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11 2003
$ 9 .7 5
A P U B L I C AT I O N O F T H E M C G R A W - H I L L C O M PA N I E S

INSIDE Los Angeles


The City Comes of Age With
Gehrys Disney Concert Hall

w w w. a rc h it e ct u ra l re c o rd . c o m

ALSO

THE L.A. NOW PROJECT CHARTS


A BOLD, RICH FUTURE
JULIUS SHULMANS TIMELESS EDEN
SEVENTH ANNUAL BUSINESS WEEK/
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

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VP, EDITOR IN CHIEF


MANAGING EDITOR
DESIGN DIRECTOR
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Robert Ivy, FAIA, rivy@mcgraw-hill.com


Ingrid Whitehead, ingrid_whitehead@mcgraw-hill.com
Anna Egger-Schlesinger, schlesin@mcgraw-hill.com
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Jane F. Kolleeny, jane_kolleeny@mcgraw-hill.com
Rita F. Catinella, rita_catinella@mcgraw-hill.com
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Randi Greenberg, randi_greenberg@mcgraw-hill.com
Diana Lind, diana_lind@mcgraw-hill.com
James S. Russell, AIA, james_russell@mcgraw-hill.com
Suzanne Stephens, suzanne_stephens@mcgraw-hill.com
Leslie Yudell
I-Ni Chen, Sophia Murer
Raul Barreneche, Robert Campbell, FAIA, Andrea Oppenheimer
Dean, David Dillon, Francis Duffy, Lisa Findley, Blair Kamin,
Elizabeth Harrison Kubany, Nancy Levinson, Thomas Mellins, Robert
Murray, Sheri Olson, AIA, Nancy Solomon, AIA, Michael Sorkin,
Michael Speaks, Tom Vonier, AIA
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David Cohn, Claire Downey, Tracy Metz
James H. McGraw IV, jay_mcgraw@mcgraw-hill.com
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Wilda Fabelo, wilda_fabelo@mcgraw-hill.com

EDITORIAL OFFICES: 212/904-2594. Editorial fax: 212/904-4256. E-mail: rivy@mcgraw-hill.com. Two Penn Plaza, New York, N.Y. 10121-2298.
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Houses and Interiors, Sarah Amelar; Products, Rita Catinella; Lighting, William Weathersby, Jr.; Web Editorial, Kevin Lerner
ARCHITECTURAL RECORD: (ISSN 0003-858X) November 2003. Vol. 191, No. 11. Published monthly by The McGraw-Hill Companies, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New
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THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS 2003 BOARD OF DIRECTORS OFFICERS: Thompson E. Penney, FAIA, President; Eugene C. Hopkins, FAIA, First Vice President; Bruce E.
Blackmer, AIA, Vice President; Robin Ellerthorpe, FAIA, Vice President; Katherine Lee Schwennsen, FAIA, Vice President; Lawrence R. Livergood, AIA, Secretary; Douglas L Steidl, FAIA,
Treasurer; Karen Lewand, CACE Representative to the Executive Committee; Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, Executive Vice President/CEO REGIONAL DIRECTORS: Douglas E. Ashe, AIA, Jamie
Aycock, AIA, John H. Baker, AIA, Paul Davis Boney, FAIA, Stanford R. Britt, FAIA, Michael Broshar, AIA, Randy Byers, AIA, Tommy Neal Cowan, AIA, Lawrence J. Fabbroni, Student Director,
Jerome Filer, FAIA, Betty Sue Flowers, PhD, Public Director, A. James Gersich, AIA, T. Gunny Harboe, AIA, William E. Holloway, AIA, Michael M. Hricak Jr., FAIA, Lisa L. Kennedy, AIA,
Shannon Kraus, AIA, Associate Director, David Lancaster, Hon. AIA, CACE Representative, Orlando T. Maione, AIA, Thomas R. Mathison, AIA, Carl F. Meyer, AIA, Robert E. Middlebrooks,
AIA, Barbara A Nadel, FAIA, Barry Z. Posner, PhD, Public Director, David Proffitt, AIA, Bruce A. Race, FAIA, Jerry K. Roller, AIA, Martin G. Santini, AIA, Bradley D. Schulz, AIA, Robert I.
Selby, AIA, John C. Senhauser, FAIA, Brad Simmons, FAIA, Scott Simpson, FAIA, R.K. Stewart, FAIA, Norman Strong, AIA, Stephen T. Swicegood, AIA, M. Hunter Ulf, AIA, J. Benjamin Vargas,
AIA, David Watkins, FAIA AIA MANAGEMENT COUNCIL: Norman L. Koonce, FAIA, Executive Vice President/CEO; James Dinegar, Chief Operating Officer; Richard J. James, CPA, Chief
Financial Officer; Jay A. Stephens, Esq., General Counsel; Helene Combs Dreiling, FAIA, Team Vice President, AIA Relationships; Charles Hamlin, Team Vice President, AIA Communication;
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Gaines Jr., Assoc. AIA, Managing Director, A IA Professional Practice; Suzanne Harness, AIA, Esq., Managing Director and Counsel, AIA Contract Documents; Richard L. Hayes, Ph.D., RAIC,
AIA, Managing Director, AIA Knowledge Resources; Brenda Henderson, Hon. AIA, Managing Director, AIA Component Relations; Christine M. Klein, Managing Director, Meetings; Carol
Madden, Managing Director, AIA Membership Services; Philip D. ONeal, Managing Director, AIA Technology; C.D. Pangallo, EdD, Managing Director, Continuing Education; Terence J.
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11.2003
On the Cover: Walt Disney Concert Hall. Photograph by Richard Barnes
Right: L.A. NOW Project. Image courtesy of Art Center College of Design

News

Building Types Study 827

25 World Trade Center news

167 Introduction: University Buildings by Jane F. Kolleeny

28 Stirling Prize goes to Herzog & de Meuron

168 Cal Tech Biological Sciences Center, California


by Suzanne Stephens*

Departments
17 Editorial: A Musical Culmination*
19 Letters*
49 Dates & Events*
59 Archrecord2: For the emerging architect by Kevin Lerner*
63 Critique: Architectural competitions by Michael Sorkin

Pei Cobb Freed & SmithGroup


172 Academic Center for Student Athletes, Louisiana
by Christine Kreyling*

Trahan Architects
176 Technology and Learning Center, Michigan by John Gallagher*

Gwathmey Siegel & Associates Architects


180 Carl Icahn Laboratory, New Jersey by Clifford A. Pearson*

69 Books: Extending our reach

Rafael Violy Architects

75 Review: My Architect: A Sons Journey by Clifford A. Pearson

For nine additional university buildings, go to Building Types


Study at architecturalrecord.com.

81 Exhibitions: Art and architecture


87 Snapshot: Carls Jr. prototype by Ingrid Whitehead
280 Prole: Tom Dixon by Josephine Minutillo*

Features
90 Business Week/Architectural Record Awards 2003*

The 7th annual awards program winners and nalists.


120 Julius Shulman: A photo essay by Ingrid Whitehead

The architecture of Southern California, a timeless Eden, through


the eyes and lens of master photographer Julius Shulman.

Projects
127 Introduction by Robert Ivy, FAIA
128 L.A. Now Project by Joseph Giovannini*

An ambitious project using Californias design schools to visualize


a new identity and transformation process for Los Angeles.
134 Walt Disney Concert Hall, California by James S. Russell, AIA*

Gehry Partners
The story of how Frank Gehrys design and Lillian Disneys dream
were ultimately rescued to create a masterful performance hall.
152 Sylmar Branch Public Library, California by Suzanne Stephens*

Hodgetts + Fung
A sleek, linear design for a Southern California library.
158 Three Classic Houses, California by Barbara Lamprecht*

Don Wexler
Three Modernist steel houses sparkle in the California desert.

The AIA/ARCHITECTURAL RECORD


Continuing-Education Opportunity is Architects Slowly
Begin to Expand the Traditional Palette of Materials, (page 195). To nd out
about other Continuing Education opportunities in this issue, go to page 195.

Building Science
195 Architects Slowly Begin to Expand the Traditional Palette
of Materials
by Nancy B. Solomon, AIA*

New substances from high-tech labs enter the construction realm.


205 Digital Architect: Telecom Consultants by Alan Joch*

Lighting
227 Introduction by William Weathersby, Jr.
229 Creative Uses
230 Marion Oliver McCaw Hall, Washington by Alice Liao*

Leni Schwendinger Light Projects; Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design


239 Roppongi J, Japan by Leanne B. French*

Isometrix Lighting + Design


242 Changi Airport Rail Station, Singapore by William Weathersby, Jr.*

SBLD Studio
249 Lighting Technology by Lindsay Audin
251 Lighting Products by Rita Catinella

Products
257 Alternative flooring by Rita Catinella*
261 Product Briefs

264 Product Literature

266 AIA/CES Self-Report Form* 272 Reader Service*


You can find these stories at www.architecturalrecord.com,
including expanded coverage of Projects and Web-only special features, such
as In the Cause of Architecture and Innovation, a new section devoted to
new materials and methods that benefit architects.
11.03 Architectural Record

13

Visit us at
archrecord.construction.com

November 2003

Daily Headlines

Get the latest scoop from the world of architecture.


Sponsored by

Projects
The projects this month on the Web are all about Los Angeles. Is that California city all
grown up? Take a look at the Disney Concert Hall by Frank Gehry, the Sylmar Library by
Hodgetts+Fung, and three renovated modernist houses in the California desert by Don Wexler.

Innovation
On the heels of our successful Innovation Conference October 8 and 9 in New York City, we
present the Innovation section of archrecord.com. The purpose of this section is to expose the
unnoticed and evaluate potential for major change. Both new materials and new ways of combining old ones are in development. Advances in materials science, increased private and public
alliances, and the infiltration of digital technology into everything have conspired to create pockets
of experimentation and unusual collaborations among architects, engineers, and manufacturers.
We invite our readers to continue their own investigation.

World Trade Center


Rebuilding News. Get the latest updated coverage on the rebuilding process with
news and insight.
Photography by ARUP/Dennis Gilbert/View

Photography courtesy Lance Hosey

archrecord2

Lighting

In DESIGN we feature architect and writer


Lance Hosey, who has a day job working for
William McDonough + Partners, an environmentally conscious Virginia firm, and moonlights
on his own architecture projects and writings.
In WORK, we present Suchitra Van, the principal of Van Studio in New York City, which
he bills as a design studio for architecture,
photography, and fabrication. He takes commercial photographs, having worked for Tillett
Lighting Design and Maya Lin, as well as
Lincoln Center.

This is a quarterly Lighting section. In this


section, from the Pacific Northwest to the
Pacific Rim, lighting benefits centers of
culture, commerce, and transit.
Gardco
Lighting

Photography by Eduard Hueber

Business Week/Architectural Record Awards

Sponsored by
HAGAR
COMPANIES

Building Type Studies:


University Buildings

Photography by Timothy Hursley

Sponsored by

The BTS is all about university buildings.


This group features the importance of technology on college campuses, as well as
clean, clear, elegant spaces, with projects
including the Academic Center for Student
Athletes at Louisiana State University, the
Broad Center for Biological Sciences at
Cal Tech, the University Technology and
Learning Center at Lawrence Technological
University in Michigan, and Princetons Carl
Icahn Laboratory Lewis-Sigler Institute.

For the 7th year, the Business Week/Architectural Record Awards


honor projects on the basis of their architectural excellence and the
degree to which they advance the owners goals. The jury is selected
by Business Week, Record, and the AIA (the sponsor), and includes
architects, academics, critics, and business leaders. This years award
winners include such diverse programs as a womens clinic in Japan
and a renovated Inn in Bartlesville, Oklahoma.

Receive CES Credits Online


Read Records building science features/continuing education self-study
courses and file for CES Credits. This month learn and receive credit on
the latest new construction methods.
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A Musical Culmination

Editorial
By Robert Ivy, FAIA

he Walt Disney Concert Hall, which recently opened in Los Angeles,

While the development of the Disney has followed a circuitous

culminates and synthesizes several strong directions in contempo-

path, its progress has been mapped in a clear succession of models in full pub-

rary architecture: a new freedom, unleashed by digital technology;

lic view. We thought we knew it well. Yet no familiarity with its development

societys need for cultural expression; Los Angeless advancing urban trajec-

prepares the visitor for its unfolding array of surprises. To enter the lobby is to

tory; Frank Gehrys personal maturity as artist and architect, and the

be confounded by opposing three-dimensional forces, in which curving walls

increasing mastery of the men and women who practice with him. Like the

drop behind strongly delineated structural members, and pathways offer

symphonic music it houses, the structure of Disney Hall knits together indi-

promise of new experiences around a corner. This calculated spatial drama

vidual motifs, offering a coherent, polyphonic whole in a single, compelling

draws upward, away from the primary entrance to opposed oblong stair-

work emblematic of this moments whirling, unrealized aspirations.

wells that ascend to skylit atriatwo totally unexpected pathways of

P H OTO G R A P H Y : A N D R S O U R O U J O N

Like other great works of architecture, the Disney Hall invites

spiraling ramps with ocean-liner luxe.

analogies, including comparisons to music. Several immediately come to

The interior, for all its capacity, achieves grandeur and intimacy

mind. With its centralized, spectacular organ and broad, oval interior

simultaneously. At no seat in the house, with the exception of the highest

focused on a central stage; with its propensity to soar spatially and to embel-

rows, does the space overwhelm. Instead, the hall offers a comforting sense of

lish a spare volume with particular details; with its tendency toward

intimacy throughout, binding audience and performer in shared experience.

ascendance and resolution, the interior of the Disney recalls the Baroque:

While the acoustical qualities await a more complete analysis, initial reports

the Bach of the St. Matthews Passion or the chorales.

suggest aural, as well as visual, presence.

With its strong forms and gleaming appearance, the inclination

Architectural historians may argue that only time can seal a build-

might be to view the building as an isolated act of brio, of simply showing off.

ings worth, that what may seem appealing today may fade in tomorrows

However, other antecedents hover overhead. Architecturally, the exterior

daylight. The details will have to hold; it must not rust. However, the ambi-

envelope suggests kinship with Borromini or the later Corbusier, with its

tious Disney Concert Hall warrants taking a critical risk. More demanding

asymmetrical, balanced gathering of forces addressing the street. Yet

programmatically than the Guggenheim at Bilbao (whose planning it

Borromini-Corbu married to Gustav Mahler, whose great chordal sheets

precedes), more powerful and fully realized, perhaps, than anything this

twist and crash and rise again like waves, as do the walls of the Disney.

architect has yet accomplishedsculpturally, urbanistically, and as an inte-

Symbolically, the structure signies the end of the freeway in a


great metal leapa steel temple to American aspirations of freedom and

grated unity of interior and exterior elementsthe hall deserves calling by a


word we use sparingly, if ever: Masterpiece.

mobility that have coalesced in Los Angeles. Simultaneously, the Disney Hall
brings a fully realized urban awareness, offering a rich variety of experiences
to city dwellers and to visitors. The project abounds in points of view out to
the larger downtown, including decks, apertures, full windows, a garden, an
amphitheater, multiple staircases, and solid walls that provide a rectilinear
podium or plinth to contain the complexity above.
11.03 Architectural Record

17

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A lasting fabric
One of the fundamental issues in
architecture we face as designers
and builders has been time. Whether
a building is truly timeless and
adaptable to the future or merely
done on time remains the choice of
the designer, owner, and builder. This
relationship between time and outcome was made most clear to me in
the August and September 2003
issues of RECORD and made me
pause to consider just what our
current values have wrought.
In these issues, we were presented articles about space in flux
at both ends of the spectrum of
scale. At one end, we saw vastly
expanding suburban periphery. On
the other, rapidly changeable commercial interior installations. In both
situations, it seems that the balance

has been tipped toward economy of


time and money, especially at the
expense of experience.
In either case, it seems that the
built environment has nearly been
reduced to a commodity by the
insistent nature of the time value of
money. This is evident in terms of
both materials and style. Our suburban sprawl, fed by historically low
interest rates, demands residential,
retail, and commercial development
that is neither interested in the vicissitudes of style nor in creating a true
sense of permanence.
Have our laissez-faire attitudes
saddled us with homes and buildings
that crumble within a generation?
While in the past it was acceptable
for just the spaces in a building to be
changeable, we now consider many
of our building types disposable.

Should we be so ready to
accept the impermanence of a
plastic-bin-lined shoe store or bigbox retailer? Where is the elegance
and wonder in a warehouse gallery
composed of dismembered and
exposed shipping containers? I
believe people can sense the relationship between the endurance of
our spaces and the way we live. We
are affected by this sense, and I
wonder if, at a metaphysical level, the
disposable nature of our built environment is harming our spirit. Simply
put, if even our expectations of place
and permanence are made unstable,
then where can we find stability or a
sense of home and community?
This is not to say that all we
create is not timeless. It just
appears that the fabric of our built
environment is stretched too far and

too thin. Perhaps, though, there are


ways for us to identify opportunities
for the creation of the timeless. It
can begin with something as simple
as a thoughtful material decision, or
a simple question about sustainability put to a client or contractor.
Reuse can be wonderful and timeless, as in the case of the live/work
loft or video-editing studio. We also
know we can build more engaging
tilt-ups, tighter tract homes, and
sensible transportation networks
that will create character and
community. The question is: When
will we choose to do it?
David Burdett
Raleigh, NC
When mystery makes magic
I finally got around to reading Robert
Campbells critique in the August

DEPARTMENTS

Letters

Letters
issue [page 59] and was stuck by a
couple of his remarks: Overall order
on the one hand, invention and surprise on the other. A distressed grid
is an ideal plan for a city. Also,
Working out a solution for yourself
from the evidence before you.
Discovering the city, inventing it,
rather than learning how someone
else has understood it.
A couple of years ago I was
asked to present a short talk on
architecture to a St. Louis elementary art class. Wracking my brain for
several days in advance, wondering
how to reach a group of 10-yearolds about a pretty sophisticated
subject, I came to the realization
that one of the things that I love
about good architecture and city
planning is a sense of mystery.
Buildings and cities that encourage
my further exploration by hinting at
something wonderful around a corner or at a light-filled opening in the

city grid are like the mystery novel


Campbell mentions. I decided to
show slides of the hill towns of Italy,
the ancient cities of Spain, and several buildings that have drawn me in
because of a sense of mystery. The
cities that work for me are places
like San Gimignano in Italy and
Santiago de Compostela in Spain,
where each bend in the street might
lead under a stone archway through
a building built over the street to an
open plaza with a fountain in front
of a church. I suspect that most of
these cities arose around their
topography and, although there may
be an underlying grid, it doesnt
shout Go this way! Wandering
these cities is a joy, and I always
wish I could stay there much longer,
enjoying these apparently
unplanned irregular urban spaces.
When a modern architect or city
planner can create such mystery, he
or she has created the kind of archi-

tecture many people will enjoy. The


elementary school students did.
James T. Biehle, AIA
Inside/Outside Architecture
Clayton, Mo.
Set point
Thank you for your article on set
design in the September issue [Set
Pieces, page 110]. It was exciting to
read about architects providing
innovative solutions to new challenges of spacemaking in a realm
not traditionally accredited to architects. Creative architectural design
can come in many sizes and from
many different constraints. Raul
Barreneche writes, Set design is
rife with technical requirements
unfamiliar to most architects. But
as we have seen from this article,
unfamiliarity doesnt have to mean
inferiority, but can instead translate
into opportunity. Not only can
exploration open our eyes, it can
help us understand relationships in
a world of interconnected space.
Hopefully, RECORD will continue
to report on architects who take on

projects not traditionally associated


with architecture.
Dianne Kontos
Chicago, Ill.
Corrections
In Innovation, a supplement to
RECORD, the feature on technology
transfer [page 47] omitted the
cofounder of Panelite, Emmanuelle
Bourlier. Credit should also have been
given to Andreas Froech, independent
director of material development,
for his invaluable role in expanding
Panelites product line and material
research capabilities. Panelite did not
design OMAs sponge panel for
Prada [October 2003, page 92], but
developed a production process that
gave OMAs complex organic design
the potential for mass production. In
October [News, page 40], ARO was
mentioned as having been selected
to design Detroits Motown Museum;
collaborators Rockwell Group and
Hamilton Anderson Associates should
also have been mentioned.
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Highlights WTC News pp. 2526


Stirling Prize goes to Herzog & de Meuron p. 28
Bellevue Museum in Washington closes p. 32
Mies house discovered in Germany p. 34

Record News

Foster, Nouvel, and Maki Join World Trade Center Team

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY N I G E L YO U N G / FO S T E R A N D PA R T N E R S ( TO P L E F T ) ; AT E L I E R J E A N N O U V E L ( TO P C E N T E R ) ;
R I C H A R D B A R N E S ( TO P R I G H T ) ; C O U R T E SY W O R L D M O N U M E N T S F U N D ( B E LO W )

Fosters City Hall in London (left); Jean Nouvels Cartier Foundation (center); Makis Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (right).

On September 30, developer Larry


Silverstein named Norman Foster,
Fumihiko Maki, and Jean Nouvel to
design high-rise office towers at the
World Trade Center site.
The new team will join Daniel
Libeskind (master planner), David
Childs (lead designer of the Freedom
Tower), and Santiago Calatrava (head
architect for the transit station) in
what has become an incredible array
of architectural talent for the site.

Libeskinds master plan calls


for five office towers, replacing the
10 million square feet of office space
lost when the Twin Towers were
destroyed. The choice of the new
designers, Silverstein said, was the
end of a six-month decision process.
We are committed to making
sure that all the new buildings at the
World Trade Center are architecturally
distinguished, Silverstein said in a
written statement. Lord Foster, Mr.

WTC Briefs

$7 billion. A jury must


make a final decision on
the matter.
Howard J. Rubenstein,
a spokesman for
Silverstein, stated, We are
fully confident that a jury
hearing all of the evidence
will reject the insurers
attempts to avoid paying
The Corbin Building
for the cost of rebuilding
in Lower Manhattan.
the World Trade Center.

Silverstein loses initial


insurance bid World Trade Center
developer Larry Silversteins bid
in court to collect a $7 billion
insurance settlement for the 9/11
terrorist attacks was rejected on
September 26, marking a blow to
the WTC reconstruction effort.
The United States Court of
Appeals for the Second Circuit
rejected Silversteins argument that
the two planes that struck the Twin
Towers constituted two attacks and
therefore warranted two insurance
payments. Thus, Silverstein stands
to receive a $3.55 billion settlement instead of approximately

Corbin Building will be


saved The New York Metropolitan
Transportation Authority has
confirmed that the historic Corbin
Building, designed by Francis
Kimball, will be preserved.

Maki, and Mr. Nouvel are universally


recognized as three of the most brilliant architects in the world.
Foster, of Foster and Partners,
has won the Pritzker Prize for
Architecture and is known for works
like the German Parliament building
in Berlin and Londons City Hall and
Millennium Bridge. Maki, of Maki and
Associates, has also won the Pritzker
and designed the Kyoto Museum of
Modern Art in Kyoto, Japan, the

The building came


under threat because of
plans for a new Fulton
Street transportation center in Lower Manhattan.
This is great news,
said Robert Tierney,
chairman of the New York
City Historic Preservation
Commission.
The ornamental
brick and terra-cotta
building is decorated with
elaborate arches and large arcades
and is an important part of New
Yorks historic fabric (see next page).
Tsien resigns from LMDC
board Billie Tsien, AIA, the only

Yerba Buena Center for the Arts


in San Francisco, and the Asahi
Broadcast Headquarters in
Tokyo. Nouvel, of Atelier Jean
Nouvel, has won the Praemium
Imperiale Award for Architecture
and designed the Lyon Opera
House, and the Cartier
Foundation and the Institute du
Monde Arabe in Paris.
While some have argued
that the new designers will
further draw from Libeskinds
creative vision, Childs, who advised
Silverstein on the selection, said in
the New York Daily News, This is not
an assault on Dannys talent.
Libeskind was quoted in the same
story, saying, I certainly hope to contribute to some individual buildings.
He later told RECORD, Its exciting that
architecture is not being treated as
business as usual, but instead seen
as something very special to inspire
the public. Sam Lubell

architect serving on the Lower


Manhattan Development
Corporations Board, has resigned.
Tsien, architect of the
American Folk Art Museum in
Manhattan and partner in the firm
Tod Williams Billie Tsien, is the fifth
LMDC Board member to resign.
I feel very good about the
small contribution I was able to
make, said Tsien. But at this point,
she added, her workload has to
take priority. Id rather contribute to
the world by doing my work than by
being on a committee.
Tsien said she feels very
confident about her replacement,
who has not yet been announced
to the public. S.L.
11.03 Architectural Record

25

OFF THE RECORD


Herbert Beckhard, FAIA, and Frank
Richlan, AIA, both partners in Beckhard
Richlan Szerbaty + Associates,
recently passed away within 13

Interview with
Robert Tierney
Robert Tierney is chairman of
the New York City Landmarks
Preservation Commission

hours of each other. Richlan died on


September 10, and Beckhard on

ARCHITECTURAL RECORD: The New

September 11, 2003. Michael

York Metropolitan Transportation


Authority has announced it
will preserve the Corbin
Building, the Francis
Kimball masterpiece on the
site of its proposed Fulton
Street transit center. What
was your role in this, and
what is your response?
ROBERT TIERNEY: I made it
my job on behalf of the City
Landmarks Commission to make
sure the Corbin Building was not
demolished. This is great news. Now
we have to follow up to be sure that
it is not only safe, but whatever happens is sensible and coexists with
the building. I really applaud all the

Szerbaty, AIA, will be leading the firm.

Donald Trump has hired Adrian Smith


of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill's
Chicago office to design a 90-story,
1,125-foot-tall office-hotelcondominium tower along the
Chicago riverfront.

The Peggy Guggenheim Collection in


Venice has been expanded with the
opening of a converted property on the
site of the Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, at
number 704 Dorsoduro. The expansion
was inaugurated on October 11 and
will include a new foyer, new exhibition
galleries, and a new museum shop.

people who were involved with


saving the building. Not only the
advocates, but also the people in
government who stepped up.
AR: Why is the building so important?
RT: First, because its a wonderful,
visible, important building. Second,
the transit hub was one of the first
things to be done to show we can
recover. And right there in
its domain was the Corbin
Building. Its a symbolic
gesture in light of the
huge amount of impending development.
AR: What are some other
threats to downtowns
historic buildings?
RT: Theres a lot that needs to be
looked at, considered, and preserved. I dont want to single them
all out, but theres a lot right around
the Fulton Street area. For example,
67, 92, 94 Greenwich Streets; the
Verizon Building, which is being brilliantly restored; 90 West Street, a

1907 Cass Gilbert building, which is


being repaired and brought back
into the fabric; Keuffel and Esser
headquarters at 127 Fulton Street,
which has a beautiful cast-iron
storefront; the Fulton Building, 130
Fulton Street, is also at risk. A lot of
these are not landmarked. Once
theyre not, the question is will
you go into a full-blown landmark
proceeding. Its a question of the
priorities of the agency.
AR: Does Lower Manhattans slated
development represent a threat to
the historic fabric of the area?
RT: The players are very interested
in making major progress downtown, but I think it will not be at the
expense of the history or the heritage at all. As we sit through these
meetings and I talk to the people
making these decisions, preservation is a major factor in all the
deliberations. Im not saying everything is on their map, but there will
be no wholesale demolition. S.L.

stood, and just beyond. This is


where most of the remains were
found. The space is sacred. We also
want to preserve the World Trade
Centers bedrock, because for us
that is the final resting place for our
loved ones.
AR: Do you think your
wishes will be respected?
MI: Nothing will be built
on the footprints of the
towers. Were very happy
about that.
AR: What about the
subway tracks on the footprints? [The Port Authority will build
tracks for its transit station on the
footprints of the WTC.]
MI: Unfortunately, we really cant
change the PATH situation. Its very
difficult for people like us who lost
their loved ones in the South Tower
[where the tracks will be]. We just
have to do it. The Port Authority has
told us they cant change that.
AR: What other issues are you
looking at?

MI: In any memorial there must be

The Brooklyn Childrens Museum,


designed by Rafael Violy, broke
ground on October 16.

Jazz at Lincoln Center, located at the


Time Warner Center in Manhattan,
has selected Rockwell Group to design
its Ertugun Jazz Hall of Fame.

The Gansevoort Market District in


New York City won designation as a
historic district by the New York City

Interview with
Monica Iken
Monica Iken is the founder of
Septembers Mission, a nonprot
organization advocating on behalf of
victims families in the design and
planning of the World Trade Center
and the World Trade Center
Memorial. Her husband, Michael,
died in the South Tower.

Landmarks Preservation Commission.

ARCHITECTURAL RECORD: What is


Detroit opened the new Max M. Fisher
Music Center, a $60 million addition to
Orchestra Hall.

JetBlue Airways is close to a tentative


decision to use Eero Saarinens TWA
Terminal at JFK Airport in New York as
a check-in hall, confirmed Richard
Smyth, JetBlue vice president for JFK
Redevelopment.

NYC 2012 announced a design competition for a New York Olympic Village.

26

Architectural Record 11.03

your role in the redevelopment of


the World Trade Center?
MONICA IKEN: I helped produce a
mission statement for the Memorial
Design Competition and was one of
13 people on the Family Advisory
Council to help come up with the
elements for a future site. Im making
sure the families are going to be as
involved as possible.
AR: What space would you like to
preserve at the WTC?
MI: We want the bathtub area, the
space where the towers once

a projection of the number of people


who will come. We think it will be
the most visited memorial in the
world. We think 9 to 12 million a
year. Were seeing projections of
around 5.5 million. The
whole idea is to experience the memorial, and
if they dont build to
projected numbers and
people have to wait in
line and get herded like
cattle, then it loses its
effectiveness.
AR: What problems have you faced?
MI: Weve had some trust issues,
where things were gong to the media
before the families knew about them.
This has included the plans for the
PATH station and the exit ramp in
the middle of Ground Zero. Weve
resolved a lot of things. We continue
to be vocal, and they understand they
have to tell us when things are going
on, so we feel that were included and
we wont feel the doubts. S.L.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY N E W YO R K H I S TO R I C P R E S E R VAT I O N C O M M I S S I O N ( TO P ) ; G R E G M O R R I S ( B OT TO M )

Record News

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California; the Great Wall of China Cultural


Landscape, which remains largely unprotected;
and all of historic Lower Manhattan.
The WMF is the leading nonprofit organization dedicated to preserving historic, artistic,
and architectural heritage. For the first time, the
WMFs list includes sites from every continent.
All monuments, nominated by local authorities or organizations, must display an urgent need
to be saved and have architectural or
On September 24, the World
artistic significance. There must also
Monuments Fund (WMF) announced
be a clear vision of how to save them.
its 2004 World Monuments Watch
Bringing endangered monuments
List of 100 Most Endangered Sites.
to public attention can be a powerful
The biannual list is designed
catalyst for change, said WMF presito encourage action on behalf of
dent Bonnie Burnham in a speech at
threatened cultural-heritage monuthe official announcement ceremony,
ments worldwide.
which took place at the new Lever
Sites include
House restaurant in Midtown
the 9th-century-B.C.
Manhattana good location, given
Nimrud and Ninevah
Lever Houses once endangered status.
Palaces in Iraq; the
Without our help, these sites
14th-century St.
would still be floundering, says John
Annes Church in
Stubbs, WMF vice president. I think
Prague; Frank Lloyd
our record of making a difference
Wrights rapidly detemight be increasing. Practice makes
riorating granite-block Great Wall (top); St. Annes Church
perfect, and the field is certainly
Ennis Brown House in (middle); Ennis Brown House (bottom). maturing. S.L.

Herzog & de Meurons Laban Studio wins Stirling Prize


The Herzog & de Meuron
The Laban Dance Centre in
design beat out stiff competition
London has won this years
from five other short-listed
Stirling Prize, the Royal Institute
buildings, including the Tiree
of British Architects highest
Shelter in Scotland, by
honor. Designed by Swiss archiSutherland Hussey Architects
tects Herzog & de Meuron in
with Jake Harvey, Donald
collaboration with artist Michael
The Laban Dance Centre.
Urquhart, Glen Onwin and
Craig-Martin, the $36.6 million,
Sandra Kennedy; the Plymouth
83,958-square-foot building is a
Theatre Royal Production Centre, by Ian Ritchie
simple container double-sheathed in semiArchitects; BedZed in Surrey, by Bill Dunster
translucent glass and colored polycarbonate
Architects; 30 Finsbury Square in London, by
panels that both diffuse and radiate light. The
Eric Parry Architects; and the Great Court at the
integrated color-and-lighting scheme gives the
British Museum, by Foster and Partners.
center a sense of playfulness and movement.
[The Laban] hits you straight between the
The Laban, which opened in February, is siteyes as soon as you get there, says novelist
uated on a 2-acre site on Deptford Creekside in
Julian Barnes, a judge for the prize. It has the
southeast London. The new facility, the largest
same movement, youth, agility, pizzazz, front to
purpose-built contemporary dance space in the
it that its students haveits very seductive.
world, consists of a 300-seat theater, 13 dance
Herzog & de Meuron collected a $33,300 prize
studios, teaching and rehearsal areas, a library, a
for winning the eighth annual award. Tony Illia
100-seat lecture theater, and a caf-bar.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY W O R L D M O N U M E N T S F U N D ( TO P T H R E E ) ; M E R L I N H E N DY- M A R T Y R O S E ( B E LO W )

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Record News
Gehry Project near completion at MIT

The hoopla surrounding the opening of Disney Hall


has obscured the fact that another major Gehry
Partners project is nearing its debut. The Ray
and Maria Stata Center at MIT, in Cambridge,
Massachusetts, is entering the final phase of construction in anticipation of its opening in May 2004.
The 430,000-square-foot project is no mere
building, but an agglomeration of structures that
comprises a new community-within-a-community.
The departments of Artificial Intelligence,
Linguistics, Philosophy, and Computer Science,
previously scattered throughout town, will now
share close proximity in a unified scheme that will
offer new opportunities for collaboration.

Plans for L.A.s Grand Avenue envision cultural centerpiece

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The completion of Frank Gehrys Walt Disney


Concert Hall in downtown Los Angeles has
renewed the momentum of another long-delayed
project: An urban-design makeover for Grand
Avenue, home both to the concert hall and Rafael
Moneos Cathedral of Our Lady of Los Angeles.
Other nearby structures include Arata Isozakis
Museum of Contemporary Art, Hardy Holzmann
Pfeiffers Colburn School of Performing Arts, and
the Los Angeles Music Center, a collection of
three performance venues.
Grand Avenue is now essentially a steel
bridge in the air. It ascends the slope of Bunker
Hill, much of which has been removed to make
room for high-rise buildings. As a result, Grand
has little physical connection with the rest of
downtown Los Angeles. Worse, with its narrow
sidewalks, discontinuous street wall, and vacant
lots, it is not pedestrian friendly.
The current scheme for Grand Avenue took
form two years ago, from a one-day sketch session
held by Moneo, Gehry, and landscape architect
Laurie Olin. The original idea consisted of a wavy
street that attempted to provide optimal views of

Plans for Grand Avenue in Los Angeles.

Disney Hall and the Music Center.


Los Angelesbased A.C. Martin Partners provided the final version of the master plan. Released
in September, it proposes widening the sidewalks to
25 feet and reducing traffic from four lanes to two.
It also includes a new pedestrian connection and a
possible amphitheater, between Grand Avenue and
the 18-acre Los Angeles Mall, a never-completed
Beaux-Arts open space that lies about 30 feet
below the elevated street. The largest ambition is
the construction of four new high-rise buildings on
Grand, including residential, hotel, and office towers.
Los Angeles City and County are expected to issue
an RFP shortly to developers. Morris Newman

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY G E H R Y PA R T N E R S ( TO P ) ; A . C . M A R T I N PA R T N E R S ( B OT TO M )

A model of Gehrys Stata Center project.

