequencies indicate rigid body
motion, as shown in Figure 428.
.=n
~,
r Suction
Pump on Teflon
Siide Plates
Pump on Teflor
Siide Plates
Figure 428
If there is no friction at the Ysupports or at the pump slide plates, then
432
will contain some component of the missing modes, allowing the vector to
properly converge.
4) Eigensolutions oflargejobs (ajob can he considered "large" ifit has 300 elements
or more, and/or requires that 50 or more frequencies be extracted) may require
special treatment. In these cases, the user should:
a) Set the optimum bandwidth parameters during the problem input phase
using the auxiliary parameter spreadsheet ("K" from the piping input
spreadsheet).
b) Set the subspace size to 12 using the dynamic control parameter spreadsheet.
c) Set "No. to converge before shift allowed" to 4 in the dynamics control
parameter spreadsheet.
d) If the job requires the calculation of more than 100 natural frequencies
the Frequency Space Array number on the control parameter spreadsheet should he increased. In this case a value of 200 or 300 should be
used.
5) CAESAR II's eigensolver will not solve an artificially small job, having 3 or
fewer degrees of freedom. In this case, the program will display a "NOT
ENOUGH DEGREES OF FREEDOM" error message. In this case, the user can
insert an extra element or two in order to create additional degrees offreedom.
Note that this problem might also occur, for example, if the pipe or structural
material density was accidently set to zero.
6) CAESAR II's dynamic analyses are alllinear!!! This means that onedirectional
restraints will not lift off and reseat, gaps will not open and close, and friction will
not act as a constant effort force. Therefore, for dynamic analyses, aIl nonlinear
effects must be modeled as linear  for exam pIe, a onedirectional restraint must
be modeled as either seated (active) or lifted off (inactive), and a gap must be
either open (inactive) or closed (active).
433
Fn x
Kfriction
Fn
the normal force at the restraint taken from the static solution (lb)
II (mu)
Fact
Kfriction
).l
x Fact
Where:
This factor should he adjusted as necessary in order to make the dynamic model
conform to the real system's response. Entering a friction factor greater than
zero causes these friction stiffnesses to be inserted into the dynamics job.
Increasing this factor correspondingly increases the effect ofthe friction. Entering a friction factor equal to zero ignores any frictional effect in the dynamics job.
434
= 0.3
=
friction factor
1.0
(trom control spreadsheet)
fricfional stiffness
Figure 429
435
= 795
= 238.5
X 0.3 X 1.0
lb/in
~.
. .
~~~.~.~~.~.~.
Figure 430
This raises the questions ofhow many mass points should be used in the model in order to
achieve sufficient accuracy, and how many modes should he extracted and summed. The first
of these questions deals with the accuracy of the modal calculations, while the second
question is concerned with at what point does a finite summation sufficiently approximate
an infinite summation.
~e.
K=3EI/L3
~A
A A 6 YVY
A A 6 \T'V
A '\{]J
2" \l'Tv
2"
Static Model
Figure 431
436
Lumped Moss
Model
(KIM) 112
[(3EI/L3)/mU2] 1/2
(6EIImL4)1I2
=
=
length of cantilever, in
=
=
Where:
As seen in Section 4.3.2, for the continuous cantilever, the angularfrequency ofthe frrst mode
of vibration is:
Therefore this primitive, lumped mass model produces a modal frequency that is only 69.6%
ofthe true value. Furthermore, the second mode of vibration cannot even he approximated
using this model, since there is no other mass point with a degree offreedom in that direction.
Adding a new node point (mass point) in the center (as shown in Figure 432) permits
estimation of the second mode, and provides additional accuracy to the estimate of the first.
..
..
~ ~
Stotic Model
Lumped Moss
Model
Figure 432
437
The chart below shows the ratio (to the exact solution) of the frequency ofthe fIrst mode of
vibration obtained for lumped mass models with various numher of nodes:
Ha.d..e..s.
69.6%
88.5%
93.7%
95.7%
97.9%
3
4
5
10
This shows that the accuracy of the lumped mass model can be increased significantly
through the addition ofjust a few mass points, while further addition ofmany more mass
points, althoughimproving accuracy, provides diminishing accuracy per node. Therefore the
''best'' model provides a balance  with enough mass points for accuracy, but few enough for
computational efficiency. Note that the inevitable inaccuracy in the model can usually be
taken care of through peak spreading (during spectral analysis) or sine sweeps (during
harmonic analysis).
Also evident from this chart is the fact that convergence to 100% accuracy oflumped mass
models is from low to high (as mass points are added). This demonstrates that it is difficult
to accurately design systems to fail within the flexible range of a load function, since the true
modal frequencies, being higher than those calculated, may actually fail within the resonant
or rigid response ranges.
Fortunately, in many cases a large amount ofmass points are not needed, since the modes
ofmost interest (i.e., those with low frequencies) are those representingthe gross movements
of the system, not the cantilever (beam hending) modes.
The effect of the number ofmass points on the solution time and the solution accuracy is
illustrated by modifying the system seen earlier (in Figure 423) by breaking i t down into 1foot sections, as shown in Figure 433.
Note that mode 10 is the first significantly different mode. This is the fIrst cantilever bending
mode for single elements that existedin the simple mode!. Therefore the addedaccuracymay
he worth the added computational time only if the 10th mode or above contributes
significantly to the solution. (The contribution ofthe extractedmodes as a percent ofthe total
solution can he determined in CAESAR II's active mass report.)
A good rule of thumb to keep in mind is that the frrst 15% of a model's available modes are
usuaily quite accurate, while the remaining 85% of the modes are poorer mathematical
approximations. Therefore sufficient mass points should be used so that the frrst 15% ofthe
potential modes (mass points times translational degreesoffreedom less rigidly restrained
translational degreesoffreedom) contribute a large amount (for example 90% or more) of
the total system mass.
438
IOI.JI;
Et
IISHOII
QUIT
ROtin
Et
"aSI~
QUIT
FreQuency 1 =
Frtatltllcv 2 =
Frtauencv 3::
FrtautRcv 4 =
FrtauellCv 5::
FrtQutRcv 6 =
Frtaul!llCY 7::
FrtQutRcy 8 =
FrtaUtncv 9 =
FrtautRcy 11::
.97484
1.55619
2.31444
2.81788
3.53281
3.92918
4.43837
5.68892
6.11755
7.94314
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Hz.
Elapsed
Elaosed
Elaosed
Elallsed
EliIlIsed
EliIlIsed
EliIlIstd
Elaostd
EliIlISed
Ti.e = 1: 3:210.97406
Till! = 1: 4: 9 1. 54213
Ti. = 1/ 4:59 2.28722
Ti.e" 1: 7: 9 2.78333
Ti." 1: 8: 4 3.41256
Ti.t = 1: 9: 1
Ti. = 1/11/32
Ti.t" 1/13:21
Till! = 1:13:28
EI.ned Ti.e = 1:16: 3
3.81449
4.35438
5.63579
6.07498
7.38423
4: 23
~
4 times as long to run
as first case
Figure 433
439
There have been many criteria developed for lumped mass spacing. For example, the
following recommendations have been excerpted from the paper:
ERIC N. LlAO
Stone & Webster Engineering Corp.
Cherry Hill, New Jersey
where
L .. distance between two consecutive lumped
masses, in ft
D outside diameter of pipe, in in.
t
thickness of pipe, in in. ~
W" weight per ~t length of pipe, in Ib/ft
=
=
440
to
The following three pages provide mass lumping tables that were generated using the
recommendations ofthis paper. It must be kept in mind that these are only recommendations, and not the absolutely "correct" spacing by any means.
441
IN5ULATION }
FLUID 56 )
NO" 5th Tht
1 48. .133
1 SI. .179
1 168. .251
1.156
a.1 in.
8.556 1.156
1. 8 in.
IUS6
1.556
1.156
8.156
2.8 in.
1.556 1.856
1.856
3.8 in.
8.556 1.856
6.8
6.1
6.2
5.B
6.1
6.1
5.7
5.9
6
5.5
5.7
5.B
5.4
5.6
5.S
5.3
5.5
5.B
5.8
5.2
5.4
2 41. .154
2 88. .21S
2 161. .343
8.1
8.1
8.2
7.6
7.8
8.1
7.3
7.6
7.9
7.5
7.7
7.9
7.3
7.5
7.8
7.8
7.3
7.7
3 48. .216
3 81. .388
3 161. .437
9.7
9.7
9.8
9.2
9.4
9.7
S.9
9.2
9.5
9.3
9.5
9.6
S.9
9.2
9.5
4.9
5.4
4.S
5.1
5.4
4.5
4.7
5
4.4
4.7
5.'
4.4
4.7
5.8
7.8
7.3
7.6
6.8
7.1
7.5
6.6
7.8
7.4
6.5
6.8
7.2
6.4
6.7
7.2
6.3
6.6
7.1
8.6
S.9
9.3
8.9
9.1
9.4
S.6
'8.9
9.2
S.3
S.7
9.1
8.4
8.7
9.1
8.2
S.
8.9
B.I
S.4
8.S
11.1
11.4
111.6
18.7
9.6
11.1
11.3
18.5
11.2
11.4
11.6
11.7
9.7
18.1
18.3
18.5
9.4
9.8
11.1
11.4
9.7
18.1
11.3
111.5
9.4
9.8
11.1
18.3
9.1
9.6
9.9
18.1
11.1
11.4
11.7
11.8
12.8
18.8
11.2
11.5
11.8
11.4
18.9
11.3
11.5
11.8
11.3
11.6
11.8
18.5
11.7
11.9
111.6
11.1
11.4
11.7
11.3
11.5
11.1
11.7
11.'
11.3
~.1
4 48.
4 S8.
4 121.
4 168.
.237
.337
.437
.531
11.9
11.8
11.1
11.1
18.3
11.6
18.8
11.9
9.9
11.2
11.5
11.7
11.6
18.7
11.9
11.1
5 48.
5 81.
5 121.
5 161.
.258
.375
.511
.625
12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
11.4
11.7
11. 9
12.1
11.8
11.3
11.6
11.8
11.8
12.11
12.1
12.2
6 41. .281
6 81. .432
il 121. .562
6 161. .718
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
12.3
12.7
13.1
13.2
11.7
12.3
12.6
12.9
12.9
13.1
13.2
13.3
12.1
12.5
12.8
13.8
11.5
12.1
12.4
12.8
12.5
12.8
13.8
13.1
11.8
12.3
12.6
12.9
11.3
11.9
12.3
12.6
12.1
12.5
12.7
12.9
12.1
12.4
12.7
11.1
11.7
12.1
12.4
8 28.
S 31.
6 48.
8 68.
8 SI.
B 1811.
8 128.
8 141.
8 161.
.251
.277
.322
.486
.51111
.593
.718
.812
.986
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.1
15.2
15.2
15.3
15.3
15.4
13.6
13.7
13.9
14.2
14.4
14.6
14.8
14.9
15.111
12.7
12.8
13.1
13.5
13.8
14.1
14.3
14.5
14.6
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
14.9
15.8
15.1
15.2
15.2
13.3
13.5
13.7
14.1
14.2
14.4
14.6
14.8
14.9
12.5
12.7
12.9
13.3
13.7
13.9
14.2
14.4
14.5
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
15.0
15.1
13.1
13.2
13.4
13.8
14.8
14.2
14.5
14.6
14.7
12.3
12.5
12.7
13.2
13.5
13.8
14.1
14.3
14.4
13.7
13.9
14.8
14.2
14.4
14.6
14.7
14.8
14.9
12.8
12.9
13.2
13.5
13.8
14.8
14.3
14.4
14.6
12.1
12.2
12.5
13.8
13.3
13.6
13.9
14.1
14.3
Iii 28.
