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Model Solutions to Examination

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8 Pages

Date:
Subject:
INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES
No. Mk.
1. Complete the sections above but do not seal until the examination is finished.
2. Insert in box on right the numbers of the questions attempted.
3. Start each question on a new page.
4. Rough working should be confined to left hand pages.
5. This book must be handed in entire with the top corner sealed.
6. Additional books must bear the name of the candidate, be sealed and be affixed to
the first book by means of a tag provided

PLEASE READ EXAMINATION REGULATIONS ON BACK COVER

Solution
(1)

Section I

(a) Based on a PI of 6 STB/d/psi and a static reservoir pressure of


3700psi, draw the IPR as a straight line through the points.

q=0

Pwf = Pi = 3700

q = 6000 STB/d at Pwf = 2700psi

(b) Based upon a THP of 200 psi, calculate the bottomhole flowing
pressures from the gradient curves supplied.

qo
STB/d

Pth
psi

Depth
Equiv
Ft

Actual
Depth
Ft

1000
2000
3000
4000
6000
8000

200
200
200
200
200
200

2000
1850
1750
1600
1350
1200

6400
6400
6400
6400
6400
6400

Total
Equiv
Depth
Ft
8400
8250
8150
8000
7750
7600

Pwf
psi

1790
1810
1810
1820
1840
1870

Plot pwf versus qo to obtain the tubing performance curve

4000

Pwf
psi

TPR

3100
3000
TPR

IPR s = 0
S=+5

2000

IPR s = 0

S = + 10

1000

1000

2000

3000

4000

Qo

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

Model Solutions to Examination

(c) The shape of the TPR is essentially flat and suggests that the
tubing size is not constrained by friction in the operating range. Low
GOR accentuates this effect.

(2)

(a) Operating flowrate for the well is 6000 BOPD approximately.

PI damaged
PI undamaged

ln

re 3
ln r 4

= w
re
3+ 5
ln r 4
w

1000
Re
= ln
8
Rw
0.33

8 3

S = + 10, PI damaged = 4 x 6 = 2.52


8 3 + 10
4

8 3

S = + 5, PI damaged = 4 x6 = 3.55
8 3 + 5
4

(b) Plot the IPR curves for the skin factors of +5 and +10.

Identify the operating flowrates as 3500 and 2500 STB/d


respectively from the intersection with the tubing performance curve

(3)

(a) Based on the PI of 6 and S=0, shift the IPR down until it reaches
an intersection with the TPR for accepted minimum economic rate of
2500 STB/d. Extrapolate back and read off the bottomhole flowing
pressure as approximately 3100 psi.

Section II Solution

1. Key Issues:
- water breakthrough in multiple layer
- low pressure and hence low tolerance to water cut
- potential sanding in water out selection

Options are:
Open hole

- low cost but no real selectivity

Screen Completion

- may control sand nut does not facilitate


water isolation

Cemented liner + perforating water

- selectively perforate to
control influx location
- can be squeezed to isolate water

Recommend using cemented 7" liner with selective perforating

2. See diagram - Fig 1 with depths and component functions.

Model Solutions to Examination

Approx Depths
Below Seabed ft.

Oil Producer

9 5/8" or 10 3/4" Casing


300'

Function
1

5 /2" Tubing
5 1/2" TRSSSV

Subsurface
emergency closure

4 1/2" Tubing
9 5/8" Casing

Tubing/annuluscirculation

5200'

4 1/2" Gauge Mandrel

5260'

Wireline Nipple

To set plug to
isolate S.P.M.

PBR c/w Anchor

TBG Movement
TBG Disconnect

5300'

Hydraulic Set Packer


Millout extension
Wireline Nipple
WEG

5600'

7" Liner Hanger

6100'
7" Liner
6400'

High angle
Permanent due
to proposed gas
lift
Retrieve packer
Can set plug
to isolate
reservoir
Facilitates retrieval
of wireline or coiled
tubing tools and guns

TD

Figure 1

(a) TRSSSV remote controlled; provides emergency subsurface


isolation; part of barrier policy

SPM can be used for: Circulation to kill/offload the well when


fitted with a shear valve
Chemical injection from annulus to tubing for corrosion control,
hydrate inhibition

Nipple: Accepts plug to isolate upstream of SSSV or to allow pressure


testing of tubing

PBR allows:

Disconnection of upper tubing section from the packer

Compensates for tubing movement

Hydraulic set packer: Isolates annulus


Allows tailpipe to be suspended above the reservoir
Permanent type preferred if high differential pressure expected

Millout extension: Allows positioning/engagement of catch sleeve when


used with packer milling tool

No-go nipple:Allows well to be plugged just above reservoir


Protects reservoir against losses during period when well is shut in or
during a workover
Also provides additional barrier if tubing and TRSSSV is being pulled

Model Solutions to Examination

(b) The completion design is simple with little in-built redundancy

Options
(i) Is the PBR required or would a static seal be better eg. Anchor seal
may be more reliable if the tubing stresses are not significant
(ii) An annular safety valve would be considered but would not strictly
be necessary

3. For water injection wells, the completion is simpler.


a) Remove circulation device as wells will be killed by bullheading
b) The TRSSSV could be replaced be a simpler injection check valve as
the low reservoir pressure means that the well will always be
hydraulically killed during injection. With depletion it will become even
more overbalanced.

See figure 2 (overleaf).

Single Zone Water Injector


5 1/2" T.R.V.
Top of cement
behind production casing
5 1/2" Tubing
Wireline Nipple
PBR with anchor
Packer 300ft. below
T.O.C.

Hydraulic set packer


Milledout extension MOE

Wireline Nipple
WEG

7" Liner Hanger

Figure 2

4. Since we have gone for a cemented liner we could either:


(a) thru tubing bridge plays TTBP
(b) gel squeeze
(c) squeeze cement into perforation
(d) straddle packer

In this case a part of the perforating strategy would be to allow

Model Solutions to Examination

several blank/unperforated sections to be left between intervals to


facilitate isolation using bridge plugs.

5. Open SPM and reverse circulate to kill weight fluid


Squeeze tubing contents down below packer
Set plug in lower tail pipe nipple
Replace Xmas tree with BOP stack
2 mechanical barriers + 1 hydraulic barrier

6. See figure 3 (overleaf).


Note possible requirement to use ASV. Other option of using a dual
completion is not preferred.

Gas Lifted Oil Producer


9 5/8" or 10 3/4" Casing

5 1/2" Tubing
5 1/2" TRSSSV
Possible ASV
4 1/2" Tubing

9 5/8" Casing
4 1/2" Gas Mandrel
4 1/2" Gas Mandrel
4 1/2" Gas Mandrel
4 1/2" Gauge Mandrel
Wireline Nipple
PBR C/W Anchor
Hydraulic Set Packer
MOE
Wireline Nipple
WEG
7" Liner Hanger

7" Liner

Figure 3

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