One of the primary objectives is to provide laboratories and research facilities while also providing
separate educational and public spaces accessible
to all of MIT. These two identities are expressed in
the form of dual tower wings that rise from a twostory plinth. The top of the plinth forms an exterior
terrace traversed by a corridor known as the
student street. Adjacent to the student street are
a 350-seat lecture hall; two 90-seat, tiered classrooms; a pair of flat, 50-seat classrooms; a caf; a
child-care center; and an athletic facility.
The graduated elevations and variety of
exterior materials, including brick, stainless steel,
painted aluminum, and titanium, lend depth to the
massing of elements. We saw the upper terrace
as an urban stage and the elements within that
as actors upon that stage, says Craig Webb, the
project designer.
The Stata Center is one of a number of
notable building projects under way at MIT,
including Fumihiko Makis 140,000-square-foot
Okawa Centeran addition to the media labs.
Meanwhile, Laurie Olin, Hon. AIA, the campus landscape architect, continues to refine the master
plan for the Cambridge campus. David Maurer

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Record News
Financial woes close Bellevue Art Museum
The Bellevue Art Museum (BAM), near Seattle,
abruptly closed on September 30, less than three
years after it moved into its $23 million building,
by Steven Holl [RECORD, August 2001, page 80].
Our aim is to have the museum reopen
just as soon as possible, but it depends on when
we can come up with a plan, said Rick Collette,
board president. In addition to a perilous local
economy, the museums muddled mission is
blamed for its failure to find an audience in this
well-heeled but conservative Seattle suburb.
Never a conventional museumit has no
permanent collectionBAM began as a sidewalk
art show and was housed in a megamall before
moving across the street into the new, 36,000square-foot, brick-red building. While Holls design
embraces the museums divergent ambitions, crit-

The Bellevue Art Museum, designed by Steven Holl.

ics point to BAMs uneasy transition from populist


community engagement to serious contemporary
art venue, while maintaining its educational role
for families, as the source of its struggle for visitors and donations. Sheri Olson, AIA

Noted architects leave NBBJ, start own firm


Three leading principals from the Seattle
branch of NBBJ Architects, responsible for such
local landmarks as Safeco Field, the Seattle
Justice Center, and Key Arena, have opened an
office of their own.
Dennis Forsyth, Rick Zeive, and Ralph Belton
have joined forces with Portlands SRG Partnership
to direct that firms new Seattle office.

The trio has begun with two projects they


began at NBBJ: a remodel of Washingtons capitol
building in Olympia, and the Bellevue Civic Center,
each valued at approximately $70 million.
According to Forsyth, the firm will focus on
public buildings, particularly educational, civic,
and health-care facilities, and will place particular
emphasis on sustainable design. Brian Libby

California faces building code controversy


As Californias recall election has riveted the nation, a potentially far-reaching, if less sensational, dispute has been simmering over the states adoption of the NFPA 5000 building code, written by the
National Fire Protection Association. Some construction professionals and public officials charge that
the code will prove cumbersome. But backers respond that the criticism is overstated and that NFPA
draws on a broader base of stakeholders.
Both the NFPA 5000, first published in October 2002, and the International Building Code (IBC),
written by the International Code Council (ICC), represent an attempt to develop a single national code.
After hearing largely pro-IBC testimony, the California Building Standards Commission voted on
July 29 to adopt NFPA 5000. Prior to Californias vote, 26 states and many local jurisdictions had
adopted the IBC, but NFPA 5000 had been adopted by only one city: Pasadena, Texas. The California
Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development warned that using a building code in California
that is radically different from the rest of the nation will impose a tremendous burden on building owners and their consultants.
Other critics contend that the NFPA 5000 is cumbersome because it relies too heavily on references to other codes (rather than using enforceable language in the code itself), but the choice, for

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[NFPA] 5000 at least getting a serious consideration during the review process [in other jurisdictions],
and thats all were asking, says Gary Keith, vice president of building and life safety at NFPA.
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Record News
Mies van der Rohe house discovered, mystery remains

The Villa Heusgen, in Krefeld, Germany.

Christian Wolsdorf, head of the architecture department of the Bauhaus Archive in Berlin, and Jan
Maruhn, who worked on MoMAs Mies show, have
acknowledged Mies as the architect. They point out
that the building contains too many elements that
only he would have used at the time: the openly
connected spaces, the tall doors of Makassar
wood, the hidden position of the entrance, the long
garden walls reaching out from the house, and even
the impractical recessed ceiling lights.
Still, definitive evidence is elusive, and
questions remain about who really designed the
house. While we await more details of the mystery to surface, this sophisticated house is a
great addition to the canon of exceptional
Modern houses in Europe. Dietrich Neumann

After long wait,


construction resumes
on Corbusier church
After 30 years, during which the
Construction (above) and model (below) of the Firminy church.
Church of Saint-Pierre de Firminy-Vert
sat unfinished and boarded up, Le
Corbusiers last major European project will finally
his death in 1965 meant that he never saw it
be completed. Construction on the 6,784,000finished. The church wasnt begun until 1970,
euro ($7,690,000) project began in June.
and in less than two years it was abandoned for
Firminy is a suburb of Saint-Etienne, near
lack of funds.
Lyon. It was thanks to a meeting between Le
With only the bottom half built, the structure
Corbusier and Firminys then mayor Eugne
resembled a concrete bunker. At least 17 months
Claudius-Petit that the idea was launched to create
will be needed to reinforce the existing building,
an urban project bringing together habitation,
finish the interior, and add the soaring roof shell.
spiritual life, culture, and sport. Today, Saint-Etienne
Never used as a church, the program will
Metropole is financing the completion of the church
now include a nondenominational place of woras well as the restoration of the entire Firminy-Vert
ship, and about two-thirds of the structure will be
complex, which constitutes an important architecused as an annex to Saint-Etiennes important
tural heritage for the city.
modern art museum, including a center of
The unit dhabitation, surrounded by open
research devoted to design and Le Corbusier.
green space, has a rooftop kindergarten. There
Jos Oubrerie, who worked alongside Le
is also a linear stadium building and, on the hill
Corbusier on the original Firminy-Vert, is superabove, the cultural center with its arched roof.
vising design questions from across the Atlantic.
While Corbusier designed the entire project,
Claire Downey

P H OTO G R A P H Y : K A R L A N D R E N E A M E N DT ( TO P ) ; F LC - A DA G P 2 0 0 2 ( B OT TO M T W O )

This summer, barely two years after the Ludwig


Mies van der Rohe exhibitions at MoMA and the
Whitney Museum, in New York City, the claim that a
previously unknown Mies villa had been discovered
in the town of Krefeld, Germany, created a small
sensation among architects and historians.
Apparently, in 1930, tie merchants Karl and
Lilly Heusgen asked Mies to design a villa for them
outside the city, which was finished in January
1933. In 1999, the building was sold to a local
architect, Karl Amendt, who meticulously restored it.
The handsome white building overlooks a
generous front lawn. Its first floor is dominated by
the sequence of a hall and living and dining
rooms, while the second contains the bedrooms.
It partially protrudes beyond the perimeter of the
first floor and is supported by thin steel columns
in order to provide a sheltered terrace.
The Villa Heusgen is not mentioned in any
publication on Mies, and no sketches or correspondence have been found. Lily Heusgen, who died in
1981, had claimed in private conversations that
Mies agreed to their request for anonymity to avoid
publicity. Rudolf Wettstein, a designer who supervised construction, became architect of record.
But two German architectural historians,

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Record News
Taipei 101 tower aims for
height, but also safety
Taipei 101, a 1,667-foot-tall, $700 million office
tower projected as the worlds tallest building,
topped out its pinnacle on October 9 and is
expected to be completed by the end of next year.
Developed by Taiwan Financial Corporation
and designed by local firm C.Y. Lee & Partners, the
building is competing with future structures like
the Lotte World Tower II (1,620 feet) in Pusan, South
Korea, and the Shanghai World Financial Center
(1,614 feet) in China for the title of tallest skyscraper. But it has some obstacles that are much
more contentious: earthquakes.
Taiwan is a very active seismological area,
with regular earthquakes, not to mention the
threat of typhoons. In March 2002, when the
Taipei 101 was only half-finished, a quake
measuring 6.8 on the Richter scale and centered
44 kilometers off the coast, toppled two tower
cranes and killed five workers.
To counter movement, Turner Construction
incorporated an 800-metric-ton spherical steel
damper system on the 88th floor that will transfer
energy away from the building. Other stabilizing
elements include concrete-filled steel-box super

columns, which are tied to a steel-braced core


every eight floors with outrigger trusses. The structural system also includes a steel perimeter
moment frame, and the core offers chevron and
diagonal braces for further rigidity.
Its a very demanding parameter for safety
considerations, said Dennis Poon, managing principle at Thornton-Tomassetti Engineers, structural

A rendering of Taipei 101, seen from afar.

peer Consultants on the project (the local engineer


for the project was Evergreen Engineers).
The design of Taipei 101, whose unique
sloping walls are divided into eight parts, incorporates the Chinese pagoda form and the shape of
bamboo flowers growing (these plants grow in
different sections). When built, it will be taller
than the current height champions, the 1,483foot Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur. S.L.

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Nearly three years after being selected as the


architect of the $80 million, 1,800 seat Christ the
Light Cathedral in Oakland, Santiago Calatrava
has withdrawn from the project, likely to be
replaced by Craig Hartman of the San Francisco
office of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, who had
been the second choice of the cathedrals selection committee.
In a joint statement, the Oakland Diocese
and Calatravas office said that with deep regret
and continued mutual respect, the steering
committee, the Diocese, and Dr. Calatrava have
decided to end their working relationship. A
spokesperson for the cathedral, Lee Nordlund,
added, Given that the search for an appropriate
site for our cathedral has lasted several years,
and given the need for Dr. Calatrava to focus on
new, high-profile commissions in Atlanta and
New York City, the decision to disengage helps
everyone.
Calatravas office declined further comment.
Meanwhile, Brother Mel Anderson, a member of
the original architect selection committee that
chose Calatrava in 2000 and former head of the

cathedral project for the Oakland Diocese, indicated that the split derived from a combination of
Calatravas frustration with the slow pace of the
project and the Cathedrals concerns about
potential cost overruns. [Calatrava] just didnt
think he could devote the time and energy necessary to do a first-class job, and thats the only
kind of job that Calatrava wants to do, he said,
adding that he was unsure about our funding,
whether or not we had the money to do it.
Anderson also said the steering committee was
concerned by rumors of cost overruns at the
Milwaukee Museum of Art.
The steering committee is taking its financial responsibilities very seriously, and that may
have played in the decision, Nordlund said.
The selection committee, which included
architecture critic Alan Temko and Stanford
University chief architect David Neumen, remains
supportive of Hartman, and Anderson said that
Hartman has begun work on the cathedral. The
archdiocese has not confirmed a decision and
is expected to formally announce a new architect
in mid-November. Andrew Blum

P H OTO G R A P H Y : TA I P E I F I N A N C I A L C E N T E R

Calatrava withdraws from Oakland Cathedral project

Record News

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Recently Opened
Jubilee Church, Rome, Italy
Parish Church of Dio Padre
Misericordioso has been in the works
since 1996, when Richard Meier, FAIA,
won a competition to design it. Curved
concrete folds highlight the memorable
facade.
Architect: Richard Meier & Partners
Architects. Opening: October 26.

Gluckman Mayners Mori Art


Museum (left); Richard Meiers
Church of the Year 2000, aka
Jubilee Church (above).

Mori Art Museum, Tokyo, Japan


A new contemporary art institution located within
the Mori Arts Center at the top of the 54-story
Rappongi Hills Mori Tower. It features a stone

entrance with an elevator ride to the museum on


the top floors.
Architect: Gluckman Mayner Architects.
Opening: October 18.

Overheard

discussing the lack of public input on the plan for


the World Trade Center
If I had won the competition and been put
through what has happened to the scheme, I
would have resigned. Peter Eisenman,
discussing Daniel Libeskinds WTC plans
Were not just talking to architects. Were
talking to a public that is interested in architecture.
Richard Meier

At the Boston Society of Architects Conference


DensityMyth and Reality, September 1214,
2003. The conference included 400 participants
and three keynote speakers.
The love affair with the car is dead, but the
marriage continues. Steve Kaiser,
Transportation Engineer
Density is an emotional thing masquerading
as a scientific ratio. Julie Campoli, principal at
Terra Firma, quoting California architect Alex Seidel
When people are walking, something is
right under heaven. Doug Kelbaugh, dean of
Architecture and Urban Planning
at the University of Michigan
The average American
walks less than 1,000 feet per
day, or less than the distance
between 6th and 7th Avenues
in New York City. Lance
Brown, CUNY chair

At the AIA New York Chapters Design-In, a


16-hour, 80-speaker marathon of architecture
thinking and drawing held October 8, 2003.
LEED and other standards are really training wheels. They cannot give us
everything. Randolph
Croxton, Croxton Collaborative
If you ask most folks in
the arts field to name architects other than Frank Lloyd
Wright, its almost as difficult
for them as naming the nine
Left to right: Alan Ritchie, Richard
Democratic presidential candiAt a September 22, 2003, panel Meier, FAIA, Charles Gwathmey,
dates. Kinshasha Conwill,
at the 92nd Street Y in New York FAIA, and Peter Eisenman, FAIA.
arts consultant
City, featuring three of the celeWere not going to get
brated Modernist architects known as the New
anywhere by just talking to other architects.
York Five. Richard Meier, FAIA, Charles Gwathmey,
Weve got to get out there. Sherida Paulsen,
FAIA, and Peter Eisenman, FAIA were on hand for
FAIA, Passanella + Klein Stolzman + Berg
the event, as well as Alan Ritchie, a partner of
Phillip Johnson, AIA, and John Diebboll, AIA, a
At the McGraw-Hill Construction Innovation
partner of Michael Graves, AIA.
Conference, October 89, 2003, in New York City.
The reason were here is because we
If [cars] are the answer, then I wonder what
believe architecture changes the world,
the question was? Dean Kamen, inventor of the
Peter Eisenman
Segway Human Transporter
There hasnt been a critical debate about
(compiled by Sam Lubell, Barbara Knecht, and
the merits and the demerits, Peter Eisenman,
Diana Lind)

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Record News
Bostons massive North Point project under way

The North Point Project in Cambridge,


Massachusetts, one of the largest developments
in Boston-area history, moved forward on
September 18 with the naming of three firms
that will design the initial blocks.
Located on a former rail yard, the 45-acre,
19-block, 5-million-square-foot mixed-use project
will be carefully integrated into the surrounding
city. A different architect will likely design each
block, says Ken Greenberg, of Greenberg
Consultants, an urban design firm in Toronto, who
headed the competition and worked on the mas-

Architecture controversies
swirl in Philadelphia

existing master plan it finished for the park this


year. Bollards and earthen barriers already prevent
cars and trucks from driving into any portion of the
Philadelphia business leaders, community groups,
park, and separate screening areas within existing
residents, and city officials are concerned about
structures would be used to search for concealed
new, unseen plans the National Park Service has
weapons. But the Olin plan does not require erectto alter Independence National Park and the suring a fence or closing a major city street.
rounding neighborhood.
One of the things we wanted to achieve in the
Overland Partners has been commissioned
master plan was to bring this park back into the
by the Park Service to design an 8- to 10-foot-high
fabric of the city, says Weston. It used to be a big
security fence around the southern portion of the
dead area, especially north of Market Street.
park. The Park Service is also seeking to close a
Conflicts about security follow other issues in
city street that runs between
the area. First, about the
Independence Hall and the new
future of the structure formerly
block-long structure housing
used to house the Liberty Bell:
the Liberty Bell.
The 28-year-old glass-walled
The Park Service has
pavilion that was designed by
insisted in newspaper reports
Aldo Giurgola will temporarily
that the proposed fence is necbe used to screen park visiessary to prevent a bomb-laden Olins plans: bollards and low walls
tors, and the Park Service is
(purple), and screening centers (red).
pedestrian from attacking the
trying to sell the structure, so
Liberty Bell or Independence
far without success. Second,
Hall. Bob Shemwell, a principal at Overland, says
it was recently discovered that the new Liberty Bell
the firm and Park Services main concern was
Center, designed by Bohlin Cywinski Jackson,
how little can you do to be effective.
rests on the site of slave quarters for George
Although no one outside of the Park Service
Washingtons presidential residence. Although
or Overland has seen the plans, opponents assume
Congress has instructed the Park Service to comthat they go beyond the security plans Olin
memorate the former slave site, no funds are yet
Partnership proposed in an modification of the
available for design or construction. Jason Clampet
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P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY B E H N I S C H , B E H N I S C H & PA R T N E R ( TO P ) ; O L I N PA R T N E R S H I P ( B OT TO M )

Part of Behnisch, Behnisch & Partners plan.

ter plan with CBT Architects of Boston.


If were successful, no one will really know
where the boundaries of the site were. It offers a
greater variety and diversity, Greenberg says.
The firms chosen from a group of eight are
Behnisch, Behnisch & Partner, architectsAlliance
of Toronto, and Steven Ehrlich. Other finalists had
included Rafael Violy and Helmut Jahn.
Important elements of the winners designs,
Greenberg says, were environmental consciousness, a respect for human scale, and original
use of materials. Behnisch, Behnischs plan (left),
for instance, utilizes unique glass cubes jutting
toward the street, and the firm is one of the few
whose U.S. buildings have obtained LEED
Platinum ratings.
Construction is expected to begin late next
year, and the next round of assignments may not
be that far away, says Greenberg. The project is
roughly a 15-year effort, he adds. The development
team is a collaboration of Guilford Transportation
Industries and Spaulding & Slye Colliers. S.L.

Record News

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The Dallas Arts District is 25 years old


linear garden designed
and is only now coming into its own.
by Peter Walker and
Currently in the works are the
featuring more than
$250 million Dallas Center for the
350 indoor and
Performing Arts, featuring an opera
outdoor sculptures,
house by Foster and Partners and a
including major works
600-seat, multiform theater by Rem
by Calder, Suvero, Miro,
Koolhaass Office of Metropolitan
Moore, Serra, and
Architecture. Brad Cloepfil, AIA, is
other modern masters.
designing a $30 million
The Nasher
expansion of the Arts
opening followed by a month the pubMagnet High School,
lication of a new master plan for the
while Renzo Pianos
20-block Arts District by the Foster
$70 million Nasher
and Koolhaas offices in collaboration
Sculpture Center
with French landscape architect
opened in late October.
Michel Desvigne. The plan builds on a
Thats quite an
1982 plan that established the disexplosion of high design
tricts original guidelines. The heart of
Nasher (above), and future plans
in a district where little
the quarter will be a grand plaza,
has happened since the opera, theater, and a third venue.
roughly the size of Londons Trafalgar
Dallas Museum of Art
Square, connecting the Meyerson
and I.M. Peis Meyerson Symphony Center
with the new opera and the renovated Arts Magnet
opened in the 1980s.
High School. It would also incorporate a new and
The new Nasher Center is home to one of
expanded Annette Strauss Artist Square, the
the best private collections of modern sculpture in
setting for most of the districts outdoor activities.
the world. It is an elegantly simple travertine and
The multiform theater and a third venue for smaller
glass building containing five vaulted bays for galarts groups would be located south of Flora Street.
leries and offices, a gift shop, and a restaurant.
Construction could begin in 2006, with a grand
From the galleries, visitors spill out into a 2-acre
opening in 2009. David Dillon

On the boards: Tschumi, Bing Thom chosen for major projects


Vancouver-based Bing Thom Architects
(BTA) was hired in early October to lead the
$100 million redevelopment of the
Washington, D.C., Arena
Stage Theater near the
Potomac River.
The plans include
rehabilitating an existing
514-seat theater, reducing the other from 816
seats to 650, and adding a 200-seat experimental theater. Other additions include apartments for
visitors and staff, a book store, a caf, and new
lobby joining all three theaters. Thom will also
design a 170-foot cantilevered roof facing a new
outdoor curving pool, enclosed by glass and wood.
The more whimsical, curvy new Arena
Stage will be a catalyst for the revitalization of the
Southwest neighborhood, which was once fun but
was then turned into a boring place, Thom says.

Renderings of Arena Stage (above) and


the concert hall in Limoges (left).

Meanwhile, Bernard Tschumi


Architects has won a competition to
design a new 6,000-person concert hall
for Limoges, France. The competition was
sponsored by the local government of Limoges.
Situated on the outskirts of the city in a
densely wooded area, the building will contain
two surface envelopes, providing acoustic and
thermal insulation. The inner envelope is to be
clad entirely with wood, while the outer envelope
will be made of polycarbonate panels to create a
glowing, translucent surface. Support will be provided by a light wood-frame structure. The hall
will open in July 2006. Albert Warson and S.L.

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San Diego Main Library.

Biltmore Theater returns


Designated a New York City landmark in 1987 but essentially
dormant since, the Biltmore Theater
reopened last month after an
extensive renovation by Polshek
Partnership and theater consultant
Fisher Dachs.
Located in Midtown Manhattan,
the Biltmore opened in 1925 and
had a storied history of numerous
productions until an arson fire closed
the facility in 1987. It has reopened
as a home for the Manhattan
Theater Club. The $35 million renovation includes enhanced seating
with an increased rake on the
orchestra and balcony levels, with a
net reduction of seats to 650 from
1,000. A new lower-level space was
excavated from rock.
Amenities include new lowerand upper-level lobby spaces and
lounges, and a contemporary glass
marquee was added
on the exterior.
John E. Czarnecki,
Assoc. AIA

San Diego Main Library may


fall into shade The $149.5
million San Diego Main Library,
expected to break ground in 18
months, may face significant shading from nearby development.
The library, which prominently
features a southward-facing courtyard and gardens, will be the civic and
cultural focal point of a 26-block ballpark-redevelopment district that is a
public/private venture of the city of
San Diego and the San Diego Padres.
In 1999, representatives of the
Padres and JMI Realty, the districts
master developer,
agreed in writing
that development
west and southwest
of the library would
be carefully conConservatory of
trolled to avoid
Flowers in San
shadowing or other
Francisco to renegative influences.
open Rehabilitation
The San Francisco
But in October,
of the Conservatory
Conservatory of Flowers has
the San Diego
of Flowers, the oldbeen rehabilitated.
Library Commission
est structure in San
recommended that
Franciscos Golden
the City Council/Redevelopment
Gate Park, has been completed
Agency approve a proposed condoafter an eight-year effort. The
minium project directly west of the
whimsical Victorian structure was
library. Called Park Terrace, it is now
severely damaged in a 1995 storm.
proposed as two tiered towers of
The $25 million rehabilitation,
eight and 14 storiesexceeding
undertaken by Architectural
Quigleys recommended eight-story
Resources Group and Tennebaumheight limit. Ann Jarmusch
Manheim Engineers, involved
disassembly and reconstruction
of the entire wood and glass
bilding, which had also been
damaged by extensive decay.
The renovation also required a
seismic upgrade that included
testing of each redwood piece
and the addition of steel reinforcements within the wood
The renovated Biltmore Theater.
structure. S.L.
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P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY R O B W E L L I N G TO N Q U I G L E Y A R C H I T E CT S ( TO P ) ; P O L S H E K PA R T N E R S H I P ( B OT TO M ) ;
T H E C O N S E R VATO R Y O F F LO W E R S / F R I E N D S O F R E C R E AT I O N A N D PA R K S ( M I D D L E )

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New & Upcoming


Exhibitions
Glass and Glamour: Steubens Modern
Moment, 19301960
New York City
November 7, 2003April 25, 2004
Reflecting the elegance and dynamism of
Manhattan, Steuben became synonymous in the
mid-20th century with the Modern idiom, creating
hundreds of designs by legendary artists. From
functional tableware to singular exhibition works,
the shows features almost 200 objects from
important international museum and private collections. At the Museum of the City of New York.
Call 212/534-1672 or visit www.mcny.org.

Ongoing Exhibitions
National Design Triennial 2003:
Inside Design Now
New York City
April 22, 2003January 25, 2004
The Triennial is a review of cutting-edge trends
and future horizons in design practice, from architecture, interiors, and landscape design to product

Norton The American Original is a trademark of Yale Security Inc.


Norton is a registered trademark of Yale Security Inc.

Rowhouse Redux: Washington


Architects Renew City Living
Washington, D.C.
November 14, 2003January 18, 2004
The National Building Museums seventh biennial
exhibition and competition organized jointly with
the Washington Chapter of the AIA. Through models and presentation boards, Washington-based
architects will present their visions for the future
of our homes in a context that is sometimes
overlooked these days: the urban rowhouse. At
the National Building Museum. Call 202/2722448 or visit www.nbm.org.

Katie Grinnan: Adventures in


Delusional Idealism
New York City
July 24, 2003January 4, 2004
Evoking contained, self-sustaining ecosystems

Only the
best are
imitated.

Suchitra Van Solo: Estrangement


New York City
November 7December 31, 2003
An exhibition of photos by architect and photographer Suchitra Van. At Brandows and Company,
in New York City. Call 518/822-8932.
Designing: The Work of Chermayef
& Geismar
New York City
November 11, 2003February 2, 2004
A celebratory exhibition of the work of the legendary
New Yorkbased design firm led by Ivan Chermayef,
Tom Geismar, and Steff Geissbuhler. Recognized for
its high standards since the 1960s, the firm is
responsible for such instantly recognizable symbols
as the NBC peacock, the Chase Bank symbol, the
Mobil red O, the Time Warner eye and ear, and
other powerful trademarks. At Herb Lubalin Study
Center of Design and Typography at Cooper Union.
Call 212/353-4207 or visit www.cooper.edu.

design, graphic design, fashion, and new media.


At the Cooper-Hewitt, National Design Museum.
Call 212/849-8400 or visit www.si.edu/ndm.

DEPARTMENTS

Dates & Events

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Dates &Events
and utopian communities, Grinnan uses moldable
plastic and computer-altered images of corporate
spaces to create large-scale photo sculptures and
installations that envelop the architecture of the
Whitney Museum at the Altria Sculpture Court
on 42nd Street. Call 917/663-2453 or visit
www.whitney.org.
Frank O. Gehry: Work in Progress
Los Angeles
September 7, 2003January 26, 2004
The exhibition highlights Gehrys unique design

process through an examination of his firms


current projects and commissions. At the
Museum of Contemporary Art (MOCA). Call
213/626-6222 or visit www.moca.org.
Up, Down, Across: Elevators,
Escalators, and Moving Sidewalks
Washington, D.C.
September 12, 2003April 18, 2004
The exhibition will explore how these ubiquitous
technologies have transformed our buildings,
our cities, and our lives. Though these devices

are mundane by virtue of our familiarity with


them through daily use, Up, Down, Across brings
to light the enormous impact they have on
architecture and movement throughout the
world. For further information, call 202/2722448 or visit www.nbm.org.
Marcel Breuer: Design and Architecture
Weil am Rhein, Germany
September 13, 2003April 25, 2004
As designer and architect, Marcel Breuer was
one of the most influential figures in the history
of 20th-century design. This retrospective highlights the contribution the former Bauhaus
student made to the field. The show also presents
Breuers somewhat neglected architectural output. It is the first exhibition to duly document both
his design and architecture. At the Vitra Design
Museum. Call 49 0 7621/702-3200 or visit
www.design-museum.de.
Samuel Mockbee and the Rural Studio
Birmingham, Alabama
October 5, 2003January 4, 2004
The late Samuel Mockbee, founder of Auburn
Universitys Rural Studio, was an idealist who put
into practice one of the boldest programs in contemporary architecture. This exhibition includes
three built structures, a selection of Mockbees personal notebooks, a dozen models, photos of
completed projects, and large-scale paintings by
Mockbee. At the Birmingham Museum of Art. Call
205/254-2565 or visit www.artsbma.org.
Live Work: Skyline Street
New York City
October 7, 2003November 26, 2003
The AIA New York Chapter and the New York
Foundation for Architecture present the New York
Center for Architectures inaugural exhibition,
Going Public: Public Projects, a snapshot of
architecture, engineering, and public art projects
in design or recently built. Also, NYC2012 Olympic
Opportunities, precedents and proposals for
the Olympic Games in New York City. At the
New York Center for Architecture. Go to
www.aiany.org/design-in for more information.
Masonry Variations
Washington, D.C
October 18, 2003April 4, 2004
The versatility and potential of stone, tile/terrazzo, brick, and concrete block are explored by
four cutting-edge architects working with master
craftsmen of the International Union of
Bricklayers and Allied Craftworkers. At the
National Building Museum. For more information, you can call 202/272-2448 or visit
www.nbm.org.

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Dates &Events
Lectures, Conferences,
Symposia
The City Transformed
New York City
October 2November 20, 2003
Eight slide lectures about historic transformations
of New York Cityarchitectural and engineering
innovations, along with human ingenuity, that
transformed the city into a world-class metropolis. At the Cooper Unions Hewitt Auditorium. Call
212/353-4195 or visit www.cooper.edu.

Brad Cloepfil
Washington, D.C.
November 5, 2003
The founder of Allied Works Architecture in
Portland, Oregon, will discuss his firms work.
The firm was recently awarded two prominent
cultural commissions: the redesign of
2 Columbus Circle for the Museum of Arts
and Design in New York City and the expansion
of the Seattle Art Museum. At the National
Building Museum. Call 202/272-2448 or
visit www.nbm.org.

NeoCon East: Inspiring Solutions for


the Design and Management of
the Built Interior
Baltimore, Md.
November 67, 2003
NeoCon East brings together interior designers,
architects, and facilities professionals specializing
in commercial and government environments to
set the pace for the contract industry throughout
the East Coast region. At the Baltimore
Convention Center. Call 800/677-6278 or visit
www.merchandisemart.com.
Tower and Office: From Modernist
Theory to Contemporary Practice
New York City
November 7, 2003
Inaki Abalos and Juan Herreros, architects from
Madrid, will lecture at Columbia University as part
of the School of Architecture lecture series. Visit
www.arch.columbia.edu.
Concepts vs. Contexts
Philadelphia
November 7, 2003
Concepts vs. Contexts will present two projects
designed by Bernard Tschumi Architects, the
recently completed School of Architecture in
Miami and the master plan for EXPO 2004, an
international exposition located in Paris/St. Denis,
that will remain unbuilt. At the Tyler Gallery of Art.
Visit www.temple.edu.
Alan Locke: The Practical Aspects
of Sustainability
Los Angeles
November 12, 2003
A principal with Los Angelesbased IBE Consulting
Engineers, Alan Locke will discuss the practical
aspects and issues of sustainable design and
whether it may be an attitude rather than a legislated program. His more than 100 projects include
Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels, Los Angeles,
Carmel Mountain Branch Library, San Diego, and
Phoenix Central Library. At the Gin D. Fong FAIA
Conference Center on the USC campus. Call
213/740-2092 or visit www.usc.edu.
Its In the Details: Envelope Wall Design
to Avoid Moisture Issues
Portland, Ore.
November 1314, 2003
A two-day seminar in which architects will offer a
series of case-study presentations examining
selected projects to illustrate their design solutions for preventing moisture intrusion. Interactive
sessions with expert presenters and attendees
will discover best-practice detailing for a variety of
exterior envelope systems for low, medium, and

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1935
Panelfolds founder Guy Dixon, as a
teenager, begins a long career in
aviation.

1950
While a pilot for Eastern Airlines in
Miami, Florida, Guy patents the
worlds first folding door incorporating
flexible panel connector hinges. This is
the first of what would become hundreds of worldwide patents.

1953
Panelfold, Inc. is established in suburban Miami to produce wood folding
doors and partitions, and franchises
the first of dozens of licensed manufacturers around the world to produce
Panelfold products.

1965
Panelfold introduces Sonicwal, the
worlds first acoustically rated wood
folding partition.

1969
Builds and moves into a new, modern
150,000 sq. ft. manufacturing facility.

1971 & 1986


Is given the E-Award by the President
of the United States for excellence in
exporting and the E-Star Award for
continued export expansion.

1973 - 1978
Introduces Moduflex operable
walls, Gym Wall ElectricTM (GWETM)
gymnasium walls, PrimeSpacer
relocatable walls and a new line of
extruded rigid vinyl folding doors.

1984
Revolutionizes the operable wall industry with Moduflex Series 800 High
Performance Steel Operable Walls,
acoustically rated to STC 55 and with
one - piece panels in heights to 44 ft.

1987 - 1991
Introduces the Fabricwal line of
fabric accordion partitions and
Moduflex Series 400 and Series
600 operable walls.

2003
Panelfold enters its 50th year in the
family owned and operated business,
now with three generations actively
engaged in the 21st century.
Copyright c 2003 by Panelfold, Inc.

P.O. Box 680130 Miami, Fl 33168


Tel.: 305/688-3501 Fax: 305/688-0185
sales@panelfold.com www.panelfold.com
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Dates &Events
high-rise buildings utilizing wood,
masonry, concrete, metal, plaster,
and curtain-wall materials. For more
information, call 206/448-4938 or
visit www.aiaseattle.org.
Bill Mitchell: Me++: The
Cyborg Self and the
Networked City
London
November 18, 2003
Cascading power outages, computer
viruses, SARS, terrorist infiltration of
transportation networks, and mobile
phone conversations are symptoms
of a new urban condition: inescapable
network interconnectivity, which creates vulnerabilities. Mitchell, professor
of architecture and head of Media
Arts and Sciences at MIT, argues that
we must respond by applying principles of ethical interconnectivity. At the
Architectural Association School of
Architecture. Call 4420/7887-0782 or
visit www.aaschool.ac.uk.

DesignCitizen, Design Corps, and


306090. Visit www.buildboston.com
or www.archvoices.org.
Women in Design Conference
Boston
November 18, 2003
Sponsored by the Women in Design
Network, this years conference will
address the theme Creative Process:
A Continuum. Workshops will be
organized around three design principals: design, practice, and personal
growth. At the BuildBoston exhibition
hall. Register at www.buildboston.com
or call 800/544-1898.
Fast Forward: Your Ideas, Your
Careers, Your Life
Boston
November 20, 2003
Organized by ArchVoices and the
Boston Society of Architects, Fast
Forward is intended to inspire, inform,
and promote both the everyday and
extraordinary efforts of young architecture professionals. Featuring the
founders of initiatives such as
Architecture for Humanity, Blacklines,

Toyo Ito: Post Sendai


Mediatheque
London
November 25, 2003
A lecture by Toyo Ito, whose use of
fabric membranes, perforated aluminum panels, and expanded
metal sheets perfectly exemplifies
societys move to an increasingly
mobile and informal urban lifestyle.
At the AA School of Architecture.
Call 4420/ 7887-0782 or visit
www.aaschool.ac.uk.
The Pennsylvania Railroad,
Penn Station and the
Development of New
York City
New York City
December 2, 2003
Sanford Balick, a lawyer specializing
in transportation and admiralty matters, will give an illustrated lecture
on the influence of the railroad on
the growth of the city. The conver-

sion of the General Post Office into


a new Penn Station promises a new,
inspiring space for rail travelers. At
the Wollman Auditorium at Cooper
Union. Call 212/353-4195 or visit
www.cooper.edu.
Architecture and Memory:
Memory/Works
Boston
December 17, 2003
By examining projects that respond
to historic/traumatic events, an
architect/educator explores the
relationship between architecture
and memory and the meaning of
memorials and monuments. At the
Boston Public Library. For more
information, call 617/951-1433 or
visit www.bpl.org.

Competitions
Chi-Chi Earthquake Memorial
Competition
Registration deadline: November
30, 2003
Submission deadline: December
15, 2003

Custom Aluminum Staircases


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Stairs are constructed from custom anodized aluminum extrusions with stainless steel
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easy to install and extremely strong.
Additional information can be found at http://www.jomy.com or contact us directly at
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requirements.

JOMY is a product you can specify with confidence.


Why specify anything else?

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NATIONAL BUILDING MUSEUM

lectures
November 5
Brad Cloepfil
Allied Works
Architecture,
Portland, Oregon

PHOTO: SALLY SCHOOLMASTER

NBM
ALLIED WORKS ARCHITECTURE

AT

November 10
Lon Krier
November 16
David Macaulay
Award-winning author and illustrator

November 18
Julie Snow
Principal of Julie Snow Architects,
Minneapolis, Minnesota

Masonry
Variations
Installations by Winka
Dubbeldam, Julie
Eizenberg, Jeanne Gang,
and Carlos Jimnez,
through April 4, 2004

MASONRY VARIATIONS PHOTO: ARCHI-TECTONICS 2003

exhibitions

Up, Down, Across:


Elevators, Escalators, and
Moving Sidewalks
through April 18, 2004

Dates &Events

 "+)%&'-%,

The goal of this competition is to select a


design proposal for the Chi-Chi Earthquake
Memorial providing an innovative solution for
the project that responds to the social, political,
and cultural issues that developed in the wake
of the disaster. For more information, visit
http://ccemc.921erc.gov.tw/english/
rulesNregistration/Registration.htm.
Palisades Glacier Mountain Hut
Competition
Berkeley, California
Deadline: December 5, 2003
An international competition for the design
of a 60- to 80-person wilderness-base camp
facility for overnight stays near the trailhead
leading to the Palisades Glacier in the Sierra
Nevada Mountains of Central California. Visit
www.ced.berkeley.edu/competitions.
Architecture in Perspective Competition
Deadline: December 5, 2003
The American Society of Architectural Illustrators
international competition honors todays finest
works of architectural illustration. For submission
guidelines, go to www.asai.ws or call 614/552-3729.