18 38.
18 48.
10 61.
10 se.
10 111.
lB 120.
10 148.
18 168.
.25'
16.8
16.8
16.8
16.9
16.9
17.8
17.8
17 .1
17.2
14.8
15.2
15.4
15.8
16.0
16.3
16.4
16.6
16.7
13.7
14.1
14.4
15.8
15.3
15.7
15.9
16.2
16.3
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
17.a
17.a
14.6
14.9
15.2
15.6
15.9
16.1
16.3
16.5
16.6
13.5
13.9
14.3
14.9
15.2
15.5
15.8
16.1
16.3
15.9
16.0
16.2
16.4
16.5
16.6
16.7
16.8
16.9
14.3
14.7
15.8
15.5
15.7
15.9
16.1
16.4
16.5
13.3
13.8
14.1
14.7
15.1
15.4
15.7
16.0
16.1
15.4
15.6
15.8
16.1
16.2
16.4
16.5
16.7
16.7
14.'
14.4
14.7
15.2
15.5
15.8
16.1
16.2
16.4
13.1
13.6
13.9
14.6
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1.888
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11.5
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14.9
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0.556
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17.8
17.9
18.11
18.1
18.2
18.3
18.4
18.5
18.6
15.6
16.1
16.5
17.8
17.3
17.6
17.8
17.9
18.1
14.3
15.0
15.4
16.1
16.5
16.9
17.2
17.4
17.7
17.3
17.5
17.7
17.9
18.8
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18.3
18.3
18.4
15.3
15.9
16.3
16.8
17.1
17.4
17.6
17.8
18.8
14.1
14.8
15.3
16.1
16.4
16.B
17.1
17.3
17.6
16.8
17 .1
17.3
17.6
18.1
18.1
18.2
18.3
17 .8
3.8 in.
8.556
15.1
15.6
16.8
16.6
16.9
17.3
17 .5
17.7
17.9
1.056
lUI
14.6
15.1
15.8.
16.3
16.7
17.11
17.2
17.5
.251
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.375
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.S93
.751
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1.893
1.258
1.416
19.1
19.2
19.2
'19.2
19.3
19.3
19.4
19.4
19.5
19.6
16.4
16.9
17.2
17.5
17.9
IB.3
18.5
19.7
19.9
19.8
14.9
15.5
15.9
16.3
17.1
17.4
17.9
18.1
18.4
18.6
18.6
IB.7
18.8
19.9
19.8
19.1
19.2
19.3
19.4
19.4
16.2
16.6
17.0
17.3
17.8
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18.4
18.6
18.B
18.9
14.8
15.3
15.8
16.2
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17.3
17 .8
18.1
18.3
18.5
18.1
18.3
18.5
IB.6
18.8
18.9
19.1
19.2
19.2
19.3
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16.4
16.8
17 .1
17.6
18.1
18.3
18.S
18.7
18.8
14.6
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16.0
16.7
17.2
17.7
17.9
18.2
18.4
17 .6
17.9
18.1
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18.5
18.7
18.9
19.8
19.1
19.2
15.6
16.1
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16.8
17.4
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18.1
18.4
18.6
18.7
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1.831
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1.437
17.2
17.7
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19.1
19.5
19.8
21.8
20.2
20.3
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16.2
16.7
17 .4
18.1
18.6
19.iI
19.4
19.7
19.9
19.9
21.1
21.1
21.2
2i1.4
28.5
21.6
21.6
21.7
1. 593
28.4
21.5
21.5
28.5
28.6
28.6
28.7
21.8
28.8
21.9
21.8
17.8
17.5
17.9
18.5
19.1
19.4
19.7
19.9
2i1.1
21.3
15.5
16.1
16.6
17.3
17.9
18.5
18.9
19.3
19.6
19.8
19.4
19.6
19.7
19.9
21.1
28.3
21.4
21.5
28.6
21.7
16.8
17.3
17.7
18.3
18.8
19.2
19.5
19.8
21.8
28.2
15.3
15.9
16.4
17 .2
17.8
18.4
18.8
19.2
19.5
19.7
18.8
19.1
19.3
19.6
19.9
28.1
21.2
21.4
211.S
28.6
16.5
17.11
17.5
18.1
18.6
19.1
19.4
19.7
19.9
211.1
15.1
15.7
16.2
17.11
17.7
18.3
18.7
19.1
19.4
19.6
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188. 1.156
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18 148. 1. 562
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21.7
21.7
21.7
21.8
21.8
21.9
22.8
22.8
22.1
22.2
18.1
18.5
19.3
19.8
28.3
21.7
21.0
21.2
16.2
16.9
17.8
18.5
19.2
19.7
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20.8
21. Il
21.1
21.2
21.4
21.5
21.6
21.7
21.8
21.9
22.8
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18.3
19.1
19.6
21.2
28.5
20.9
21.1
21.3
21.5
16.1
16.7
17.7
18.4
19.1
19.6
21.1
28.5
28.7
21.8
21.5
21.8
17.5
18.1
18.9
19.4
28.8
21.4
28.7
21.0
21.2
21.4
15.9
16.6
17.5
18.2
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19.5
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21.4
28.6
21.9
21.8
28.3
21.7
211.9
21.2
21.3
21.5
17.3
17.9
18.7
19.3
19.8
28.3
28.6
23.9
21.1
21.3
15.8
16.4
17 .4
18.1
IB.B
19.4
19.9
2i1.3
2a.5
21.8
28
28
28
28
28
28
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22.5
22.9
22.9
22.9
23.8
23.1
23. 1
23.2
23.3
23.4
18.7
19.7
28.4
20.8
16.7
IB.8
IB.9
19.3
28.2
28.8
22.2
22.5
22.6
22.7
22.8
22.9
23.0
23.1
23.2
23.3
18.5
19.5
28.2
20.6
21.2
21.6
22.0
22.2
22.5
22.7
16.6
17.9
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28.1
21.7
21.2
21.5
21.9
22.1
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22.0
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18.2
19.3
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21.4
21.1
16.5
17.7
18.6
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211.6
21.1
21. 4
21.1
21.6
21.9
18.8
19.1
19.8
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28.9
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18.5
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16
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lb 161.
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21.6
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22.1
22.6
22.7
21.3
21.6
21.9
22.2
443
21.11
21.2
21.4
21.S
21.7
21.8
21.9
22.1
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.9
23.0
23.1
23.2
21.5
21. 9
22.1
22.4
21.8
22.6
22.8
21. 6
21.7
21.9
22.1
22.4
22.6
22.7
22.8
23.11
23.1
21.8
22.8
22.3
22.5
14.4
15.1
15.5
15.8
16.6
17 .1
INSUlATION }
B.8 in.
1.1 in.
2.11 in.
3.1 in.
FlUID S6 ) 1.856 8.556 1.156 11.156 Il.556 1.15e 8.856 a.5Se 1.15S a.a5e B.5se use
NO" Sth Thk 22 11. .25'
23.9
19.3
17.3
23.3
19.1
17.1
22.7
18.9
17.1
22.1
18.6
16.B
22 21. .375
24.8
21.5
28.3
18.5
23.1
18.6
23.5
28.1
18.3
22.7
18.2
19.8
22 38 511
24.11
21.2
19.5
23.7
21.8
19.4
23.4
21.8
19.2
23.1
19.1
21.6
22 61. .875 24.1
22.4
21.1
23.9
23.7
2B.9
22.2
21.1
22.1
23.5
21.9
28.8
22 81. 1.125
24.2
22.8
21.8
24.8
22.7
21. 7 23.9
22.6
21.6
23.7
22.4
21.5
22 III. 1.375
24.3
23.1
22.2
24.1
22.2
24.1
22.9
22.1
23.9
22.8
23.'
22.'
22 121. 1.625 24.3
23.4
22.6
24.2
23.3
22.5
24.1
23.2
24.8
22.5
23.1
22.4
22 141. 1.875
24.4
23.6
23.5
22.9
24.2 23.5
22.B 24.1 23.4 22.7
22.9 24.3
22 161. 2.125
24.5
24.4
23.8
23.2
23.2 24.3
23.7
23.1
24.2
23.7
23.6
23.1
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
24
.251
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.687
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1.218
1.531
1.812
2.1162
2.343
25.1
25.1
25.1
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.4
25.5
25.6
19.9
21.1
22.2
22.7
23.4
23.8
24.2
24.5
24.7
24.9
19.1
2B.4
21.1
22.1
22.7
23.3
23.7
24.1
24.3
24.3
24.6
24.8
24.9
25.1
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
25.5
19.7
21.9
22.1
22.5
23.3
23.7
24.1
24.4
24.6
24.8
17.6
19.8
2'.3
21.8
22.a
22.6
23.2
23.6
23..9
24.2
23.7
24.1
24.5
24.6
24.8
25.1
25.1
25.2
25.3
25.4
19.5
28.7
21.8
22.3
23.1
23.6
24.11
24.3
24.5
24.7
17.5
18.9
21.2
21.9
21. 9
22.5
23.1
23.5
23..8
24.1
23.1
23.7
24.2
24.3
24.6
24.8
25.1
25.1
25.2
25.3
19.3
21.5
21.7
22.2
23.1
23.5
23.9
24.2
24.4
24.7
26 11. .312
26 28. .511
2i""
26.1
21.2
22.6
18.9
21.6
25.5
25.7
21.11
22.4
18.8
2'.5
24.9
25.4
28.8
22.2
18.7
2'.4
24.4
25.'
22.'
18.6
2'.3
28 111. .312
28 28. .511
28 3 .625
27.11
27.1
27.1
21.7
23.2
23.8
19.4
21.1
21.9
26.4
26.7
26.8
21.5
23.11
23.7
19.3
21.'
21.8
25.9
26.3
26.5
21.3
22.9
23..5
19.2
28.9
21.7
25.4
26.'
26.2
21.1
22.7
23.3
19.8
21.8
21.6
31 18. .312
38 28. .5111
38 38. .625
38 48. .758
28.8
28.8
28.8
28.1
22.3
23.8
24.5
25.1
19.8
21.6
22.4
23..1
27.4
27.6
27.7
27.8
22.1
23.6
24.3
24.8
19.7
21.5
22.3
23.1
26.8
27.2
27.4
27.5
21.9
23.5
24.2
24.7
19.6
21.4
22.2
22.9
26.3
26.9
27.1
27.3
21.7
23.3
24.'
24.5
19.5
21.3
22.1
22.8
32
32
32
32
18.
211.
38.
41.
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.5811
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28.9
28.9
28.9
29.8
22.8
24.4
25.1
25.4
21.2
22.1
22.9
23.3
28.3
28.5
28.6
28.7
22.6
24.2
24.9
25.2
21.1
22.'
22.8
23.2
27.7
28.1
28.3
28.4
22.4
24.11
24.8
25.1
28.1
21.9
22.7
23.1
27.1
27.8
28.8
28.1
22.2
23.9
24.6
24.9
19.9
21.7
22.6
23.11
34
34
34
34
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48.