 ((+," ',

"'-+"(+

,!.--+,

1-+"(+

Groen Hoek: The East River Community


Boathouse Competition
New York City
Deadline: December 5, 2003
The AIA Emerging New York Architects Committee
(ENYA) announces the call for entries for Groen
Hoek, an open international ideas competition to
design a boathouse for the community of
Greenpoint in Brooklyn, New York. For further
information, visit www.aiany.org/committees/
emerging/competition/competition.html.

Building America
Award-winning interactive
online exhibition
www.building-america.org

national building museum


401 F Street NW
Washington, DC 20001
202 / 272-2448

www.NBM.org
For more information and to register
for programs, call or visit our website.
Discounts for members and students.

39th and 40th IMCL Conferences Call For


Papers and Invitation to Exhibit
Sarasota, Fla., and London
Deadline: December 10, 2003 (Sarasota, Fla.)
Deadline: December 20 (London)
The International Making Cities Livable Conferences
in Sarasota, Fla., and London (co-organized with the
University of Notre Dame School of Architecture), are
seeking papers and relevant work. For information
and guidelines, contact Suzanne Lennard at
suzanne.lennard@livablecities.org or visit
www.livablecities.org.
Send dates and events via e-mail two
months in advance of event deadline to
ingrid_whitehead@mcgraw-hill.com.

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architecturalrecord.com/archrecord2

For and about


the new generation of architects
a r c h r e c o r d 2
FOR THE EMERG ING ARCHITECT
DEPARTMENTS

We started archrecord2 with the idea that much of the good work being done by early-career
architects never saw the light of day or the ink of a printing press. In Design this month, a
Virginia architect who runs his solo career on the side discusses the relationship between his
own work and the work he does for his employer. And in Work, we feature a second designer
who felt as adept with a camera as with a pencil, so he incorporated photography into his studio.

DESIGN
Between communication and isolation
Upon reviewing the body of his independent
work, Lance Hosey discovered something
about himself.
One of the things that has struck me
recently that I havent been fully aware of
before, Hosey said, is the relationship in
my work between the individual and the community. I didnt
set out to explore that, but I think it came out that way.
Hosey cites a writers retreat he designed as an example. The client is ambivalent about wanting to be concealed
or revealed, he said. The form ended up being a box with
these operable louvers, but the ideas ended up being about
a woman who is exposed in a field, but who is also trying to
hide herself.

I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY L A N C E H O S E Y, E XC E P T A S N OT E D

While Hosey does not try to hide himself, the metaphor


of the relationship between the individual and the community applies to his

Monticello African-American

career as much as to his work. While he does design and write in his own name

Burial Ground Memorial,

and for his own purposes, he maintains a full-time job as an employee of

Charlottesville, Virginia, 2004

William McDonough + Partners, an environmentally conscious Virginia firm.

Hosey won a competition to design

this memorial to Monticellos


slaves. The split pillars allude to
the tradition of marking graves
with stones or broken pottery.

I havent found that the body of work that Ive built up on my own has
been enough to coax me away from the enjoyment that Im experiencing here,

HALO Communication Booth,

Hosey said of his firm. At the same time, things come along that I want to do

competition entry, 2001

myself, and I manage to do it. Ive been able to keep one foot in each world,

This structure, outtted with a


desklike ledge and a chair, serves
some of the same functions as the
classic phone booth, separating
the user from his immediate
environment while connecting
him to another.

and McDonough has been very supportive.


Hosey does have a desire to think through some architectural ideas on his
own. In addition to his design work, he has published several articles in publications that include Metropolis, CRiT, and ARCHITECTURAL RECORDs online journal,
In the Cause of Architecture. Despite this intellectual bent, however, Hosey
thrives off human interaction, including that of his colleagues and his clients.
I cant imagine designing in a vacuum, Hosey said. I understand that a
lot of architects would prefer that. They say, if you would just give me the
money and the site and go away, then Ill be happy. But frankly, I dont know
what to do if I dont have something to respond to.

11.03 Architectural Record

59

architecturalrecord.com/archrecord2
(continued from previous page)

Hosey has written on the topic

of whether or not an identifiable architectural style is a good thing,


and he has come to the conclusion that something else should
probably be more important.
I would like to believe that the projects are really more
that form is derived from the circumstances of the project, he told RECORD.

Blind House,

Im still fairly new at this, and if I get to the point where I can control form,

Central Virginia, 2001

then maybe I can answer the question of style more easily.

Designed as a writers retreat, this


louvered box satises the writers
need for contemplation, yet the
blinds can be opened to allow light
in. The house provides working,
sleeping, and eating areas.

Meanwhile, Hosey feels content in his dual professional life as he wrestles


with ideas of privacy in public places.
These arent completely academic ideas to me, Hosey said. Id like to
work on building them, but one of the things that kept me from going out on my
own is that I couldnt imagine sitting alone in a room by myself all day. I need
to have that community around. Kevin Lerner
Go to architecturalrecord.com/archrecord2 for more of Lance Hoseys
work, including his built work, and to submit your own projects.

Pool House,
Washington, D.C., 2003

The pool house and its plaza are


arranged to be viewed from inside
the main house. From there, a low
stone bench hides the water. On
rainy days, a spout on the pool
house empties into a stone cistern.

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P H OTO G R A P H S : S U C H I T R A VA N ( O P P O S I T E )

about a set of ideas than they are about a particular form, and

WO R K
Many arts, one studio
Suchitra Van, the principal of Van Studio in New

having worked for Tillett Lighting Design and Maya

York City, boasts a fairly traditional architectural

Lin, as well as Lincoln Center. He takes artistic

education and often he uses his skills in fairly

photographs, having mounted gallery shows. He

traditional ways, designing apartment interiors or

builds architectural models. He fabricates proto-

entering memorial competitions, just like any other

types for other designers. And he designs his own

architect trying to forge a career.

products, and other objects, such as awards.

But to call Van an architect would be to limit

The images on this page represent a small

him, by his own admission. He bills Van Studio as

selection of Vans artistic photography. Sleeping

a design studio for architecture, photography, and

Baby was taken in India and won first prize in a

fabrication. Even that does not cover the extent of

competition sponsored by Better Photography.

his interests. He takes commercial photographs,

Shirts Drying, which is a part of the same series,


was also shot in India. Both photographs were
auctioned to support the South Asia Against AIDS
Foundation. Shirts Drying was auctioned at
Christies auction house in New York City.
Recently, Van has begun a series of photographs showing New Yorkers in their living or working spaces. The photos show how people take the
small spaces typical of New York City and make
them their own by adding things that they love,
much as Suchitra Van has taken the typical, narrow

Sleeping Baby, 1999, from the series Estrangement.

definition of architectural practice and carved out


his own space. Kevin Lerner
Go to architecturalrecord.com/archrecord2 for
Shirts Drying, 2003, from the series Estrangement.

Bob Day, President

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Confessions of a
competitions junkie, and why it
may be time to kick the habit

Critique

I L L U S T R AT I O N : F R O M L E C O R B U S I E R : I D E A S A N D FO R M S , B Y W I L L I A M J . R . C U R T I S ( P H A I D O N , 19 9 5 )

Le Corbusiers entry in the League of Nations design competition in 1927 was disqualified on a technicality.

Why have architectural competitions? For practitioners, they offer


the chance of a job without the grief
of negotiation or self-promotion,
and they can sometimes jump a
small practice to the next level. For
clients, competitions provide the
opportunity to choose from many
alternatives, show sympathy with
architecture, andin most cases
do it on the cheap. For the public,
competitions carry the seal of meriContributing editor Michael Sorkin
practices architecture in New York
and heads the urban planning program at City College of New York.

tocracy, seemingly outside familiar


cronyism.
But the process is easily
corrupted. For starters, theres
something exploitative about the
huge amounts of uncompensated
work required to keep the system
going. And there are plenty of opportunities for log-rolling, deal-making,
back-scratching, insider-trading, and
the rest. Juries can be dramatically
affected by plane schedules, bloodsugar fluctuations, personality
conflicts, and low-common-denominator compromises: Differences in
taste cannot be adjudicated except
by someone giving in.

Although I am a longtime
sucker for competitions, a recent
spate of bad experiences has given
me pause. In this circumspect
spirit, I offer a brief list of potential
styles of abuse.
1. Bait and switch
There are several styles of this
scam. On the client side, theres the
premiate-Danny-Libeskind-hireDavid-Childs gambit, often justified by
the negotiations-with-the-winnerwere-unsuccessful-therefore-weresimply-hiring-whom-we-want rationale. On the architectural side, theres
the answer-the-proposal-with-one-

team-show-up-at-the-job-meetingwith-another strategy. For instance,


my office was recently asked to join a
competition team by the London
office of a large American design firm.
I agreed. We did lots of work, sent it to
them, and the team won the competition. Within a week, though, we
had been both dropped (and stiffed),
our usefulness at an end with the
commission in hand.
Then theres the matter of
juries advertised in promotions that
fail to show up for the judging.
How many architects have entered
competitions because some sympathetic figure was on the jury, only to
discover that s/he never appeared,
or never had agreed in the first
place? Competitions that enjoy high
numbers of entries are often also
subjected to preselection by the
organizers, to save jurorswhose
time is limitedfrom slogging
through piles of entries that can
quickly be determined to be uninteresting. Competition briefs seldom
suggest that such procedures are
likely to take place.
2. Selective punctiliousness
And who hasnt experienced the ritual
race to the post office to get the
midnight postmark to confirm the
eligibility of an entry? Although one
may growl at the extra few days local
competitors sometimes have to
hand-deliver their projects, the logic
behind deadlines, format restrictions,
and so on is clear: to level the playing
field by assuring that no one has
more time or space than anyone else.
But, the law is also an ass.
Technical reviews of competition
11.03 Architectural Record

63

DEPARTMENTS

By Michael Sorkin

Critique
entries can eliminate wonderful
schemes on the basis of some
trivial infraction or meaningless
variation in format. Deadlines
are also malleable. We recently
invested much time and money on
a very promising competition sponsored by the tourism bureau of a
key Asian nation. Because of this
summers blackout on the east
coast of the U.S.an act of God if
ever there were oneour entry
was delayed in transit and arrived
after the official deadline. Although
we had notified the organizers of
the situation and sent digital
copies of all the material, and
although our submissions actually
arrived during jury deliberations,
the authorities chose to stick to
the letter of the law, and our work
went unseen. Such strict construction is not simply unfair on its face,
it is contrary to what one would
think to be the self-interest of the

organizer: to be able to choose


from as many well-worked-out
schemes as possible.
3. Cover your butt
A frequent reason for competitions is
to convey the appearance of sincerity about architectural quality and to
offer the image of due diligence in

program are so absurdly constrained


by planning decisions already made
that the project risks being no more
than a tiny fig leaf for the giant shaft
to rise to its north.
A particularly invidious form of
this use of architecture as camouflage is the so-called developer
competition. New York had several
such competitions over the years as
the Transit Authority attempted to sell
off its enormously valuable property
at Columbus Circle. The competitions

TECHNICAL REVIEWS OF COMPETITION


ENTRIES CAN ELIMINATE WONDERFUL
SCHEMES ON TRIVIAL PRETEXTS.
the pursuit of the public weal. This
abuse is often particularly egregious
in cases where juries lack independence or in which no actual jury is
employed. The LMDC site competition for Ground Zero in New York City
had a jury to select competitors but
none to choose a winner, which was
simply done by fiat. The current
competition for the 9/11 memorial is
genuinely open, but the site and

they staged werent between architects, but developers, who were


asked to provide combined architectural, programmatic, and financial
proposals. While the decision that
begat the current construction
made by insiderssupposedly took
into account all of these factors, it
was clear from the get-go that the
TA took its fiduciary responsibilities
more seriously than its architectural

ones, abundantly confirmed by the


outcome.
4. Permanent winners
Norman Foster has been having a
particularly strong run in New York
lately. He was recently chosen by the
Economic Development Corporation
(with three other European offices,
plus Steven Holl) to compete for the
wonderful project of redesigning the
Lower East Side waterfront. He was
also invited to the LMDC site-planning competition for Ground Zero.
And, he has now been approached
by developer Larry Silverstein to do
one of the shorter towers on his
site. I do not begrudge the talented
Lord Foster the opportunity to work
in New York. However, his repeated
presence on the list for these public
projects speaks loudly of the constraints of the star system. It seems
that the same six architects appear
on every shortlist nowadays. This
defeats another rationale for the
competition system: that it mitigates
the influence of both celebrity and
fashion. If the same few architects

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Critique
comprise every list, though, nothing
new can happen.
Theres another cadre of permanent competition winners. Just
as President Bush explains no-bid
contracts for Bechtel and Halliburton
in Iraq on the basis of their being
the only firms with the capacity to
undertake the work, so too a very
small group of engineers, construction managers, marketing and real
estate consultants, and others
appears on virtually every RFP and
RFQ response for major projects in
New York, and its common knowledge that every team must include
a heaping of old-boy chops to move
ahead. A very senior official at the
LMDC confided to me that the initial
selection of Beyer Blinder Belle as
site planners was of relatively small
import to him. The real point had
been to get their teammates
Parsons Brinckerhoff as engineers,
because that was the arena in which

the real decisions were going to be


made, well out of view.
5. Second-place syndrome
One of our beloved myths is that
the best competition entryfrom
the Chicago Tribune building to the
League of Nationsalways comes
in second. And there is some truth

As a result, there will certainly


be dozens of second place schemes
that many will consider superior to
the winner. This is what makes architectural competitions crapshoots.
Although calling the body making
the choice a jury suggests a legal
analogywith all its implications of
fairness and deliberationan architectural jury lacks what is most
fundamental to the real judicial
process: a body of laws. Everybody
simply brings their own. A balanced

IN ALMOST EVERY COMPETITION, THERE


WILL BE DOZENS OF SECOND-PLACE
SCHEMES SUPERIOR TO THE WINNER.
here. I do not envy the task of the
large jury sifting through the 5,400
entries for the 9/11 memorial competition, but I know that they will not
pick the best project, but the best
one they can agree on. There will be
a vote, a learned democracy, and
the appearance of fairness. Fairness,
however, is not an aesthetic category. In these proceedings, though, it
must substitute for one.

jurythat is, one representing as


many different taste codes as possibleis normal operating procedure
for competitions striving to seem
fair (much as a balanced team is
required to get a job, if not always the
best formula for generating creativity).
But rules and regulations about
sizes and datesalthough they are
often treated as if they were in some
way comparable to the legal basis for

administering justiceare no more


intrinsic to decision making than the
color of the courtroom walls. The
rigidity with which these laws are
sometimes enforced is simply displacement. Likewise, balancing
the jury by whatever formulas of
demography or taste that may seem
correct does not assure a meaningful effect on the outcome, since fair
play is a desirable quality only of the
competition itself, not of the entries.
The limits of logic
Although we still cling to the basic
tenets of functionalism to maintain
the fiction that architecture can be
judged on the basis of strictly rational
standards, we all know that this has
little to do with what really makes
projects great. The discourse may
provide a sense that a logical choice
can be made, but logic itself only
goes so far in artistic judgments.
The best one can hope for is that on
some jury some day, there will be
someone who cares enough about a
piece of our work that theyll put up
the fight to make it a winner.

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Extending our reach:


Electronic appendages,
megaprojects, and skyscrapers

ME++: The Cyborg Self and


the Networked City, by William
J. Mitchell. Cambridge: The MIT
Press, 2003, 312 pages, $28.
In his trilogy, City of Bits: Space,
Place, and the Infobahn (1996),
e-topia (2000), and now
ME++: The Cyborg Self and the
Networked City, William Mitchell
puts a contemporary spin on
Winston Churchills maxim that we
shape our buildings and our buildings shape us: We shape our
technologies, then our technologies
shape us, he writes. City of Bits
was prescient, but Mitchells e-topia
of lean, green cities that work
smarter, not harder hasnt yet
materialized. ME++, less daringly,
describes the world as it isbrimming with opportunity while making
possible various forms of havoc:
viruses and worms, electronic tracking and surveillance, hacking and
reprogramming.
As he has done in his previous
books, Mitchell, head of MITs
Program in Media Arts and Sciences,
floats clearly conveyed assertions
on a stream of technological and
historical detail, with erudite nods to
ancient and current thinkers.
He ventures that as technology
miniaturizes and dematerializes
various functions such as computing, photography, and filmmaking,
it transforms us into cyborgs with
electronic appendages. The telephone, for example, by migrating
to our pockets or belts has become
an extension of our bodies and has
moved into the domain of fashion
design and marketing. As electron-

(the library carrel next to the stacks,


the workstation near the office
copying machines) counts for less.
And as virtual space becomes more
important, it will become a more
prominent part of actual space, if
not merged with it.
What are the implications of
ME++ for the future? Well have
to wait for Mitchells next volume.
Andrea Oppenheimer Dean

ics become embedded in clothing


and accessories, the subtle skills of
the clothing designer will be drawn
together with those of the electronic
engineer, Mitchell writes.
Meanwhile, electronic connectivity has become the defining
characteristic of our time and has
changed human identity from
Descartess I think therefore I am to
Im linked therefore I am. Mitchell
writes that for him, disconnection
would be amputation. Architects are
discovering, he says, that ubiquitous,
high-speed interconnectivity makes
not for telecommuters but for mobile
workers for whom a quiet place
under a tree can become a design
studio. A subway car can become a
place for watching movies In
ways, then, we are returning to
strategies and practices of preliterate, precapitalist times. Ancient
Greek philosophers, for example,
did not have offices and classrooms;
they strolled with their students
through the groves of academe.
More practically, as connectivity
matters more, physical adjacency

Megaprojects and Risk: An


Anatomy of Ambition, by Bent
Flyvbjerg, Nils Bruzelius, and
Werner Rothengatter. New York:
Cambridge University Press,
2003, 218 pages, $55.
Mega-Projects: The Changing
Politics of Urban Public
Investment, by Alan Altshuler and
David Luberoff. Washington, D.C.:
Brookings Institution Press, 2003,
368 pages, $55.
Projects forging high architecture
with bold engineering are casting a
steel-and-concrete web across
Europe, linking regions and countries long separated by geography.
Theres the Channel
Tunnel, or Chunnel,
between Britain and
France, the resund
bridge between
Sweden and
Denmark, the highspeed train network
radiating from Paris,
and the 2-mile Messina
Straits suspension
bridge under development that would connect
Sicily to mainland Italy. In

fact, these and other European


grand projets are making the amazing commonplace.
Megaprojects in the United
States tend to be less ambitious,
encompassing highways, airports,
light-rail lines, and football stadiums.
Occasionally, larger efforts find
funding, such as the Central Artery
suppression or Big Dig in Boston,
the new international airport in
Denver, and the transportation center planned for Ground Zero in New
York City, which architect Santiago
Calatrava will design. But they are
the exceptions.
Two new books with nearly
identical titles, one from European
authors and one from Americans,
look at megaprojects in their
respective continents.
Megaprojects and Risk, by
principal author Bent Flyvbjerg and
two coauthors, takes a green-eyeshade perspective. Its conclusion is
clear: Such projects may be nifty,
but they are rarely worth the money.
They show how business and political leaders routinely underestimate

11.03 Architectural Record

69

DEPARTMENTS

Books

Books
costs and overestimate benefits in
order to get things built.
The authors examine in detail
the Channel Tunnel, the resund
Bridge, and the Great Belt that
links Denmark with continental
Europe and includes the longest
suspension bridge in Europe (at
least until the Messina Bridge
opens). The Chunnel, built by a
private consortium, has done
particularly poorly. About 50 million
passengers a year use it, the
authors say, versus the 100 million
predicted for its first year in 1994.
Flyvbjerg argues for a more realistic
method of project evaluation and
gives an example in his last chapter.
Are such projects as bad as
Flyvbjerg suggests? Even if they
dont live up to their billings, they
often pay for themselves by stimulating overall commerce and the
economy. Transportation spending
has long been a generous recipient

of government subsidies precisely


because of this. The authors mention this argument but make clear
their distaste for it.
Mega-Projects: The
Changing Politics of Urban Public
Investment looks at Americas
minor megaprojects from a
political perspective.
Alan Altshuler and David
Luberoff, both leaders of the
Taubman Center for State and
Local Government at Harvard,
outline the history of U.S. government investment in highway,
airports, rail, and other infrastructure since World War II. In the
1950s and 1960s, federal and
state governments built big highways in and through cities and
were ultimately met with a backlash. Infrastructure spending
declined, the authors say, but also
shifted in the 1970s and afterward
to rail projects, convention centers,

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and sports stadiums. No fans of postwar urban renewal, they are also
skeptical of the worth of many of the
newer projects, particularly rail lines.
As case studies, they examine
Bostons Big Dig, the new Denver
International Airport, and the Los
Angeles subway line. Altshuler used
to be the Massachusetts secretary
of transportation, so the Big Dig
chapter is particularly rich.

This book is a serious piece of


scholarship, but it suffers, to a
lesser degree, from the same flaws
as Flyvbjergs book. Altshuler and
Luberoff too often cite only easily
quantifiable indexes, such as cost
per rider for rail projects and pay little attention to the overall economic
contributions such projects make.
They rarely examine how a major
project functions in the context of
regional urban-planning goals.
Although they might argue otherwise, they implicitly endorse a
very limited analysis of infrastructure spending. Alex Marshall
Skyscraper: The Search
for an American Style
18911941, edited by Roger
Shepherd. New York: McGrawHill, 2003, 297 pages, $45.
Although the 9/11 attack on
the World Trade Center was,
among other things, a vivid
demonstration of skyscraper
vulnerability, both of the two
finalists in the competition for

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Books
rebuilding the site proposed towers
taller than those destroyed. Clearly,
our fascination with the skyscraper
as building form is stronger than
logic and more enduring than the
skyscraper itself. This new book
illuminates that fascination in an
unusual way.
This is not a history of the
skyscraper, Roger Shepherd,
the books editor, notes in the
prefaceand indeed it leaves
unmentioned many important and
interesting tall structuresbut it is,
in fact, a history of opinions about
the skyscraper, being a compilation
of criticism on that subject from a
half-century of ARCHITECTURAL
RECORD. It presents a wealth of
clear thinking, good writing, lofty
philosophizing, and perhaps
unnecessary wringing of hands (a
recurrent theme being the problem of the skyscraper). The list of
authors is impressive, among them

Russell Sturgis, Ely Jacques Kahn,


Lewis Mumford, and Frank Lloyd
Wright. Represented in marginal
excerpts are Philip Johnson, Talbot
Hamlin, Herbert Read, Douglas
Haskell, Le Corbusier, Fiske
Kimball, Paul Philippe Cret, Erich
Mendelsohn, Ralph Adams Cram,
and more. Serving as the books
epilogue is a 1951 article by historian Henry-Russell Hitchcock, The
International Style Twenty Years
After. And editor Roger Shepherd,
author also of the 2001 Structures
of Our Time: 31 Buildings that
Changed Modern Life, adds an
introduction to each of nine chronologically ordered sections, and has
assembled a collection of vintage
photographs. An interesting additional feature is that subtle bands
of color key each reprinted article
to the building that was tallest in
the world at the time the piece was
written: the 309-foot World Building

from 1890 to 1899, for example,


and the 612-foot Singer Tower only
from 1908 to 1909.
From this rich pudding of articles and excerpts, each reader will
pluck some personal plums. Mine
include the following:
Writing in 1896, Montgomery
Schuyler, one of the founders of
RECORD, suggested a legal height
limit of 120 feet, and then three
years later, apparently reconciled to
greater height, complained that
there was more of conformity and
homogeneousness among the 20story buildings than there used to
be among the five-story buildings.
In 1903, Claude Bragdon
described Carrre and Hastingss
recently completed Blair Building in
New York (now destroyed) as the
finest flower which has sprung skyward out of the Beaux Arts hotbed.
In 1915, A.N. Rebori criticized
Burnham and Roots Reliance
Building in Chicagoand particularly its structure-concealing skin of
white terra-cottaas not an artistic solution of the problem, but only

a statement of it.
In 1923, Louis Sullivan complained about the awarding of the
second prize, rather than the first, to
Eliel Saarinens entry in the Chicago
Tribune Competition. The decision,
Sullivan writes, has deprived the
world of a shining mark, denied it
a monument to beauty, to faith, to
courage and to hope.
And in 1924, Harvey Wiley
Corbett called Raymond Hoods
new American Radiator Building in
New York a triumph of commercialism and explained that this
was no insult, for commercialism
in its present significance spells
gradual freedom and liberty for the
average man.
A frustrating thing, however,
about this 50-year history is that it
comes to an end on the eve of
World War II. In the 62 years since
then, many more skyscrapers have
been built and many more RECORD
articles have analyzed them. Lets
hope Roger Shepherd is planning a
sequel that will bring us up to date.
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Man on fire:
A new film examines the
work and life of Louis Kahn

Review

P H OTO G R A P H Y : B O B R I C H M A N , E XC E P T A S N OT E D ; H A R R I E T PAT T I S O N ( TO P )

My Architect: A Sons Journey,


directed by Nathaniel Kahn, produced by Susan Rose Behr and
Nathaniel Kahn, distributed by
New Yorker Films in association
with HBO/Cinemax
Documentary Films.
Opens November 12
at the Film Forum in
New York City, then in
cities around the U.S.

and had a child by each: a daughter,


Alexandra, by the architect Anne
Tyng, and a son, Nathaniel, by the
landscape architect Harriet Pattison.
He juggled three families simultaneously, shuttling
between houses just
a few miles from one
another but returning
late each night to his
wife. Charming and
brilliant, needy yet
The film begins with
giving, Kahn left a
a man sitting at a
deep emotional wake
microfilm projector,
behind him but never
searching old issues
lost the admiration
of The New York
and affectionof his
Lou by Nathaniels mother.
Times. He finds what
three women or his
hes looking forhis
three children.
fathers obituaryand reads parts
of it aloud. The last sentence states
Dual roles for a director
the deceased is survived by his
Nathaniels movie accomplishes a
wife, Esther, and a daughter, Sue
similar featchurning up feelings
Ann. No mention of a son.
of love and loneliness among the
Following this statement,
surviving people from his fathers
Nathaniel Kahns documentary film
life, capturing the profound spirit of
My Architect takes viewers on his
his fathers buildings, and charming
personal journey in search of the
viewers in the process. Nathaniel
truth about his father, Louis Kahn, a
served as both director of the film
man he knew only as a fleeting but
and its main screen presence, dual
loving figure. Nathaniel was 11 years
roles that could have created major
old when his father died in New
problems but end up generating
Yorks Penn Station. Although one of
much of its emotional energy.
the greatest architects of the 20th
Instead of an unbiased narrator or
century, at his death Kahn was wearguide, Nathaniel is a participant in
ing a rumpled suit and carrying
a family drama, someone whose
identification with his home address
existence was not even known by
crossed out. The police took his body
many of his fathers friends and colto the city morgue, and for two days
leagues. In some of the films most
the world didnt know he had died.
touching moments, he reveals his
Like his attire, Kahns personal
identity to people who knew or
life was anything but tidy. In addition
worked with Lou, and they respond
to his wife, he maintained long-term
with deep affectionevidence of
relationships with two other women
their love for his father and their

understanding of his conflicted


personal life.
The film includes interviews
with famous figures such as Philip
Johnson, I.M. Pei, Frank Gehry,
Robert A.M. Stern, Moshe Safdie,
B.V. Doshi, Edmond Bacon, Vincent
Scully, and former Jerusalem mayor
Teddy Kollek, as well as architects
who worked with Lou Kahn, including Jack MacCallister and Duncan
Buell. Nathaniel talks with cabdrivers in Philadelphia who drove
Lou around town and workers
outside the capitol buildings Lou
designed in Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Perhaps most touchingly, he speaks
with members of his unconventionally extended family, including his
two half-sisters, his mother, and
Tyng, his fathers other mistress.
The people in the film talk of
Lou Kahn the man, and Lou Kahn the
architect. They talk about his work
and how he created it. They recall private moments, such as Lou spending
Christmas with his employee

MacCallisters familynot his own


and Lou designing a lovely house for
Norman and Doris Fisher in a suburb
of Philadelphia, but never one for any
of his own families. The film combines
archival footage of Lou lecturing at
Penn, drawing in his office, and
walking on the street, along with
contemporary footage of Nathaniels
interviews and his journey to his
fathers buildings. By reaching out to
the people who knew his father and
trying to understand the buildings his
father created, Nathaniel assembles
a rich and affecting portrait of a man
who changed many lives as well as
the course of modern architecture.
Now 40, Nathaniel has made
several documentary films and
written and directed a play, Owls
Breath, which ran off-Broadway in
New York City in 1989. A graduate of
Yale, where two of his fathers key
buildingsthe Yale Art Gallery and
the British Art Centerstand as
powerful reminders of Lous genius,
Nathaniel kept a wary distance from

Nathaniel Kahn speaking with B.V. Doshi in India.


11.03 Architectural Record

75

DEPARTMENTS

By Clifford A. Pearson

Review
the field of architecture for most of
his career. But about six years ago,
he started working on My Architect:
A Sons Journey and plunged into
the world that always dominated his
fathers attention.
Asked why he finally turned his
professional attention to his father,
Nathaniel explains, For a long time,
I felt he was hanging around. When
Lou died, it was so mysterious and
there was so little evidence that
hed been in our lives that I almost
didnt believe he was gone. The film
had been rattling around in my head
for a while. When I started working

on the script, I realized I didnt know


enough about him. But the real guy
is still out there. I should find him.
Confronting illusions
The film includes some emotional
moments of Tyng and Pattison
wrestling with their feelings toward
Lou and confronting some of their
illusions. Its a very personal film,
says Nathaniel. I think finding that
voice and finding the courage to ask
those questions in the first person
took me a while. You can see it in
the film. I begin rather tentatively
asking questions that are objective,

Pride and practicality: Bangladeshis view Kahns buildings in Dhaka as a


symbol of their democracy and a place woven into their daily routines.
76

Architectural Record 11.03

questions that anybody would ask.


Only later do I find my own voice.
Like many other people,
Nathaniel thought of Lou as both a
person and also a mythic figure. He
could be down-to-earth one moment
and philosophical the next. He was
charming with everybody, recalls
Nathaniel. He liked talking as much
to cabdrivers or the guy who brought
the newspaper as to other architects. He could be funny. But when
he was uncomfortable, he became
oracular and sort of mysterious and
obfuscatory. Thats when his language became highly poetic and a
bit suspect, sort of tautological.
Making the film helped
Nathaniel understand how his father
worked. I learned how much my
father struggled in getting the right
idea. Like me, he was slow. He
needed time. And he needed people
around him to think. He was not like
Corbu, who would sit there and do
nothing for a year and then suddenly one day hed draw an entire
project. Or Wright, who worked so
fast his assistants couldnt keep the
paper underneath his pencil. That
was not Lou. Lou needed to talk a
great deal about everything, try out
things with people there, bounce
ideas off them, and then late at
night, maybe around 2 A.M., suddenly draw something.
This work process also helps
explain Lous personal arrangements. He created a world around
him that suited his creative
process, states Nathaniel. He
needed to have several different
compartments to work in, so he
created several different places to
gosome that were refuges and
some that were more public. I have
great sympathy for that, although
it could at times be extremely hard
on other people in his life.
As his subtitle suggests,
Nathaniel structured his film as a
journey and presents his interviews
in linear fashion. While many recent
documentaries cut back and forth
between a set of talking heads, My
Architect shows each interviewee
only once, then moves on to the
next. While this strategy enhances a
sense of discovery, it forced the

filmmaker to cut some great material. Other pieces and even entire
interviews fell out for technical reasons or to maintain a tight flow.
Speaking of these lost moments,
Nathaniel expresses the painful limitations of his craft and his own skill.
There are some gems that
didnt make it into the film.
Sometimes things that you really
want to make happen just dont quite
work, he admits. One omission that
particularly hurts him, says Nathaniel,
is an interview with Robert Venturi
and Denise Scott Brown. I had a fascinating talk with Bob and Denise,
who spoke to me in a wonderful,
personal way. Lou was very close to
both of them. And Bob was extremely
generous to my mother and very
supportive of both of us.
What started the journey
Nathaniel also cites a great interview with critic Paul Goldberger that
didnt find a place in the film. But
Paul is in the film because the obituary he wrote for the Times is what
starts it all. His words are the ones
Im reading in the beginning and
what started my entire journey.
Another remarkable moment
that ended up on the cutting-room
floor, says Nathaniel, was the story
Frank Gehry told about the one time
he met Lou. It was in the early 60s
or maybe late 50s, and Frank went
to a lecture Lou gave in California.
Frank admitted he didnt understand
everything Lou was saying, but he
understood the passion and the
fact that Lou was talking about an
architecture of people. Afterward, he
went up to Lou and threw his arms
around him and hugged him. Lou
looked at this stranger like he was a
crazy nut, but Frank was so moved.
Nathaniel hopes to include
some of this footage in the DVD
release of the film.
The human element in Lous
work became apparent to Nathaniel
only over time. At first, I thought of
my fathers architecture as kind of
remote. Then I started to see the
romanticism of it. He used to talk
about this all the timethat this
courtyard here would be a good
place for boy meets girl or that that

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Review
Susan Rose Behr; cinematographer
Bob Richman; editor Sabine
Krayenbhl; and Joseph Vitarelli, who
composed the musical score. Behr
did much of the films research, and
Nathaniel credits her with some
important discoveries, such as finding
the talkative cabdrivers, the client
who hired Lou to design a boat for a
floating orchestra, and the striking
similarities between the old factories
Unity out of chaos
in the Philadelphia neighborhood
Making the film also revealed to
where Lou grew up and the architecNathaniel an intriguing contradiction
ture he developed later in his life.
between Lous life and work. Paul
No one had really spent any
[Goldberger] said it quite beautifully.
time looking at Lous old neighborHe said Lou wasnt a guy who knew
hood. So I drove there and wandered
how to choose. He couldnt take this
around. I looked at one old factory
or that. He wanted this and that.
and immediately saw the Exeter
But in his architecture he sought
Library in it. Behr also examined
unity, a unity that he certainly did
Lous journey from Estonia to America
not have in his life. Perhaps it took
and discovered that Kahn wasnt his
a certain amount of chaos in his life
real name. Lous father changed it
to create a space out of which he
after they arrived, says Behr.
could find these peaceful, comBehr played another important
posed, singular kinds of buildings.
rolethat of emotional guide.
The intensity with which Lou
Making this film, Nathaniel had to
lived and worked, especially at the
examine some of the myths he had
end of his life when he shuttled back
long held of his father. One of my
and forth to projects in India and
roles was to help him confront these
Bangladesh, makes his son think of
myths and question them. Frankly, I
him as a man on fire. Nathaniel
dont know if I could have
made such a truthful film
about my own life.
The challenge for
Richman, the cinematographer,
was capturing the essence of
Lous architecture and the
personal nature of the sons
journey. The extreme contrast
between light and dark that
characterizes much of Lous
work presented technical difficulties for a cinematographer.
Nathaniel talking with Philip Johnson at
Instead of fighting or trying to
the Glass House in New Canaan.
compensate for these contrasts, Richman let them be
part of the film, allowing the screen
adds, And of course, as a child in
to go black on occasion.
Estonia, he was literally on fire, referFor the personal aspects of the
ring to the accident that burned
film, Richman understood the cineLous face and scarred it forever.
matographer must be Nathaniels
Like his fathers profession, filmsurrogate eyes, especially when the
making is a collaborative effort, says
director was consumed with being a
Nathaniel. The core of the team that
made My Architect included producer participant in the film. Knowing
space there would be a good spot
for an intimate conversation. Or he
would design a stair landing with a
bookshelf, so that if an old man is
walking with his grandson, he can
stop along the way, pull out a book,
read a passage to the boy, and
disguise the fact that hes old and
needs a place to rest.

78

Architectural Record 11.03

The film cites factories in Kahns childhood neighborhood as precursors of


projects such as the Salk Institute (top) and Exeter Library (above).

when to let the camera keep rolling,


even as the people stop talking, was
critical to several of the films most
charged moments.
A range of emotions
Looking back on the long process of
making this film, Nathaniel says he
has come to terms with a more full
range of emotions about his father.
There are some days Im angry
with him and some days I just love
him to pieces. Some days Im still
confounded by him and others that
I just miss him.
Nathaniels film and his journey
end in Bangladesh, where Lou
designed the countrys capital complex in Dhaka. One of the most
astonishing things for me was to see
how modern architecture, which has
the reputation of being difficult to
live with, was embraced with such
feeling by the people of this poor
country, recalls Nathaniel. The people I met in Dhaka talk of Lou as a
Moses, leading them toward democ-

racy. And I think its terribly important


at this time when we see all the strife
between the Muslim world and the
Western world, that the capital of a
Muslim country was built by a Jewish
architect, an American architect. And
that the people there feel so strongly
connected to these buildings.
Just before heading to
Bangladesh, Nathaniel spoke with
the Indian architect B.V. Doshi.
Theres a wonderful moment when
were talking and he pauses and
stops for a very, very long time.
Then he gives one of the greatest
lines in the film, when he advises
me on my search for my father. He
says, If you go into silence, you will
hear him. It still chokes me up now
when I think about it, because it was
such a thoughtful thing to say to a
son. I also think it was a challenge,
one that I am still taking up.
For more on Nathaniel Kahn,
see RECORD, Profile, June 2003,
page 266.

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Art and architecture:


Three shows that display sculpture,
products, and (some) buildings

P H OTO G R A P H Y : W H I T P R E S TO N ( G E H R Y P H OTO S )

Frank O. Gehry: Work in


Progress. Museum of
Contemporary Art at California
Plaza, Los Angeles, through
January 25, 2004.
Those who have seen the myriad
models Frank Gehry has fashioned
over his career often wonder why
he hasnt built a museum to house
them. Now an exhibition at the Los
Angeles Museum of Contemporary
Art (MOCA) at California Plaza suggests why: The museum would have
to be as big as the Guggenheim
Bilbao. The MOCA show,
Frank O.Gehry: Works in
Progress, only covers a
dozen of Gehrys current
projects, unbuilt or in construction, yet its contents
occupy 15,000 square
feetalmost the entire
space of the museum.
One gallery is devoted to
skyscrapers conceived
for New York City: Gehry
A cast-fiberglass sculpture (top) steals the show
created 20 study models
at the Frank Gehry exhibition (above).
alone for the ill-fated
Astor Place Hotel comwas completed across the street.
missioned by hotelier Ian Schrager.
MOCA consulted with Gehrys staff
Altogether, the exhibition,
to design the installation, where
which shows models, drawings, and
models are arranged in an orderly
sketches for such projects as the
manner on open shelving to resemLe Clos Jordan Winery in Lincoln,
ble the straightforward, no-nonsense
Ontario; the Ohr-OKeefe Museum in
look of Gehrys own office.
Biloxi, Mississippi; and the Princeton
While the scale of the assemUniversity Science Complex, among
blage is staggeringly impressive,
others, manages to display 300
the drop-dead centerpiece of the
items throughout the five galleries.
exhibition is a large, sinuous, susBrooke Hodge, MOCAs archipended cast-fiberglass-paneled
tecture and design curator, organized
object, created for the exhibition with
the show to open just before Gehrys
consulting architect Tomas Osinski. It
Walt Disney Concert Hall (page 134)

should be titled Richard Serra, Eat


Your Heart Out, instead of the more
prosaic Sculptural Study.
As Gehry explained in a lecture
sponsored by the Sir John Soane
Museum Foundation in New York last
spring, three-dimensional models of
all types are integral to his creative
process. Gehry and his office use
models to work out the programmatic
issues, then Gehry starts sketching
forms, reverting back to models as
the design progresses. After a while,
you have a lot of models, he said.
Suzanne Stephens.
Glass and Glamour: Steubens
Modern Moment, 19301960.
Museum of the City of New York,
November 7, 2003April 25,
2003.

ant creativity, which occurred during


the heady prosperity after World
War II. Curator Donald Albrecht
chose 200 functional and iconic
crystal pieces, including important
designs from the 1939 Worlds Fair
and engraved works by Isamu
Noguchi, Georgia OKeeffe, Salvador
Dali, and Grant Wood. He created a
fascinating narrative with vignettes
composed of posters, photographs,
and ephemera, which ground the
objects in time.
Design is a key part of an
exhibition experience and can often
be just as much of the message the
show conveys as the usual curatorial
devices, explains Albrecht. I actively
seek out working with architects and
designers who can bring a strong
visual sense, as well as an editorial
one that understands the period and
context. He got what he needed
with the New York architecture firm
Keenen/Riley. Principal John Keenen,

Throughout the winter, a blue glow


will draw visitors to the Museum of
the City of New York on the outer
limits of the citys famous
Museum Mile. A repository
for 1.5 million items of historical memorabilia from
muskets to antique toy
trains, the museum is not
the kind of venue where
one would expect to find
luxury crystal. Yet its now
host to an exhibition about
midcentury Modernism,
cultural refinement, and
opulence.
Corning is sponsoring
the exhibition to commemorate the centennial of its
Steuben Glass division,
Cascade Wall, which dates from 1959, once
reviving the memory of a
graced the Steuben Building in New York City.
30-year period of exuber11.03 Architectural Record

81

DEPARTMENTS

Exhibitions

who has curated exhibitions himself,


rejected the static configuration
of the existing gallery and sculpted
a new space within the 3,500square-foot box. He built thick new
walls against the existing ones, rendered them in dark blue materials,

Walter Dorwin Teague modeled these


lens bowls after car headlights.

and carved vitrines within the new


masses. A freestanding island, also
embedded with vitrines, splits the
rectangle along the long axis, thus
drawing the objects closer to the
viewer. At the end of the space,
Keenen dropped a ceiling and created an apse. Here, rare, singular
engraved pieces are exquisitely
displayed, showing off the skill of
lighting designer Anita Jorgensen,
who exploits the highly refractive
quality of Steuben glass and reveals
a purity that makes visible the whole
spectrum of a light wave.
Keenen and Albrecht end the
show back where it began, with the
Cascade Wall, a structure made of
300 glass flowers with metal stamens that were originally reflected in
a pool of water at the Steuben retail
store in Manhattan. Even here in dry
dock, it is a dazzling example of the
successful union of art and industry.
Sara Hart

The Undiscovered Richard


Meier: The Architect as
Designer and Artist. High
Museum of Art, Atlanta,
through April 4, 2004.
There are few rooms more
glorious than the atrium of
Richard Meiers High Museum,
which brought Atlanta a jolt of
bright-white Modernism 20
years ago. In July, the High
closed for two months while
construction began on Renzo
Pianos companion building,
Like many of his collages, Berlin Douane
which will more than double
uses things Meier collects on his travels.
the museums size.
To its credit, the High did
not leave Meiers building in the
admitted too much light, were
dust, but used the short hiatus to
exposed (thanks to screening matebring it back to life. Although there
rials that werent available in 1983).
were some alterations of the ground
And a Sol Lewitt mural, covering
floorto provide access to a planned six walls that Meier had wanted to
bridge to Pianos buildingmost of
leave white, was retired. Now the
the projects $3.5 million budget was
light coming through the skylights
spent on loving restoration. Notably,
and glass brick clerestory windows
galleries were returned to Meiers
paints a dazzling mural of its own.
original configurations; skylights that
Which is why the title of a curhad been hidden, because they
rent exhibition at the HighThe

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P H OTO G R A P H Y : S T E V E N S LO M A N ( M E I E R )

Exhibitions

Meier created the stainless-steel


sculpture Schntal in 1993.

tying them together, then coating


them in wax. The wax form is used
to create a ceramic mold in which
the stainless-steel sculptures are
cast. Obviously, theres something
going on here, psychologically:
Meier is tearing up the grideven
the grid of his own buildings. And

lucky enough to have built a successful career around a fixed


aesthetic sensibility without any
obvious compromising.
The great pleasure of the show
are the collages, which represent
the middle ground between the
elegant products and the inelegant
sculptures (the ego to the formers
superego and the latters id).
Composed of plane tickets (first
class), nude photos (female), and
other ephemera gathered by
Meier, they are close cousins of
Constructivist drawings, a point
emphasized by the recurrence of
red fields and Cyrillic letters. They
break no new ground artistically.
But they are delightful explorations
of ways in which Meier shifts and
chips away at grids. In the exhibition,
Meiers silver picture frames (made
by Swid Powell in the late 1980s)
are filled with photos of his buildings.
But the collages, in wooden frames,
are equally good representations of
his architecture. Think of them as
portable versions of the High
Museum. Fred Bernstein

Al Teufen

Undiscovered Richard Meier


has a double meaning. The entire
museum, to anyone who last saw it
with the accretions of two decades,
fits the bill.
The exhibition itself, on the
museums fourth floor, focuses on
work in three categories: furniture
and products, collages, and sculptures. In the first group, along with
vases, picture frames, and coffee
tables, is a chaise manufactured by
Knoll in 1982, whose curvaceous
seat seems to emerge from a grid,
like a ballet dancer breaking out of
prison. The chaise is a microcosm of
the show. Because, while Meiers
products arelike his architecturemostly based on grids, which
he manipulates according to clear
rules, his sculptures lack even a
semblance of geometric order.
The catalog explains that
Meier begins by taking pieces left
over in his model shop, taping or

with this show (organized by Meier


and the Museum of Applied Art,
Frankfurt), he is making sure the
world knows about it. Its as if
Meier, who has already had a
stellar career as an architect of
the rational, wants us to see that,
given another lifetime, he could
also have been Frank Gehry.
Isnt it enough to be Richard
Meier? His products are sophisticated and arresting. (His Tea Piazza
design from Alessi truly is a piazza.)
A three-page essay on Meiers furniture lists, as his influences, no less
than Josef Hoffman, Otto Wagner,
Walter Gropius, Alvar Aalto, Ludwig
Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier,
Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Eileen
Grey, Gerrit Rietveld, Frank Lloyd
Wright, Charles Eames, Marcel
Breuer, and Donald Juddan exercise in name-dropping that suggests
both false modesty and false
bravado. While its true several of
his chairs are overly reminiscent of
pieces by Wagner and Hoffman,
they are all unmistakably by Meier
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P H OTO G R A P H Y : S T E V E N S LO M A N

Exhibitions

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Snapshot

P H OTO G R A P H Y : D E R E K R AT H

By Ingrid Whitehead

A California fast-food restaurant


supersizes its design vision

In 1956, Carl Karcher, owner of Carls Drive-In Barbeque,


opened the doors to his new self-service restaurant in
Anaheim, California. Karcher called it Carls Jr., and while it
wasnt the first quick-service restaurant (QSR) to launch in the
state and eschew the then-typical California drive-in eateries,
with their carhops and flashing signs (a couple of guys named Richard and Mac McDonald got there
first), it was part of a new American lifestyle shift: the fast-food revolution. Now, almost 50 years later,
CKE, the company that owns the Carls Jr. chain, is trying to appeal to its market by modernizing the
design of its restaurants. The company chose RSA Architects in Los Angeles to design the new prototype.
Eric Schlosser, in his 2001 book Fast Food Nation, writes that conformity is preached as the
key to fast-food franchise success, for food, service, and brand-recognition. According to Mitchell
Sawasy, a principal at RSA Architects, thanks to a few visionary executives, CKE is going against

Snapshot

that trend. They wanted to break out and develop a building that was more in sync with their ad campaign, and
their demographics, says Sawasy. Carls Jr. is not in the toys and trinkets market the way McDonalds and some
other chains are. They are targeting 18- to 36-year-olds, who are burger addicts, but also very image conscious.
Whether these trendy burger-eaters appreciate the new design remains to be seen, as the prototype has only
been implemented in one new store so far, in Downey, California. Still, the landscape is all the better for the sexy new
restaurant. At 2,900 square feet, the curvilinear building is similar in size to other QSR restaurants, but the shape allows
it to fit on less landa fact that will lead to lower costs for real estate acquisitions, which should play a part in making
up for the higher cost of the new designs construction and materials. The exposed concrete, stainless steel, and expansive glass bring construction costs about 30 percent higher than conventionally designed QSR buildings. Because 50
percent of the business is captured at the drive-through window, RSA took special care to design a comfortable and
easy path for hungry drivers. Canopies for weather protection keep customers out of the rain, while dramatic lighting
leads them along the curved drive. Many of the interior finishes are made from recycled materials, and, Sawasy says,
with some refinements, LEEDS certification will be achieved for future stores.
Sawasy admits that it was a challenging battle to get the quirky building approved by conservative executives
at the company, but now that the ruffled, corporate feathers have been smoothed, CKE is ready to roll out 40 more
units in the coming year.
88

Architectural Record 11.03

The interior palette


includes exposed concrete, stainless steel,
and vibrant colored
furnishings. The floating exterior planes
bring daylight into the
space, reducing the
need for the usual
glaring artificial light
found in most fast-food
restaurants.

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O R

L I S T

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BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FEATURES

INTRODUCTION

Designing for well-being:


Environments that
enhance the quality of life
1

3
5

WINNERS
1. Orange Innovations
Photo: Peter Vanderwalker

2. Hotel Habita

Photo: Luis Gordoa

3. Sekii Ladies Clinic


Photo: Daici Ano

4. Start-Up Offices, Trumpf Grsch


Photo: Margherita Spiluttini

5. Inn at Price Tower and


Cooper Restaurant
Photo: Korab Photo

6. Darwin Centre Phase I, Natural


History Museum
Photo: Peter Durrant

7. Apple SoHo
Photo: Peter Aaron/Esto

8. Stealth/Ogilvy
Photo: Tom Bonner

9. Gannett/USA Today
Corporate Headquarters
Photo: Tim Hursley

10. ImageNet
Photo: Robert Shimer/Hedrich Blessing

10

12

13

FINALISTS
11. Automated Trading Desk

11

Photo: Paul Warchol Photography

12. Jackson-Triggs Niagara


Estate Winery
Photo: Robert Burley/Design Archive

13. University of Washington,


Bothell/Cascadia Community
College
Photo: Tim Griffith

14. Herman Miller Marketplace


Photo: Chris Barrett/Hedrich Blessing

15. Beacon Communications Office


Photo: Kozo Takayama

16. New Academic Complex, Baruch


College, CUNY
Photo: Michael Moran

14

15

16

17. Dr. Donald & Beret Mott


Childrens Center

17

Photo: Eckert & Eckert

18

By Jane F. Kolleeny

s C.E.O.s increasingly think of the design of their companys


buildings as a way to achieve strategic corporate goals,
scientists are demonstrating that highly effective working
environments dont happen by accident. Resulting from
clearly articulated goals, good building design can signicantly enhance
the well-being and productivity of workers. Architects can fulll this
objective by creating environments that sustain occupants in the many
positive ways evidenced by the winning designs in the 2003 BW/AR
Awards program. Dr. Judith H. Heerwagen, an environmental psychologist, suggests that many factors determined by the design of buildings,
including exposure to nature and daylight, air quality, temperature, noise,
ergonomics, and opportunities for social gathering, relaxation, and exercise affect occupants performance and well-being. If we consider that,
rst and foremost, buildings are habitats for people, then businesses,
builders, and developers should be inclined to invest in even the more
costly staff and client amenities that promise measurable positive payoffs.
Yet, despite this conclusion, when it comes to facility decisions,
costs are almost always the predominant consideration, partly because
sparse scientic evidence links features of the built environment to organizational success. This situation is changingnot only because of the
work of Dr. Heerwagen and others, but also through such agencies as
the AIAs Academy of Neuroscience for Architecture, which in July
received a $100,000 Latrobe Fellowship from AIAs fellows to pursue
research into how the human brain perceives architecture. Just one more
step toward shedding light on how buildings inform our daily lives.

UNBUILT PROJECTS
18. Great Harbor Design Center
Photo: Jock Pottle/Esto

AIAs 2003 Business


Week/Architectural
Record Award
winners, finalists,
and unbuilt project
are presented
hereall elegant
solutions to diverse
clients needs.

For more information or to request a call for entry for the 2004 BW/AR Awards, send an
e-mail to bwarawards@aia.org or call (888) 242-4240.
11.03 Architectural Record

91

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

2003 JURY

Ten notable individuals in the worlds of business,


innovation, and architecture composed this years jury
Brad Cloepfil, AIA,
Jury Chair

Ralph E. Johnson,
FAIA

Rob Forbes

Don Frischmann

A principal at Allied Works


Architecture, Brad Cloepfil
received his B.Arch. from
the University of Oregon
and went on to earn his
M.Arch. at Columbia
University. After his studies,
he worked in New York, Los
Angeles, and Switzerland

THE ROLE OF THE


ARCHITECT IS NOT SO
MUCH ABOUT
INNOVATION; ITS
ABOUT INSIGHT.
for 10 years before establishing Allied Works
Architecture in Portland,
Oregon. Since its inception,
Allied Works has been
awarded commissions
throughout the United
States and abroad and has
received critical recognition
for its work. Cloepfil generates the primary design
concepts for each project
through sketches and
drawings and ensures a
cohesive architectural
vision for projects by working closely with the team.
He occasionally participates
in invited symposia, lectures, and critiques for
clients and universities, as
well as arts and architectural organizations.

92

Architectural Record 11.03

With a B.A. in economics


from Harvard, Sam Farber
founded COPCO, a housewares company known for
its colorful cookware.
COPCO was sold in 1982,
and Farber spend more time
pursuing his interest in
Outsider Art. In 1990, he
founded OXO International,
a leader in the manufacture
of kitchen tools with innovative user-centered designs.
OXO was sold in 1992, and
Farber retired from active
management in 1995. In
2001, he founded WOVO
with his son, to create

IT IS RARE TO
ACKNOWLEDGE BOTH
BUSINESS AND DESIGN
EXCELLENCE IN AN
AWARDS PROGRAM
AND IMPORTANT
THAT JURORS RECOGNIZE THIS UNIQUE
DIMENSION IN THEIR
DELIBERATIONS.
thoughtfully designed products for the home. Farber, a
trustee of the American Folk
Art Museum, chaired the
committee to build its new
facility in New York City.

Founder and chief design


officer of Design Within
Reach, Rob Forbes
launched his Oaklandbased catalog business as
an Internet and studio
retailer of both classic
and new Modern-designed
furniture, lighting, and
accessories in July 1999.
The companys mission is
to improve the quality of

THIS PROGRAM
ARTICULATES GOOD
VALUE COMBINED
WITH CREATIVE
VISION, TWO THINGS
THAT TOGETHER MAKE
GOOD BUSINESS.
design in public spaces by
providing architects, interior
designers, and the general
public easy access to,
and reasonable prices for,
design products that have
traditionally been available
only through the trade. A
seasoned professional with
20 years experience in
direct marketing, Forbess
professional background
combines artistic expertise
and executive level experience. He received an M.B.A.
from Stanford, an M.F.A.
from Alfred University, and
completed his undergraduate studies at the University
of California at Santa Cruz.

As senior vice president of


communications and
brand management at
Symantec, Don Frischmann
is responsible for the firms
global communications
and brand-management
activities, including public
relations, customer and
employee communications, investor relations,
and public affairs.
Symantec, a world leader

THIS AWARD
CELEBRATES THE
COLLABORATION OF
INSIGHTFUL ARCHITECTS AND CREATIVE
BUSINESS LEADERS.
in Internet security technology, provides a broad
range of content and
network security solutions
to individuals and companies. Prior to joining
Symantec, Frischmann
was a communications
executive at the
International Business
Machines Corporation for
30 years. He holds a B.A.
from Fordham University.

Ralph E. Johnson, FAIA,


principal and design director, Perkins & Will, Chicago,
received his B.Arch. from
the University of Illinois
and his M.Arch. from
Harvard University. He
began his 25-year career
with Perkins & Will in 1976
and became an AIA Fellow
in 1995. In the past seven
years, his projects have
been honored with more
than 40 design awards,
including six national AIA

THE ARCHITECT
LISTENS TO THE
CLIENT AND THEN
SYNTHESIZES AND ELEVATES THESE WISHES
INTO INNOVATIVE
ENVIRONMENTS.
honor awards, numerous
regional honor awards, and
a Progressive Architecture
design award. His work has
been published in numerous international journals.
Monographs on it have
been published by Rizzoli,
in 1995, and by LArca, in
1998. Johnsons work has
been exhibited at the Art
Institute of Chicago, the
Paris Biennale, and the
So Paolo Biennale. He
has lectured at numerous
universities and has served
as a visiting critic at the
University of Illinois, the
University of Wisconsin at
Milwaukee, and the Illinois
Institute of Technology.

P H OTO G R A P H Y ( L E F T TO R I G H T ) : C O U R T E SY B R A D C LO E P F I L ; B E T S E Y W E L L S FA R B E R ; TO N Y C U N H A ;
C O U R T E SY D O N F R I S C H M A N N ; M I C H E L L E L I T V I N

Sam Farber

Karen Stein
Marion Weiss, AIA

Sheila Kennedy,
AIA

P H OTO G R A P H Y ( L E F T TO R I G H T ) : C O U R T E SY K VA ; C O U R T E SY J O S O N C I N A ; J U L I A H A S T I N G ;
A L A N FO R R E S T ; J O S H UA PAU L

Sheila Kennedy is a founding principal of Kennedy &


Violich Architecture (KVA),
an interdisciplinary design
practice that explores new
relationships among architecture, technology, and
emerging public needs.
As associate professor at
the Harvard University
Graduate School of Design,
Kennedy was director of

THIS AWARDS PROGRAM SHOULD HELP


TO STIMULATE THE
PRIVATE SECTOR TO
UNDERSTAND THE
BENEFITS OF ACTING
AS PATRONS THAT
SUPPORT EXCELLENT
ARCHITECTURE.
the M.Arch. II program
from 199195. Kennedys
research and built work in
design have been recognized by grants from the
Bunting Institute, the
National Endowment for
the Arts, the National
Academy of Sciences, and
the United States
Department of Energy.

Jos Oncina

General manager of
Worldwide Real Estate and
Facilities at Microsoft
Corporation, Jos Oncina
is responsible for the
companys real estate,
construction, and facilitiesmanagement strategy, as
well as planning, delivery,
and operations. His team
aligns Microsofts real estate
plan with corporate business
objectives. Microsofts distributed business units
occupy more than 18 million

THE WINNERS
DEMONSTRATED THE
VALUE OF ARCHITECTS
AND BUSINESS LEADERS
COLLABORATING WITH
MUTUAL RESPECT.
square feet of office space
in 400 locations worldwide.
Oncinas team manages
more than $500 million
in annual volume. He
holds a B.S. in Business
Administration and is a
Certified Public Accountant.

Karen Stein is editorial


director of Phaidon Press,
a leading illustrated book
publisher of titles on art,
architecture, design, decorative arts, photography,
fashion, music, and performing arts. She is also a
member of the companys
board of directors. She
joined Phaidon Press in
1998, following 14 years
at ARCHITECTURAL RECORD,
most recently as senior
managing editor. In
199495 she was awarded a Loeb Fellowship in
Environmental Studies
from Harvard University.

MAGIC CAN HAPPEN


WHEN CLIENT AND
ARCHITECT UNDERSTAND AND CHALLENGE EACH OTHER.
She has contributed articles on architecture and
design to a variety of international publications and
is a frequent guest critic
at architecture student
reviews at various universities. In 2003, she joined
the jury of the Pritzker
Architecture Prize. She has
a degree in architecture
from Princeton University.

Rich Varda, AIA,


ASLA

As vice president of store


planning and design, architecture, and engineering at
Target, Rich Varda oversees
a 230-person staff responsible for maintaining and
modifying the multiple Target
store prototypes, including
fixtures, store plans, interior
design, architecture, and
engineering. The group
also designs and produces
construction documents for
approximately half of the
100 new stores and 90

THE BUILDINGS MUST


SUCCESSFULLY TRANSFORM THE ORGANIZATIONS, WHILE ALSO
REPRESENTING DISTINGUISHED DESIGN.
remodel projects that Target
executes each year.
Varda received a B.S. in
Landscape Architecture from
the University of Wisconsin
and an M.Arch. from the
University of Minnesota.

Marion Weiss, AIA, established Weiss/Manfredi


Architects with Michael
Manfredi more than 10
years ago as a practice
committed to architecture,
urban design, and landscape architecture, envisioning these disciplines
as interdependent. Cited by
New Yorks Architectural
League in 1997 as one of
six critical emerging practices in North America, the

ULTIMATELY, THIS
AWARDS PROGRAM
MAKES MEASURABLE
THE INTRINSIC POWER
OF DESIGN TO AN
OFTEN SKEPTICAL
AUDIENCE.
firm has received both
state and national awards
for its built work. Weiss
is an associate professor
of architecture at the
University of Pennsylvania
Graduate School of Fine
Arts and has taught at Yale
and Cornell Universities.
She received her B.Arch.
from the University of
Virginia and her M.Arch.
from Yale, where she won
the AIA Scholastic Award
and the SOM Traveling
Fellowship.

11.03 Architectural Record

93

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

FUNKY WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS


BECOME A NEW HIGH-TECH HOME

P H OTO G R A P H Y : P E T E R VA N D E R WA L K E R P H OTO G R A P H S ( T H I S PA G E ) ; U N D I N E P R H L ( O P P O S I T E ,
TO P A N D B OT TO M L E F T ) ; L U I S G O R D O A ( O P P O S I T E , M I D D L E A N D B OT TO M R I G H T )

Program: One of the largest European mobile phone companies, Orange


Innovations, based in the U.K., needed to create an innovation center for the
firms entry into the U.S. market. They sought to be located near Harvard
and MIT, in Massachusetts, a vortex of Americas technology research.
An inviting office environment was required that would appeal to the surrounding entrepreneurial community, with a theme of flexibility reflecting
the inherent qualities of the changing landscape of technology companies.
Solution: The architects transformed five existing one-story warehouse
buildings separated by narrow alleyways into a single volume consisting of
distinct precincts. The alleyways became glass atria planted with bamboo
that provide circulation and weave the three primary programmatic elements of the building togetherprivate office space, open areas for
brainstorming, and cooperative spaces that are flexible and semiprivate.
Workstations can be shape-shifted with ease, and a mobile power grid on
the ceiling ensures movable technology wiring for easy change of landscape.
The low-key combination of natural materials, abundant light peeking in
from the glass-enclosed alleyways, and the human scale of the facility have
all delighted employees and potential clients alike.

Defying excess, the architects confidence


and natural modesty in his
solution was admirable.BRAD CLOEPFIL, AIA

Project: Orange
Innovations, Cambridge,
Mass.
Architect: Anmahian
Winton Architects
Client: Orange
Innovations
Key players: Leggat
McCall Properties (developer); Gregorian Engineers
(structural); LAM Partners
(lighting); Reed
Hilderbrand Landscape
Architects (landscape)

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

A TRANSLUCENT JEWEL BRIGHTENS


A DERELICT NEIGHBORHOOD
Program: Mexico City needed a hotel of a special kindone that would
differentiate itself from the predictable, exist as a work of art, and breathe
fresh, new life into the hotel scene in this vibrant city. Location was everything, and a grimy, derelict, 1950s five-story apartment building in a prime
location fit the bill. Unfortunately, zoning laws did not permit demolition
the architect needed to perform radical surgery on the existing site.
Solution: For the Hotel Habita, a total of 32 rooms and 4 suites were created with two floors of social space on top, including a lap pool on the roof
and an open-air terrace to accommodate meetings and banquets. A retreatlike interior deflected the unpleasantness of the outside world. This was
created by attaching a new translucent glazing system to the buildings outer
edge, giving it a glowing second skin. The hotel enjoyed immediate success,
with 75 percent occupancy, reinvigorating development and transforming the
fringe of a high-end shopping area into a consolidated urban fabric.

The top two floors of the social spaces provide


a compelling oasis that lingers in ones memory
after leaving the place.MARION WEISS, AIA

Project: Hotel Habita,


Mexico City
[record, March 2001,
page 106]
Architect: TEN
Arquitectos
Client: Hotel Habita S.A.
de C.V.
Key Players:
Construcciones Gavaldn
(general contractor);
Colinas de Buen
(engineer); Val & Val
(window consultant)
11.03 Architectural Record

95

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

A CLINIC CUSTOM-DESIGNED TO
RESPOND TO THE NEEDS OF WOMEN

A great example of a compelling and interesting business story that plants the seeds
for the architectural solution.SHEILA KENNEDY, AIA
Project: Sekii Ladies
Clinic, Furukawa, Japan
[record, July 2002,
page 136]
Architect: Atelier
Hitoshi Abe
Client: Sekii Ladies Clinic
Key players: TIS &
Partners (structural); Sogo
Consultants (mechanical);
Masahide Kakudate
Lighting Environment
(lighting); Takaya
Construction (general
contractor)

96

Architectural Record 11.03

P H OTO G R A P H Y : S H U N I C H I AT S U M I ( TO P R I G H T ) ; DA I C I A N O ( B OT TO M T H R E E ) ; M A R G H E R I TA S P I L U T T I N I ( O P P O S I T E )

Program: A husband and wife obstetrician team who had just had a baby
decided to set up a private womens clinic with their parents, who are gynecologists in a city hospital in Japan. They developed a new concept of clinic
that would provide a variety of services, including privacy, security, good
food, and physical and psychological health benefits. It would also include a
residence, so the doctors would always be in.
Solution: The elegantly conceived, two-story facility opened its doors to a
responsive public. Its program includes delivery and labor areas, a multipurpose room and lounge, the doctors residence, and medical treatment
areas. The light, Modern structure features a cantilevered second floor with
an almost completely glazed first-floor volume. Proclaimed a great success
when it opened, the number of outpatients has doubled, and among a total
of eight clinics in Furukama, this is the one where almost a quarter of the
infants in the area are born.

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

THIS MODERN CREATION HAS


REAWAKENED A SLEEPY SWISS TOWN
Program: Trumpf, a multinational maker of high-tech tools, wanted to
expand beyond its existing facilities. With its headquarters in the Swiss village of Grsch, little space was available to grow. Together, the village and
corporation struck a deal. The village provided the much-needed land for a
combined facility for Trumpf and an incubator for start-up businesses, satisfying the companys requirements while bringing economic development
to the local economy. An unusual and original collaboration.
Solution: The new buildings assertive, contemporary image sets itself
apart from the red-tile roofs of the villages chalet-style aesthetic without
overwhelming its charming residential scale. Since opening, the incubator
has become an important factor for the region, facilitating new enterprise
and employment. Trumpf now provides employment to considerably more
people, and the building is a magnet for economic vitality.

A testament to how different cultures


measure value. This building is about people,
aesthetics, surroundings.JOS ONCINA
Project: Start-Up Offices,
Grsch, Switzerland
[record, June 2002, page
120]
Architect: Barkow
Leibinger Architects
Client: Trumpf Grsch
Key Players: Conzett,
Bronzini, Gartmann
(structural); Zst-Stock,
Lippuner (mechanical);
Bro Kiefer (landscape);
Brniger + Co. (electrical);
Aves Architekturbro
(project management)

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

NEW LIFE EMERGES FOR A


LONG-FORGOTTEN LANDMARK

Project: Inn at Price Tower


and Copper Restaurant and
Bar, Bartlesville, Okla.
[record, July 2003, page 118]
Architect: Wendy Evans
Joseph Architecture; Ambler
Architects (associate architect)
Client: Price Tower Arts Center
Key players: Flynt and
Kallenberger (engineers);
Jo Anne M. Lewis (interior
design consultant); Fouts
Custom Construction
(general contractor)

Working so skillfully within Wrights footprint


and vocabulary on a relatively modest budget
is a pretty significant feat.ROB FORBES

98

Architectural Record 11.03

P H OTO G R A P H Y : KO R A B P H OTO ( T H I S PA G E ) ; P E T E R D U R A N T ( O P P O S I T E )

Program: In 1956, Frank Lloyd Wright designed his only skyscraper, a


mixed-use, 19-story tower in the heart of Bartlesville, Oklahoma. By 1981,
years of lackluster performance and low occupancy had taken its toll. Given
the looming prospect of having to raze the tower, company executives agreed
to repair, refurbish, and donate the building to a nonprofit arts center.
Solution: The new owners wished to create a hotel and restaurant as part
of a conference facility to ensure the financial stability and future of this important landmark building. The architect converted the top eight floors into a
21-room hotel, utilizing innovative techniques to minimize disturbances to the
original fabric of the building. The color scheme, materials, and furniture, mostly
locally crafted, defer to Wrights aesthetic but have a contemporary vitality.
Generating a huge interest from the press, the hotel is serving as a magnet for
new life to the area, expecting to be profitable in two to three years.

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

A MUSEUM GAINS VISIBILITY


AND PURPOSE IN ITS NEW HOME
Program: A natural history museum required a new building to provide
public access to and storage for its 22 million zoological specimens. In
addition, the existing facility did not provide adequate conditions for the
100 scientists working there. A new museum would represent the first stage
in a phased remodeling of several museum buildings on a 23-acre site.
Solution: Designers and engineers worked as a single task force to develop
solutions to achieve the clients goals. They created a building comprising
three sectionsa light-filled lab area located at the front of the building
behind the glass facade; cold storage for specimens in the back; and a glazed
atrium separating the two areas that allows the public to view the scientists
at work and observe the vastness and beauty of the collection. A 122 percent
increase in visits signifies the success of the project. As well, the increased
the visibility of its research has helped the client with fund-raising efforts.

It is innovative how the viewer and scientist


exist side by sidethe viewers can see in,
the scientists have their privacy.SAM FARBER

Project: Darwin Centre


Phase I, Natural History
Museum, London
Architect: HOK
International
Client: Natural History
Museum
Key Players: Buro
Happold, Arup Facade
Engineering (engineers);
Shepherd Construction
(general contractor)

11.03 Architectural Record

99

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

SPARE BEAUTY MARKS THIS


ADAPTATION OF A HISTORIC BUILDING
Program: In an effort to bring public attention to its products, the always
daring and innovative Steve Jobs began a campaign a few years ago of
opening modern, uniquely designed Apple retail stores that reflected the
companys design philosophy. The effort culminated in this store, Apples
32nd and largest to date, in New Yorks hip SoHo district.
Solution: This 17,000-square-foot adaptive reuse of a 1920s Neoclassicalstyle former post office integrates seamlessly within the neighborhood. Drawing
on a prototypical kit of parts developed earlier, the materials and details
palette create continuity and a recognizable image among dozens of Apple
stores. The materials are all simple and familiar but executed with razor-sharp
precision. Deemed a success, the store surprises and delights customers,
strengthens the Apple brand, and restates the firms strong focus on innovation.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : P E T E R A A R O N / E S TO ( T H I S PA G E ) ; TO M B O N N E R ( O P P O S I T E )

In the same way that Apple innovates in


the design of its computers, it was innovative
in the design of this store.KAREN STEIN

Project: Apple SoHo,


New York City [record,
October 2002, page 156]
Architect: Bohlin Cywinski
Jackson; Ronnette Riley
Architect (associate architect)
Client: Apple Computer
Key players:
Dewhurst Macfarlane &
Partners, P.C., in association
with Goldreich Engineering
(structural); Flack & Kurtz
(m/e/p)

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

A TENANT BUILDING RAISES THE


BAR ON DEFINING A CLASS ACT
Program: The choice of a highly desirable location and an award-winning
architect guaranteed the visibility of this proposed office building, geared to
attract high-profile media tenants. The interior was programmed to accommodate three clients who would benefit from contemporary, nonhierarchical
open office plans including some private offices, media production and editing areas, lounges and kitchens, and a central glazed lobby.
Solution: Challenged to utilize the site of an industrial brownfield with contaminated soil, the architect responded to the limitations with a sunken
public garden and theater, raising the offices to the upper floors. Thanks to
an excellent and original design, internationally known tenants have moved
in and are happy to be there. The fact that most of the ground level was
dedicated to flexible outdoor public use was received with considerable
appreciation by the local community.

Architecture serves as a business plan,


an opportunity draw in clients, and a
means to get around a lot of site problems.
DON FRISCHMANN
Project: Stealth/Ogilvy,
Culver City, Calif.
Architect: Eric Owen
Moss Architects
Client: Samitaur
Constructs
Key players: Kurily,
Szymanski and Tchirkow
(structural); Antieri &
Associates, and Silver, Roth
& Associates (electrical);
Cal State Steel (structural
steel fabricator)

11.03 Architectural Record

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BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

A SUBURBAN QUASI CITY ENGAGES


EMPLOYEES AND PUBLIC ALIKE
Program: Squeezed for space in two towers in Virginia, this 1906 communications company began looking for a site for a new headquarters that would
accommodate its dual personality as newspaper and holding company. It
wished to create an architecture that would be both functional and iconic and
would provide a distinctive professional expression for its two identities.
Solution: A 25-acre parcel of land in Tysons Corner, close to where many
of Gannetts 1,780 employees live, offered a generously sized and welllocated site for three groups of spaces that emerged from the programming
process. For the first time, the company operates in a custom-suited environment. The building is modeled around a town center, where fluid interaction
is encouraged. Staff discovered a newfound sense of community and a
marked appreciation for architectureas well as for the contemporary art
that graces the interior, and for the employee amenities, such as outdoor
dining, a gym, and jogging trails.