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.511
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29.8
29.8
29.8
29.8
23.2
24.9
25.7
26.8
21.6
22.5
23.4
23.8
29.1
29.4
29.5
29.5
23
24.8
25.5
25.8
21.5
22.4
23.7
28.5
29.11
29.2
29.2
22.9
24.6
25.4
25.7
21.4
22.3
23..2
23.6
28
28.6
28.9
28.9
22.7
24.4
25.2
25.5
28.2
22.2
23.1
23.5
36
36
36
36
ut .312
28. .588
311. .625
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311.6
31.6
38.7
311.7
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26.2
26.8
28.9
22.9
23.8
24.6
311.11
3.8.2
311.3
38.4
23.5
25.3
26.1
26.7
21.8
22.8
23.7
24.5
29.4
29.8
30.8
31.1
23.3
25.1
25.9
26.5
28.7
22.7
23.6
24.4
28.8
29.4
29.7
29.9
23.1
25.8
25.8
26.4
28.6
22.6
23.5
24.3
42 211. .5111
42 31. .625
42 48. .758
33.1
33.1
33.1
2b.9
27.B
28.4
24.8
25.1
25.9
32.6
32.8
32.8
26.7
27.6
28.3
24
25.0
25.8
32.2
32.4
32.5
26.6
27.5
28.1
23.9
24.9
25.7
31.8
32.1
26.4
27.3
28.8
23.8
24.8
25.6
II.
2
31.
48.
68.
81.
188.
121.
141.
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17.7
23.3
444
32.2
21.6
17.3
IB.7
21.1
28.7
21.8
22.4
23.8
23.5
23.8
24.1
.
Q)
E
Q)
0.
Cf)
Figure 434
This time history is the plot of the earth's acceleration as experienced by the piping system
through each ofits supports. The time history plot can be measured using accelerometers
resting on the ground near the earthquake site, as shown in Figure 435.
445
ACCELEROMETERS
MOUNTED TO MEASURE
(' HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL
COMPONENTS
RESPONSE PLOTS
X
r~ _ _ _ _ _
L.. _ _ _ _ _
SHOCK
WAVE
JEARTH<
~~
Figure 435
To try to analyze this complex motion in a time history would be too burdensome.
Additionally, the timedependent waveform is different for each earthquake, even those
occurring at the same site.
4.6.2.1 Generation of the Response Spectrum
To simplify the analytical definition of the earthquake, it is necessary to get the random
waveform shown above into some simple frequencycontent plot. The most predominantly
used frequencycontent plot is the response spectrum. A response spectrum for an
earthquake load can be developed by placing a series of single DOF oscillators on a
mechanical shake table (as shown in Figure 436) and feeding a "typical" earthquake force
time history (typical for a specifie site) through it, measuring the maximum response
(displacement, velocity, or acceleration) of each oscillator.
446
."pon'"hA
"a,im"m
For Each of the
Single Degree of
Freedom Bodies
}".,A~ "
:>
A
Response
4'V,V fI~
:>
Time
B
Response
'''''V~V
cp . . ,
Measured
Earthquake
Movemenl
Response
V'
pr ,
:>
Time
Time
Note:
Maximums occur at
diffe,.ent limes.
Figure 436
The expectation is that even though ail earthquakes are different, similar ones should
produce the same maximum responses, even though the time at which they occur will differ
with each individual occurrence. (Responses will be based on the maximum ground
displacement and acceleration, the dynamic load factors determined by the ratios of the
predominant harmonie frequencies of the earthquake to the natural frequencies of the
oscillators, and system damping.) Response spectra for a number of damping values can be
generated by plotting the maximum response for each oscillator. A plot of a set oftypical
response spectra is shown in Figure 437 .
.8
.7
1% Critical
.6
Acceleration
CG)
Damping~\
5% Critical Damping f \
.5
.4
/
/
.3
1
1
.2
)
,//r
\
\
\
\
\
l
'........
~ .
.1
.2.3
.5
.7
Figure 437
447
Seismie response speetra resemble harmonie DLF eurves, sinee sei smic loads evidenee strong
harmonie tendeneies. For example, as damping value inereases, the system response
approaehes the ground motion. Seismie speetra usually also show strong evidence offlexible,
resonant, and rigid areas. Spectra may have multiple peaks due to filtering by the building
and/or piping system; however multiple peaks are usually enveloped in order to account for
uncertainties in the analysis. Seismic response spectra peaks are typieaily spread to aeeount
for inaceuracies as weIL
The idea behind the generation of the response spectra is that a system's modes of vibration
will respond to the load in the exact same manner as will a single degreeoffreedom
oscillator. For example, the water tower in Figure 438 ean be modeled as a single degreeoffreedom oscillator in the lateral direction. Ifits natural frequency is 6 Hz, it would be
expected to displaee a maximum of about 6.3 inches when subjected to the earthquake
creating the accompanying response spectrum.
{f;=
6 Hz
271
6.0
U1
w
I
5.0
4.0
Vl
1
w
w
u
:::;:
oct
3.0
2.0
....J
0.
Vl
c;
1.0
123456789
FREQUENCY (HZ)
Figure 438
Maximum responses can be plotted in terms of maximum displacements, veloeities, and/or
aceelerations. For example, the response speetra in Figure 439 is plottedin terms ofail three
simultaneously.Tripartitecurves,suchasthesetakenfromNuclearRegulatoryGuidel.60,
are fairly common.
448
0.2
0..
10
10
100
Figure 439
A fairly subtle point concerning the various response spectra is that the displacement and
velocity response values are measured relative to the earth, while the acceleration response
value is measuredrelative to anonmoveable coordinate system. Stiffness and velocity forces
on the structure due to the earthquake are caused by the relative movement of the earth to
the mass, while the inertial force on the structure is caused by the absolute acceleration of
the mass.
Displacement, velocity, and acceleration terms ofthe spectra are aIl related bythe frequency:
d
449
Where:
d
ro
For example, at 0.75 Hz (4.712 rad/sec), the response spectrum shown in Figure 439 has a
displacement value of 30 inches. The velocity at that frequency is 30 x 4.712 = 141 in/sec,
and the acceleration is 30 x 4.712 2 = 666 in/sec2 .
Note that on the right hand side of the graph the response acceleration becomes constant,
while on the left hand side of the graph the response displacement is constant. The flat right
hand side ofthe response spectrum diagram indicates that there is no dynamic amplification
for oscillators having natural frequencies above some rigid value (in this case around 33 Hz.).
Oscillators with rigid natural frequencies move along with the earth, so the maximum
acceleration of the oscillator is equal to the maximum acceleration of the earth.
The acceleration conforming to the high frequency flat portion of the curve is called the Zero
Period Acceleration, or the ZPA. This is the maximum acceleration that the earth
experiences at any time during the earthquake. The term "Zero Period" is used because a
body with a zero period has an infinitely high frequency, and is certainly in the rigid range
of the earthquake.
The left hand, constant displacement, side of the response spectrum curve indicates that
there is a low frequency cutoffwhere the earth moves too quickly to affect the oscillator (it's
in the flexible range). In this case, the absolute acceleration is near zero, and the relative
displacement is equal to the maximum displacement of the earth.
For all modal natural frequencies below the low frequency (flexible) cutoff:
1) The system forces due to mass acceleration are zero.
2) The relative movement ofthe earth and the mass are the same for all single degree
of freedom bodies below the low frequency cutoff. (This relative movement is
equal to the maximum displacement of the earth.)
For all modal natural frequencies above the high frequency (rigid) cutoff:
1) Ali of the loading on the piping system is due to the acceleration of the masses.
2) There is no relative movement between the masses and their supports due to the
modal component associated with the high natural frequency.
3) Acceleration loadings are purely static and are mode independent.
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.60 (published in December, 1973), included on the following six
pages, describes the requirements for constructing design seismic response spectra for
nuclear power plants.
450
P.t!V'iion 1
Oecember 1973
REGULATORV GUIDE
DIRECTORATE OF REGULATORY STANDARD.
B. DISCUSSION
III order to ~pproxlmate the intensity and thereby
estln14te the maximum ground aeceleration l of the
exoected strongest ground motion (SSE) for a given site.
proposcd Appendlx A 10 10 CFR Part 100 speciftes a
number of required investigations. Il does not, however,
;:wc ;) method lor defining the response spectral
,lH,,:sp<lOing (Q :he expected maximum ground
.iL,,:'!er:J !lon.
TIIe' recllrt.ie
~r"lIlld
(\1
p;.I~1
SC'\: (}Cfanlllons
~I
c~rlhqllakcs
451
;lIi!her
Ih.1Il
InUIOlUIll
gruund acccleralhlll
..:urr~'!;pul\dlng
C. REGUlATORY POSITION
un"('IC'ru/lfIn
452
0'
basiL
DEFINITIONS
ReapolUr SpccCnlm
a pau, .. l'
mC3RS
'11c
maximum
nr indlvidual rcspllOlc
sn
YIlleys.
lDp Ra~ SpeCUll111 is 1 relatiwly lIftooth
TABLE 1
,"
of
C,ltIcIII
DPnpi..
A(3I_
I*pl8alnnt' 
ac.CIIIl
Cl2.5 ep
Dlo.a ...
005
1,.0
".96
2.0
5.0
1.0
10.0
1.0
3.54
2.61
5.95
4.25
3.13
3.20
2.50
2.27
2.72
1.88
.1.90
2.28
1.70
1.0
J.o
1.0
2.05
u.xi....
,_tilt........
lI'Ouad
453
TABLE Il
Perelli nt
of
Acx:el....'ion'
Critlal
o.mP"9
0.5
2.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
A(33cpal
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
[)isp&lcement' . a
C(~:5 epcl
B(9 cpsl
Z.6!
5.67'\
4.05
Z.9R
2.27
1.90
:!.17
4.96
3.54
0(0.25 q:l51
:.59
2.13
1.67
1.37
1.25
1.13
)trt\u~
Ih~
ycrlil:ili dcsip
te.~J'OnlC
'l'hese ",.. lues WCIC: c:ha",od 10 maltc Ihis l:able c:nnsixtenl with the disnl' \l("rtial camponeftl$ in Scction R of Ihis ,;uide.
~u5Si"n
REFERENCES
1.
454
0.1
0.2
0.5
10
20
50
100
FRF1UENCY,qJI
FIGURE 1. HORIZONTAL DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA  SCALED TO 19 HORIZONTAL
GROUND ACCELERATION
455
100
.=
u
50
>"
~
...
.",
>
20
10
FREQUENCY,qII
FIGURE 2. VERTICAL DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA  SCALED TO 1; HORIZONTAL
GROUND ACCELERATION
456
X(t)
x(t)
xg(t)
Figure 440
The structural forces within the system are based upon the displacements relative to the
ground:
Fstruct
=K
x(t)
The inertial force on the mass is based upon the total acceleration, notjust the acceleration
relative to the earth:
Fmass
=M [x(t) + xg(t)]
Therefore, ifthe spring is very, very stiff; the mass will move along with the earth and there
will be no relative acceleration hetween the earth and the mass, but there will still he the
inertial force.
The equation for earthquake motion hecomes:
M [x(t) + xg(t)] + Kx(t) = 0
Moving the ground acceleration to the right side of the equation:
M x(t) + K x(t) = M xg(t)
As it turns out, the mode shapes of the piping system (as extracted by the Eigensolver) have
a unique set of characteristics. They are a peculiar set ofvectors which serve to rotate the
coordinate axes for each node.