Project: Gannett/USA
Today Corporate
Headquarters, McLean, Va.
[record, May 2002,
page 212]
Architect: Kohn Pederson
Fox Associates
Client: Gannett Company
Key players: LehmanSmith + McLeish &
Associates (interiors); CBM
Engineers (structural);
TOLK (m/e/p); Michael
Vergason Landscape
Architects (landscape);
Clark Construction Group
(general contractor)

P H OTO G R A P H Y : T I M H U R S L E Y ( T H I S PA G E ) ; R O B E R T S H I M E R / H E D R I C H B L E S S I N G ( O P P O S I T E )

Unique for a corporate headquarters, this


building engages the landscape rather than
being an object in it. RALPH E. JOHNSON, FAIA

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

WINNER

PRINT MATERIALS USED


WHIMSICALLY AS THE BASIS FOR DESIGN
Program: Forced to move and consolidate operations in a new location,
the client wished to share the history of the companywhich began as a
one-person typewriter-repair business founded in 1957 in the owners
kitchenwith its customers. The design meant to reveal where the company has been, what it does, how it does it, and where the future lies.
Solution: The copy center now occupies the third floor of a renovated 1920s
car dealership. The setting both tells a story and is a metaphor. Enlisting
ordinary materials from the print business, the architect created an engaging
and provoking portrait of the company. Glued together to resemble bricks,
390,000 sheets of paper, in a range of odd shapes and sizes, line the walls.
The firms staff of proud salespeople and employees, which evolved from one
person to an organization of 350, demonstrate the success of the project. Sixty
days after opening, the company landed the single largest job of its history.

The ratio of image and brand-impact


to amount of money spent on this project
is dramatic. RICH VARDA, AIA, ASLA
Project: ImageNet,
Oklahoma City
[record, September 2002,
page 136]
Architect: Elliott +
Associates Architects
Client: BMI Systems
Key players: Jamars &
Long (mechanical, electrical); Lingo Construction
Services (structural and
general contractor)

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103

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

A BUILDING TO TURN THE HEADS OF


BOTH CLIENTS AND STAFF

Project: Automated
Trading Desk Technology
Campus, Mt. Pleasant, S.C.
[record, June 2003, page
156]
Architect: Helfand
Myerberg Guggenheimer
Architects (now Helfand
Architecture and
Guggenheimer Architects);
McKellar & Associates
(associate architect)
Client: Automated
Trading Desk
Key players: Barrett,
Woodyard & Associates
(mechanical); Johnson and
King Engineers (structural);
Susan Nelson-Warren Byrd
Landscape Architects
(landscape); Gulf Steram
Construction (general
contractor)

104

Architectural Record 11.03

P H OTO G R A P H Y : PAU L WA R C H O L P H OTO G R A P H Y

Program: This technology/financial services firm, which formerly occupied a


dumpy, increasingly cramped low-rise structure on a commercial strip,
needed to expand. The staff required spaces for informal group interaction as
well as private offices. In addition, the program called for a 6,000-square-foot
trading room and a very secure 5,000-square-foot data center. The architect
was challenged by an extremely tight schedule and a site dotted by oak trees
and laced with cleaned-up storm-water-retention ponds.
Solution: Through a highly participatory process among representatives
from each work group, senior management, and the architects firm, a program developed that proposed an elegant and practical solution. The building
sits in a bucolic landscape, and employees have the pleasure of abundant
outdoor views, high ceilings, and natural light. Business improved 18 percent
after the grand opening of the new space and continues to increase. As a
result of its new home, the company enjoys positive media attention, strong
brand recognition in the marketplace, and employee satisfaction.

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

ARCHITECTURE TOASTS THE


SUCCESS OF WINE
Program: The client envisioned a state-of-the-art facility that would house
technology enabling the company to produce premium and super-premium
wines. It wanted a recognizable home that would strengthen its brand and
provide the label with a unique and powerful identity. Created in direct
response to feedback from consumers, the facility would allow guests to
immerse themselves in the culture and environment of winemaking.
Solution: The buildings simple form unites production and hospitality functions under a single, continuous roof supported by full-span wood trusses.
The Great Hall, a large, two-story court with motorized glass doors at either
end, serves to orient the visitor to the winerys amenitiestours, tasting
bar, caf, retail shop, and administrative officesand creates a convertible
space that opens to surrounding vineyards in mild weather. As North
Americas fourth-largest producer of wines, the client has experienced
strong overall growth and success since the new building opened.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : R O B E R T B U R L E Y / D E S I G N A R C H I V E

Project: Jackson-Triggs
Niagara Estate Winery,
Ontario, Canada
[archrecord.com, Building
Types Study, May 2003]
Architect: Kuwabara Payne
McKenna Blumberg Architects
Client: Vincor International
Key players: Blackwell
Engineering (structural);
Keen Engineering (mechanical); Carinci Burt Rogers
(electrical); Merit
Contractors of Niagara
(construction manager)

106

Architectural Record 11.03

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Lutron dimming and switching panel and


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Lutron's GRAFIK 7000 system provides
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and any other large public space project.
Find out more at 877-258-8766 ext 211
or www.lutron.com/architecturalrecord.

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BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

SENSITIVE DESIGN UNIFIES TWO


DISTINCTIVE STUDENT BODIES

Project: University of
Washington,
Bothell/Cascadia
Community College,
Bothell, Wash.
Architect: NBBJ
Client: State of
Washington, Dept. of
General Administration
Key players:
Consulting Design, Inc.,
and KPFF Consulting
Engineers (engineers)

108

Architectural Record 11.03

P H OTO G R A P H Y : T I M G R I F F I T H

Program: The need to combine a community college with a new branch of


a well-established university at one location propelled the development of
this campus in a distressed geographic area in dire need of facilities of
higher education. Few colocated campuses in the U.S. have succeeded, and
the clients were wary. Nevertheless, the project was launched.
Solution: A sophisticated and flexible design allowed both institutions distinct but unified appearances and turned out to be wildly successful. Staff
share resources, and financial savings of 15 percent were immediately realized, with 10 percent life-cycle cost savings anticipated during the next 25
years. Programmatically, the institutions overlap smoothly, and student enrollment exceeded first semester expectations by more than 100. Local residents
share the benefit of abundant lawns, walking trails, and wetland boardwalks
that characterize the natural beauty of the ecologically sensitive site.

In the race for a greener planet, Toyota is determined to win.


Thats why weve developed Hybrid Synergy Drive, a revolutionary power train that combines a gasoline engine with a powerful electric motor that

never needs to be plugged in. The result? Super-efficient, super-charged performance.


Hybrid Synergy Drive achieves nearly 2.5 times the average fuel efficiency of conventional vehicles and close to 90% fewer smog-forming emissions
all while dramatically boosting power.* In fact, Hybrid Synergy Drive can inject a V6 SUV with the power and torque of a V8.
This groundbreaking yet affordable technology has already hit the roads in the all-new Prius.
And soon, Hybrid Synergy Drive will be available in more and more Toyota products including SUVs.
Welcome to a new era in driving were off and racing.
toyota.com/tomorrow

*Based on 2004 E PA est. city & combined mpg. 2003

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BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

P H OTO G R A P H Y : J E F F DY K E H O U S E ( TO P R I G H T ) ; C H R I S TO P H E R B A R R E T T / H E D R I C H B L E S S I N G ( B OT TO M T W O )

A COMMITMENT TO SUSTAINABILITY
EXPRESSED WITH STYLE
Program: With a goal of improving business output and reducing costs, the
client wished to create a modern, innovative workplace that would consolidate four leases and nine business units. To be completed in less than a
year, the project needed to balance community, collaborative, and individual
work space; feature substantial sustainable elements; and provide a comfortable workplace for employees that would enhance corporate culture.
Solution: This simple, elegant, two-story building balances the clients commitment to sustainability with aggressive economic goals and high design
quality. A new space-allocation model achieved from an open, flexible interior design allows for more informal collaborative meeting areas. The result:
Organizational and worker effectiveness increased about 20 percent and
sustainability goals surpassed expected levels to achieve gold certification.

Project: Herman Miller


MarketPlace, Zeeland,
Mich.
Architect: Integrated
Architecture
Client: Herman Miller
Key players: Interior
Architects (interior design);
Beta Design Group
(mechanical); FeyenZylstra (electrical); JDH
Engineering (structural);
Triangle Associates (general
contractor)

110

Architectural Record 11.03

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

BRIGHT, FRESH FORMS CONVEY THE


CREATIVITY BEHIND THIS DESIGN

P H OTO G R A P H Y : KOZO TA K AYA M A

Program: Two advertising agencies and the business unit of a third wished
to create a new identity in Japan. Since two of the companies were Western
and the third Japanese, a work space that reflected this new culture would
be a challenge. Achieving a strong statement that reinforced a new brand
culture without leaving anyone out seemed a daunting task indeed. The
challenge was to provide more public, creative, shared space while giving
everybody their own personal work and storage areas.
Solution: This attention-grabbing office interior features wild curves and
Day-Glo colors. Styled like oversize furniture, colorful undulating ribbons with
distinct profiles are adapted to varied functions. Turning away from standard
enclosed offices and cubicles, the open plan generates crossover among
staff at every possible opportunity and at every level of hierarchy. The long
and the short of it is, people love itemployees, clients, the media.

Project: Beacon
Communications Office,
Tokyo, Japan [record,
September 2002, page 140]
Architect: Klein Dytham
Architecture; The Design
Studio (associate architect)
Client: Beacon
Communications
Key players: Tokyu
Architects & Engineering
(engineers); Takashimaya
Space Creates (general
contractor)
112

Architectural Record 11.03

At one of the most prestigious golf resorts in the world,


choosing Sunbrella was just par for the course.

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using the finest materials around. Thats exactly why youll find Sunbrella awning fabric at the Pinehurst Resort.
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fabrics come in more than 125 styles and colors, you can bet we even have some exceptional greens.To find
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Or visit our web site at www.sunbrella.com. Insist on Sunbrella, there is no substitute.

Awnings & Canopies Patio & Deck Furniture Boat Tops & Covers
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BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

A NEW CAMPUS CONCEPT SUCCEEDS


IN ITS URBAN MISSION

Project: New Academic


Complex, Baruch College,
CUNY, New York City
Architect: Kohn Pedersen
Fox Associates; Castro-Blanco
Piscioneri (associate architect)
Client: Baruch College
Key players: Weidlinger
Associates (structural);
Cosentini Associates
(m/e/p); TDX Construction
(general contractor)
114

Architectural Record 11.03

P H OTO G R A P H Y : M I C H A E L M O R A N

Program: Over the 156 years of its life, Baruch has thrived in New York City
as an urban, multicultural college serving motivated students in a variety of
business and liberal arts programs. Scattered and disconnected, the campus lacked cohesion and common gathering areas and needed to provide
appropriate accommodation for a bustling student body of 15,000.
Solution: The academic building occupies three quarters of a full city block
and forms the center of a new urban campus. It contains a great central
atrium connecting the three parts of the schoolthe business school, liberal arts college, and shared social amenitiesand serving as a focal point
and gathering place for interaction. Through a series of four-story atria, the
buildings verticality was optimized to create campus quadrangles for each
program stacked diagonally throughout the large floor plate. Students, faculty, and New Yorkers have all proclaimed its enormous success.

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

FINALIST

THE DESIGN REDEFINES THERAPY


FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

P H OTO G R A P H Y : E C K E R T & E C K E R T

Program: The mission of the Childrens Therapy Unit (CTU) is to help children with special health-care needs use their bodies and minds to reach
their full potential. This project needed to provide a distinctive facility for
the CTU program, one that would attract, inspire, and motivate children,
their families, and the staff who work there. In addition, patient volume had
increased to more than 600 children a week.
Solution: The architects created a noninstitutional, playful and fun setting
for children with birth defects, neuromuscular disorders, and/or developmental disabilities. Increasing interdisciplinary collaboration and patient
convenience, the new facility brings together laboratory, workshop, and
therapeutic components, as well as testing and fabrication of prosthetics
devices. The project includes a day-care center for disabled children and a
multimedia classroom for education programs, training, and presentation
of research. A 30 percent increase in in-patient volume, not to mention the
extensive waiting list of families for services during the first nine months,
are testament to the projects success.

Project: Dr. Donald &


Beret Mott Childrens
Center, Puyallup, Wash.
[record, July 2002,
page 144]
Architect: Zimmer
Gunsul Frasca Partnership
Client: Good Samaritan
Community Healthcare
Key players: Putnam
Collins Scott Associates
(structural); David Evans
& Associates (civil); Blue
Sky Landscaping Services
(landscape); Absher
(general contractor)

116

Architectural Record 11.03

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esd control vinyl flooring systems

BUSINESS WEEK / ARCHITECTURAL RECORD AWARDS

UNBUILT / EDITORS CHOICE

A PROJECT TO VERIFY THE VIRTUES


OF GOING GREEN
I M A G E S : J O C K P OT T L E / E S TO ( M O D E L ) ; M I C H E L D E L S O L / G R E AT H A B O R D E S I G N C E N T E R ( R E N D E R I N G )

Program: Designated as a pilot project, this new manufacturing facility will


focus on the research and development of converting wasted glass into a
high-added-value engineered stone that could eventually be used in sustainable architecture throughout the nation. The facility will be housed in a
former military base, within close proximity to 1,000 tons of waste glass per
day and a surplus of inner-city workers.
Solution: Faced with the overwhelming task of a gut rehab of the worst
building on the base, the client became its own general contractor. Thus,
much of the basic construction work and metal fabrication was undertaken
in-house, with estimated construction cost savings of up to 70 percent.
When the facility is completed next year, this skillfully designed model of
sustainability will both experiment with and provide prototypes of innovative
and smart materials to be incorporated into this stone product.

Project: Great Harbor


Design Center, Brooklyn,
N.Y.
Architect: Gary
Shoemaker Architects
Client: Great Harbor
Design Center
Key players: Bayomi
Consulting Engineers
(engineers); Great Harbor
Design Center (general
contractor)

118

Architectural Record 11.03

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The enduring impact of


a timeless Eden:
Southern California
architecture of the
20th century through
a masters lens
By Ingrid Whitehead

FEATURES

os Angeles, 1936. A self-taught photographer from Brooklyn named


Julius Shulman sends a few photos to

an architect from Vienna named Richard


Neutra. The photos, of Neutras just-completed
Kun House, impressed the architect. He bought
them, commissioned others, and a friendship
and professional partnership was born.
Neutra and his contemporaries went
on to dene an era of Modernist architecture
in Southern California, and Shulman went on
to document it, including the famous Case
Study Houses for Art and Architecture magazine. His stunning images invite the viewer to
stopand to recognize a near-perfect period
and place. Shulmans photos glorify the dream
of California, a mythic essence realized by the
architects who assembled posts and beams
together in a uniquely contemporary way.

120

Architectural Record 11.03

Loewy House, 1947.


Albert Frey, Palm Springs, California, 194647

Chuey House, 1958.


Richard Neutra, Los Angeles, California, 1956

Academy Theater, 1939 (right).


S. Charles Lee, Los Angeles, California, 1939
Desert Hot Springs Motel, 1947 (bottom right).
John Lautner, Desert Hot Springs, California, 1947
Frey House, 1953 (below).
Albert Frey, Palm Springs, California, 194753

FEATURES
Sturges House, 1962 (above).
Frank Lloyd Wright, Los Angeles, California, 1939
Shulman House and Studio, 1950 (right).
Raphael S. Soriano, Los Angeles, California, 1950
Case Study House #25 (Frank Residence), 1963 (opposite).
Edward Killingsworth, Naples, California, 1962

124

Architectural Record 11.03

FEATURES

CIRCLE 78 ON READER SERVICE CARD OR GO TO WWW.LEADNET.COM/PUBS/MHAR.HTML

Full-Blown
Los Angeles
Has Americas over-the-rainbow city
entered an adult phase
after decades at the beach?

P H OTO G R A P H Y : R I C H A R D B A R N E S

s Los Angeles nally growing up? If architecture is a gauge of a civilizations psyche,


then where is sprawling L.A. now? Follow the trajectory of its new path, from the
earliest days of the 20th century, in which builders imitated the romantic Spanishinected early culture, past 77 Sunset Strip, to the heady 70s and 80s, when seemingly
every architect operated out of a converted industrial building in Santa Monica, until today.
Historically, New York or London bore serious intellectual weight. Los Angeles oated on a
smoggy hazecreative and carefree, but a duck-tailed youngster preening in a convertible.
Then the cultural heavyweights began to take root in the arid soil. When did it begin?
With Isosakis MOCA in 1986? Perhaps with the Skirball, out on the highway; or back downtown, where developers like Tom Gilmore brought renewed vitality to neglected properties and
attention focused on big business and high culture. The ascendance of the architectural
schoolsSCI-Arc, UCLA, USCbrought focus to the architectural scene and offered an
ongoing forum for serious architects that continues to enrich the laboratorylike environment.
When the powers that be commissioned Richard Meier, and his Getty opened in
1997, the city entered the major leagues, making a self-conscious play for East Coast attention. Jos Rafael Moneos Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels and, nally, last months
opening of the Walt Disney Concert Hall by native son Frank Gehry, signaled a dening
moment in the citys life. Like a lumbering giant, the city pulled its way up from the La Brea
pits, stirred, and stood up.
Adulthood may have been inevitable. All those freeways, converging and passing
their hopeful throngs along the valleys and the coast, lling up the schools and houses,
spreading and spilling their hopes and dreams, couldnt run to innity. Today, the freeways
have reached a critical mass, congealing like human arteries that have continually pumped for
a hundred years. They still ow, but more slowly.
Yet despite this coming-of-age, the city still res the imagination, producing architectural works of great energy and invention. If Gehrys concert hall represents a ripening,
consider the freewheeling creativity of the projects on the following pages, in which a variety
of architects engage unexpected materials derived from the techno and industrial to the vernacular in a cacophony of solutions as raucous as the highways: thin, stiff, transparent, raw,
funky. The evolution of Modernism can be clearly traced on the Southern California streets,
from Neutra and Schindler and the Wexler houses in Palm Springs to the hybrid library of
Hodgetts + Fung.
For years, Angelenos typied California dreaming. Today, they are hard at work and
stuck in traffic, but still lled with architectural re. Welcome to Los Angeles and the maturation of a great American city.
11.03 Architectural Record

127

INTRODUCT ION

By Robert Ivy, FAIA

Can students envision a future


that planners and the
powers that be cannot?

A spread from volume


two imagines a downtown-to-airport rail link
dramatically layered
with related activities.

128

Architectural Record 11.03

Yes,

GE
IMA

ART
S

CEN

COL
TER

LEG

DE
E OF

OW
LA N
SIGN

PRO

JEC

os Angeles pioneered the car-driven, 20th-century


urban paradigm. Its mobility-induced decentralization
has been mirrored in a decentralized government, with
a weak mayor and strong city council, and an incremental, market-driven approach to growth and redevelopment.
Not for Los Angeles the big-idea urbanism of Berlins Potsdamer
Platz, the Grands Projets of Paris, Rem Koolhaass reinvention of
Lille, France as a new transportation hub, or the urban transformation wrought by the Barcelona Olympics (Los Angeles
proudly hosted theirs on the cheap). Still stuck in the backyard
by the pool, Los Angeles has little will for large urban vision.
Ferns and palms semaphore the citys Garden of Eden
promise, but as developers have shoved six-family dingbats into
once-leafy single-family lots and suburbanized sprawl continues in every direction, Los Angeles tests the upper limits of
both home prices and feasible travel time. In a convergence of
urban fact and collective desire, the city is at once recentralizing
as it continues to decentralize.
Richard Koshalek, the president of Art Center College
in Pasadena, decided it was not only time for a new, more
inclusive vision for the city, but for a new way of devising that
vision. In 1999, he initiated a proactive, cross-institutional
study to reassess the very identity of the city and propose ideas
for guiding and catalyzing its transformation. Koshaleks very
simple but effective idea was to use Californias design and
architecture schoolsthe University of California, Los Angeles
(UCLA); California Institute of the Arts (CalArts); the
Southern California Institute of Architecture (SCI-Arc); as well
as the Art Centeras a collaborative think tank for developing
constructive ideas in a city without the mechanism and will to
take long strides.
Working with project director Dana Hutt, he engaged
Thom Mayne as project architect to head an effort at proposing
a series of urban interventions, using Maynes studio at UCLA
and his Santa Monica office, Morphosis, as a base of operations.
Mayne himself maintains a porous practice and design attitude,
open to many voices. He told his students that the projects would
represent a collaboration with no single author.
Mayne was an astute choice. Known for highly articulate, ferociously intense buildings, he actually worked rst in
urban design before becoming, in his late 20s, an architect.
His development as an architect has deeply inuenced his
approach to urbanism, with structures that reach beyond the
borders of site and program but which recognize forces of the
city acting on them.
Mayne, however, was not interested in having students
parachute projects into the city, but rather wanted them to
understand Los Angeles today in its larger metropolitan context
and social condition. For the rst half of the academic year, students collaborated on a massive research project. The analysis
was necessary so that students could take a design stance based
on real information, says Mayne. Working in studios, UCLA

Joseph Giovannini is the architecture critic for New York magazine.

declares the L.A. NOW project

FEATURES

By Joseph Giovannini

In volume one, students inventively


presented data on air
pollution (above) and
transportation (right).
They considered how
building typologies
could mix in new ways
(opposite).

FEATURES

students compiled research and developed their own projects.


At the Art Center, photography, lm, and environmental-design
students created images for the books published on the project
and designed the exhibition in the A + D Museum in the
Bradbury Building. CalArts graphic design students laid out the
books under the guidance of Lorraine Wild, with the coordination of project manager Julianna Morais, of Morphosis.
The results were published as L.A. Now, the rst of a
two-volume project (University of California Press, 2001). It is
divided into sections under such rubrics as People,Money,
Natural Habitat, and Man-made Habitat.The study looks
at what is specic and idiosyncratic to Los Angeles, rather than
identifying its common ground with other global locales, says
Mayne, whose office coordinated the publication. We wanted
to embrace its distinctions, not atten the complexity.
The ngerprints of Rem Koolhaas and Bruce Mau
mark volume one, with statistical analysis of the Los Angeles
condition visualized through pumped-up graphics and raw
photography. At the start of the chapter on Civic Identity, we
nd former mayor Richard Riordan pounding drums with a
Latin jazz combo behind a Eurasian Rockette dancing in a
feathered G-string and shnet stockings. Three pages later, we
learn not only that 261,400 people sleep in the streets of Los

Angeles, but that they constitute 38 percent of the nations entire


homeless population. Like Los Angeles, the book sprawls from
subject to subject, its pages of interesting nuggets adding up to a
pointillist portrait of the citythough, inevitably, some points
are more interesting and revealing than others. The book isnt
linear; you can start anywhere. Like Los Angeles, there is no
single reading, no single center, no one path through.
This interpretive analysis informed visions that students developed for specic (though quite large) downtown
settings, a landscape wrapped by the I-10, the Hollywood, and
the Harbor Freeways. They are presented in L.A. Now, Volume

WITH FOUR SCHOOLS INVOLVED,


L.A. NOW BECAME A COLLECTIVE
THINK TANK FOR THE CITY.
Two: Shaping a New Vision for Downtown Los Angeles.The problems at this scale are no longer singular, and the solutions require
understanding the multiple forces that act on a site, says Mayne.
Thats the difference between architecture and large-scale urban
planning. Each student had to develop some command of the
economic, political, and social terms that applied.
In the designs, the buildings and city merge in an urban
11.03 Architectural Record

131

A Visionarys New Pulpit

For nearly 20 years, Richard


Koshalek, 61, used his position
as director of the Museum of
Contemporary Art (MOCA) in Los
Angeles as a bully pulpit for urban
activism. Maybe urban guerrilla warfare is a better term. Trained as an
architect, he took the institution outside its Grand Avenue walls, using
streets and parking lots as canvases
for site-specific happenings and
installations. Art, in his view, could be
an urban catalyst; building downtown
was a way to build the institution.
Koshalek orchestrated the
construction of Gehrys Geffen
Contemporary and MOCAs main
structure, designed by Arata Isozaki.
By breaking open downtowns
bunker mentalitythe instinctive

mlange that exceeds even the delirium Koolhaas found in New


York in his retroactive manifesto. Though based downtown,
most projects address multiple scales, from the local to the
regional. The projects presume that an infusion of 200,000 people
will achieve a mass sufficient to jump-start downtown as a 24/7
community. This density is necessary, for example, to activate the
proposed river park and a mass-transit node, with attendant
hotels and cultural activities, which another project connects to
the airport. One team proposed a university with a spur that
reaches out across the Los Angeles River to the East Side. A sports
park introduces new athletic and entertainment facilities around
the Staples Center Arena, a complex that would serve both public
and private, as well as local and state uses over time. A housing
proposal capitalizes on existing buildings by interweaving them
with outdoor spaces across the rooftops of mid-rise buildings in a
three-dimensional residential/recreational matrix.
Perhaps the most promising study is the Los Angeles
River Park proposal, which focuses on a length of the river starting north of downtown, near Chinatown. This section is the
oldest occupied ground in the Los Angeles area; it hosted
Spanish and before that Indian settlements going back thousands of years. Gringos have not treated it kindly, imposing vast
rail yards and a spaghetti of elevated highways and freeway132

Architectural Record 11.03

fortification against the perceived


toxins of the cityhe made the
institution and the city permeable
to each other. Perhaps his ultimate
act of urbanism-through-art was in
chairing the architecture selection
committee that appointed Gehry to
design Walt Disney Hall (page 134).
In 1999, Koshalek became
president of the Art Center College
of Design, in Pasadena, but his
devotion to downtown remained
even as it became extracurricular.
Angelenos are willing to reconsider
downtown, he says. Theres a new
dynamic, a change from a suburban
to an urban culture. The city is turning inward, population densities
are increasing, and there is now a
greater emphasis on public transportation. He sees no private or
public vision that matches downtowns potential. By initiating L.A.
Now, the Art Center simply became
his new bully pulpit.
Koshaleks ambition is to
unleash academia through the
wall-less classroom of the city.
Most educational institutions are
cloistered within their campus, and

that creative dialogue never leaves


its small world for application in a
larger one, he explains. The
[design] dialogue doesnt usually
reach into politics, economics, or
urban development, where it can
have a larger role. The public sees
the schools as irrelevant to the
larger community.
He has also mobilized a major
expansion to the Art Center campus, long dominated by its famous
bridge building, designed by Craig
Ellwood (2). A new zigguratlike campus library by Frank Gehry (3) and
a technical-skills center by Alvaro
Siza (4) are on the boards. Koshalek
has also established a new, more
accessible South Campus nearby,
in downtown Pasadena, where
architects Daly/Genik are converting
a former wind tunnel building
into a new complex that will
house public-education and other
community-focused programs (1).
What were trying to do is find a
synergistic relationship with the city
that surrounds it, he says.
Koshalek, who has spent his
professional life bridging the worlds
of art, patronage, business, and
politics, has put his convictions to
work at the Art Center itself. J.G.

By breaking down
physical barriers (see
sidebar, opposite),
socially isolated
communities can be
united. A river park
scheme (this page)
layers ecology, industry, and residence

I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY A R T C E N T E R C O L L E G E
(SIDEBAR, OPPOSITE)

intersection stacks along the rivers cemented banks. Liberating


the river from its concrete straightjacket, as the students propose, and developing the swaths of land on either side could
suture the East and West sides of Los Angeleslong a cultural
divide. The students studied not only the river and its ecology,
but also the several blocks on either side of its banks, to assess
current and future uses compatible with the surrounding fabric.
Eschewing traditional urbanism based on zoning,
and rejecting its Modernist corollary, the clean slate, the students instead layered a new mix of uses onto existing ones.
After an ecological analysis, the students addressed ooding,
the original rationale for channeling the river, by proposing
water-recreation zones as a new kind of urban alluvial ecosystem. They hybridized landscape and cityscape in an urban park
where landscape melds into existing industrial zones. These the
students diversied with housing, recreation, and cultural
venues, creating elds of mixed and overlapping functions.
Buildings themselves become functionally hybridized structures, roofed with sod to facilitate the absorption of the
100-year ood. The city itself, not just the river, is understood
and treated as a uid. Both represent ecosystemsnatural
and man-madethat are compatible with each other.
Because the work extended beyond a single semester

FEATURES

three dimensionally.

into a research studio, the students have been able to study complex urban phenomena in an integrative process. Pedagogically,
they learn to move beyond formalism to ground design in large,
interdisciplinary issuesin the innate uncertainty of urbanism.
The impact of the work goes well beyond the studio.
The exercise has shown how architecture schools are a practical
and conceptual resource for the community, and how their energies and expertise can be marshaled to address current and

ARCHITECTURE SCHOOLS CAN BE


A PRACTICAL AND CONCEPTUAL
RESOURCE FOR THE COMMUNITY.
future urban needs. This is a valuable precedent not only for Los
Angeles, but for architecture schools across the United States.
The proposals, of course, are student hypotheses,
conjectural in nature. The advantage of their academic origin is
that the schemes are disinterested, not beholden to any of the
current players. Further studies will build on these, and perhaps a consensus can emerge that will galvanize a city
notoriously passive about its own urban future. Brave, new
visions are necessary to test, spur, and develop a future that
Angelenos will actually want to share.
11.03 Architectural Record

133

Angelenos have a good


reason to walk along
Grand Avenueto hang
out at Disney Halls new
sidewalk caf or merely
to gawk at the halls sinuous, stainless-steel
wrapper. At the corner of
Grand and First, the
enclosing forms curve
open to the main
entrance, across from
the Philharmonics old
home at the Music
Center.

PROJECT DIARY The story of how Frank Gehrys


design and Lillian Disneys dream
were ultimately rescued to create the
masterful WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL

P H OTO G R A P H Y : L A R A S W I M M E R / E S TO

ay 1987. Ernest Fleischmann, the executive director of the Los


Angeles Philharmonic, took an urgent telephone call while
waiting for a ight in New York. The call was about a gift, one
of the most extraordinary ever offered any cultural institution,
let alone an orchestra. Lillian Disney, the widow of Walt, had offered $50
million to build a new home for the Philharmonic. It seemed unbelievably
auspicious. While the gift would not cover the entire cost, it would drastically reduce the fund-raising burden. No one knew at the time that building
Walt Disney Hall would ultimately consume the next 16 years and cost
more than ve times the sum Mrs. Disney had offered.
Since 1964, the Philharmonic had performed in the Dorothy
Chandler Pavilion, one of three performing-arts halls in the Los Angeles
Music Center complex. Architect Welton Beckett had mounted the center on a chilly raised plaza and surrounded it by an arcade, an uneasy
marriage of Modernist style and Classicist form that was typical of an
arts acropolis of its time. The barnlike Chandlerlong famous as home
of the Academy Awardsswallowed the orchestras sound. A parcel had
been reserved across the street for future expansion, and it was for this
site that Mrs. Disney offered her gift, with approval of the county, which
owned it. She also specied a deadline of December 31, 1992, for
ground breaking.

19871988: Chain-link architect for a champagne client

Fleischmann and a committee assembled to manage the construction visited many of the worlds great halls. Two that particularly impressed the
group were not on the usual greatest-hits lists. One was the Berlin
Philharmonie, a dramatically expressionistic composition of terraced and
overlapping tiers completed in 1963 to a design by Hans Scharoun with
acoustician Lothar Cremer. The other acoustical standout was Suntory
Hall, 1986, in Tokyo (Yasui Architects), where the acoustical consultant
had been Nagata Acoustics, a rm well known only in Japan.
In the meantime, an architectural subcommittee winnowed a
list of 80 architects down to four who would compete for the commission: Gottfried Bhm, of Cologne, Germany; Hans Hollein, Vienna;
Project: Walt Disney Concert Hall,

Los Angeles
Client: Los Angeles Philharmonic
Association, the Music Center of Los
Angeles, Los Angeles County
Architect: Gehry PartnersFrank
Gehry, FAIA, partner; James M.
Glymph, partner; Craig Webb, project

designer; Terry Bell, project manager


Consultants: Nagata Acoustics,
LObservatoire (lighting); John A.
Martin & Associates (structural);
Theatre Projects Consultants; Rolf
Jensen & Associates (re protection,
accessibility); Manuel Rosales (organ)
Contractor: M.A. Mortenson
11.03 Architectural Record

135

PRO JECTS

By James S. Russell, AIA

James Stirling Michael Wilford, London; and Frank O. Gehry, FAIA. The
Europeans all had more impressive resumes: They all had won the
Pritzker Prize; Gehry had not. They all had built acclaimed major projects
(museums in the case of Stirling Wilford and Hollein), but none of the
competitors had designed a major concert space. Gehry, however, had
long worked with the Philharmonic to enhance the Hollywood Bowl and
had built two outdoor concert pavilions.

The prospect of Gehry rankled many close to the project. He was a wild
man who would give the orchestra plywood instead of stone and chain
link instead of polished brass. Nevertheless, the committee announced the
choice of Gehrys scheme, contending that it belongs especially to Los
Angeles and will be perceived internationally as a mark of our cultural
maturity. Set behind a domed greenhouse that Gehry dubbed a living
room for the city, the hall would seat 2,265 (1,000 fewer than Chandler)
and was optimistically slated to open May 1992.
A working budget of $115 million was established, but in fact
no one at the beginning of 1989 knew what the real scope of the project
would bethe competitors had all worked from sketchy, provisional
criteria. This would await a detailed design process with an acoustician on
board. But the directive from Mrs. Disney had been clear: It should strive
to match the best halls in the world.
Typical of large, public projects, Dworsky Associates agreed to
take Gehrys schematic design through working drawings as executive
architect. The Philharmonic, with Gehrys enthusiastic approval, hired
Nagata Acoustics, the consultant that had produced Suntory Hall. Minoru
Nagata subscribed to the largely unscientic yet common-sense notion of
psycho-acousticsif people feel comfortable and like the visual qualities of an auditorium, theyll like the sound better. Yasuhisa Toyota, who
completed Disney after Nagata retired, likes to work closely with architects who have strong ideas as long as they listen. We think about how to
support the architect so that he can freely design, he explains. And
Gehry, a self-described musical dilettante, listened. With Nagata, he essentially started from scratch on the hall, producing 82 models at 116-inch
scale based on congurations for great halls in the world, from Vienna to
Amsterdam to Boston. To strike a balance between an immersing visual
experience and excellent sound, Gehry and Nagata discarded wellregarded historic types, evolving a unique hall form, one that drew on the
exciting, audience-involving asymmetric arrangement of Berlinwhich
surrounded the stage with listeners in so-called vineyard tiersand the
symmetrical, but similarly tiered, layout of Suntory.
Competition-winning model, 1988, with bridge to Chandler Pavilion.

136

Architectural Record 11.03

Early design study, 1991 (top), with proposed hotel (Chandler Pavilion to the
right). Near-final model with limestone cladding, 1992 (bottom).

The Los Angeles design, however, had to be reconciled with the


countys desire to add revenue-generating components to the site. A parking garage was to be built under the hall. Later, the team tried to
accommodate a 350-room hotel, but it fell through. A chamber-music
hall was originally part of the project, but was jettisoned. Each change
involved a thorough redesign.
Though the Philharmonics music director, Andr Previn,
resigned in 1989, it was a good year for Gehry. He won his Pritzker, and
his design sensibility had evolved. He had by then begun wrapping overlapping sinuous curves around the blocky, sometimes self-consciously
clunky forms he had become known for. The rst realized work in this
new direction, the Vitra Museum in Weil am Rhein, Switzerland, established Gehry as a gure of international signicance. As his work took on
increasing geometric complexity, partner Jim Glymph pioneered the use
of CATIA, the three-dimensional modeling software that would help
assure that Gehrys enriched formal vocabulary could be built to budget.
Designing Disney with sketchy paper models, Gehry xed four
soaring wedge shapes to the outwardly canted rectangular box containing
the auditorium, clustering around the hall chunky smaller shapes for lobbies and ancillary functions. As design proceeded, the shapes softened to
uttering shells or curved, conelike forms clad in limestone. These gestures were Gehrys way of acknowledging Lillian Disneys love of owers
and gardens. She didnt understand the outside, Gehry confesses. She
would send people with books of ducky ponds and thatched roofs and
say, Could you consider . She loved the interior, though.

M O D E L S : C O U R T E SY G E H R Y PA R T N E R S ( T H I S PA G E ) ;
P H OTO G R A P H Y : L A R A S W I M M E R / E S TO ( O P P O S I T E , TO P ) ; R O L A N D H A L B E ( O P P O S I T E , B OT TO M )

19881991: A hometown trophy and a Pritzker

The main lobby level is


one level above the
Grand Street entrance
(above). At the First
and Hope Street corner, a stair ascends to
a public garden
(below). The shiny
forms enclose a VIP
Founders Rooom.

High, frondlike forms


surround the hall
(evoked even in an
early sketch), while
lower curved shapes
wrap lobby spaces
along Grand Avenue.
Stairs at left lead to
a public garden, its
fairytale plantings
(by Melinda Taylor)
apparently inspired
by Fantasia.

The building is a
landscape of gardens,
terraces, and a delftware fountain (to honor
Lillian Disney, who
collected delft).

19911994: Riots and a risky strategy

The nal design was announced and the project was put on a fast track to
meet Disneys deadline for the late 1992 ground breaking. It was a risky
strategy because fast-tracking usually sacrices cost for speed. Dworsky
struggled to translate into pricing documents the three-dimensional complexities that came out of the Gehry/Nagata collaboration. At the same
time, a recession, which had hit California particularly hard, deepened.
The fully televised Rodney King riot in South Central Los Angeles
shocked the nation and wracked the city, inspiring broad soul-searching.
A new home for the Philharmonic no longer felt like a top priority.
The Philharmonic had high hopes for its new music director, a
young Finnish composer and conductor, Esa-Pekka Salonen. Though
government officials feared that fund-raising had lagged the halls true
cost, they agreed to begin construction on the garage in order to meet the
Disney deadline. On paper, the funds in hand looked ample to cover the
cost, still officially pegged at $110 million, but the estimate was based on
early design documents. One overlooked danger signal was that the
garage alone would come in at $81.5 million.
Salonen, Gehry, and Toyota continued to rene the design.
Frank focused on what you might call the semiotic response, what message the design sends, observed Salonen in an interview. Explains Gehry,
I thought a symmetrical solution would be more comforting to the
orchestra. I wanted to offer a psychological handrail for people. For similar reasons, the hall was extensively clad in wood even though plaster
would have offered the same acoustical benet at lower cost. Adds
Salonen, We were completely in agreement with the openness of the
design and the nonexclusive feeling of the seats.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY G E H R Y PA R T N E R S ( T H I S PA G E ) ; L A R A S W I M M E R / E S TO ( O P P O S I T E ,
TO P T W O A N D P R E C E D I N G S P R E A D ) ; R O L A N D H A L B E ( O P P O S I T E , B OT TO M T W O )

Design progress variation considered in limestone, 1992 (top).

19941996: A mothballed masterpiece

Final design model after switch to metal, 1998 (bottom).

The Northridge earthquake wrought billions in damage throughout the


region in January 1994. Contractors were inundated with urgent reconstruction projects, making it an inauspicious time to put the drawings for
such an architecturally ambitious project out for pricing. The outcome
stunned everyone involved: The project had unexpectedly risen to $160
million. If you want to give a price on these drawings, you have to study
them very carefully, Daniel Dworsky told the Los Angeles Times. This is a
one-of-a-kind building. You dont simply open up the plans and understand them quickly. Gehry was cast by critics and the press in the role of
spoiled, impractical artist. He struck back, publicly blaming Dworsky. The
executive architect was incapable of doing drawings that had this complexity, he said in a recent interview. We helped select that rm. I went to
Daniel, supposedly a friend, and I said, This is going to fail and we now
have the capability to do it, so let us ghost-write it. Dworsky refused.
Gehry also blames a construction manager, whose job it was to
monitor cost and construction issues, for failing to keep officials abreast
of rising costs. But officials involved in the project now say there were also
leadership problems at the Philharmonic and the Music Center, and so
cost warnings went unaddressed. Fleischmann expresses surprise at the
$110 million gure now, saying he always expected the project to cost
much more. (The I.M. Peidesigned Meyerson Symphony Center in
Dallas had come in at $108 million ve years earlier, for example.)
Facing $50 million more in fund-raising as costs continued to
creep upward, Disney officials ordered a detailed review. The extensive
damage caused by the quake would spur yet more redesign as the halls
steel structure was changed to a braced frame, further increasing costs
since 80 percent of the steel had already been purchased. Late in 1994,
when the fund-raising gap looked insurmountable, the project was
stopped. The county threatened to declare the project in default. The
garage would remain as a partly complete, framed-concrete rebuke to all

those who had supported Gehrys hubris.


Was Gehrys design too complex to cost? Id admit it if it was,
Gehry replied in an interview. The stone exterior we designed, detailed,
and estimated came in on budget. But a larger issue was at stake, he
argued. What every architect must understand is when you have an executive architect and a construction industry that sees that what you are
doing is different and cant understand it, you cannot stand idly by. You
are fending off a lot of preconceptions. You must be parental, take charge,
and explain. The client always wants to build something great and underestimates the budget. The business person always blames the architect.
With the recession and the late 1980s banking crisis, downtown
Los Angeles lost its bank headquarters and several corporationsthe
mainstay of corporate giving to major cultural projects. Los Angeles is
too spread out, too centerless to support such a traditional downtown
project, critics said. Hollywood, a traditional source of charitable donations, stayed away. (The name Disney on the hall did not enhance
enthusiasm among executives at competing studios, either.) The Music
Center and the Philharmonic rebuilt their own leadership and brought
in real estate management experts from Hines interests, but the project
seemed utterly to have lost momentum. Gehry, who had been conspicuously overlooked for such important local projects as the Getty Center
and the Museum of Contemporary Art, described himself as a pariah in
his hometown even as projects like the Frederick R. Wiesman Museum,
in Minneapolis, and the Fred and Ginger bank complex in Prague
opened to acclaim. By the end of 1995, costs (including those entailed in
stopping the project) were pegged at $265 million. Barely averting reversion of the site to the county and the gift to the Disney family, the county
granted the Music Center an extension on its lease as it pondered how to
raise $100 millionfast.
11.03 Architectural Record

141

Within the acoustical

surface, however. Even

box of the hall (tinted

Gehrys organ-pipe

3. Auditorium

blue by light from

configuration (below)

4. Outdoor

concealed skylights),

was acoustically

amphitheater
5. Rehearsal
6. REDCAT
7. Offices

the wood enclosures

vetted. A massive rear

direct sound to the

window (opposite)

audience. The ceiling is

gives special character

the largest acoustical

to daytime concerts.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : R I C H A R D B A R N E S

1. Entry plaza
2. Lobby

1996: A rave leads to a revival

In March, the parking structure opened, but Disney Hall remained moribund. A turning point of sorts arrived, according to Fleischmann, with a
series of Philharmonic concerts in Paris. Los Angeles Times critic Mark
Swed wrote, It is notable that the voice [the Philharmonic] did nally
nd was a voice the hometown crowd at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion
never hears. In the live, intimate acoustic of the Chtelet, the
Philharmonic sound has an arresting immediacy. Board members who
attended were blown away, said Swed in an interview. The sounds clarity and impact gave them a sense of what would be possible in a new hall.
Director Richard Koshalek, a competition juror years earlier, put
the weight of the Museum of Contemporary Art behind the Disney project by organizing a free exhibition celebrating the design. With models,
computer renderings, and even a full-scale mock-up of one of the curved,
limestone-clad walls, MOCA drew a broad public into the intricacies
of the acoustical and architectural collaboration. Even the ercely competitive architectural community began to rally behind the project.
Orchestrated by Thom Mayne, a long list of architects worldwide paid for
and signed a full-page advertisement in the Times: Build It and They Will
Come read the headline. The rate of new gifts accelerated.
1997: An impasse?

Eli Broad, a major local philanthropist who headed SunAmerica, a homebuilder, urged the Music Center and the Philharmonic to move the
project forward with a design-build team that would include a new executive architect and conne Gehrys role to that of consultant. When
Broad brought me that scenario, I said I couldnt live with it, said Gehry.
Then came The Letter, a now-famous missive addressed to Broad but
shared with arts leaders and project funders, in which Gehry offered to
withdraw. The past few years have been difficult for me as I have taken a
lot of heat for what has happened, Gehry wrote. He argued that the
Dworsky drawings remained inadequate and that a fourth of the detailing

How acoustical science augmented art


in the Disney Concert Hall design
Gehry and Minoru Nagata derived a

one at the expense of the other).

hall configuration that balanced the

Other tweaks create an aural spa-

visual experience and sound quality

ciousness and definition that allows

by comparing study models (oppo-

the listener to discern the sound of

site, top) of famous halls. The room

a specific instrument within an

shape is so important because only

ensemble and be able to locate its

a small percentage of what most

source. Toyota added two new divid-

people hear comes directly from

ing partitions in the orchestra after

the stage. In the narrow shoe box

he heard the Kitara Hall (a design he

of some great halls, straight side

derived from Disneys). After initial

walls reinforce direct sound with all-

testing of Disney, Toyota provided

important early reflections, which

additional absorption above the

deliver a volume and presence that

highest side seats but contemplates

people expect in a live, unamplified

no other physical changes. Its a

performance. Disney is wider, with

modern sound, both transparent and

sides swelling outward, giving many

warm, which is unusual, says music

patrons the orchestral equivalent of

director Esa-Pekka Salonen. The

50-yard-line views. Yasuhisa Toyota

sound is very, very good, especially

has calibrated the relative sound

the bass response, traditionally the

absorption of the surfaces to achieve

hardest thing to achieve. It makes

his trademark, a combination of clar-

the whole orchestra sound more

ity and warmth (many halls provide

resonant and more intense. J.S.R.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY G E H R Y PA R T N E R S ( O P P O S I T E , B OT TO M A N D M O D E L ,
T H I S PA G E ) ; R O L A N D H A L B E ( O P P O S I T E , TO P )

remained to be done. He claimed that changing course again might add


as much as $30 million to the project. The letter also referred to Gehrys
difficult personal relationship with Broad, for whom he had designed a
house. Some people have said that 75 percent of my building is better
than none, Gehry wrote. Thats the way you did your house, and you are
satised. Maybe you can do it again. My obligation to myself and to the
Disney family makes it impossible for me to agree to such a process.
The clash did not reach the impasse that many feared. At stages
in the process, Frank lost heart, explained Steven Rountree, the Music
Centers president. But he remained an active, passionate participant.
He built alliances with the Disney family, the orchestra, and the board.
And these alliances paid off. Diane Disney Miller, the daughter of Lillian,
who had taken an increasingly active role in the halls progress, had come
to believe deeply in Gehrys design. We cant let this go under, she
reportedly said to Mayor Richard Riordan. Riordan knew Gehry personallythey played hockey togetherand he, too, had become a
convert to the cause after a quiet trip to the Guggenheim Bilbao, which
was nearing completion in Spain. (He would ultimately make a multimillion-dollar personal gift.) Andrea van de Kamp, the president of the
Music Centers board of directors, had also visited Bilbao with Randy
Jefferson, one of the rms partners. The experience is as close to an
epiphany as Ive ever had.
Bilbao, relatively free of cost surprises and construction snafus,
reinforced Gehrys claims that his rm could do the job for a predictable
sum. I knew that if we blew this opportunity, it was one we could never
regain, Van de Kamp said. She urgently summoned Zev Yaroslavsky,
head of the county board of supervisors and a fellow symphonygoer.
With his help, the citys civic, business, and governmental community at
last lined up behind the project. It was Disney Miller, however, who
most prominently insisted on retaining Gehrys rm to complete the
design (backing her case with a substantial additional donation), and
she prevailed. I didnt know Diane, said Gehry, and I asked her later

1. Stage

To test Disney Halls

2. Chorus terrace

unconventional design

3. Chorus balcony

more precisely than

4. Front orchestra

permitted by computer

5. Orchestra

models (sound diffuses

6. Balcony

more than the light

7. Terrace

beams computers use,

3
Yellow cedar
helps stage
radiate sound

says Toyota), carpenters made a model at


one-tenth scale (opposite). They similarly

Steep seating rake


increases visual intimacy

scaled down the


acoustical properties
of its materials. Toyota
projected sounds
inside the model at fre-

quencies 10 times as
Curved front of
seating tier
dif fuses sound

high, picking up the


results with dozens of
tiny microphones. To
hear the hall, he converted the recordings
to normal frequencies.

PERSPECTIVE PLAN

A skylight (opposite)
draws patrons up from
the parking structure to
the lower lobby. A preconcert space, used
for talks and chamber
concerts (this page),
extends the lobby.

Grand Avenue

GARDEN LEVEL

LOBBY LEVEL

50 FT.
15 M.

1. Entry plaza

8. Library

Patrons entering at

to arrive at the main

2. Lobby

9. Orchestra caf

Grand Avenue (oppo-

lobby (above), which

3. Preconcert

10. Practice

site) mix with those

leads to three upper

4. Lobby below

11. Choral hall

arriving from the

levels, each of which

5. Caf below

12. Office

garage (under skylight)

offers Piranesian vis-

6. Auditorium

13. Public garden

amid lobby tree

tas across the skylight-

7. Founders Room

14. Amphitheater

forms. They ascend

dappled atria that wrap

the escalator at left

the auditorium.

148

Architectural Record 11.03

PHOTOGRAPHY: RICHARD BARNES (THIS PAGE AND PRECEDING SPREAD, LEFT); ROLAND HALBE (OPPOSITE AND PRECEDING SPREAD, RIGHT)

why she took my side. She said she saw it as a replay of when her father
would be pushed around by the studios in creative disputes. She
remembered the anxiety in the family when hed come home after
days of this. She correctly read the dispute over my control of the completion of the project as the same kind of game and she didnt want it.
Work commenced on the project again in August 1997 with Gehrys
office in charge.
Though the essential design had been rmed up by the end of
1991, Gehry was able to bring a new level of sculptural renement to the
interiors. Value engineers proposed a switch from exterior limestone
cladding to less costly metal, over Gehrys objections that the result would
look like son of Bilbao. Later, he said he is happy with the change. A slablike office wing for the Los Angeles Philharmonic is added at the western
edge of the site along with a 220-seat, multifunction performance space for
the California Institute of the Arts, dubbed the REDCAT (for Roy and Edna
Disney/CalArts Theater), but these both arrive with additional funding.
Fund-raising took off as the economy rebounded and faith in
Gehry and the new management solidied. (The tumultuous hosannas
accompanying the October opening of the Bilbao Guggenheim greatly
assisted.) Lillian Disney died at age 98. Realization of her great dream was
still almost ve years off.

19992003: Construction resumes

Fears over additional delays due to the designs complexity proved unwarranted. Partly this was because contractors and subcontractors had largely
caught up with Gehry Partners expertise in CATIA in the intervening
years. Builders relied on 3D steel-detailing systems and constructioncoordination models and animations. The post-Northridge seismic
criteria resulted in a structural design that relied on a dense network of
steel members, complicating work for mechanical trades that had to
thread ductwork and other utilities through. New seismic requirements
led to reinforcement of the garage.
There was one nal delay. We held off opening for six months
to get the orchestra into the hall, said Deborah Borda, the Philharmonic
Associations general director. Wary that negative assessments by critics
and musicians could damage a halls reputation for years, officials left
nothing about the inauguration to chance. Openings are precarious
events, added Gehry. (Everyones anxiety increased when the ambitious
Kimmell Center [record, March 2002, page 106] opened in Philadelphia
before its elaborate adjustable acoustic elements had been fully tunedto
some strongly negative reviews.)
In June, the orchestra moved into the hall for a tuning period.
Although the players were told that the process involved both the room

and the orchestra, the design has no adjustable elements, and no physical
changes have been made. The process is actually psychological,
Salonen told record. Were learning to play in the hall rather than
change things. At the rst rehearsal, reported Cathleen McGuigan in
Newsweek, Salonen turned to Gehry, sitting in the audience, and said,
Well keep it. Gehry began to cry.

Evidence of the tears and the years of anguished midnight telephone calls
had vanished from Gehrys appearance at a September interview. Speedwalking through the entrance lobby, he described the wood tree forms
rising through three atrium levels, as well as the carpet, decorated in patterns of Frank Stellalike petals, as among the ways he honored Lillian
Disneys love of gardens. In the uppermost lobbies, he pointed out one of
a dizzying number of bravura moments: how the canted walls explode
upward into a raked grid of skylights over which soars the curving metal
carapace of the external shells.
Inside the hall, the 74-year-old architect scrambled energetically
up steeply raked rows of seats to his favorite vantages. One is behind the
orchestra next to the exquisitely crafted criss-crossed wooden spaghetti of
organ pipes. Another is just below the monumental rear window that
opens to a sliver of prismlike glass and metal outside. Its intimate, isnt
it? he asks from this row most distant from the stage, still marveling that
this dream hes lived with so long has nally gotten built. He points out
balconies hidden in corners behind the warping, wood-clad surfaces,
where trumpets will fanfare or choral voices will rise unseen. Each of
these spots is rich with sensuously detailed architectural incident. What
does Disney mean to him now? Im on to the next thing. I need something new to be insecure about, he replies.
The rst public performance occurred after records press deadline, but officials and observers exuded condence in the acoustics as the
opening neared. (In January, record will offer an acoustical and architectural evaluation.) Still, a project that took so long, cost so much ($274
million in the end), and took such a toll (both nancially and personally)
on two generations of the citys civic leadership cannot help but remain
controversial. Disney is opening at a dismal moment for the arts economy,
especially for orchestras; several have folded in the past year alone. Will
cheap CDs and digital downloads deep-six live, unamplied performances?
Can the Philharmonics ambitious and diverse programming draw audiences from among Los Angeless racial, ethnic, and economic melting pot?
Will the hall inject life into a downtown notoriously resistant to redevelopment? These are the challenges that lie beyond the early ovations.
For Salonen, who arrived from Finland never expecting that he
had signed on to such an epic undertaking, its time for reection. What
this project has done for the orchestra is incredible. They now understand
fully what a gift has been given to them. And now were working to show
were worthy of it. Would he take on such a project again? It was such a
profound experience that I dont expect to have a similar one again.
Salonen is a very youthful looking 45, but he says wistfully, I almost feel
as if Ive lived my life.
Sources

Decoustics

Metal cladding: Permasteelisa

Carpet: Brittons

Roofing: Silplast

Lighting: Lucifer; Kurt Versen;

Finish woodwork: Columbia

Lithonia

Showcase (Douglas r and cedar)


Windows, curtain walls, skylights:

Permasteelisa; Super Sky


Wall coverings: Hunter Douglas;
150

Architectural Record 11.03

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.

The sculptural com-

below), lit by prismlike,

plexity of the lobby

glazed fissures.

extends to the atria

Drapelike plaster

that access the upper

encloses the Founders

levels (above and

Room (opposite).

P H OTO G R A P H Y : L A R A S W I M M E R / E S TO ( T H I S PA G E ) ; R O L A N D H A L B E ( O P P O S I T E )

October 2003: After the ovations

The new, 12,500-squarefoot library replaces a


5,000-square-foot facility built 40 years ago.
The main entrance
(this page and opposite)
is located in the middle
of the long elevation.

Hodgetts + Fung reworks L.A. Modernist


vocabulary resulting in a sleek and linear
design for the SYLMAR LIBRARY

P H OTO G R A P H Y : M A R V I N R A N D

or most of the 20th century, the icons of Modern design were


best represented by the single-family house, notably in Los
Angeles. To be sure, schools and colleges, museums and other
cultural facilities also became cynosures of new architectural
movements. But rarely would you look to public libraries as a building
type that embodied visionary promises. Now, the Los Angeles Public
Library system has opened up just such a possibility, as demonstrated by
a new branch library in Sylmar, about 30 miles from downtown.
Designed by Hodgetts + Fung, the 12,500-square-foot structure
is not just a lone example. It is part of an ambitious program involving
the design of 32 branch libraries for Los Angeles, 28 of which replace
smaller facilities, and four of which are brand new. Initiated in 1998 with
a bond issue for $178 million, the expansion plan has resulted in the
opening of 17 branches in the past year, with 14 to open in the next.
Hodgetts + Fung already has another branch currently in construction in
South Central Los Angeles.
None of the libraries looks particularly like the others, notes
Fontaine Holmes, the director of library facilities. The 16 architects
selected by an RFQ process were given only standard programs, not
design directives, so that the community process could make a difference
in the design, she adds. Since the tastes of some communities in the
library system can be architecturally unadventurous, veering all the way
from Spanish Colonial to Mission style, Hodgetts + Fung was relieved to
nd an open attitude in Sylmar. Located in The Valley (San Fernando),
with a burgeoning population of about 70,00070 percent of which is
Hispanic/Latino, with a median income of $53,860Sylmars middleclass citizenry involved in the librarys planning process is characterized

by a can-do attitude fused with upwardly mobile aspirations. Libraries


represent the educational future, not a gentried past.
Although Sylmar had outgrown the 40-year-old, 5,000-squarefoot building formerly on the site, its budget of $3.5 million was modest.
But Hodgetts + Fung, long known for its interest in off-the-shelf materials
and lightweight technologies, could easily adapt. While the rms formal
vocabulary harks back more to the 1960s rectilinear volumes and zigzag
rooines of Don Wexler (page 158) than to the sinuous, shimmering
curves of Frank Gehry (page 134), a fascination with steel or metal technology unites all three architects. Indeed, this inclination to use industrial
materials and techniques in all sorts of building types has given Los
Angeless architecture of the last half-century its distinctive imprimatur.
In designing the library for the 1-acre corner site, the rm
sought to create a light, bright reading room where the view was focused
upward toward the San Gabriel Mountains. We wanted an umbrella,
says Fung, a central space that was like an outdoor pavilion. She and
Hodgetts thought of the Mexican market with its long, high central volume, and designed a rectilinear steel frame structure that stretches from
Project: Los Angeles Public Library,

design team

Sylmar Branch, Sylmar, Calif.


Architect: Hodgetts + Fung
Craig Hodgetts, AIA, Hsin-ming
Fung, partners in charge; Ron Calvo,
project architect; Greg Stutheit,
project manager; Denise Zacky,
Birgit Bastiaan, Crister Cantrell,

Engineers: Englekirk Partners

(structural); The Sullivan Partnership


(mechanical); Patrick Byrne &
Associates (electrical); Delon Hamton
& Associates (civil)
Consultants: Katherine Spitz
(landcape); Barbara Strasen (artist)
11.03 Architectural Record

153

PRO JECTS

By Suzanne Stephens

Painted steel "tarp"

"Walking" steel frame

Polycarbonate and
plywood scrims

The reading room is

the daylit library

called out on the short

(opposite, top right

end of the building

and bottom), where

(above) by ample glaz-

the circulation desk is

ing. From the entrance

defined by a plywood

(opposite, top left),

base and translucent

visitors proceed into

polycarbonate scrims.

Concrete base plate

EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC

10

11

SECTION E-E

1. Lobby
2. Restrooms
3. Meeting room
4. Staff lounge
5. Workroom
12

6. Young adult
7. Children

8. Storytelling
9

9. Reference

10

11

10. Main reading


11. Circulation
12. Adult reading

5
6

0
N
FLOOR PLAN

154

Architectural Record 11.03

10 FT.
3 M.

one end of the site facing the main thoroughfare of Glenoaks Boulevard,
back along Polk Street, to a rear parking lot for 30 cars.
The architects pulled the library volume back from the building
line, but situated it on a concrete plinth that lls out the lot, while following the changes in grade, incorporating plazas, steps, and even an
outdoor bench in its overall form. The main entrance is located midblock
in the structure to separate the reading area from the community room,
and to allow the latter to be entered separately.
To vary the spaces inside, Hodgetts + Fung designed a folded,
canopylike roof of steel decking to be supported on six structural bays of
beams and columns. The steel framing doesnt march enlade down the
length of the interior, but walks in a peculiar syncopation, according to
the angles of the roof. Its pure bossa nova, says Hodgetts. We didnt
want a regimented feel for the interior.
The columns are vertically cantilevered from 12-foot-deep caissons to which the base of each column is bolted, saving on the cost of
moment frames with welded connections. We worked with FormZ on
the computer to make sure that the locations of the beams and folds
would work and we would not have a warped deck, says Ron Calvo, the
project architect. The folded rooine not only mimics the contours of the
mountains, but gives the interior framed views of the range through its
ample glazing. The plan offers varying degrees of intimacy to reading
spaces, including a lowered soffit for the childrens storytelling area.
The materials that Hodgetts + Fungs employ in Sylmar deliberately retain the lightweight feeling of the rms design for Temporary
Powell (aka Towell) Library at UCLA [record, March 1993, page 94],
with its yellow tent of polyester and vinyl over aluminum ribs. Although
Towell was a temporary library facility erected for campus use during the
renovation of the permanent library, Sylmar is meant to have a longer life.
The image almost dees this notion: Sylmars roof, for example, is only
8 inches thick. We wanted a sense of enclosure that would feel like a
stretched canvas, says Hodgetts. In order to keep the thickness of the
enclosing materials to a minimum, the architects used a 3-inch insulation

156

Architectural Record 11.03

that is glued on. And in addition to the crisply detailed aluminum and
glass curtain-wall system, a swath of translucent polycarbonate structural
sheets acts as the exterior wall surface, then cuts through the building and
wraps around the circulation desk as an interior canopy.
In searching for the aluminum siding to clad the exterior, Hodgetts
+ Fung looked to truck trailers, since their horizontal ribbing is narrower
than normal corrugated aluminum. The smaller-scale texture contrasts
with the wider ridges of the translucent, vertically ribbed polycarbonate
sheets, explains Hodgetts. He also noticed that the neighborhood was dotted with painted aluminum corrugated sheds, and so convinced Fung and
the rest of the office to inject a bit of color in the underside of the steel tarp.
Such ourishes are not surprising for Hodgetts, who has been
known for his vernacular pop-cultural predilections since his wild and
woolly youth in the late 1960s. I come in like a hot-rodder, and Ming
comes in as Ms. Architect. Shes more austere, he says. The combined talents of Hodgetts and Fung, however, have meshed well over their almost
20-year partnership. As the work has matured, it has retained the crisp,
linear geometries of the early Los Angeles Modern legacy, combined with
the rakish swerves of a contemporary sensibility.
The industrial-type materials give the library a legibility and
translucence, while the syncopated structure, with its shifting steel framing, varies the spatial experience in the vertical dimension. At the same
time, the solution manages to respond straightforwardly to the program,
with imagination instead of gimmickry. n
Sources

Polyisocyanurate nailable rigid

Exposed metal deck and standing-

insulation: Apache Iso Products

seam metal roofing: IMSA Building

Polycarbonate structural sheeting:

Products

Polygal Plastic Industries

Truck trailer aluminum exterior


panels: Wabash National
Glass (for curtain wall): Aital

Custom Glass & Mirror

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.

The folded steel roof is

In the library proper,

supported on a series

a dropped ceiling

of columns and beams

(opposite, right) with

that follow a synco-

illuminated lenticular

pated rhythm through

tiles created by artist

the space (this page).

Barbara Strasen

The community room

helps impart a sense of

occupies the rear of the

intimacy to the

building (opposite, left).

storytelling area.

BARLOW HOUSE
Each Wexler house has a unique
hat, such as this one, with its
folded-steel panels. The roof
design depends on the placement
of the glazing on the north-south
orientation. The Barlow House was
remodeled during the early 1980s
and became adobe for a while.
ODonnell + Escalante Architects
did major surgery on this house
during the latest restoration, peeling off layers of concrete block
and wood siding to get down to
the original structure. At the end
of the job, the project lost half of
its square footage and was sold
for twice its purchase price.

In the early 1960s, Don Wexlers graceful steel


houses revolutionized home design and made
the California desert sparkle with Modernist gems

P H OTO G R A P H Y : DAV I D G LO M B

ow many times have we heard that the future


dle class. The glass-and-steel, terrazzoof the American home lies in steel? Or that
oored homes sold for around $15,000
the customized factory-built house is right
(about $91,000 today) and were the rst
around the corner? Whether its the sexy
and lastbuilt in a proposed housing
post-and-beam framing of the Case Study House proproject of 38. The radical houses attracted
gram or the stucco-clad steel-stud framing that
a lot of press. Plenty of steel-trade journals
promises youll never know its steel! the stories are
and architectural magazines, including
frustratingly futile. Wood always wins.
architectural records Record Houses
Most midcentury houses that deed convenof 1963, featured the project by Wexler
tion prevail only as pedigreed collectibles. Nonetheless,
and his partner at the time, Ric Harrison.
supporters are still out there, arguing for them not as
Whats unique is that we utilized the
artifacts but as robust prototypes. In Palm Springs back
light-gauge panel system structurally, so it
in the early 1950s, well-known local architect Don An arid desert landscape sets the scene.
acts as bearing wall, shear wall, and roof
Wexler recognized he could harness an innovative new
diaphragm. I developed it, tested it, but
system for school classrooms devised by Bernard Perlin, a civil Don made it aesthetically viable. I remember going to his office with a test
engineer, with steel fabricator Calcor panel. He fell in love with it and took it from there, said Perlin.
Corporation. Faced with a rapidly
The engineers system is simple, sturdy, elastic; the architects
Project: Barlow House, Palm
increasing population, the local school compositions asymmetrical and complex. With the punishing climates
Springs, California
district challenged the two men to propensity to warp wood beams, a twisting that can telegraph to the roof
Architect: Don Wexler
design classrooms cheaper than $10 per construction, I thought that steel was ideal for the desert, said Wexler.
Renovation architect: ODonnell +
square foot. The steel-panel system Calcors kit of parts used interlocking, 16-inch-wide steel panels ranging
Escalante ArchitectsAna Maria
they delivered also proved quick to from 18- to 22-gauge with 3-inch anges or ribs at each end. The panels,
Escalante-Lentz, AIA, partner in charge;
build, aesthetically striking, and, above typically spanning 13 feet, were screwed, pop-riveted, or bolted together
Lance C. ODonnell, AIA, codesigner;
all, durable for generations of kids and and placed into a steel channel raceway inset into the concrete oor slab
Martin Brunner-Ethz, Rosalinda Chapa,
maintenance workers.
to hold walls. Identical roof panels received steel tabs every three panels to
Marco Garcia, design team
Then the two turned to hous- hang ceilings and mechanical runs. Where columns were necessary at
General contractor: Pacic West
ing. U.S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel openings or corners, instead of electing more expensive hot-rolled strucContractors
provided funding, and an experienced, tural steel, Perlin employed the systems galvanized cold-rolled steel for
Kitchen remodel: Les Matzek
open-minded residential developer, hollow square tubes with 316-inch-thick walls. (The tubes also became
Size: 3,600 square feet (existing);
the Los Angelesbased Alexander handy vehicles to drain roof water, something todays re ratings pro1,400 square feet (after restoration)
Construction Company, provided the hibit.) Insulation consisted of pieces of drywall set into the cavities
Date built: 1962
land. Built for less than $8 per square overlaid with berglass batt and an added .5-inch-thick drywall, which
Date renovated: 2001
foot ($45 today), the seven mass-pro- deadened the unresidential sound of a light metal building, Wexler said.
duced Steel Development Houses rose Like the classrooms, Perlins own 1960, Wexler-designed, 3,400-squareSources
in a few days in 1962 in a notoriously foot home also included an added 24-gauge painted steel liner for its
Metal/glass curtain wall: Calcraft
windy northern corner of the city. The
Company
tracts unprecious title t the scruffy, Barbara Lamprechts second book on Richard Neutra will appear in March. She
Kitchen tile: Ann Sachs
generic neighborhood as well as its practices architecture, teaches architectural history, and writes for publications
Appliances: Amana; Fisher Paykel
market: low-cost housing for the mid- including The Architectural Review and Fine Homebuilding, among others.
11.03 Architectural Record

159

PRO JECTS

By Barbara Lamprecht

ISERMANN-BLOMSTER HOUSE
Although air-conditioning was added
to all the restored Wexler houses, the
light-gauge steel-panel walls still get
hot. ODonnell + Escalante Architects
designed the adjoining studio to have
a conductive break made of plywood
lining the interior steel-paneled walls.

Project: Isermann-Blomster House,

Palm Springs, California


Architect: Don Wexler, owner-restored

house. Studio addition designed by


ODonnell + Escalante ArchitectsAna
Maria Escalante-Lentz, AIA, partner in
charge; Lance C. ODonnell, AIA,
codesigner; Martin Brunner-Ethz,
Rosalinda Chapa, Marco Garcia, team
Engineer: Peyton-Tomita & Associates
General contractor: Wallace & Assoc.
Size: 1,400 square feet (existing);
433 square feet (new construction)
Date built: 1962
Date renovated: 1998
Date studio addition added: 2002
Sources
Carpet, heart-shaped chairs:

Verner Panton
Conference table: Knoll
Credenza: Raymond Loewy
Side chairs: Eero Saarinen

California codes for historic buildings forbid additions from touching


the original house. The new pavilion
for the Isermann house has a roof
that gives the illusion of touching the
original house. The studios roof
overhangs the original structure with
an inch to spare (this page).

11.03 Architectural Record

161

durabilityWhen they were little, our kids would just throw [metal]
stuff at the walls and it would stick, said Perlin. The liners, however, were
deemed too costly for the houses. The exterior walls and the factory-built,
9-by-36-foot core of two bathrooms and a kitchen supported the roof,
permitting exible interior congurations. Like architect Gregory Ain and
developer Joseph Eichler, Wexler animated the site plan by ipping oor
plans and variously orienting the houses. Different roof congurations,
folded and at, further individualized the modest orthogonal buildings.
Wexlers designs possess a grace and easy affability with the outdoors despite their efficient spaces and factory-built mechanical cores. In
their asymmetry, deep cantilevers, and opposing directions of shifting
lines and planes of painted steel or glass, the designs also show some debt
to Wexlers early employer, Richard Neutra. Playing off the 9-foot ceilings,
the light-colored walls, and the white and beige gravel landscapes, the
daylighting in the houses is bright but soft.
In recent decades, both neighborhood and buildings deteriorated so badly that Wexler avoided the area. Today, all but one are restored,
protected as a Class I Historic District. Now touted as Modernist gems,
one sold for $465,000 in April and another is quietly listed for substantially

WEXLERS DESIGNS POSSESS A GRACE


AND EASY AFFABILITY WITH THE OUTDOORS DESPITE THEIR EFFICIENT SPACES
AND FACTORY-BUILT MECHANICAL CORES.
higher. One owned by artist Jim Isermann boasts a new, freestanding addition using the system by the Palm Springs rm ODonnell + Escalante.
Principals Lance ODonnell and Ana Escalante said that after trying to get
it right quickly, they slowed down to analyze. With Wexlers encouragement, they took six months to understand the system, said Escalante. It
was an investment. Now, with three projects under way employing the
system, its much faster. The rm adapted the system for todays energy
requirements, thickening the wall section with an inch of rigid insulation
and plywood as a thermal break for good reason apart from codes. The
thin-walled 1962 houses are uncomfortable in summer and expensive to
air-condition. Isermann said the original walls were noticeably hotter
where the steel anges conducted heat through the drywall, adding that
the houses had typically been sold as second homes for temperate desert
winters. He has retreated to the studio for the summer.
But the question remains: If the system was so good, why
havent we seen any more in 50 years? asks architect Bill Krisel, a friend
of Wexler and award-winning designer of some 40,000 living units
throughout the western states, including many for Alexander. He mentioned several reasons. Construction costs for contemporary wood
homes ran as low as $6.50 per square foot, so the prot margin was
much higher. Unions didnt like prefabricated mechanical runs and
cores, even forcing them to be dismantled and reassembled on the site.
Workers were uninterested in learning new techniques. They found it
decidedly unpleasant to handle the metal in the scorching summers,
exactly when developers wanted to build so that houses were ready for
buyers escaping cold, dreary weather.
For Perlin and Wexler, in the desert, steel will rule in the long
run. My dream was to be able to go to a lumber yard and buy the sections, the panels. It made sense. To this day, it makes sense. Maybe were a
little old for it, but someone is going to do it, Perlin said.
For more information on these projects, go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.
162

Architectural Record 11.03

LANE-RUSH HOUSE
Wexlers idea for these houses in
this region was to be able to use a
basic floor plan and create a unique
elevation for each house by rotating
the plan, mirroring the plan, or flipping the location of the carport.

Project: Lane-Rush House, Palm

Springs, California
Architect: Don Wexler, owner-

restored house. Restoration drawings


by ODonnell + Escalante Architect
Size: 1,400 square feet (existing)
Date built: 1962
Date renovated: 2001

WHERE DREAMS BEGIN


UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

1952

The School of Architecture congratulates Frank O. Gehry,


Bachelor of Architecture USC 1952, on the opening of
Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles
Undergraduate and Graduate Programs in Architecture, Landscape Architecture,
Building Science, and Historic Preservation
WWW.USC.EDU/ARCHITECTURE
Photograph by Gill Garcetti from Frozen Music

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2003

The Sustainable Forestry Initiative program.


Ensuring abundant forests for generations to come.