457
v
1
/
1 /
y
Z
[~J ) ~~ ~ = ) ~~ ~
\ (X3) (v3)
Matrix which rotates the point CD
from the X,Y,Z coordinates into
alternate coordinates
Figure 441
This rotation will be seen to serve a unique purpose. Proceeding by multiplying both the
acceleration and the displacements by the matrix of mode shapes, this gives the same
accelerations and displacements in a different, rotated coordinate system: x > v
v(t) = cI> x(t); v(t) = cI> x(t)
Multiplying these expressions by the inverse of cI>, i.e. cI> 1 converts the rotated coordinate
system back to the original coordinate system:
cI> 1 v(t)
= x(t);
cI> 1 v(t)
= x(t)
Insertingthese last two expressions backinto the dynamic equations forearthquake motion:
M cI> 1 v(t) + K cI>1 v(t) = M xg(t)
Multiplying both sides ofthis equation by cI> again:
cI> M cI>1 v(t) + cI> K cI>1 v(t)
= cI> M xg(t)
The "sets ofequations" represented by the matrix expression above are displayed graphically
in Figure 442.
458
cp
Fully
Populated
Diagonal
K
Fully
Symmetrically
8inded
Populated
v(t)
Fully
Populated
cp1
v(t)
Fully
Populated
'"
K
Diagonal
Diagonal
Figure 442
This is a unique property of the dynamic mode shapes of any arbitrary structural system:
<1> M <1>1 v(t) + <1> K <1>1 v(t)
v(t) +
= <1> M xg(t)
The "diagonalization" ofthe M and K matrix took what was previously an intricately linked
set of equations and found a generalized coordinate system that completely decoupled each
equation in the system, so that each equation can now be de aIt with as a single degreeoffreedom system.
The new set ofequations appears in Figure 443:
459
v(t)
v(t)
= CPMXg(f)
Figure 443
Note that each of the equations above represents a different single degreeoffreedom body.
Remembering how the earthquake shock spectrum was generated, one knows exactly what
the maximum displacement for each of the single degreeoffreedom bodies is going to be
under the seismic load.
Doing the previous multiplications by _ provided a set of equations that were "decoupled",
and so were very easy to solve. These equations were of the form:
460
ln this form, the solution to the following equation can be found from the response spectrum:
1\1
v(t) +
Multiplyingthat solution by "c" converts the dis placement solution to the modal coordinate
system. From the above:
= <1> MI M
Since the displacement from the response spectrum is in the rotated coordinate system, it
must be "unrotated" back to the global coordinate system, so C must be multiplied by <1>1:
cI>T M and M
= <1>T M <1>
The procedure for doing earthquake dynamic analysis can be summarized as described
below:
1) Generate the shock response spectrum either by feeding the earthquake time
x(t) + K
x(t) = M xg(t)
vet) + K
v(t)
= cI> M xg(t)
461
5) Read maximum displacements (zmax) for M v(t) + K v(t) = M xg(t) from the
response spectrum curve. (Remember that because of the decoupling, this
expression represents a group of single degree offreedom bodies.)
6) Convert this displacement to the modal displacements that we need, in the global
These individual modal responses are then combined to get the total system response.
4.6.2.3 Modal Results Summation Methods
Considering that the response spectrum yields the maximum response at any time during
the course of the load, and considering that each ofthe modes of vibration will probably have
different frequencies, it is probable that the peak responses of all modes will not occur
simultaneously. Therefore the correct means of summing the modal responses must be
considered.
Available modal combination methods are:
1) Double Square Root of the Sum of the Squares (DSRSS): This combination
method is the most technically correct. The total system response is calculated
as:
nn
= [ 1:1:
IJ
Where:
R
Eij
= response of mode i
Rj
response of mode j
462
2) Absolute: This method states that the total system response is equal to the
absolute value of the individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same
as using the DSRSS method with aU correlation coefficients equal to 1.0.)
n
L IR.I
This method gives the most conservative result, since it assumes that the aIl
maximum modal responses occur at exactly the same time during the course of
the applied load. This is usually overlyconservative, since modes with different
natural frequencies will probably experience their maximum DLF during
different parts of the load profile.
3) Square Root of the Sum ofthe Squares (SRSS): This method states that the total
system response is equal to the square root of the sum of the squares of the
individual modal responses. (This is effectively the same as using the DSRSS
method with aIl correlation coefficients equal to 0.0.)
[L R.2]1 / 2
This method is based upon the statistical assumption that all modal responses
are completely independent, with the maxima following a relatively uniform
distribution throughout the duration of the applied load. This is usually nonconservative, especially ifthere are any modes with very close frequencies, since
those modes will probably experience their maximum DLF during the same part
of the load profile.
4) Grouping Method: This method attempts to eliminate the drawbacks of the
Absolute and SRSS methods, by assumingthat modes are completely correlated
with any modes with similar (closely spaced) frequencies, and are completely
uncorrelated with those modes with widely different frequencies.
R. 2
R=
P
L
k
L
q=1
m=j
1R
lq
lq
1]1/2
Where:
p
Rlq
Rmq
463
Effectively, this method requires that the responses of any modes which have
frequencies within 10% of each other first be added together absolutely, with the
results of each ofthese groups then combined with the remaining modal results
using the SRSS method.
464
Mode#2 
JIIIIIIII!~x
Z
Y
Mode#4 
Mode#3 
Figure 444
Goingto the response spectrum plot for the two differentfrequencies, the maximum response
can be obtained in terms of displacement, velocity, or acceleration. This response can then
be converted into structural displacements, and in tum into forces, moments, and stresses.
Modal response is the product of the mode shape, the direction of the excitation, the
magnitude, and the dynamic load factor. (For example, note that the modal displacements
along the Xdirection of the cantilever are zero, thus there will be no contribution to the
stresses or dis placements due to the Xcomponent of the earthquake.)
For the cantilever, the stress at the wall represents the important response quantity of
interest. For each of the modes, the maximum displacements are converted into forces,
moments, and stresses. Once these response quantities have been computed for each
individu al mode, and for each direction, they must be combined to get an estimate of the
cumulative value.
There are four modes and three excitation directions, which means there are 3 x 4, or 12,
response quantities to combine. Looking specifically at the stresses at the connection of the
cantilever to the wall, the 12 values are shown below. (Note that most of the response
quantities for the cantilever are zero, while for true three dimensional piping models this will
not he the case.)
Mode
1
2
3
4
Frequency
8.5 Hz
8.5 Hz
15.6 Hz
15.6 Hz
465
The response quantities are defmed as spatial and modal. Spatial response quantities are
those associated with each individual excitation direction (the columns of the table shown
above). Modal response quantities are those associated with each individual mode (the rows
of the table shown above). Using a GROUP combination method for the modal results, it is
first necessary to determine if the modes are closely spaced  i.e., iftheir frequencies are
within 10% of each other. Modes 1 and 2 are closely spaced (difference in frequency is 0%),
as are modes 3 and 4 (difference is 0% as weIl), so their responses will be added absolutely
when the modal responses are combined.
The combinations can be made first spatially and then modally, or first modally and then
spatially. The differences are shown schematicaUy in Figure 445.
MobAt. SIJ .... ~,:TlollS S(c.o,.:')l) (Gfou? )
!!adl Fria.
1 8.5 111
2 8.5 111
3 15.6 111
.. 15.6 111
1gO~O
l'l.MQ.)
~o+OQ(
~ooo S
3~OOQ '2.
<!.
4<60002...
,)'/?.
<r
C!.oS,LY
SPk~ll
1IaII. Fr".
1 5 Hz
2 '.5 Hz
3 15.6 Hz
.. 15.6 Hz
..
\
Figure 445
Figure 445
A difference in the final results arises whenever different methods are used for the spatial
and modal combinations. In this case, modal results are combined using the GROUP
method, while the spatial results are combined with the SRSS method. Therefore the
stresses ofmodes 1 and 2, and modes 3 and 4 are added absolutely in the first case, because
they are aU nonzero at the time when the modal summations are made.
Nuclear Regulatory Guide 1.92 (published in February, 1976), included on the following 5
pages, de scribes the requirements for combining modal responses and spatial components
when performing seismic response spectra analysis for nuclear power plants.
466
....Won, .
. Flibruliry 1878
;.: .:.....
'.';J
case
A. INTRODUCTION
:risk
The AcMsOry CommUtee On' Reacttt 'Safe~ds bas ,been consulted conceming this ginde aiul has'<:aocurred
in the regulatory position.
.:.
.
B. DISCUSSION
eigenvalues:
[ [K] 
'.
w~ lM1]{ 'n}=O
.~ indicate
_in._
.....
_
_
....
_,
.....ui_ . . ._if._...._,..
...
10._
,,........
..... . . ._.......
_
,._._.
.. _._nr.
c_ 
......_ie_............,...... .....______
.....,............
.
..
eo...... _ ........_
c .....
... _
_ ........ _.,,_ ...H 100 ........
~
con
.............." a __ M
..... _
wi....
........ ...
....
_8ft4...~
..1 ca....'iII
....eo...__
... .._ ............IiCII_.,,_Ca_
_ _ _..._ ..,
..................n.a. ...... __
''''..... .,............... "".......ioft., ..
iU _ _
_...~_
iftIp. ._
w......._.
sIee.
~ .. .
...... ...H
467
D.C. _ . _ _
~.
. '
1.'___
2. _ _ T., __ _
J. ...... _
'.T'.._ ........
.. _ ,_ _
4. _ _ _. '
.................. _ _.....
(1)
1. An'II",.. R . . 
......... _
..
_a.._ea....w............ D.C.
~A~Oireee.'.Oftlee of
467
...
at....... D........... .
...., . . . ........ .
No~es
1/93
an
(2)
whe re lqn \ max is the maximum displament vector for
the nth: mtde, rD is the modal participation factor for
the nth mode and is expressed by
desisn
C. REGULATORY POSITION
The following procedures for combining the values. of
the respanse of invidual modes and the respse tothe
three independent spatial components of an earf:hquake
in a seismic dynamic anaIysis of a nuclear power plant
structure, system, or companent are acceptable to the
NRCstaff:
468
1/93
R=
[t Rkl*J
(3)
k= 1
(5)
(6)
y?
alsol$i<j$N
(7)
1 Gro\:
469
Eks= [ 1+ {
(Wk  w;)
}JI
(9)
w s)
in which
(10)
f3k,
tdwk
1 where
(11)
tJk
2.
wk and
=f3k+
D. IMPLEMENTATION
2When this
470
Since the response of the rigid (highest order) modes are purely static and mode independent,
this response can be calculated without actually extracting aIl of the rigid modes, through
a method called missing mass correction. This is important, since, although displacements
may be obtained with good accuracy using only a few ofthe lowest frequency modes, the force,
reaction, and stress results may require extraction offar more modes (usually far into the
rigid range) before acceptable accuracy is attained. By performing a missing mass
calculation, a correction representing the quasistatic contribution ofthe higher order modes
not explicitly extracted for the modal/dynamic response can be included, providing greater
accuracy with reduced calculation time.
The residual response ofnonextracted rigid modes is calculated by summingthe active mass
(over all of the extracted modes) for each degreeoffreedom at each of the mass points,. The
difference between the total mass modeled at each of the points, and the sum of the active
mass at each ofthe points, is called the missingmass, and represents the residual mass active
in the rigid (nonextracted) modes. This missing mass is then multiplied by the ZPA from
the response spectrum and applied to the structure as a static load. The static structural
response is then combined with the dynamically amplified modal responses as ifit were a
modal response as weIl. (Actually this static response is the algebraic sum of the responses
of aIl nonextracted modes  representing inphase response, as would be expected from
rigid modes.)
CAESAR II's implementation of the missing mass correction procedure assumes that the
missingmass correction represents the contribution ofrigidmodes, and that the ZPAis based
upon the spectral ordinate value at the frequency of the last extracted mode. Therefore, it
is recommended that the user extract modes up to, but not far beyond, the rigid frequency
cutoff of the response spectrum. Choosing a cutofffrequency to the left of the spectrum's
resonant peak will provide a nonconservative result, since resonant responses may be
missed. U sing a cutoff frequency to the right ofthe peak, but still in the resonant range, will
yield conservative results, since the ZPNrigid DLF will be overestimated. Extracting a large
number ofrigid modes for calculation of the dynamic response may be conservative, since aU
available modal combination methods (SRSS, GROUP, ABS, etc.) give conservative results
versus the algebraic combination method which gives a more realistic representation of the
net response of the rigid modes.
CAESAR II provides two options for combining the missing mass correction with the modal
(dynamic) results  SRSS and Absolute. The Absolute combination method of course
provides the more conservative result, and is based upon the assumption that the dynamic
amplification is going to occur simultaneously with the maximum ground acceleration or
force load. Research suggests that the modal and the rigid portions orthe response to typical
dynamic loads are actually statistically independent, so that an SRSS combination method
is a more accurate representation ofreality.
4.6.3 Force Spectrum Analysis (for Impulse Loadings)
A similar method can be followed for nonrandom loads, such as any load profile for which
the force vs. time profile is known  for example, the ramp up, constantforce, andramp down
of a relief valve firing (or fluid hammer or slug flow), as shown in Figure 446.
471
Single DOF
Oscillators
Force
~/
Hydraulic Shakers
Time
Relief v a l v :    I     H e l i e f Volve
Opening Time
Totol Duration
Closing Time
Needed to Vent
Overpressure
Figure 446
A look at the equation for the earthquake problem explains why the force spectrum solution
is very similar to the earthquake solution:
M x(t) + K x(t) = M xg(t)
The term on the right hand side is nothing more than a dynamic force acting on the piping
system, i.e. F = Ma.
So the analogous equation to be solved for the force spectrum problem is:
M x(t) + K x(t) = F(t)
Where:
F = the dynamic load (water hammer or relief valve)
4.6.3.1 Generation of the Response Spectrum
Instead of the displacement, velocity, or acceleration spectrum used for the seismic problem,
aDynamie LoadFactor spectrum is usedfor a force spectrum problem. ADLF spectrum gives
the ratio of the maximum dynamic displacement divided by the maximum static displacement.
Whereas the earthquake response spectrum analysis method started with the time history
of an earthquake excitation, the force spectrum analysis method is done in exactly the same
way  except that the analysis starts with the force vs. time profile.
Just as for the earthquake, this time history loading can he applied to a shake table of single
degreeoffreedom bodies, with a response spectrum (in this case, DLF vs. natural frequency)
472
being generated by dividing the maximum oscillator displacements by the static displacements expected under the same load. Note that for this type ofload, as the rampup becomes
steeper, the DLF gets closer to 2.0; while as the load duration increases, the curve shifts to
the left and more lower order modes will become excited.
2.0
Longer Duration
Extends Curve
Le ft
..
DLF
tt
Quicker RampUp
Shifts Curve Up
(Towards 2.0)
1.0
Natural Frequency
Figure 447
= cp nt)
to the global piping coordinate system we must "unrotate" these displacements, again using
the mode shapes:
xmax = cp1 V max
473
These are the maximum displacements in the piping system due to the relief valve or water
hammer load.
x(t)
x(t)
Fa
ro
time, sec
474
This equation may be solved directly, giving the system displacements, forces, stresses, and
reactions; thus obviating the need for response spectra. This type of differential equation
has a solution of the form:
x(t)
=A sin
ro t
Where:
A
= F 0 sin
ro t
This is exactly the same form of equation as is solved for alllinear (static) piping problems.
The appealing thing about this is that the solution time for each excitation frequency takes
only as long as a single static solution, and, when there is no phase relationship to the loading,
the results give the maximum dynamic responses directly. Due to the speed of the analysis,
and because the solutions are so directly applicable, it is advisable to make as much use of
this capability as possible. Two considerations must be kept in mind:
1) An assumption of zero damping in a harmonic problem permits a dynamic load
factor ofinfinity. This may have to he overcome by a slight tuning of the forcing
frequency up or down to get a more realistic DLF.
2) If multiple harmonic loads occur simultaneously, and they are not in phase,
system response is the sum of the responses due to the individualloads:
Where:
Ai
The biggest use by far of the harmonic solver is in analyzing low frequency field vibrations
due either to fluid pulsation or outofround rotating equipment displacements. The
approach typicaIly taken towards solving this type of problem is described briefly below:
1) A potential dynamic problem is first identified in the field  either in terms of
large cyclic vibrations or high stresses (fatigue failure) being present in an
existing piping system, raising questions ofwhether this represents a dangerous
situation. As many symptoms of the problem (quantifiable displacements,
overstress points, etc.) are identified as possible, for future use in refining the
dynamic model.
2) Amodel of the piping system is built using CAESAR II. This should be done as
accurately as possible, since system, as weIl as load, characteristics affect the
magnitude of the developed response.
3) The engineer next postulates the cause of the load, and from that, an estimate
of the frequency, magnitude, point, and direction ofthe load. This is somewhat
difficult because the dynamic loads can come from many sources. Dynamic loads
may be due to internal pressure pulses, external vibration, flow shedding at
intersections, two phase flow, etc., butin almost all cases, there is sorne frequency
content of the excitation that corresponds to (and therefore excites) a system
mechanical natural frequency. If the load is caused by equipment, then the
forcingfrequency is probably sorne multiple ofthe operating frequency; ifthe load
is due to acoustic flow problems, then the forcing frequency can be estimated
through the use ofStrouhal's equations (from fluid dynamics). Using the best
assumptions available, the user should estimate the magnitudes and points of
application of the dynamic load. Note that the point of application is not
necessarily a point of high system response.
4) The loading is then modeled using harmonic forces or displacements (normally
depending upon whether the cause is assumed to be pulsation or vibration) and
several harmonic analyses are done, sweeping the frequencies through a range
centered about the target frequency (in order to account for uncertainty). The
results of each of the analyses are examined for signs of large displacements,
indicating harmonic resonance. If the resonance is present, the results of the
analysis are compared to the known symptoms from the field. Ifthey are not the
similar (or ifthere is no resonance), this indicates that the dynamic model is not
a good one, so it must be improved, either in terms of a more accurate system
(static) model, a better estimate of the load, or a finer sweep through the
frequency range. Once the model has been refined, this step is repeated until the
mathematical model behaves just like the actual piping system in the field.
5) At this time, there is a good model ofthe piping system and a good model ofthe
loads (or, more accurately, a good model ofthe relationship of the load characteristics to the system characteristics). The results ofthis run are evaluated in
order to determine whether they indicate a problem. Since harmonic stresses are
cyclic, they should be evaluated against the endurance limit of the piping
material; displacements should be reviewed against interference limits or
esthetic guidelines.
476
6) If the situation is deemed to he a problem, its cause must be identified, where the
cause is normally the excitation of a single mode ofvibration. A modal extraction
of the system is done; one (or more) of these modes should have a natural
frequency close to the forcing frequency ofthe applied load. The guilty mode can
be further identified as that one having a shape very similar to the shape of the
total system vibration, since this mode shape has certainly been dynamically
magnified far heyond the other modes (and thus predominates in the final
vibrated shape).
7) Once the guilty mode has been identifie d, it must be eliminated. This is done
most easily by adding a restraint at a high point (and in the direction thereof) of
the mode shape. Ifthis cannot be done, the mode may also be altered by changing
the mass distribution ofthe system (for example, by adding operators to valves).
Ifno modification of the system is possible, it may he possible to alter the forcing
frequency of the load. If the dynamic load was postulated to be due to internal
acoustics, it is recommended that the pipe not be rerouted at this point, as
rerouting the pipe will change the internaI flow conditions (which may resolve
or amplify the problem, but in either case will void CAESAR II's "good model"
of the system). After modifying the system, the harmonic problem (using the
single forcing frequency determined as a "good model") is then rerun, and the
stresses, displacements, etc. are reevaluated.
8) If the dynamic problem has been adequately solved, the system is now reanalyzed statically to determine the effects of any modifications on the static
loading cases. (Remember, adding restraint normally increases expansion
stresses, while adding mass increases sustained stresses.)
477
The
sIIOCk. )
There are tllree ujor sources of earthquake excitation tllat can be
IntrocluCtion to Structural
18. 1940 El Centro t.l1forn1l
The recorded lIUi_ values were
This spectl'Ull 15 intended to
to 10 percent crtt1cal ~ping.
the use of tIIis predefined spect.....
1.60V.5
1.60V2
1.6OV5
1.60V7
1.60VlO
Horizontal
Horizontal
Horizontal
Horizontal
Horizontal
and
Ind
Ind
Ind
and
vertical
vertical
Vertical
Vertical
Vertical
spectrl
spectra
spectrl
spectra
spectra
for
for
for
for
for
0.5S
~ping
10.OS
~ping
2.OS ~ping
5.OS ~ping
7.OS claing
Associated w1t11 the Reg. Guide 1.60 spectra 15 a vllue for the
1IIIX1mum ground aecelerltion (or ZPA  zero pertod acceleration). The
default value for the ZPA used 1n CAESAR and found in the control
earallf!ter spreadsheet 15 0.5 g's. Frai IEEE Std 3441975 Sect. 3.1
Earthquake Environaent:
~erfoN
_thod. mul
377
1)~~~~O
ItJ
::II....
.::n/II(i'1~ ~....,
oc..CAS 1014.) 1+ C
Co,?..ATE.
Srl4f1C
t..DAL) VrfE
tr4
Sr/2.E(f(i'>
Afto/
7#.
L0 A () S .'
1 w + P
) LISE 0
f  /.A.J+ P+ T + /)+ F
3  w+P+ ;+/)"f F (o?[)
4 t..J+PII= (St.1s)
5' l/3l)4 (XP)
378
~"""f
St.tSrA/;..JE D
!5'p.c..mlA.M
i>y'ItJAVI4IC
V+P
V+P+T1+04f
V+P+T1+04f
V+P4f
D3D4
Use 1.0 tt~s the El Centro Elrthqulke tn the hortzonul dtrecttons Ind
0.667 tt~s the El tentro elrthqulke tn the Yerttell dtrectton. tOllbtne
the sutte susutned Cise (Cise 4) wtUl the eerthqulke result. The
operlttng Cise (Cise 3) Should be used tG set the nonltnelr restrltnt
sutus for the d1n_te lul,S1s.
The tAESAR dynIa1e input sequence for Ulis probl. 1s slKMl below.
Prtor to ent.er1ng the d1n_te input the user sllould haye fint run 1
sutte 11II11s1s for the lold elses ltsted lbove.
PIPING/STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
<_.