The Sustainable Forestry Initiative program is focused on meeting


the demand for wood and paper products while protecting
the environment and helping ensure future generations will have
the same abundant resources. Respect for nature and sound business
practices are integrated to the benefit of the environment, landowners,
shareholders, and customers. The SFI program is committed to...
Planting 1.7 million new trees every day,
thats more than 650 million trees each year
Enhancing wildlife habitat
Protecting water quality
Identifying and protecting rare and endangered forests
Helping to eliminate illegal logging
Training loggers and foresters in sustainable forestry
practices more than 75,000 trained so far
The SFI program now influences forest practices on virtually every
acre of private forestland in the United States over 500 million acres.
It is North Americas largest sustainable forestry program.

Growing tomorrows forests today.


www.aboutsfi.org
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UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS

Campus Connectivity
UNIVERSITIES ARE INCREASINGLY BECOMING FLEXIBLE PLACES
FOR STUDY, AS THE CAMPUS IS REMADE WITH NEW SPACES FOR
TECHNOLOGY, STUDIOS, AND PROFESSIONAL LABORATORIES.

1.
Pasadena, California

A building that bridges the old and


the new through a hybrid aesthetic,
showing that the romance of Mission
can readily join with Modernism.

2.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

P H OTO G R A P H Y : T I M OT H Y H U R S L E Y ( 1 , 2 ) ; J U S T I N M A C O N O C H I E ( 3 ) ; R O M A N V I O LY ( 4 )

The use of simple materials and a


return to the original volumes in this
historic building yield pure, uninterrupted spaces that convey serenity.

3.
Southfield, Michigan

This iconic building reinforces the campus in important waysit establishes


a new entry and creates a clear circulation pattern that reaffirms the quad.

4.
Princeton, New Jersey

Joining a social hub with exible lab


space, and turning an outdoor walkway
into a grand gesture, the architect created
a building that inspires, inside and out.

For more information on these projects, go to Projects at


www.architecturalrecord.com.

ampuses are changing. While they continue to maintain the


qualities that make them unique, institutions of higher education are evolving to increasingly serve the modern world. We
tend to think of colleges as places for curriculum to be presented to students in traditional classrooms. In doing this, we overlook
the most important aspect of learning, according to James J. Duderstadt,
former president of the University of Michigan. He notes that learning
can involve many things, but most importantly it is about active discovery. As the ancient Chinese proverb suggests, I hear and I forget; I see
and I remember; I do and I understand, he says.
Duderstadt continues by noting how university learning is leaving the classroom and entering the lab, the studio, and the experiential
environment of professional practice. Throughout the world we are
moving toward a revenue-driven, market-responsive higher education
system, he observes. And, indeed, the projects featured here demonstrate
that quite clearly. These are buildings that utilize emerging information
technology in ways that break through the constraints of time and space;
facilities that lean toward studio-based, hands-on learning and make
campuses compatible with the lifestyles of students by responding more
appropriately to the digital, interactive age, the plug-and-play generation, as Duderstadt saysthat is, to the students of today.
It is interesting that almost all of our featured buildings
include well-wired (and wireless, in some cases) computer labs and
auditoriums equipped for a variety of media. This is the case at the
Louisiana State University Academic Center for Athletes. It is also true
at Lawrence Technology Universitys Technology and Learning Center,
which primarily features the high-tech, hands-on learning environment
of the studio. At both campuses, computer labs and a lecture hall/auditorium space are central to the program. Similarly, the Broad Center at
Cal Tech includes exible lab space and a 100-seat auditorium.
Architects also provided space for downtime in three out of
four projects here. The Carl Icahn Lab at Princeton consists principally
of lab space and a lecture hall, but a caf is the star of the ensemble.
Lawrence Technology University features a gallery, and the Broad
Center has generous lounge areas. These spaces foster casual interaction
among students and faculty and often offer digital access, expected by
students on todays campuses.
As students evolve into active learners, the buildings they occupy
become increasingly oriented toward doing as a prime component of study.
Here are four excellent examples of this emerging trend in education.
11.03 Architectural Record

167

BU I LDING TYPES STUDY 827

By Jane F. Kolleeny

Broad Center for Biological


Sciences at Cal Tech
Pasadena, California

Design Architect: Pei Cobb Freed &

PartnersJames Ingo Freed, partner


in charge, design; Michael D.Flynn,
partner, technology and administration; Richard Cutter, associate
partner, project manager; Robin Taff,
senior associate, design
Executive architect: SmithGroup
Susan OConnell, principal in charge,
project manager; William L.
Diefenbach, laboratory design principal; Bernard Kummer, project architect
Client: California Institute of
TechnologyWilliam Nunez, project
manager, physical plant department
Consultants: ARUP (structural,
acoustical, m/e/p); Kornberg
Associates Architects (laboratory
planner); Land Images (landscape);
Horton Lees Brogden (lighting)
Size: 118,000 square feet, including

two oors (57,300 square feet) below


grade. Outdoor spaces include an
11,500-square-foot courtyard, a
24,040-square-foot pistache-tree mall,
and a 7,000-square-foot palm grove.
Cost: $47 million
Completion date: Fall 2002
Sources
Stainless-steel cladding: Nisshin

Steel
Travertine cladding: Marriotti
Granite: Cold Spring Granite
Metal roofing: Follansbee Steel

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.
168

Architectural Record 11.03

By Suzanne Stephens

Cal Tech may be famous in the scientific community for its research
and training, but it is also revered by
many in the architectural world for
its handsomely arcaded Spanish
Renaissance and Mission-style
campus. The romantic sensibility of
the original master plan, developed
by Bertram Goodhue in 191517,
was marred, however, by garishly
unsympathetic expansion in the
1950s and 1960s. No amount of
lush palms and pistache trees could
cover up the egregious mistakes.
In 1985, the city of Pasadena
began reviewing major changes on
the campus. A new master plan
conceived for the school in 1989
encouraged additional buildings to
reinforce the architecture and planning of the Goodhue vision but
couldnt guarantee adherence to
the proportions and delicacy of
ornament of the originals. Then a
proposal for a new biological
research center came along that
opened up issues of historicism.
The lead donor for the center, Eli
Broad, chairman of AIG SunAmerica
financial services company and a
renowned patron of the arts and
architecture, wanted a high design
architect. Broad, along with Cal
Techs president, David Baltimore,
interviewed Richard Meier,
Gwathmey Siegel, Robert A.M. Stern,
and Pei Cobb Freed. Although this
group is not outrageously avantgarde, only Stern could conceivably
have Mission as his middle name.

But Broad and Baltimore chose Pei


Cobb Freed. We were taken by
James Freeds hybrid architectural
approach, explains Broad, alluding
to the architects desire to bridge the
old campus to the south with future
expansion to the north through the
buildings carefully massed blocks of
stainless steel and travertine.
Pasadenas design review commission, however, wasnt sure that
Freeds solution was fully in keeping
with the spirit of Cal Techs master
plan, particularly since it lacked an
arcade. The school appealed the
case to the city council, which in turn
sided with Pei Cobb Freed. Because
of the firms New York location, Cal
Tech asked it to associate with the
SmithGroup, whose Los Angeles
office, headed by Susan OConnell,
has designed a number of educational buildings in the area.

The clustered, travertine-clad masses


of the south side of Broad Center
(above) face the existing campus and
the Beckman Institute, designed by
A.C. Martin in 1989, next door.

Program
The program called for an 118,000square-foot laboratory flexible
enough for the primary investigators and their research teams.
Needed were labs with work space
for computers, wet areas for experiments, plus an experimental
Magnetic Resonance Imaging facility, along with seminar rooms and a
100-seat auditorium. But just as
important were lounges that could
foster casual interaction between
students and professors of various
disciplines. In addition, the lab was
not only to serve as a gateway for
future expansion to the north, but to

P H OTO G R A P H Y : T I M OT H Y H U R S L E Y, E XC E P T A S N OT E D

PEI COBB FREED AND SMITHGROUP USE SCALE, PROPORTION, AND


MASSING TO RELATE A MODERN LAB TO A SPANISH COLONIAL CAMPUS.

The west facade is


marked by stainlesssteel cladding with
perforated-steel-plate
awnings (above and
below left), while the
south entrance (above)
is mostly travertine.

The one-story pavilion

pus as well as serve the

steel (top left) and

1. Auditorium

6. Labs

11. Shipping/receiving

for the caf (photo, bot-

students and faculty. A

the south facade of

2. Prefunction

7. Lab support

12. Pistache arcade

tom left), which was not

bridge and fire stair link

travertine (above) are

3. Light tower

8. Great lawn

13. Palm Grove

initially in the program,

the center to the caf.

precisely detailed with

4. Administration

9. Oak courtyard

14. Seminar room

was added to provide a

Both the north facade of

projecting sills and

15. Student lounge

social link to the cam-

embossed stainless

floated windows.

5. Offices

10. Caf

12
13
5

4
6

6
7

15

3
1

11

14

8
GROUND FLOOR

6
10

N 0

30 FT.
9 M.

SECOND FLOOR

hook into the circulation routes for


the rest of the campus to the south.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : M A G N U S S TA R K ( O P P O S I T E , TO P L E F T )

Solution
To preserve the open space on the
2.2-acre site, Freed opted for a double-cube block, and Arup engineers
addressed earthquake concerns with
an unbonded, braced-steel-frame
structure. The plan, essentially a grid
with cross-axial circulation, places
labs on north, west, and east sides,
with nontechnical spaces, including
the entrance, extending along the
southern portion. A 67-foot-tall light
tower with a monumental stair at its
base is included to give a sense of
space and architectonic drama to the
interior. The south facade, oriented to
the existing campus, is clad in travertine to echo the solid surfaces of the
older buildings. The other exterior
walls, which enclose the labs, are
sheathed in a shimmering knockem-dead stainless steel with an
embossed finish. It suggests a technological occupancy, says Freed.
Commentary
This hybrid of materials and massing successfully makes a transition
between old and new campuses,
and the detailing obviates the sense
of blockiness. While the villagelike
cluster of solid forms on the south
facade relate well to the nearby
architecture, the other steel-clad
facadeslight, thin, lustrous
carry the day.
Not only does the luminous
stainless-steel finish subtly catch
changes in daylight, its intricate
articulation of reveals, indentations,
projecting sills, and other details
seems to take its inspiration from
Carlo Scarpa, with a touch of Otto
Wagner. Yet, the new addition follows the underlying principles of
the campus, retaining the same
scale, massing, proportions, and
rectilinearity of its Goodhue-esque
antecedents. The lobby stairway to
nowhere (it ends abruptly on the
second level) in the glazed light well
seems odd. But that anomaly aside,
it is understandable why Broad considers the lab building a triumph,
and Baltimore calls it beautiful and
remarkably functional.

A monumental stair
(right) sits at the base of
the light well, surrounded
by lounges (bottom right).
The labs are arranged
along storage corridors
(bottom left).

11.03 Architectural Record

171

Academic Center for


Student Athletes
LSU, Baton Rouge, Louisiana

2
Architect: Trahan ArchitectsVictor
F. Trahan III, AIA, principal and
designer; Lisa Coco Hargrave, AIA,
project manager and designer; Jason
P. Hargrave, AIA, project designer;
Bryan F. Hammond, Assoc. AIA,
Michael Monceaux, Assoc. AIA, Kirk
Edwards, Assoc. AIA, Phong Le, AIA,
team members
Client: Louisiana State University
Engineers: Associated Design Group
Consulting Engineers (m/e/p); McKee &
Deville Consulting Engineers (structural); BAI, Boner Associates (acoustics)
General contractor: The Lemoine
Company

TRAHAN ARCHITECTS USED SIMPLE MATERIALS AND SPARE VOLUMES TO


CELEBRATE THE ORIGINAL CHARACTER OF THIS 1927 STRUCTURE.
By Christine Kreyling

Louisiana State Universitys Gym


Armory building was constructed in
1930, when athletic facilities enjoyed
the dignity characteristic of academic
structures on the campus. The brick
and limestone building is a symmetrical mass in the Italian Renaissance
style established for campus architecture in the early 1920s. The 2002
interior renovation reinforces the
connection between academics and
athletics. The design by Trahan
Architects distills the historic architectural language to its essence,
creating a sequence of clean,
clear spaces that articulate rational
thought in three dimensions.

Cost: $9.5 million


Sources
Windows: Custom Windows
Glazing: Architectural Glass and Metal
Doors: Architectural Wood Products;
Architectural Glass and Metal
Interior stone: Intrepid Enterprises
Plaster and veneer plaster:

Southern Stucco
Wood flooring: Aacer Flooring
Cotton fabric ceiling: Quantum Sail

Design Group
Furnishings: Architectural Wood

Products; Sunset Settings; Herman


Miller
Lighting: Engineered Lighting Products

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.
172

Architectural Record 11.03

Program
The not-for-profit Tiger Athletic
Foundation, which supports LSU
athletics, commissioned the Trahan
firm to turn the Gym Armory into an
academic center for the schools
athletes while respecting its historic
style. The program called for the conversion of 55,000 square feet spread
over three floors into counseling,
tutorial, study, and career-resource
spaces for college players. To pull the
academic community more firmly
into the facility, the program also
included a computer lab and auditorium for classes and lectures open
to the general campus population.
Trey Trahan, AIA, explains that,
as principal in charge, football coach
Christine Kreyling is architecture
critic for the Nashville Scene.

Nick Saban wanted to increase the


graduation rate for his players by
developing an academic environment
conducive to their special needs.
The centers executive director,
Dr. Roger Grooters, had previously
worked with Saban to develop a
similar academic center at Michigan
State University. We realized the
power of such a facility, for both
recruiting and retaining athletes,
Grooters says. Parents and prospective students can see in the center
the commitment on the part of the
university to support student athletic
development.
Solution
The Trahan team followed the lead of
the 1927 structure. They abstracted
a 1 by 2 proportional module from

the existing skeleton to determine


the pattern of new interiors. They
also retained the buildings symmetrical organization while paring away
remodelings that had obscured the
volumes of the historic interior.
Project designer Jason Hargrave,
AIA, says the team articulated the
chronological gap between exterior
and interior by means of a 34-inch
revealbetween floors, walls, and
ceilingsthat suggests new skin is
floating within the old shell. The
architects utilized a simple and
consistent palette of colors and
materialswhite to blonde for the
rooms at the buildings perimeter,
warmer and darker for the coreto
evoke serenity. Student athletes
lead life at a pretty hectic pace,
Trahan says. We felt that minimiz-

P H OTO G R A P H Y : T I M OT H Y H U R S L E Y

Size: 55,000 square feet

In the adaptive reuse


of the Gym Armory
building, symmetrical
arched entrances are
defined by bronze walls
inscribed with the
names of donors (right
and below). Inside,
austere halls of cream
limestone continue the
subtle exploration of
light, mass, and volume
(opposite).

20 FT.
6 M.

SECTION A-A

1. Reading room
2. Offices
3. Auditorium
4. Basement
5. Academic Hall of Fame
6. Hall of Champions

7 . Computer lab
8. Directed studies center
9. Classrooms
10. Study hall

SECOND FLOOR

A return to the original


building materials
and volumes that had
been compromised
over several decades
of renovation have
resulted in pure, uninterrupted spaces.

N 0
FIRST FLOOR

20 FT.
6 M.

ing visual distractions would help


them focus on their studies. And
because jocks can be pretty hard
on their surroundings, we needed
extremely durable materials: limestone, 214-inch solid plaster rather
than gypsum board.
The architects located spaces
open to all students on the first floor.
Symmetrical arched entrances are
defined by bronze walls inscribed
with the names of donors. Inside, in
austere halls of cream limestone,
inscriptions pay homage to athletes
who achieved academic distinction
and teams that won championships.
Between the halls, the centers
administrative complex is the first in a
series of spaces featuring unpainted
but sealed plaster and pale maple.
Offices are divided from reception by
acid-etched glass to allow natural
light to penetrate the interior.
Monumental mahogany doors
open into the auditorium, which
Trahan calls the rich box at the
heart of the building. The architects
used original columns, beams, and
trusses as the grid for the wood-clad
room. Book-matched mahogany
veneer emphasizes the slight curvature of the walls. Cotton fabric panels
within the trusses allow sound and
light to filter from fixtures while concealing visual clutter.
Upstairs, in space once occupied by the old gyms tiered seating,
the architects placed the computer
lab and study hall. Desks of solid
plaster are cantilevered from plaster
walls, forming smooth cubicles for
concentration. In the library/reading
room, the architects restored the
20-foot height of the space, revealing
the windows original arcuation.
Illuminated coffers in the shape of
oblique parallelograms create a
dynamic pattern of light and shadow.

Up the stairs (above),


the architects placed
the computer lab and
study hall. In the
library/reading room
(left), they restored
the 20-foot height of

Commentary
The one off note: The introduction by
university personnel of dark carpeting and furnishingsnot to mention
potted plants and other paraphernaliacontrasts too definitively with
the architects subtle gradations of
color and texture. Sometimes, as
Trahan Architects has demonstrated,
less really is more.

the ceiling, revealing


the windows original
arched forms.

University Technology
and Learning Center
LTU, Southfield, Michigan

Architect: Gwathmey Siegel &


Associates ArchitectsCharles
Gwathmey, FAIA, principal; Gerald
Gendreau, AIA, associate in charge;
Susan Baggs, AIA, project architect;
Edward Parker, Victor Rodriguez,
Richard Klibschon, team;
Neumann/Smith & Associates
(associate architect)
Client: Lawrence Technological
University
Engineers: L & A (structural);
Orchard, Hiltz & McCliment (civil);
DiClemente-Siegel Design (m/e/p)
Consultants: Gissim Metz Andries
Associates (landscape); Hillmann
DiBernardo & Associates (lighting);
Harvey & Marshall Associates
(acoustics)
General contractor: Barton Malow
Company
Size: 85,000 square feet
Cost: $12 million
Sources
Exterior cladding: Daltile; Centria;
Rheinzink; Kawhneer; Viracon
Metal roofing: Centria
Doors: Kawhneer
Hardware: Markar; Ingersoll-Rand;
Merilat
Interior finishes: USG Interiors;
Merliat; Benjamin Moore Paints;
Maharam Fabrics; Integrated
Interiors; Lees Carpet

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.
176

Architectural Record 11.03

By John Gallagher

Lawrence Technological University


(LTU) is a 5,000-student school in
Southfield, Michigan, north of
Detroit. Founded in 1932, the school
is best known for its architecture
and engineering programs, but
offers more than 40 undergraduate
and graduate degree programs,
including management, science,
and liberal arts. Although known as
a commuter school, with most students holding down jobs, its alumni
include such notables as Microsoft
C.E.O. Steve Ballmer, and its architecture and engineering grads find
work with firms all over the country.
While the schools programs
command respect, until recently its
115-acre campus left much to be
desired. Several key buildings, including the low-rise brick structures that
housed the architecture and engineering schools, looked dated and
undersized. The main campus
entrance off West Ten Mile Road
lacked ceremony and actually cut
through what passed for the schools
quadrangle as it continued through
the campus. Infiltrated and surrounded by cars, the campus leaked
space, and much of its visual energy
and social cohesion dissipated.
Program
An opportunity to upgrade came in
the late 1990s, when LTU moved
ahead to create a new building to
John Gallagher is architecture critic for
the Detroit Free Press.

3
10
8
5
11

3
7

4
3

12
6
3

N 0

100 FT.
30 M.

1. West Ten Mile Road


building
house its architectural
2. Drop-off area
7. Campus quad
studios. The program
3. Parking lot
8. Existing managequickly expanded to
4. University
ment building
house engineering stu9. Existing science
Technology and
dios as well as meeting
building
Learning Center
space for LTUs other
5. Existing architecture
10. New campus road
disciplines. The building
11. Sculpture court
building
was to be sited off
6. Existing engineering
12. Terrace
West Ten Mile Road
and would be the first
encountered when entering the camthe work of students, faculty, visiting
pus, creating the potential to redefine
professors, and artists. Above all,
the entire LTU campus experience.
LTU wanted a signature facility that
Studio space was so cramped
would be the largest academic buildin the existing buildings that many
ing the school had ever created.
design students simply worked at
home. LTU wanted a building that
Solution
would hold generousand technoAfter a spirited competition, the unilogically state-of-the-artstudios for
versity chose Gwathmey Siegel &
graduate and undergraduate design
Associates of New York, working with
students. It also needed an audioSouthfield-based Neumann/Smith &
visual lab, a large amphitheater-style
Associates, as the design team for
lecture hall, and a gallery to show off
the $20 million, four-story, 85,000-

P H OTO G R A P H Y : J U S T I N M A C O N O C H I E

GWATHMEY SIEGEL & ASSOCIATES ARCHITECTS PROVIDES AN ICONIC


BUILDING TO UPLIFT A CAMPUS AND MARK A DRAMATIC NEW ENTRYWAY

The linear building


defines the boundary of
a new quad. Its exterior
design unifies other
disparate buildings on
campus so they are
read in a new way, as
pieces of a puzzle that
suddenly make sense.

square-foot Technology and Learning


Complex. Lead designer Charles
Gwathmey, repeating a theme he has
fashioned in his earlier academic
work, created a strong linear building
that defines the south edge of the
quad and is punctuated by dramatic
geometric shapes and volumes faced
in white-glazed tile; glass; corrugated,
horizontal, or aluminum siding; and
zinc shingles. The south facade is

articulated with a linear window fenestration with projected sunscreens.


The north facade, fronting the quad,
reveals three levels of circulation
galleries with floor-to-ceiling glass, as
well as the two-story main gallery
space, projecting out from the exterior
as a circular volume.
A porte cochere on the south
wall evokes Eliel Saarinens famed
Peristyle at the nearby Cranbrook

White ceramic tile covers


the facades base, with
metallic ribbed panels
used for siding (above).
Specialized classrooms
for engineering and
architectural design
provide ample studio
space (right).
178

Architectural Record 11.03

Educational Community. In effect,


the overall building consists of east
and west sections linked by a bridge
over the open-air portal below.
While designed for both visual and
ambulatory connection with the rest
of campus, this open-air patio has
quickly evolved into spillover space
for receptions taking place inside
the lobby, as well as a site for large
sculptural installations.

The road that had formally


bisected the campus has now been
rerouted toward the southern and
western edge of the campus, leaving the newly reformulated quad
free of cars for the first time. All of a
sudden, LTU looks and feels like a
real campus. In addition, a series of
just-completed new dormitories not
far from the Gwathmey building
enhances this campus effect.
When we got there, the campus was problematic in terms of its
architectural integrity and presence,
and also because it was oriented for
vehicles, not pedestrians, Gwathmey
says. The idea of making a linear,
spinelike building that had variations
and modulations, including a campus gateway, transformed the whole
presence not only of the building, but
of what used to be an automobile
quadrangle.
The structure is exposed steel
and concrete, with mechanical
systems expressed to reveal the
primary components of the building.
The exposed, open-web steel-joist
structural system in the studios is
protected from fire by a special
intumescent paint.
Student architects, of course,
like to create a certain amount of
organized chaos in their studios, and
at LTUs new building, formal and
informal critique sessions often spill
out into hallways and little nooks and
crannies. Gwathmey says this was
both expected and intended in a
building that he designed as a neutral backdrop for such activities.
Commentary
Pulling off an architectural trifecta,
the building at once establishes a
new entry for LTU, reinforces the
quad, and creates a new circulation
pattern. It also works as a strong
and rigorous piece of architecture in
its own right. Rarely does an academic building accomplish so much in
one gesture. The new building has
raised the design bar for the rest of
the campus. In years to come, the
University Technology and Learning
Complex will be viewed not as the
culmination of a dream, but as the
start of a whole new building program for the school.

1. Gallery

7. Darkroom

12. Administrative

The building projects

that acts as the

2. Lobby

8. Office

13. Chapel

out from the exterior

schools formal

3. Labs

9. Edit room

14. Technical support

as a circular volume,

entrance, provides

4. Storage

10. Mechanical

15. Studio

its length interrupted

gallery space, and

5. Production

equipment room
11. Classrooms

16. Information center

by a grand, three-

leads to the campus

17. Porte cochere

story portal (below)

quadrangle.

6. VTR equipment

11.03 Architectural Record

179

Carl Icahn Laboratory


Lewis-Sigler Institute
Princeton, New Jersey

Architect: Rafael Violy Architects


Rafael Violy, FAIA, principal in
charge; Jay Bargmann, AIA, managing director; Sandra McKee, AIA,
project director; Jennifer Swee,
Anooradha Raman, Christina Seilern,
project managers; Charles Blomberg,
AIA, Stacey Greenwald, Asaka
Kusama, Carlos Soubie, Lily Lim,
Justin Kim, Jerrold Fox, project team
Client: Lewis-Sigler Institute for
Integrative Genomics, Princeton
University
Engineers: Dewhurst, McFarlane &
Partners in association with Joseph
Goldreich (structural); Burt Hill
Kosar Rittelmann Associates (m/e/p);
Van-Note Harvey (civil)
Consultants: Quennell Rothschild &
Partners (landscape); Acentech
(acoustical); GPR Planners (labs);
Wojciechowski Design (graphics)
Construction manager: Barr + Barr

By Clifford A. Pearson

As its name suggests, the LewisSigler Institute for Integrative


Genomics at Princeton University
takes an interdisciplinary approach
to the study of life sciences and
genetics. Just a few years old, the
institute brings together experimental biologists, computational
biologists, physicists, chemists,
engineers, and applied mathematicians so they can bounce ideas off
one another and ask a whole new
set of questions at a time of rapid
progress in genetic sequencing,
says Shirley Tilghman, who was the
founding director of the institute and
is now the president of Princeton.
Like the program it houses, the
new Carl Icahn Laboratory by Rafael
Violy Architects takes an inclusive
approach to design, bringing the
outdoors in and providing an
attractive venue for scientists to
come together.

Size: 138,000 square feet (gross)


Construction cost: $48 million
Completion date: January 2003
Sources
Metal-and-glass curtain wall:

National Glass and Metal Company


Precast concrete: Global Precast
Acoustical ceilings: Armstrong
Demountable partitions: Inscape;
Fisher Hamilton

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.
180

Architectural Record 11.03

Program
Because research in life sciences is
changing so rapidly, the laboratory
presented a difficult design challenge. When I first sat down with
Rafael, I had no idea what this
science would look like, recalls
Tilghman, a mammalian geneticist
by training. But I knew that our
building had to break down the cultural barriers that had grown up
around various disciplines and promote risk taking. And it had to be
extremely flexible.
Part of a master plan by

Machado and Silvetti Associates


that creates a new quadrangle set
around an ellipse-shaped athletic
field, the new lab connects underground to the adjacent Lewis
Thomas Laboratory, designed by
Venturi Scott Brown and
Associates (VSBA) with Payette
Associates and completed in 1986.
Although begun just a little more
than a decade after the VSBA
building, the Violy lab needed to
reflect a new world of integrated
genomic studies where the whole
is more important than any of the
individual pieces, says Tilghman.
Laboratories for about 15
faculty members (along with their
assistants and students) occupy
most of the buildings 120,000
net square feet. Offices, conference
rooms, a small lecture hall, and
a caf round out the rest of the
dedicated space, though Tilghman
encouraged Violy to think beyond
the essential components of the
program. I didnt want a building
like any other lab that existed,
she states.

Facing south, the main


facade (above and
below) features 31
aluminum louvers that
continually move to
shade the interior from
the sun. Conference
rooms (opposite, top
and bottom) cantilever
above the covered
walkway.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : R O M A N V I O LY

RAFAEL VIOLY CREATES A BUILDING THAT CAPTURES THE SWEEPING


NATURE OF ITS USERS SCIENTIFIC QUEST.

The 40-foot-high verti-

jacks. All of the

cal louvers (above

mechanical equipment

left and right) are con-

can be repaired by

trolled by computer

campus engineers

and driven by hydraulic

using standard parts.

1. Auditorium
2. Atrium
3. Caf
4. Exterior walkway
5. Laboratories
6. Faculty offices
7. Offices
8. Conference
9. Lounge

FIRST FLOOR

N0

20 FT.
6 M.

SECOND FLOOR

Because the walkway


(above) works as an
integral part of the
architecture, it helps
connect the building to
the rest of the campus.
The atrium (right) is the
social hub of the building and includes a
Gehry sculpture (left in
photo) that encloses a
conference space.

11.03 Architectural Record

183

A stair winds around


the maple-clad auditorium (above). Skylights
above corridors and a
glass roof between a
lab block (left in photo
at right) and offices
help enliven common
areas. Bands of deeply
recessed, angled windows bring daylight but
little glare into offices
and labs (bottom).

Solution
When we started, Shirley told me,
You wont believe this, but the most
important part of this building is the
coffee, says Violy with a laugh.
What she meant, he explains, is
that the social spaces, the places
where the scientists and students
bump into each other, are critical to
the success of the institute. So the
architects designed a great curving
atrium between two wings of labs
and offices. The two-story-high
space faces south to the playing
field through a curving wall of mullionless glass panels braced by
vertical steel cables.
To protect the glazed facade
from the impact of the sun, Violy
and his team designed an arcade of
40-foot-tall aluminum louvers that
stand outside the building and help
define a covered walkway linking
the lab to two nearby dorms. The
31 louvers, controlled by computers
and driven by hydraulic jacks, rotate
in conjunction with the movement of
the sun to reduce solar heat gain.
The social hub of the building,
the atrium encompasses a small,
freestanding caf, a cylindrical
lecture hall, and a Frank Gehry
sculpture that houses an informal
conference space. Curving stairs
around the lecture hall and a flight
of straight stairs along one of the
two-story lab/office wings lead
directly to the atrium, reinforcing its
role as the heart of the project.
For the laboratory spaces,
Violy created a system of
demountable elements using commercially available lines of modular
lab benches and modular partitions.
An 8-foot-high interstitial space
above each floor accommodates
all of the necessary mechanical,
electrical, and venting systems.
Commentary
Turning an outdoor walkway into a
grand gesture of movement and
connection, Violy gets a visual and
metaphorical bang out of a fairly
simple strategy. Supporting the
light-filled social hub with restrained
but flexible lab spaces, the architect
has created a building that both
works and inspires.

184

Architectural Record 11.03

To build something important,


use the right stone.

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in Piedmont, Italy has traditionally been a centre for the


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A D V E R T I S E M E N T

www.marblefromitaly.com
The Italian Trade Commission,
headquartered in Rome, is a government
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Italian Trade Commission: 1801 Avenue of the Stars, Suite 700, Los Angeles, CA 90067
Ph: 323.879.0950 Fax: 310.203.8335 E-mail: losangeles@losangeles.ice.it
192

Architectural Record 11.03

New ProForm Surfacer/Primer.


One Coat Is All You Need.

Imagine having a
skim coat and primer coat, all wrapped
in one convenient spray application.
Thats the beauty of ProForm BRAND
Surfacer/Primer, a new high-build

coating designed for use with airless


sprayers. Now you can hide minor
surface imperfections and achieve a
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an easy way to save time and money. Next
time, specify ProForm Surfacer/Primer.

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TECHNICAL INFO: 1-800-NATIONAL


www.nationalgypsum.com

Architects Slowly Begin to Expand the


Traditional Palette of Materials
NEW SUBSTANCES FROM HIGH-TECH LABORATORIES ENTER THE REALM OF CONSTRUCTION

By Nancy B. Solomon, AIA

Contributing editor Nancy B. Solomon, AIA, writes about computers, building


technology, and topics of interest to the architectural profession.

I M A G E : C O U R T E SY B I L L P R I C E , U N I V E R S I T Y O F H O U S TO N

CON T I N U I N G E DU CAT I ON
Use the following learning objectives to focus your study
while reading this months ARCHITECTURAL RECORD/
AIA Continuing Education article. To receive credit, turn
to page 202 and follow the instructions. Other opportunities
to receive Continuing Education credits in this issue include
the following sponsored sections: Residential Renaissance: Early 20th
Century American Architectural Themes are Undergoing a Revival,
sponsored by Jeld-Wen, page 209; Architectural Aluminum Curtain
Wall Systems, sponsored by Vistawall, page 215; and Interactive
Communication Products, sponsored by Polyvision, page 221.

L E AR N I N G O B J ECT I VE S
After reading this article, you should be able to:
1. Explain why new materials are not readily introduced in the construction
industry.
2. Describe the process two materials have gone through to become used in
construction.
3. List the advantages of berglass and aerogel for construction.
For this story and more continuing education, as well as links to sources, white
papers, and products, go to www.architecturalrecord.com.

B U I LD ING SCI ENC E

hen it comes to new materials, the construction industry is


not known for being a hotbed of innovation. For a host of
reasons, including economies of scale, numerous code
requirements, fragmented workforce, insufficient research
dollars, and demand for long-lasting and stable products, this market sector tends to stick to the tried-and-true.
Yet change is inevitable, and nontraditional components do
emerge in architecture. Typically, they are jettisoned from other industries
that can afford to engage in material research, and then only slowly nd
their place in architecture. Fiberglass, for example, has been around for a
while and is well understood in certain commercial sectors, but it
required a practitioner like Toshiko Mori, AIA, who has long been interested in fabrics and fabriclike materials, to nd a project-specic need and
be willing to step outside the realm of conventional fabrication methods
to fashion the popular boat material into a structural architectural component. Aerogel was a scientic curiosity for the longest time, and then
had only limited application in space exploration, until demand for
energy-efficient systems in construction increased sufficiently to make it
worthwhile for chemical companies like Cabot Corporation to determine
how to exploit its insulation properties here on Earth.

Professor Bill Price at the University of Houstons College of Architecture is


developing and testing translucent concrete.

More recently, in the past decade, foamed aluminum was only


discovered by accident while two independent companies were working
to improve the physical properties of their respective aluminum products;
promoters of this strong, lightweight new material are now working hard
to establish its architectural niche.
Practical applications in architecture may speed up when
broader policies and funding encourage the material research. This seems
to be the case with the exploration of biobased composite structures at
the University of Delaware, where material scientists supported by various
government grants are trying to develop affordable building components
that reduce our dependency on fossil fuels and increase our use of renewable and recyclable resources.
Certainly, these inventive contributions to the eld are all welcome. But those in the material-innovation business envision a day when
architects themselves will ask what they need and then look for the material
that will provide it, rather than wait for something new to trickle down from
afar. One intriguing example of this is Bill Prices work on translucent concrete. Now an assistant professor at the University of Houstons Gerald D.
Hines College of Architecture, Price became fascinated with the idea several
years ago, when working on a competition with Rem Koolhaas at the Office
for Metropolitan Architecture in Rotterdam. After discussing the concept at
length with a broad range of scientists, engineers, and builders from all over
the world and then producing and testing some samples, Price teamed up
with a European company to develop a product. The nal results are not yet
in, but perhaps such an ambitious material exploration from within architects own ranks will set a precedent for other practitioners to follow.
11.03 Architectural Record

195

B U I LD ING SCI ENC E

Commercialization
of Aerogel

company, developed

Overland Partners

application for aerogel.