CURRENT JOIINNIEI
  ) D4
1  INPUT
2  STATICS
 DYNAftICS
< <cr>
4 
OUTPUT
S  FILES
6  JOBNNIE
7  UTILlTIES
8 
RETURN Ta DOS
ENTER OPTION
>
1  UJfPED MSSES
2  SNU8JIERS
~
CAESAR
 stCICIC DEFINITIDNS
4  P\LSE T~ &DEIVtTJCIN
S  tUND 8U5T TMLE SENERATIDN
Il
ANALYSIS INPUT
7  HMl'DtIC LDAD8
8  stCICIC CASES
 8TATIC/D~IC CDNBINATIDN8
A  caNTRG. PMNEIERS
C
D
E
~r
SHOCIC LDAD CASE EDITlNB
DPTIDNSI
1  Acld anDIW' shaell lCNd ca. . _
2  O.I.t. an . . 'sUne ca_
3  Edit an .. istino ca. .
4  Finishsd ~
379
TG SELECT
...xx
LDAD CASE
."0.1\
,,_c.
set.
<>
Dl,._U_,
Btart
Nod.,
.toP
NoeS.,
l"cr_t
1.0
0 . . .7
1.0
1,,_
Dai
<_>To Exit
1  LU9'ED M8SEB
2  SNI"'"
CAESAR
D~IC
Il
ANALYSIS INPUT
3
4
5
"
7
 ..x:x DEFINITIONS
 ~ TABLE IENERATlaN
 .IND . . , . TQU; SEfERATlCIN
 ~ SPECTRUIt FDfICE SETS
 IWRCIC LOAD8
 6HDCIC CA&EII
8T"TlCID~IC
CllNATlCIN& _ _ __
D~IC
ANALYSIS
E  Returft to CAESAR
STATIC/D~IC
_i" _
OPTIONS.
STATIC/D~IC
c._I
CClINATlaN CAlE
Not.
caM,,,"
on a seperat.
Fact_
84
Dl
1".
DaI
1.0
1.0
<_>TOExit.~
380
:s CAEIM
D~IC
IHDCIC DEFINITla.
11
ANALY81S INPUT
7  HMIOIIIC LC1AD8
 &HOCIt CAIIEII
 STATIC/D~IC ~INATIDN8
A CONTJaL
D~IC INPUT
C  OECIC D~IC JNPUT
D ' ~ D~IC ANALY81.
E  ftMurt! t.o CAE8M _ln .....
 lAYE
Il..,.
le..,.....
CCNT'ftCL PARNEta LJST  ttodUy t.he "al_ or P"'~_ Oft e.cI'I U . . ""lCh
p,.ec.a.
0.1
20
0.0:5
0.5
N
N
<  <Not.
04.... :s
0.0
Co.)
ua!Id)
(   (Not. ue!Id)
SRS8
1  L.UI'FED MIISES
2  lNU8IIER8
:s 
8CICIC
DlEF'INIT~GN5
CAE6M
D~IC
IJ
ANALY6I& JNPUT
381~
1  II+P+T+D+f
2II+P+F
3 0102
CoID1ne 1.0 t1.s the Reg Gutde values and 0.5 ti_s the Reg Guide
values witll the sustlined stlt1c case nUlliber 2. Use an SRSS
calbination of the Stlttc and ~1c cases.
The abbreviated dyn. .1c input for t111s Job 1s SIlCM! below:
First the user IlUSt def1ne the probl. and run the stltic analys1s
vitll the 10id cases as descr1bed Above, tIIen fl"Oll the CAESAR ..in
.....
:
3  DYNAMICS
8  SHOCK LOADS
1  AcIcI a
<esc>
\.v
1  Add a nev shock load case
<esc>
~.
9  STATIC/DYNAMIC COMBINATIONS
1  Add anotller stat1c/dyn. .ic 10id case
LOid case, Factor
COMBINATlON(SRSS 1
52 1
02 1
<esc>
COMBINATlOli (SRSS 1
02 1
02 1
<esc>
A  CONTROL PARMETERS
SPECTRUM
0.35
SPATIAL
<<<
382
........ ,
'......,117.
REGULATORYGUIDE
..
A. INTRODUCTION
wqrbe
The Acms;ry Committee on lictor Safep,ards bas ,been consulted conceming this guide ald haSCcurred
in the regulatory position..
..
B. DISCUSSION
stafffor:
1. Combining the values of the response of individual
modes in a response spectrum modal dynamic analysis to
fmd the representative maximum value of a particular
response of interest for the design of a given element of
_ a nuclear power plant structure, system, or component.
"_lai
ac_......
..in,
......
.r.
i'.""
_"0'
ui_
st."
.0 _
eo...._ .
Commen _
(1)
... _
Sec....ry of _
u.s. _ _
Senrico Section.
The guida ... iuuedin_tollowin. _ _ d . . . . . . .:
1. _ . 1Ioec:t_
2. ......rcIl_T... IIeect....
M.. F.ciIit_
4. Emrir _ _ Sitin,
5. _ _ _ Plant Pntt_
3.,..... ..._
1..
7 . T _....
,._"*
.. Occupao.... ~
10. .........
.....AttentiDn:DirecIor.Otficeof~.O." ......."'.
383
(2)
where \qn \ max is the maximum displacement vector for
the nUl m~de, rn is the modal participation factor for
the nth mode and is expressed by
~e
c.
REGULATORY POSITION
1.922
384
r
1. CombiDation of Modal Respon.s
1.1 With No a_y Spacecl Modes
In a response spectrum modal dynamic analysis, the
modes are not closely spaced (two consecutive modes
are defined as closely spaced if their frequencies differ
from eachother by 10 percent or less of the lower
frequency), the representative maximum value of a
particular response of interest for design (e.g., components of stress, strain, moment, shear, or displace
ment) of a given element of a nuclear power plant
structure, system, or component subjected to a single
independent spatial component (response spectrum) of a
threecomponent earthqual should be obtained by
taking the square root of the sum of the squares (SRSS)
of corresponding maximum values of the response of the
element attributed to individual significant modes of the
structure, system, or component. MathematicaIly, this
can be expressed as foDows:
R=[t Rkl*J
Rm
(3)
k= 1
(5)
ww
(6)
< 0.1
_J_ _l
W1

(7)
(10)
Eks= [ 1+ {
@f wk + (3;
lJ
(9)
ws)
in which
1Groups
\
(Wk  w;)
1.923
385
:.
(R;t~
(11)
where WJc and (jk are the modal frequency and the
damping ratio in the kth mode, respectively, and td is
the duration of the earthquake.
2.
D. IMPLEMENTATION
1.924
386
REFERENCES
1. R. L. Wiegel, editor, Earthquake Engineering,
Englewood Cliffs, N.J., PrenticeHall, Inc., 1970, chapter
by N. M. Newrnark, p. 403.
1.925
387
RevIsion 1
Oecember 1913
U.S. ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION
REGULATORV GUIDE
DIRECTORATE OF REGULATORY STANDARDS
.,.dft
388
corn""""
""'1ed
'"
t'" .,..... ..
ln
br~
d,YIII(.In1.
to
ft
R.ectOl'l
Il. . .,.,, _
T ..t IIIMCtOfI
Fuels _
M........ Fecolll_
EnYWOlVneft'.l et'ld SitU''U
_
.... _l'lent
1. PO.....
1.
J.
...
!i.
'ro,*,,_
6. 'roGo.",'
7. Trerac:oo;tlUon
8. Oc:cupeuo,.' H'th
i. Antitrust A.v.....
10. Ge ....
a'
~5.
ur
C. REGUlATORY POSITION
1. The horizontal component ground DeSIgn Response
Spectra, wilhout sastructure interaction effects, of the
SSE, 1/2 the SSE, or the OSE on sites underlain by rock
or by sail should he linearly scaled from Figure 12 in
proportion ta the maximum horizontal ground
acceleration specifaed for the earthquake chosen. (Figure
1 corresponds to a maximum honzontal ground
ac~eleration of 1.0 g and accompanyingdisplacement of
36 in.) The applicable multiplication factors and control
points are given in Table I. For damping ratios not
induded in Figure 1 or' Table l, a linar interpolation
should be used.
2. The vertical component ground Design Response
Spectra, without sastructure interaction effects, of the
SSE, 1/2 the SSE, or the OSE on sites underlain by rock
or by sail should be linearly scaled from Figure 2 2 in
proportion to the maximum horizontal ground
acceleration specifaed for the earthquaite chosen. (Figure
2 is based on a maximum horizonllli ground flCCeluanon
of 1.0 g and accompanying displacement of 36 in.) The
applicable multiplication factors and control points are
given in Table Il. For damping ratios not inciuded in
Figure 2 or Table Il, a linear interpolation should be
used.
'This does not apply to sites whic:h (1) ale relatiYely cloR
to the epinter of an expec:ted eanhquate or (2) whic:h haft
physical characteristics dlat couJd sipUf"acantly affect the
spectral combinauon
input motion. 1be DcsiIn RespoDle
Spectra for such Ita sbould be cleYdoped on 1 cabycue
0'
basis.
1.602
389
DEFINlnONS
rdahun5hip uhtained by analyzing. ev:lIualina. and
statistically ,,..,mhininl a numher nf indMclual response
plst
...uers.
TABLE 1
PwcInt
of
CrhicIII
Dlmping
0.5
2.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
Aca_etion'
AI33_
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
set
Dilpa..nwnt'
c:pI'
4.96
3.54
2.61
2.27
1.90
CI2.5_
5.95
4.25
3.13
2.72
2.28
DC0.25_
3.20
2.50
2.os
1.88
1.70
srmty.
1.603
390
TABLE Il
Percent
of
Critical
Dlmping
0.5
2.0
5.0
7.0
10.0
Amplification
FilClon
Acceleration'
A(33cpsl
S(Scps)
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
3.54
2.61
2.27
1.90
C(~:S
cps)
5.67.\
4.05
2.98
2.59
4.96
~.17
010.25 cpsl
2.13
1.67
1.37
1.25
1.13
'These valua were changed to malte Ihis table oonsi5lenl Wilh the dis
cUSlliun uf vertical componenl'; in Seclion B of this Kuidc.
REFERENCES
1.
...
3.
1.604
391
FRflUENCY,c:pa
FIGURE 1. HORIZONTAL DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA  SCALED TO 19 HORIZONTAL
GROUND ACCELERATION
392
fiOO
.i
~.
III
>
20
0.2
0.&
10
20
10
100
FAEOUENCY,cpI
FIGURE 2. VERTICAL DESIGN RESPONSE SPECTRA  SCALED TO 19 HORIZONTAL
GROUND ACCELERATION
393
3  0102
Use operat1ng case 1 to f1x the nonlinear restraints for the dynamic
job and use 3.75 as the friction stiffness mult1plier. The follow1ng
shack spectra has been defined:
User def1ned shack na.e TABLE1
Per1 od (sec)
0.001698
0.0286
Accelerlt1Qn (g's)
0.3756
0.984
2.0078
2.0078
1.140
3.078
3.078
1.813
2.256
0.058
0.071
0.091
0.1140
0.1410
0.172
0.20
0.25
0.323
2.256
1.03623
(Hz)
Accelerltion (1pss)
58
lOS
210
315
509
789
655
312
119
1.0
* TABLEl
0.6667 * TABLE1
1.0
* TABLE1
Use the spatial
1.0
* TABLE1 1n the X direction
0.6667 * TABLE1 1n the Y direction
1n the X direction
1n the Y direction
in the Z direction
combination method f1rst.
1.0
* TABLE1 in the Z direction
Use the .aGal cbination _thod fint.
SHOCK LOAl> CASE 13:
1.0 *
1.0 *
0.667 *
Use the
Once the shock cases Ire run cbine each dyn_ic load cise with the
sustained stltic case 12. Use the ABS _thod of cbinltion.
394
To use shoct TABLE2 1ft! need to generlte the points on 1ts cuneo The
intersection of the constant veloc111. constant d1spllc~t l1ne cln
be found:
10.375 3.832 / f;
Displacelent (in.)
10.375
10.375
1.8898
0.007135
ascif file that contains the data points for TABLE1 can be entered
using a full screen word processor or EDLIN.COM. Any line in the file
that starts w1tll an asterfslt (*) will be treated 1fke a COIIIIIent tfne.
The
menu:
3  DYNAMICS
2  SHOCK DEFINITIONS
1  SpectnIID N_ and Type
NIIIIe. Rlnge Type, Ord1nate Type, Rlnge Interpol, Ord1nlte Interpol
'TABLEl PERIOD ACCEL LOG LOG
TABLE2 FREQ
DISPL LOG LOG
TABLE3 F
ACCEL LOG LOG
<esc>
Note the 1 s1gn preceedfng TABLEl. TII1s tells CAESAR to reld the
TABLE1 input from an Isci1 data file.
3  Spectrua Table
bufld spectru. table 2.
(in. )
ORDINATE
(Hz)
RANGE
0.001
10.375
0.36935 10.375
2.0277
1.8898
33.0
0.007135
<esc>
bufld spectru. table 3.
(Hz)
(1n./sec/sec)
ORDINATE
RANGE
0.01
0.5
1.9
3.75
6.39
10.4
15.56
20.01
58
108
210
315
509
789
655
312
119
30.3
<est>
395
8  SHOCIC CASES
1  Md new cISe
Shock case 1 shock contributions:
5hOCk Maille, Factor, Direction, 5tart Mode, 5top Node, lncrl!llent
TABLE1
TABLE 1
TABLEl
1.0*386 X
0.667*386 Y
1.0*386 Z
5PATlAL(SRSS), MOOAL(GROUP)
<esc>
shock contributions:
TABLEl 1.0*386 X
TABLE 1 0.667*386 Y
TABLE 1 1.0*386 Z
MOOAL(GROUP I,SPATlAL(SRSS)
<HC>
1  Add new case
Shock case 3 shock contributions:
5hoct Neme, Factor, Direction, Stan Node, Stop Node, lncrl!llent
TABLE3
TABLE3
TABLE2
1.0 X
1.0 Z
0.667 Y
9  STATIC/DYNAMIC COMBINATIONS
1  Add new case
Load Case, Factor
52
1.0
Dl 1.0
COMBINATION(ABS)
<esc>
1  Add new case
Load Case, Factor
52
D2
1.0
1.0
COMBINATION(ABS)
<esc>
1  Add 1 new cise
Lad Cise. Flctor
52
03
1.0
1.0
COMB(AIS)
<esc>
396
A  CONTROL PARAMETERS
SPECTRUM
l
3.75
<esc>
<<<
397
398
Factor,
Direction,
Start Node,
Stop Node,
Increment
Factor,
Direction,
Start Node,
Stop Node,
Increment
ELCENTRO
ELCENTRO
ELCENTRO
1 X 5 30
1 y 5 30
1 Z 5 30
ELCENTRO .5 X 40 60
ELCENTRO .5 y 40 60
ELCENTRO .5 Z 40 60
so
'1'
.s~
. rD".
6"
"ID
Ir
.3S
20
ID
399
2$
30
CiIOOIJQ
<<<<<
400
CAESAR II
VERSION 2.1C
are rigid.
100 deg F
59 deg F
8 in Sch lOS
4 in 22.3 lb/cu ft
0.232 SG
W14x82
WIOx12
401
1.C
4.C
5.C
8.C
P,PE,:6"
i~IUo1UQ ...~
"1=
 ....,,'F
,.,:
le
loSa
~.
104'$
,~.
10441
'.'S'3
l.e
402
(TY~.4)
Name="GROUNDRESPONSE"
T, sec
0.05
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
3.5
5.0
10 0
V, i n/sec
0.787
7.874
21.653
39.37
18.89
43.7
11.8
5.9
Name="BUILDINGRESPONSE"
T, sec
0.05
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
3.5
5.0
10.0
V, i ni sec
0.787
1.3
3.4
27.3
30.4
21.12
21.3
5.359
Name="ENVELOPE"
T, sec
0.05
0.2
0.5
1.0
2.0
3.5
5.0
10.0
V, i ni sec
0.787
7.874
21.653
39.37
30.4
43.7
21.3
5.9
ENVELOPE SPEcrRUM
403
SPECTRDrI
A~ts on aIl points supported
d~rectly from the building.
GROUND SPECTRUN
For the analysis with steel supports, the structural steel must be
included as part of the piping model. This can be accomplished by
using the "INCLUDE STRUCTURAL INPUT FILES" option fram the "KAUX"
feature of the CAESAR II spreadsheets.
3.C
404
4.C
405
The dynamics input for this problem is summarized in the figure below.
Details of the dynamics input are contained on the following pages.
1 UII'O MSSES
2  SIUIEIS
~  IIIIX IEFIIITIIIIS
4  PlUE TUlL IEIEIIn.
5
3) "ENVEL OPE
Il
,  IIIIX WB ___
A STATlt/DYIIIIIIIC CIIIIIITIIIIS
 CIIITIIII. PMMETEIS
C EF
~e1l
5.C
406
(HARftONIC/SPECTRU"I"ODES/RANGE~
33
0.1
20
0.03
0.5
{{{{
N
N
0.0
{
o
2
o
o
N
N
100
60C
407
DYNA~IC
LOAD CASE 1 1
6ROUNDRES?ONSE 1.0
SROUNIlRESPONSE 1.0
6RDUNDRESPONSE 1.0
.. liAlue
1005 1055
1005 1055
1005 1055
ENVELOPE 1 1
ENYELOPE 1 y
ENVELOPE 1 Z
S?ECTRU" DEFINITIONS
Hile, Range, Ordinate, Range InterpDlation, Ordinate InterpDlatiDn
6ROUNDRESPONSE PERIOD YELOCITY LOE LOS ..
,       ...."GROUNDRESPONSE" Spectrum Definition
0.05 0.787
0.2 7.974
0.5 :1.653
i.O 39.37
:. i)
18.29
3.5 43.7
5.0 11.8
l
i
10.0 5.9
BUILDIN5RESPONSE PERlOD YELOCITY LOE LOS
0.05 0.787
0.2 1.3
O.S 3.4
1.0 27.3
2.0 30.4
.,."; ..1
~
21.12
5.0 21.3
1(;.0 5.359
ENVELOPE PERIOD YELOCITY LOE LOS
0.05 0.787
0.2 7.874
0.5 21.653
1.0 39.37
2.0 30.4
3.5 43.7
..
1Full Definition for the shocK
"ENVELOPE"
5.0 21.3
10.0 5.9
7.C
408
In order to keep the documentation for this example brief, the only
results presented are those for the "uniform support excitation" case.
Using this load case, the model with and without structural steel
supports will be compared. The results from these two models are
shown in the tables below:
DISPLACEMENTS
X
RX
RY
RZ
35 with
. without
0.4253
0.0049
0.0336
0.0076
1.5831
1.0334
0.4298
0.2902
0.5932
0.3832
0.0622
0.0033
45 with
without
0.4240
0.0036
0.0379
0.0
3.7952
1.9555
0.2311
0.1635
0.5550
0.2576
0.0412
0.0007
50 with
without
0.4219
0.0020
0.0447
0.0
3.7435
1.4764
0.1911
0.0817
0.5695
0.4083
0.1220
0.0002
60 with
without
0.3799
0.0366
1.4247
0.5838
0.5930
0.0635
0.3613
0.0292
0.3534
0.0425
0.2322
0.0236
75 with
without
0.8484
0.6447
1.3529
0.5631
1.3033
1.1291
0.5127
0.4482
0.4247
0.3346
0.4924
0.2114
90 with
without
0.5927
0.4689
0.4228
0.3414
0.2087
0.1815
0.3816
0.3425
0.5229
0.4236
0.4461
0.2465
8.C
409
RESTRAINT LOAQS
FX
FY
FZ
MX
MY
MZ
241
207
319
353
523
353
4761
3114
981
647
1133
1001
40 with
without
146
18
1118
597
45 with
without
229
4
50 with
without
CYJ
1536
434
3848
8100
1116~~ 1
2531
2286
1568
1339
4025
2701
with
without
55 with
without
2029
976
65 with
without
956
580
1101
560
70 with
without
538
500
895
743
80 with
without
115 with .
without
1939
1408
1154
596
236
110
743
504
253
200
429
359
STRESSES
AXIAL
410
BENDING
TORSION
MAX OCT
CODE
20F with
without
80
88
20614
13344
1742
1151
9834
6363
20639
13350
35F with
without
22
17
13454
8558
571
280
6366
4041
13468
8559
40 with
without
164
122
7179
4779
571
280
3431
2265
7211
4782
45 with
without
297
193
11001
7963
571
280
5246
3762
11081
7966
55 with
without
429
232
16435
11664
571
280
7832
5504
16582
11667
55 with
without
140
86
15886
17125
1009
148
7600
8114
16024
17210
60F with
without
340
357
20784
12164
696
414
9920
5911
21114
12520
75F with
without
69
59
11489
6208
375
281
5448
2963
11539
6267
9.C
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
The comparison table on the previous page illustrates the differences
that can exist when the structural steel models are not included in
the analysis. ln some cases 9 the results with the structural steel
included are many times higher than the results computed without the
structural steel. The steel models add flexibility ta the piping system.
More flexibility means lower natural frequencies and more modes to be
excited by the shock. A comparison of the natural frequencies of the
two models is given below:
NATURAL FREQUENCIES
No.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
10)
11)
12 )
13 )
14)
15 )
16 )
17)
18 )
19 )
20)
21 )
22)
23)
24 )
25 )
26 )
27 )
28)
With Structure

Without Structure
1.706
2.533
3.371
3.936
4.384
5.294
5.929
8.957
11.849
16.367
16.564
20.588
22.954
23.474
25.582
29.685
35.083
1.307
2.244
2.520
3.149
3.443
4.206
4.404
5.250
5.675
5.761
5.988
6.594
7.992
11.855
14.086
14.086
14.086
16.504
15.554
20.333
20.589
I~::I
23.052
23.475
25.582
38.085
10.C
411
ln the above table, there are on1y 5 extra mode shapes for the system
which includes the structure. The 6 extra shapes shown in the two
boxes belong strictly to the structural steel frame. (Exciting these
modes will obviously cause stresses in the piping, a possibility which
could go unnoticed in the simpler "piping on1y" model.)
The restrain moment at node 55 in the Z direction is much 1arger without
the steel mode l than it is with the steel mode1. Even though the
piping is tied to the steel, the steel frame will not support much
moment in the Z direction. The steel frame bends slightly about the
Z axis, and the moment is carried throught from the pipe. ln the
"piping only" model, the rigid anchor at node 55 will not rotate about
the Z axis (or any other axis) and so ends up carrying al1 of the
moment load.
11.C
412
413
. P.a..~Swl~
THAT
. l  _ . _
.
WAVt:.S ...
..
~'\tn. a~
Qo,",,~
.. Pl?IJ.JC,
&>p~~~_.
:.",
..
~~
:..
TITE
$'l"~~
~
~
.~ ,.~
~i....
..~  ...
..
.
(~~Qr..) )
PI2.L'~~rU.)
o~
LoQ
WA."Ff"72,.O~ T
Vt+c.."EOf>~t.AJ,.
.... .. b.t.J
o~.)
P~~SS"'\l.t:)
01>.) VALVE'
414
1".0,) """
~~'
~,~~.
~sonic
Steck
PIpe
'"
~SUbsoniC
Z = 0.9965
0.9999
1.0053
0.9469
0.9990
1.0022
0.9336
0.9925
1.0029
0.8695
0.9859
1.0040
0.8188
0.9813
1.0049
0.5608
0.9647
1.0093
415
5) The oblique shock system in the vent stack which may exist
over a large distance of the vent stack piping~ can be modelled
as a normal shock wave of essentially zero length.
The input for the relief load synthesizer is shown below:
<<<<<<<<<
416
Il
1.300
1.100
1.399
1.288
1.232
1.304
1.093
1.187
1.240
1.226
1.127
l.27
55.16
35.11
59.35
90.73
26.59
51.39
55.09
96.33
35.05
a ItS ., '1. 1
417
Add
V~nt St~ck
V~lv~
Pipe
V~nt
Steck
418
Example input and output fram the relief load synthesizer is shown and
discussed below:
1000
2800
2.141
6.065
50*12
1.3
85.8
Y
Y
<<<<<<<<<<
388229.300
17658.S50
1051S.7S0
347.091
247.542
2.904
1.041
( fps )
( deg.F )
2135.4
S09.6
1848.S
S09.6
140S.S889.4
dJVftt
1
1:1
s
UMBRELLA F"ITTING
UMBRELLA rlTTING
a valve firing.
419
UMBRELLA rITTING
NOT
NOT
An Ul'lbrello. tittlng
An Ul'IbreUo. tlttlng
420
421
= (dm/dt)
fnoooA '
~6.Ir.lE.E.il..l"'~ M~'~4toJ\GS;
sr1l),'T'\c.~
~.c.
(a)
+
Timer
,,
,, ,>
"
pipe with a velocity VA and exits with a velocity vB The momentum and
Impulsevector diagrams for the fiuid stream are shown in Fig. 1816b.
The force !F. shown acting on the impulsevector diagram. represents
th~ res~ltant ~orce of ail the external forces acting on the fiuid stream.
It .lS. thls loadmg which gives the fiuid stream an impulse whereby the
o~gtn.al m~mentum of the fiuid is changed in both its magnitude and
dIrectIon. Smce the fiow is steady this force will be constant during the
time interval dt. As shown in the figure. the fluid stream is in m;tion.
and as a result a small amount of fluid. having a mass dm. enters the
pipe with a velocity l'A at time l, Considering this element of mass and
422
A.lJt>
~L'Q~t~
the mass of fiuid in the pipe as a closed system. at time t + dt. a corresponding element of mass dm must leave the pipe with a velocity YB' The
average veloczv of the fiuid stream. having mass m. within the pipe section
is constant during the time interval dt. In Fig. 1816b, its velocity is shown
to be v. Applying the principle of impulse and momentum to the fiuid
stream. we have
dm VA
+ mv + :::Fdt = dmv B + mv
dm
= d(VBz

VAz)
(1816)
dm
d(vBI/  VAl!)
The force summation in Eq. 1815 or Eqs. 1816 may easily be accounted for by accompanying the problem solution with a freebody
diagram. Only the entrance and exit velocities of the fiuid are required.
These velocities represent the relative velocities of the fiuid with respect
to the system. For sorne problems. a kinematic diagram for the velocities
will help in determining their values (refer to Example 189).
relief load
syn~hesizer
condi~ion
423
From the relief 10ad synthesizer the fo110wing values are obtained:
1) The magnitude of the dynamic 10ad that acts on the relief
tai1pipe and valve due to the pressure, and change in momentum of
the re1ieving gas.
Mass / Flowrate
EXAMPLE:
Assume that on overpressurizing a system, 3000 lbm of
steam must be vented.
From the relief load synthesizer, we can see that
388229.3 1bm of steam per hour will get thru the
orifice/tailpipe configuration. Once the valve opens
i t wi 11 take:
(3000)lbm / (388229.3)lbm/hour
0.00773 hours
seconds
= 27.3
The longer the duration the more conservative the dynamic calculation.
Longer durations result in quicker rise times in the frequency response
spectrum diagram. This is illustrated below:
~~~~D~F~~.o
~"~~
~o~.'~ ....~vf:
~~~'5~._
._ . .
_~_:_
.l~I...,t; .
TI ioOo\ ~ Ik. S' n;, 12.'"
___. . _ . 
424
To "2._0. __
lSA'"(
 
  
  
~
< So
~)
  
~

= =
_.
~ = _.,._
Th__Z ...O_~
 
An accurate estimate of the rise and fall time of the valve is also
of use. The shorter the estimated rise and fall times the more
conservative the dynamic solution.
Just like for the earthquake analysis, the time waveform is converted
into a response spectrum by exposing a table of single degree of freedom
bodies to the time waveform and saving the maximum displacement of
each.

 
~
'. '.""'"F. i
~ : _. __
. ~~_ :~_._ _ _
n.f::::'2fl.$:>bi~fJ5... _.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .~_.!!!M~a......J'I~~~~L.
,
. 'F="'T=c=
~....;...
t+rt'+~~.,.......
.
 .:trt._",7~r_.
+i~~~~~...:......~_ ~::'''
'''~....;._ ..
,.\' ~''~'~
,', n""'1 e
d
425
_
The input procedure for the time waveform and the resulting response
spectrum from CAESAR are shown below:
1  INPUT
2  STATICS
3  DYNAMICS < Go to DYNAMICS
4  OUTPUT
1  LUMPED MASSES
2  SNUBBERS
3  SHOCK DEFINITIONS
4  PULSE TABLE GENERATION < Pulse table generation
5  WIND GUST TABLE GENERATION
6  RELIEF LOAD SYNTHESIS
<40>
FORCE
lb.
0.0
1.0
1.0
0.0
FREQ (HZ)
~lTIPlIER
.1112511
.1141111
.8282511
.1641111
.1562511
.3239999
.6112498
1.8241'18
1.6412491
2.4999998
3.6612491
5.1839991
7.1412491
9.6141111
12.6562511
16.3841111
21.8812688
26.2441111
32.58127'1
41.1111211
.1134219
.1183528
.1118866
.1161185
.8147271
.1315411
.1565656
.1964677
.1544218
.2351151
.3431735
.4832111
.6589428
.8712571
1.1159718
1.3799111
1.6356938
1.8364651
1.9341221
1.9354891
\.
"
lPo,_rs
\~
10
:
2D
TI""",e"""~~lseCcwos
LOIJ
.'l.G/TCi~.
/4./
426
applica~ion
of
~he
''.NI f,/2.El.L.A
FtT/IAlt:,
j ,.
r\._
'l..
ro
J/~?J.."' __ ./!.l;E.S~;~/2.T
_ .
...
. ......
...__ ..__ ...._ _ __ __
...
...
..
.......
_ _ _ __ _ _ _.....
..
...
..
......
...
..
",
.,.
_. _.
427
. . . _.

...
EXAMPLE:
AioTri
rH*T"
TH67J.E
X ~'pf)"'I;';wTS
'IN A
T ifE
1(;
An.E No
if.ft;;SE
L(}IH)~I
7;..~E1J t(P
As
THE
.ID
7f,f~
/"fS
V.'2'f"
6".5#1 ~
FI Ll..$.T
SHrJlZr
MOr.lr:$_
7.t14T.
10$
J7z0M
1~~'~7J
7~
,$ tCA"ISC
PII'IIJ.A77DIJ.
428
OtZ.Ir:le~
EXAMPLE:
~i:)y
STATE. 1"J+t2MST
r/2.ol"1
... :,/JVTHS/~:'
/fp 7~
LoAO
1..8. ..
Ti ....... E
Note that the LOAO CASE COMBINATIONS are used to affect the
variation in the loading history, (NOT the force sets!!!).
The load cases would be defined as follows:
*LOAD CASE 1  SIMULTANEOUS FIRING
Contains 1 times force set #3.
*LOAD CASE
*
*
Contains
Contains
Contains
I~T
. 1679 Y 150 1
Ins Del
(esc) 10 ExIt
430
Force set
(or)
ShOCk Nille,
,l**
Factor,
(f
IAiTH
34of...I
1
1
1
1
1
bIS Del
L(A) CASE
(escHo ExIt
(or)
Shock Hile, Factor,
1
DIrectIon,
!lICIl!IIent
FII'1.Ih.l~S.
@ \... 0
TEST 1 Y 1
TESTIY2}
TEST 1 Y 2
fll4l1.iI:;5 ~ tlQO
TEST 1 Y2
DIRECTIIM. (SRSS) , lOlQ.. (10)
Ins Del
<escHo ExIt
431
i 11
5E:C""I4SE
T !oK
i~
'PI as:.TIOfjl'r\..
j)"',..,,.._If!
IF THE
7uEW
($.()V~
lt".DlIJ~
$'P.a.TI.. '
7HE
Me A,,", "'Y'5"
)
])';ltC.T"IOIW/U.
7~
(,;,..,TfZ.lfS
IHfi MrrHoo
tAcVI:!'7f..JoJS
Cp
't>I~C."lo..l'
~PDND.Jrs.
N7'fl./ES WfdU.
c.oli>'fI3I/fJATIOAJ
OF rirE
l>DrnOAJ
AL~ 1),FFftTl.P.JT
~G"7'Ht>J)
.J
IVOVL/)
h .JY'AoJ"'''''/1!
JJOiE:
IH"IVi
ZEFt:>Il..E
PlfZEi;:nOAIAl.
ANy
Mp~
Co,..,a/AJAT/OA.J$ ~ MA/)E
/);}..
SPtI4rlRc.
CD,..,BIIJ,4TJ()AJ~.
432
.__.
 "

..
__.

 ... 
Jg
IJDJ(JIJlf1tJ,
~O~~9.Jrs:
. .'..o~ 2
il'
&~I
)t J
ifii,pir ~r
 
li~~ 
"'1"114
S ...,r, LU:
Dt.s
   . :~~:~~~:~;:l~::St._
(1~:. .~._.
~i)r
e~&(,
~~
UE~
A1cPt J.i4!T
~~
n il . H
l2.i~/'TS
433
lok~
~ES .
The following
L~.fl~! 'L~"'.~'''~'''~ ..
A.Lo1>a. ...,~ VArc.\!e ~
.....  .......
_~~v(,
. /AJ'tIL>J. VE
r.HE.
!~~tt
IH'
~~/f"'F
M.o.~E:S
OF T~
J>JPI!J{
Ft~~ 8L~kfl:a!tj)t72.
f'lylf:: .
"
A~BLY
IS
So
.i2.1t7/.t>
Co~~
Iv
nt
'ZC
Sr~I'r/AJ_
lJo
AI'P~
w/'Tlof'OU"
.J..014.)S:
:T.E.
MOJ>At,.
7HE"
mz.:
434
])/!",P~"Cl~E..J7! 71h:72.C
L.0tI'I0
~/~i1ZI'I.4711J1J
.......
,.Au..~.
A.k>N. ~(a2.c..
. Ml:' l'H ~,,,b).
~iU.IS
l.._~tS ..
pa.
J,.
 

"
  
Let's take sorne exarnple situations and work thru thern verbally:
Ar.;~IAM~
'rIUO$PH7UtZ.
10
U ~ ~ /1fE. ~12.
Z~l"ln= L OAO 5r'/tI/I1EtlYi.
435_
rca.r.,..1'f'JtI'r
~/rrs

8rr
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