Architects specified

The assembly allows

Kalwalls Nanogel

20 percent light trans-

structural-composite

mission into the

panels for a one-story

building while limiting

office building (this

thermal transmittance

page) and a public

(U-value) to only .05,

library (opposite), both

doubling the insulation

in Bozeman, Montana.

ability of Kalwalls

Cabot Industries,

standard panel.

the first commercial

Case study: Aerogel goes mainstream

New is something of a misnomer when it comes to aerogel, a highly


porous solid made from a gel. Although the rst architectural application
of this material was introduced in January 2003 by Kalwall Corporation
(www.kalwall.com), of Manchester, New Hampshire, the intriguing substance was originally developed in 1931 by Steven S. Kistler at the College
of the Pacic in Stockton, California, and later used by NASA to insulate
the battery system in the Mars space rover.
To visualize aerogel, says Marketing and Sales Manager Jim Litrun
of Cabot Corporation (www.cabot-corp.com), a specialty chemical and
materials company headquartered in Boston, imagine being able to remove
the liquid from a bowl of Jell-O. The remaining gel structure would form a
kind of wispy sponge that is 95 percent air and 5 percent solid.
The result is a lacy matrix of extraordinary qualities. It is the
lightest, most insulating solid in the world, continues Litrun. Its pores are
only about 20 nanometers (one nanometer equals a billionth of a meter)
in diameter. The miniscule air pockets trap individual gas molecules, preventing them from bumping into each other and transferring energy
through convection. Energy cannot be transferred by conduction,
either, because aerogel is typically made from poorly conducting chemicals, and because there is very little material present in the matrix anyway.
196

Architectural Record 11.03

Multiple tiny pores and minimal solid material makes aerogel a great
sound insulator, as well. Yet diffused light can penetrate through it.
Cabot makes a proprietary version of aerogel from silicon dioxide, which the company calls Nanogel. Its granular formulation can be
packed tightly into Kalwalls familiar composite-structural-sandwich
panel. The assembly offers up to 20 percent light transmission with a thermal transmittance (U-value) of a mere .05. Up until now, the most
thermally insulated Kalwall panelconsisting of translucent berglass batt
insulation sandwiched between berglass-reinforced translucent faces that
have been bonded to a thermally broken frameprovided light transmission of 10 percent with a U-value of .10. The Nanogel version can double
the light transmission and double the thermal protection at the same time,
observes Litrun. A fenestration system fabricated with this new panel is
detailed and installed in the same manner as any other high-performance
Kalwall system and costs about the same, according to Kalwall vice president Bruce Keller.
Testing conducted by Cabot demonstrates that Nanogel is
moisture-repellent; resistant to mold and fungus; stable in the presence
of ultraviolet light; and completely recyclable. It is not readily combustible, and no ozone-depleting agents are used in its manufacture.
With all these attributes, it may seem surprising that it has taken so

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY O V E R L A N D PA R T N E R S A R C H I T E CT S
( T H I S PA G E A N D O P P O S I T E )

a leading chemical

Structural aluminum
frame (standard
thickness = 2.75 inches)

Nanogel
insulating fill

Reinforced
fiberglass face

D R AW I N G : C O U R T E SY K A LWA L L

NANOGEL SANDWICH PANEL WITH A U- .05 RATING


AND 20 PERCENT LIGHT TRANSMISSION

long for aerogel to reach the architecture market. Initially, however, production of the material was extremely complicated, requiring a drying process
under very high pressure and high temperature. Due to the expense,
dangerous processes, and low volume of production, early attempts to commercialize the material failed. Spurred on by the publics greater interest in
energy efficiency, Cabot recently developed a safe, affordable process that
yields sufficient quantities to make it a viable product for architecture.
In the rst full-scale demonstration projectin which decadesold Kalwall panels over the pool area of a Comfort Inn in Manchester were
retrotted last year with the new technologythe Nanogel-lled structuralsandwich panels insulated so well that the warm pool interior could not melt
snow that fell on the skylight panels. Owner Fred Bailey attests that while the
new system seems to let in more light, the insulated area no longer has drafts,
nor does it lose heat. And more recently, Overland Partners Architects of
Bozeman, Montana, specied the high-performance, translucent panels in
the rst commercial installation in the countryanother roof system on a
one-story office building for the Security Title Company in Bozeman. The
rm wanted to get the lowest U-value possible for this climate, where heat
loss is signicant during winter months.The owner is interested in quality
in general and environmental issues in particular, explains principal Mark
B. Headley, AIA,so he was eager to use the innovative panels.

Case study: biobased components

The University of Delawares Affordable Composites from Renewable


Sources (ACRES) Group, led by Chemical Engineering Professor Richard P.
Wool, has been experimenting with biobased structural composites to
address an eclectic mixture of political, environmental, and construction
concerns. The multidisciplinary program, a collaborative effort among the
universitys Center for Composite Materials, Department of Chemical
Engineering, and College of Agriculture, has been supported by grants from
a variety of sourcesincluding the National Science Foundation, the
Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Department of Energy.
A composite material consists, essentially, of polymer resin and
ber. The resin is the glue that holds the reinforcing ber together. Most
composite structures contain phenolic, epoxy, or polyester resins reinforced with glass, carbon, or aramid bers. Although these formulations
can be very strong, they are also expensive and rely heavily on nonrenewable resources: petroleum is a major component of the resins, and
lots of energy is consumed in the production of the bers.
The ACRES Group (www.ccm.udel.edu/research/acres/) has
experimented with different types of resins and bers that are formulated
largely from plant sources. Such renewable raw ingredients are readily
available and affordablethey reduce our dependency on fossil fuels,
11.03 Architectural Record

197

Integral weather-protection layer

Recycled paper

Fluf fy fiber (high porosity)

Foam core

An All-Natural Roof

designer Elizabeth

and fiber. Engineers are

The University of

Linstrom to design a

developing a not yet all-

Delawares Affordable

prototype for a nonrec-

natural, biobased foam

Composites from

tilinear roof, using a

from soy oil to replace

Renewable Sources

composite material

the commercially avail-

Group asked industrial

made of polymer resin

able foam.

BEAM SCHEMATIC

Structural Foam

Thinner "ruf fled" edge for


water runof f (this edge
is almost an overhang
rather than the protective
portion of roof); resin is
thinner and translucent so
light shines through.

Thinnest translucent resin

Medium thickness resin

Slopes down
from back

Thickest, strongest resin

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

they are often obtained from materials that would otherwise be discarded
as waste, and depending on the particular application, they are potentially
recyclable or biodegradable.
While the initial ingredients sound low-tech, the science is not:
We are combining advances in biotechnology with polymer science to
come up with remarkable materials, says Wool. And the steps required to
move from material formulation to commercially available building component are lengthy and complex. Wool and his colleagues initially
developed a resin based on soybean oil. Although the polymer is not completely petroleum-freeit includes styrene, which is derived from the
fossil fuelthe researchers determined the optimum amount of styrene
for this application. And other research is now looking for a biomaterial
substitute for the styrene. The team then studied different bersincluding ax, recycled paper, jute, hemp, and even chicken feathers. Fiber mats
were infused with the soybean resin using vacuum-molding technology.
The resulting composite sheets underwent further testing.
Subsequently, prototypical composite structures were fabricated
and tested. The inner core of each beam consisted of commercially avail198

Architectural Record 11.03

Thicker middle portion


(covers tops of house)
slopes slightly from back
to front ridges, directing
water runof f and catching
light nicely to show of f texture.

able closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam. Although not a biobased material,


the foam is lightweight and provides excellent thermal insulation. The
ACRES group is carrying out research on developing biobased foam from
soy oil to replace the current commercially available foam. The component
skin of each beam varied: Some relied on a single type of ber, others on
two bers in combination. All were infused with the soybean resin and
affixed to the foam with the same vacuum process.
The team identied recycled paper from disposed cardboard
boxes as the most appropriate biobased ber for a structural application
because of its low cost, availability, waste status, and contribution to the
beams overall strength. Their research indicated that the addition of
small amounts of glass ber would improve both ease of production and
the ductility of the resulting composite structure.
No matter how viable the material, a product cannot exist without a market. Wool found a likely candidate: the hurricane-prone housing
stock of the coastal states. Referring to previous storms, Wool says, Its
painfully obvious that the vast majority of damage was due to trophy Aframes. The vacuum created on the lee side pops off roof sheathing.

I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY E L I Z A B E T H L I N S T R O M / A C R E S

B U I LD ING SCI ENC E

All-natural
composite
material

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Fiberglass stairway

project in Florida.

Fiberglass has

Having created all

appeared in buildings,

shapes and sizes

but never as a struc-

required in custom

tural element until

boat building (below)

architect Toshiko Mori

using CAD CAM tech-

asked famed boat

nology, Goetz was able


to apply the same

fabricate a fiberglass

methods to building the

stair for a residential

26-foot-long stair.

Without the sheathing, the structural and waterproong integrity of the


roofand subsequently the entire houseis compromised.
The ACRES group has proposed a monolithic low-prole roof
molded from biobased composites to eliminate individual components
on a highly sloped roof. The roof assembly would be a structural sandwich comprising a 3- to 8-inch-thick foam core with skin and webbing of
high-performance composite sheets. The assembly could be molded to
virtually any shape with vacuum technology.
To explore the aesthetic possibilities of this roof concept, Wool
asked industrial designer Elizabeth Linstrom of New York to design a
nonrectilinear prototype. Inspired by Antoni Gaud, Linstrom proposed
an oyster shape. She notes that irregularities of the organic design can
accommodate the natural irregularities inherent in casting biobased
materials. A molded roof has so much potential, says Linstrom. She
encourages architects to explore different types of castings, such as adding
feathers to the mold or playing with light reectance.
The next step will be to build a demonstration house. The
ACRES Group has already lined up a structural-composite company in
Delaware to undertake the fabrication. Because of the availability of
resources and versatility of the material, Wool anticipates that, in about
three years, biobased structural composites will start to nd their way
into a number of construction applications.
200

Architectural Record 11.03

Case study: structural fiberglass

Climatic conditionsbright sun, ample rain, hurricane winds, and saltwateralong Floridas coast challenge most building materials. So, when
designing an exterior staircase for a house addition near Sarasota, Florida,
architect Toshiko Mori, AIA, of New York, who is chair of the
Department of Architecture at the Harvard University Graduate School of
Design, gave it some serious thought.
Wood can deteriorate due to heavy rains, extreme humidity,
and prolonged exposure to salt; steel can rust; and a heavy concrete stair
would add unnecessary weight, she notes. But Mori only had to look
toward the water to see a structural material well suited for a marine environment: berglass. Used by boat builders for years, the composite
material is also popular in other recreational sportssuch as skiing, surfing, and shingwhere strength, lightness, and exibility are valued. It
can double as both structure and surface and is easy to maintain. But it is
not typically used in architecture to integrate several different building
componentssuch as treads, risers, landings, guardrails, and handrails
into one homogeneous assembly.
Mori turned to boat builder Eric Goetz in Bristol, Rhode
Islandwho makes vessels, some of which have competed in the
Americas Cup, for clients worldwideto explore the materials architectural possibilities. Goetzs shop, which has fabricated a handful of

I M A G E S : C O U R T E SY E R I C G O E T Z ( B OT TO M ) ; TO S H I KO M O R I A R C H I T E CT S ( TO P )

B U I LD ING SCI ENC E

builder Eric Goetz to

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B U I LD ING SCI ENC E

sculptural and nonstructural berglass elements for other architects, will


be fabricating Moris stair. This is leading edge, says Goetz, who is not
aware of any previous structural application of berglass in architecture.
To build any large, curvy shape out of berglass, explains Goetz,
his shop starts with the designers CAD drawings. These are converted
into computer aided manufacturing (CAM) software, which guides lasercutting and routing machines in cutting plywood pieces that are
subsequently assembled into the basic mold. Fiberglass fabric is impregnated with epoxy resin and draped layer by layer over this mold, which
has been covered by a lm of Teon to prevent the berglass from sticking. The exact number of layers is determined by the structural
requirements of the component.
After half the layers have been set, the fabricator covers the
assembly with a vacuum bag that removes all the air inside, thereby fusing all the layers of berglass together. It acts like a giant clamp,
explains Goetz. They let it harden overnight, add a closed-cell foam
ller as the core material, then layer the rest of the berglass on top of
the ller. The entire assembly is again placed in a vacuum and then
allowed to harden. The berglass is removed from the mold and
painted. Goetz explains that his shop can build any shape. However, it is
more difficult to laminate a sharp point in berglass. He recommends a
minimum radius of about 3 to 4 millimeters.
One of the beauties of berglass is that a complex element can
be built and trucked to the site as one assembly. In the case of the
Florida project, which began construction in September 2003, the single
stairs component will measure approximately 26 feet horizontally, 3 feet
212 inches wide, 9 feet 2 inches vertically from lower to upper oors, plus
another 3 feet high for the guardrail, which curves up from the treads

A I A / ARCH I TECTURAL RECOR D


CONT INU ING EDUCAT ION
INSTRUCTIONS

Read the article Architects Slowly Begin to Expand the Traditional


Palette of Materials using the learning objectives provided.
Complete the questions below, then ll in your answers (page 270).
Fill out and submit the AIA/CES education reporting form (page
270) or download the form at www.architecturalrecord.com to
receive one AIA learning unit.

QUESTIONS
1. Why was wood not a viable material for outdoor construction in Florida?
a. Wood is too heavy for use in Florida
b. Wood rots quickly in humidity and salt
c. Hurricanes have destroyed the forests in Florida
d. New code updates require the use of new materials

2. How are new materials usually introduced into the construction industry?
a. An architect species the new material
b. A manufacturer gives incentives for builders to use the new material
c. The material is used in other industries rst, then adapted to construction
d. New code updates require the use of new materials

3. Why does the construction industry resist innovative materials?


a. Insufficient research dollars
b. Code requirements
c. Economies of scale
d. All of the above

4. The benets of berglass for outdoor stair construction include which?


a. Lightness
b. Flotation
c. Low cost
d. Nonskid nish

202

Architectural Record 11.03

and landings on the north, south, and west sides of the staircase and
bends yet again into a handrail. Thickness at the risers and treads will be
about 1 inch. To accomplish the same thing in steel would have taken
several hundred pieces welded together, says project architect Dwayne
Oyler. This will look like one piece that has been folded and bent the
way we needed.
The architects are forgoing berglasss integral nature, however,
on the east side of the stairs, where they have proposed a series of thin
berglass rods spaced 4 inches on center and extending to the roof to
form both a guardrail and translucent screen. These nonstructural elements will be attached to the body of the stairs with custom metalwork.
The structural carriage will be supported by four stainless-steel
beamstwo under the upper landing and two under the lower landing
that cantilever out from building. All of the berglass will be painted with
the epoxy primer and urethane topcoat typically used for boats. To create
good slip resistance, the topcoat on the treads and landing will be mixed
with nonskid plastic beads.
Testing mechanisms for berglass have long been in place in the
boat-building industry, so the designers could rely on their results to
determine the code-related characteristics of the material. For example,
explains Mori, Water stresses can be translated into gravity and wind.
Equipped with such information, the designers had no trouble getting
approval by the local building department, despite the fact that berglass
is an unconventional structural element in architecture.
The cost of berglass is greater than the other alternatives
wood, concrete, and even stainless steel. But Mori suggests that, when
considered over its lifetime, this up-front cost may even out when
weighed against ease of maintenance.

5. How is berglass delivered to the job site?


a. As easy-to-assemble pieces
b. As raw materials to be fabricated on-site
c. Wrapped over its mold
d. As a one-piece assembly

6. What does a berglass fabricator use as a clamp?


a. A vacuum bag
b. Teon
c. Draped layers of berglass
d. Steel

7. The benets of Nanogel include which?


a. It is moisture absorbent
b. It is resistant to mold and fungus
c. It is easily combustible
d. It is sensitive to ultraviolet light

8. Why was aerogel not available on the market sooner?


a. The aerospace industry had a patent on it
b. It is made by a dangerous process
c. There were very few uses for it
d. It was discovered recently

9. Which is a reinforcing material in a composite structure?


a. Phenolic resin
b. Epoxy
c. Polyester
d. Glass

10. Why was recycled paper from cardboard boxes considered the most
appropriate biobased ber for a structural application?
a. Low cost
b. Availability
c. Contribution to the beams strength
d. All of the above

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We can make cars go faster


before you even dream them up.
With so many parts, calculations and componentsits a wonder todays car
designs even fit on a single computer. So HP engineers soup up performance with

Intel XeonTM processorsand rigorously test their workstation designs before theyre
trusted to your design departments. With thousands of regression tests performed to
diagnose and repair glitches between software and hardware before your designers put
pen to paper (figuratively, of course)things wont get messy until you start making

clay models. Get more productive. Get HP workstations with Intel processors.
HP recommends Microsoft Windows XP Professional for Business.

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Screen is simulated. Intel, Intel Xeon, Intel Inside and the Intel Inside Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Intel Corporation or its subsidiaries in the United States and other countries. Microsoft and Windows are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. 2003 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.

Digital Architect
Working with telecom consultants

P H OTO G R A P H Y : WA LT E R D U F R E S N E

Architects arent strangers to using


consultants. Designers regularly
employ specialists to nail down
engineering, lighting, landscaping,
and other important details in their
projects. These days, architects are
turning more frequently to a new
type of consultant for the digital
ageone that specializes in networking, telecommunications, and
audio/visual (A/V) systems, as
sophisticated communications
technologies become essential
elements in buildings.
The elevated role of communications consultants results from
the increasing willingness of
corporations, universities, healthcare organizations, and others to
embrace maturing technologies like
videoconferencing and so-called
converged networks, which merge
data and voice traffic over a single
digital infrastructure. These consultants dont just handle phones
anymore. Often, they have expertise
in designing and installing data networks, video production, and sound
and lighting systems that make it
possible to view a discussion in a
conference room in New York City
from a location in Los Angeles or
anywhere else in the world.
A niche with influence
Rather than outsiders who sign off
Alan Joch is a technology and business
writer based in New England.
Contact him at ajoch@monad.net.
For more information on
technology for architects, including
reviews, vendor lists, and links, go
to Digital Architect at
www.architecturalrecord.com.

on one element of a design, these


up his aesthetic wishes for the
consultants must be able to articuspecialists often have a lot of
sake of acoustical or video perlate clear design solutions to make
input on the look and feel of a projformance, says Frank McCann,
the most of the clients investment
ect. Five years ago, bringing in a
president and C.E.O. of McCann
in technology.
[communications] consultant
Systems, an A/V and telecommuniwould have been an afterthought,
cations consultant based in Edison,
Thinking ahead
says Glenn Leitch, AIA, design
New Jersey.
As buildings incorporate videoconferdirector for the architecture firm
The challenge of finding a con- encing and other communications
Highland Associates in New York
sultant with up-to-date credentials
techniques that require sending a lot
City. Now its something
standard that happens
before design begins.
The tie between communications technology
and design is becoming so
intimate, in fact, that sometimes technology is the
design. Clients who want to
look like leaders in their
fields believe that high-tech
touches like video screens
and futuristic phones provide
a symbolic aesthetic image,
which opens up designers to
new visual possibilities.
Technology can activate a
space, Leitch believes. Its
becoming part of the design
In New Jersey, Chase Manhattan Banks ChemNetwork houses critical data in a
and gives us a new material
single structure. The viewing gallery (not shown) lets visitors see some of the action.
to play with.
A video wall (at right above) keeps employees abreast of the latest headlines.
Architects say their
most forward-thinking
clients want to blend hardware
is compounded by the the pace of
of data over the wires in real time,
and software into the overall
innovation coupled with a lack of
designers must consider adding
design for operational efficiency,
standards for implementation.
ancillary spaces to accommodate
and to reduce the expense of
Communications technology
the variety of equipment needed.
future upgrades and retrofits. To
evolves so quickly that few guideDepending on the projects size,
merge form and function successlines or case histories of similar
a building may need a full-blown
fully, architects and communications projects exist. Often, clients know
multimedia control room where
consultants must forge close workthey want to use new technologies
technicians can monitor equipment
ing relationships, which can be
to meet their program objectives
and adjust camera angles and
tricky given that both groups
but they rely heavily on their design sound levels. Architects may also
often have strong opinions, and
teams to present them with
include several smaller communicasometime large egos, about their
options for the best way to arrange, tions rooms throughout a building
respective work. Its sometimes
install, and use the equipment.
during programmingan expansion
very difficult for an architect to give
Architects and communications
of the old telephone closetsto
11.03 Architectural Record

205

DIG I TAL TECHNOLOGY

By Alan Joch

produce a single large image.


Architects are always concerned
about what takes up space, says
Leitch. The cubes take up extra
space because you need areas
behind them for air circulation and
servicing. You cant just plop them
against a wall.
Other consultants on this
project were also asked to accommodate its video and data systems.
Highland asked for specs earlier
than usual from its electrical engineers and HVAC consultants, so
they could ensure that the video
system had sufficient electrical
power and that the air-conditioning
system could provide adequate
cooling. The project team could illafford to underdesign these support
systems, because the
failure of a companys
data center can be disastrous and costly.
Early collaboration
also addresses the
importance technology
holds for clients. This
was the case when
Atlanta firm Thompson,
Ventulett, Stainback and
Associates designed the
Georgia Institute of
The A/V controls in this conference room at the
Technologys Technology
Wharton School allow presenters to archive
Square campus. The
their material directly to the schools intranet.
telecom and A/V components were such major
pieces of the clients vision, we
centers into a single, 55,000wanted a consultant that could
square-foot space. The renovated
[make sure] we werent short on
building includes a 15,000-squaresomething that would make [the
foot financial command center
project] look weak, says Maria
and a special war room in one
Bonau, AIA, associate principal.
corner of the building for important
Sophisticated voice, data,
meetings and data gathering and
and video communications were
analysis. A model of high-tech
necessary because the multibuildappointments, one room includes a
ing Technology Square project
massive video wall that displays
extended the main campus of
data from Chase Manhattans proGeorgia Tech across an interstate
cessing centers in New York City,
highway. The architect specified
as well as weather reports and
fiber-optic cabling to join the new
news broadcasts. The video wall
buildings to the old, to link the
consists of a series of large, cubeclassrooms together, and to provide
shaped video systems fronted by
continuing- and distance-education
display screens. The cubes work
capabilities for the new campus.
together as pieces of a mosaic to
house racks of servers and communications hardware.
Accommodating these needs
takes forethought. Architects get
us involved early on, says Mike
Ritchken, principal of the New York
consulting firm DataVox Technologies. We feed them the spatial
requirements for a data center and
individual technology rooms on
individual floors. You dont want to
have to come back later to figure
out how to stuff 10 pounds of
material into a 5-pound bag.
To avoid shoehorning, Highland Associates collaborated with
McCann on Chase Manhattan
Banks ChemNetwork in central
New Jersey, where the company
consolidated three disparate data

206

Architectural Record 11.03

Instructors direct their presentations at Georgia Techs Global Learning


Center at the Technology Square campus. The amphitheaters include satellite
and videoconferencing capabilities, along with wireless Internet access.

The president wanted to make a


statement: As we move into this
new century, technology is an
important element and Georgia
Tech is leading the charge, Bonau
says. Its also been a moneymaker
for the university, which rents out
its electronic classrooms to corporations and other groups for
training, conferences, and the like.

ceiling panels that gave technicians easy access to internal


cabling. Otherwise, [Wharton]
would be tearing walls apart,
Ottavio says.
Communications breakdown
Blending beauty and function is,
as always, the trickiest balance.
We put performance above aes-

TELECOM CONSULTANTS CAN HELP


ARCHITECTS FUTURE PROOF BUILDINGS
AGAINST COSTLY UPGRADES.
Consultants can also help
architects see into the future.
New York architects Kohn Pedersen
Fox (KPF) recently designed a
new facility, Jon M. Huntsman Hall,
at the Wharton School at the
University of Pennsylvania in
Philadelphia. From an A/V point
of view, we tried to look at what
technologies they would be using
on Day 1, Day 2, and Day 3,
recalls David Ottavio, KPF associate principal. Then we created a
framework for the [technology]
infrastructure, including a tremendous telecom backbone to run
data cabling so future upgrades
wouldnt be as costly. He calls this
technique future proofing. With
the help of consulting firm Shen
Milsom & Wilke of New York City,
the architects designed hardware
closets positioned in accessible
locations for easy repairs and
upgrades, and opted for removable

thetics, while architects [do] the


opposite, consultant McCann
admits, saying material selection
is often a bone of contention.
Architects love glass conference
rooms because they look techy.
But theyre the worst thing [for]
videoconferencing. There are no
acoustic [insulation] properties in
glass, the sound is hard, and it
reflects around the room. You end
up creating little echo chambersnot the intended result.
McCann suggests holding
brainstorming sessions to identify
solutions before the client sees
design proposals, so the team
forms a united front. Once a project
is done, informal meetings can
also help design teams build on
experience to avoid past mistakes.
Says DataVoxs Ritchken, On big
projects, there are no heroes. You
either look great as a team or bad
as a team.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : J E F F R E Y TOTA R O ( L E F T ) ; G E O R G I A I N S T I T U T E O F T E C H N O LO GY ( R I G H T )

DIG ITAL TECHNOLOGY

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Residential Renaissance:

Early 20-Century American Architectural Themes


are Undergoing a Revival,
and the New Entryways are
Drawing Doubletakes
CONTINUING EDUCATION

Use the learning objectives below to focus


your
study as you read Residential Renaissance.
To earn one AIA/CES Learning Unit, including one
hour of health safety welfare credit, answer the
questions on page 213, then follow the reporting
instructions on page 266 or go to the Continuing
Education section on archrecord.construction.com
and follow the reporting instructions.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading this article, you should be able to:


Recognize new trends in residential housing
developments
Define Craftsman style of design and products
Identify new materials and performance standards
of doors

oss a dart at a map of the U.S. and you are likely to hit a new residential housing
development featuring Craftsman architecture. There are hundredsfrom California
to Florida, from Calgary to Tijuana.
For Gustav Stickley, the early 20th century stonemason-turned-crusader for the Arts and
Crafts movement, publisher of The Craftsman magazine and builder of Craftsman Farm,
which survives, and is maintained today by a non-profit organization in Parsippany, N.J.,
happiness was best achieved through self-sufficiency in relative isolation.
The contemporary Craftsman movement, while adhering to the stylistic heritage established
by Stickley and designer Harvey Ellis who, before his death in 1904, influenced the design and
publication of more than 200 house plans in The Craftsman, is not about self-sufficiency in
isolation. It is very much the opposite.
The vast majority of what might be termed Craftsman developments across the U.S. in the
past decade are in communities designed to overcome the kind of isolation created by suburban
housing tracts that began transforming America in the 1950s, and which, despite their relative
proximity, hid neighbors from one another.
Todays Craftsman homes more likely are to be found in developments that express the
theme of what has been termed the New Urbanism, or Neo-Tradionalism, places like
Longmont Colorados Prospect New Town, Northwest Crossing in central Oregon, Atlantas
Hawthorne Park.

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At the core of the New Urbanism is a revolt against urban sprawl, and
the social miasma that is the result of knowing of our neighbors only what
we can learn from sitting next to them while gridlocked in inner-city traffic.
New Urbanist neighborhoods emphasize community. They are walkable.
They feature detached garages. They generally contain a balance of jobs and
housing. They are both urbansome on brownfields plotsand suburban.
They are popping up in inner cities and on the outskirts of small towns.
Suman Sorg, FAIA, a New Delhi-schooled Richard Meier devotee and
posterchild for the New Urbanism, calls her row house design, the focal
point of a revitalization of the LeDroit Park historical district near Howard
University in Washington D.C., pedestrian-scale and neighbor-friendly.
Behind the New Urban design movement popularized in the late
1980s and early 1990s is the same reformation zeal that drove Stickley,
and later Frank Lloyd Wright, whose Prairie-style architecture was
influenced by its Craftsman predecessor, to an emphatic insistence upon
Craftsman-style doors with authentic divided lites and flat panels.
harmonyand simplicity.
Donald P. Jacobs, AIA, president of JBZ Architecture + Planning,
For Stickley, as for Wright, wood was not meant to be molded, or bent
Newport Beach, Calif. a frequent speaker on high-density housing,
into elaborate shapes, or encased within thick layers of highly polished
predicts that attention to New Urbanism, with its emphasis on classical
varnish that obscured its inborn beauty. It was to be cut in straight lines
architectural styling, has become a trend that will continue to shape
to emphasize the dramatic patterns of its grain, its plain surfaces finished
new communities.
to enhance their natural colors and texture.
The trend, says Jacobs, is closely tied to our quest for a stronger sense
The same insistence is seen in a new generation of architecture, both in
of place. We are seeing, he says, a greater desire for more historical
the U.S. and in Europe, and in the design of furniture, cabinetry, and doors
references in both community and home design, especially in the active
whose contemporary themes have their origins in classical Craftsman,
adult market where a strong affinity toward nostalgia exists.
Shaker, and Mission themes that emerged centuries earlier. Whereas, the
We saw the revival of Craftsman designs in several communities, and
Craftsman bungalow of a century earlier, however, was a design intended for
we made a decision to create doors specifically for that market, says Kelly
a growing middle-class, todays Craftsman designs are evident in low-income
Reynolds, product manager for an Oregon-based manufacturer. We also
housing, town-and-rowhouses and elegant, spacious, single-family homes.
saw an opportunity in the repair and remodel markets and have found
The revival of traditional architecture has attracted the attention of
that there is considerable interest in classical stylesboth for exteriors and
building material manufacturers, including window and door
interiorsamong those who are remodeling bungalow-style homes.
manufacturers, and thermally-efficient engineered wood doors in
Reynolds says that door manufacturers were not alone in pursuit of
Craftsman, Shaker and Mission styling are among todays best selling lines.
the Craftsman revival. We were supported by the cabinet and
furniture industries, both of which have recently brought out
new Craftsman product lines, he says. The style is hugely
popular. It is clear we are seeing a return to the classic and
familiar qualities of the Craftsman era.

Old world design doors with radius top, tongue-in-groove appearance and decorative clavos.

210

The Craftsman Style


The Craftsman architectural style is evidenced by broad porches,
bands of windows, low-pitched roofs and open eaves that show
off roof rafters, and natural colors and textures that tie the
houses to the earth. Porches are supported by squared piers
that begin at the ground. Craftsman homes are built with natural
materials native to their geographic location and rely on exposed
structural elements for decorative detail. A variety of natural
materials provide textures for light to play on. Voids, in the
form of recessed porches or entryways create visual interest.
Exposed roof beams, often supported by showy triangular
braces, draw attention to the roof s gable ends. Most have
prominent fireplaces and feature a general theme of
utilitarianism. The Craftsman bungalow style, as it emerged
in the period from 1905-1929, has been called a dramatic rebellion
against the formality of the Victorian era that preceded it.
Stickley, who is perhaps best remembered today for his
furniture-making, an exercise that embraced the same themes
as his homes, was an early advocate of what he called utility.

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In addition to product materials,


His sturdy, unadorned
design styles are also reflecting a blend
Craftsman furniture was
of the old with the new. Milk glass
durable and functional and
enables a retro look, says Reynolds.
intended for daily use. His 1901
With new products, homebuilders
catalogue emphasized plain,
are now able to coordinate interior
functional form, good
and exterior doors.
workmanship, decorative
When we first went to market
structure and a respect for
with our architectural specialty
natural materials.
lines, we thought them to be a
Craftsman homes invariably
regional sell, but they have proven
include front entry doors and
popular in places we never anticientry systems that are inviting,
pated. There has been a resurgence
solid and familiar. Contemporary
in renovation, and the new doors
entry systems have become an
fit perfectly with a growing demand
exceptional means of personal
for styles that, heretofore, were hard
expression that gives hometo find.
owners an unprecedented range
of design options: sidelites or
transoms; art glass, patterned
New Performance Concepts
glass, textured or milk glass.
Until very recently, windows, doors
New glazing options provide
and skylights were considered net
unprecedented thermal efficienenergy losers, and often accounted
cy and offer new security options.
for as much as one-quarter to oneNew door designs allow thicker
half of a buildings heating and
glazing, wider spaces between
cooling loads. New techniques have
panes, and sandwiched panes
changed that equation dramatically
permit the combination of
and can actually convert fenesdecorative glass outer panels with
tration products from energy
low-E coatings. Triple-glazing
wasters into energy savers.
allows decorative glass to be
The new generation of doors
sandwiched between two sheets
and windows carries energy perforof clear, tempered glass, the edges
mance ratings and independent
sealed to form an airtight unit
performance certification through
that not only strengthen the
either the National Fenestration
Craftsman-style door with authentic divided lites and flat panels; Chico, CA
decorative insert, but make it
Rating Council (NFRC) and the
more energy efficient and simplifies cleaning and maintenance.
U.S. Department of Energys Energy Star program, or both. Designers are
For Craftsman and Mission effect, manufacturers now offer a range
urged to look for products that conform to NFRC or Energy Star stanof geometric patterns of colored glass and leaded glass caming.
dards. Through the NFRC, manufacturers can rate U-factors, solar heat
Specialty doors with Clavos and speakeasies make it possible to move
gain coefficient, visible transmittance and air leakage. The NFRC is
stylistically into the realm of Old World or Tuscan designs.
currently working on procedures to rate condensation resistance, annual
Craftsman wood doors in oak, cherry, mahogany, fir, hemlock, knotty
energy performance and ultraviolet/fade protection.
alder and pine are available off-the-shelf in a wide range of designsin
In general, in a climate where home heating is the primary issue, doors
one-to-three panel designs up to eight feet in height, with up to six lites
with a low U-factor should be selected. The lower the U-factor, the greater
and sidelites, all with multiple glass options.
the doors resistance to heat transfer. It is wise to look for a door with a
Unlike the solid wood doors that adorned the houses of Stickleys
U-factor of 0.35 or lower. The U-factor may be lowered by applying low-E,
design, a majority of contemporary doors are highly engineered. Many of
metallic coating to windows. For regions where air-conditioning is the
todays all-wood doors contain fingerjointed stiles. Moisture and impact
primary concern, look for a door with a low solar heat gain coefficient
tests confirm that various shorter-grain structures are more stable than
(SHGC). The lower the SHGC number, the lower the heat gain through
one long piece of wood. Once assembled, mitered joints match precisely,
the door. Look for a door with a SGHC of 0.40 or lower. The SHGC also
resulting in a door that is symmetrical and durable. Exterior panels can
may be lowered by incorporating low-E insulating glass.
be edge-glued solid wood panels or bookmatched veneer on top of
Newly engineered doors with laminated veneer stiles and rails have
exterior-quality, medium-density fiberboard (MDX) panels for high
been show to resist warping, buckling and splitting. Tests show laminated
stability and warp resistance.
veneer products to be less susceptible to ultra-violet color change and
With todays engineered product, the homeowner now has the
better able to hold coatings without flaking. Deflection tests under
choice between a beautiful, traditional solid wood door and a door in an
standardized ASTM procedures found evidence that doors with laminated
engineered product that reflects the grain and richness of wood with the
veneer lumber stiles and rails perform even better than fiberglass in
addition of hi-tech elements for those harsher exposures, says Reynolds.
holding their form under extreme climatic conditions.

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Technological advances now permit door manufacturers to create


varying door systems with common stylistic themes that will perform well
under varying climatic conditions.
A professional couple in Phoenix wanted the look of a grand, hardwood
front entrance but did not want to deal with the annual maintenance
necessary to counteract damage from extreme desert sun. Busy young
parents on Chicagos exclusive North Shore wanted a spectacular entrance,
but faced the same maintenance dilemma as a result of snow, sleet and
extreme shifts in temperature. For a retired Cape Cod couple, the issue is
corrosive salt spray.
Though homeowners overwhelmingly prefer the look and feel of wood,
at times, there are certain exposures which require products specially
designed for harsh environments, says Reynolds.
Wood doors perform best, it is safe to say, in protected entryways, but
protecting the entryway is not always possible.
Where that is the case, alternative surfaces are recommended. The
trouble with alternative wood-look products, historically, was that they
lacked the look of real wood and were clearly distinguishable from hardwood doors. That is no longer the case, says Reynolds. We now create
true wood-grain appearance that cant be accomplished through the
traditional stamp-and-die process of earlier composite door processes.
Steel, of course, is the traditional choice for exteriors exposed to harsh
environments. Both the durability and affordability of steel make it an
attractive harsh-climate choice. A growing number of alternative solutions,
are available, however. Composites, with detailed, molded surfaces made of
multiple layers of resins, base colors and reinforcing materials that give
surface materials structural strengthand a traditional lookbridge the
price and performance gap between steel and wood doors and are engineered
to perform even in extreme summer heat and winter cold. The most recent
composites are filled with core materials formulated to resist delamination.
The core is bonded to both surface and frame. The result is a warp-free door.
Improvements over standard foam fillers typically used in composite
doors give the new generation of engineered doors the density and weight
of hardwood, and they are available in nearly any classic architectural style
and a variety of wood grains. Some lines are now available with a variety of

Old world design doors with radius top and tongue-in-groove appearance.

212

sidelight choices
and caming options.
The emergence
of eye-catching
new developments,
with people-pleasing
features, in unlikely
places across the
U.S. have made
compelling destinations of onceneglected
neighborhoods.
Craftsman-style doors with authentic divided lites and flat panels.
Until recently
there werent a lot of reasons to get off Highway 80
at Hercules, Calif., writes Carolyn Weber in a recent issue of Builder
magazine. The long stretch of Hercules waterfront used to be cluttered
with brownfields, dilapidated factories and other busted remnants of an
industrial past.
A once-blighted 400-acre portion of the town of 20,000 today is the
site of Promenade, a 216-home subdivision, built by Western Pacific
Housing with near-tedious attention to detail, where each home is a
ginger-breaded interpretation of various early 20th-century American
architectural styles recreated by KTGY Group Architects, Irvine, Calif.
Architectural elements like fish-scale shingles, pronounced eave
brackets, turned porch posts, period-style doors and lively color schemes
make Promenade a kind of visual Disneyland for prospective homebuyers.
McKenzie Towne, a neo-traditional community of now nearly 1,600
residents on the fringe of Calgary, Alberta, is planned to be built out
to contain 12 villages over the next two decades, all of them designed
to diminish the reliance of residents upon cars. Lots are considerably
smaller than is typical of North American suburbs, garages and parking
pads are located in alleys behind each house. The architecture is
Craftsman, Victorian, or Georgian.
Its developers call Prospect New Town, built on a former tree farm in
Longmont, Colo., a traditional American town, built anew with
timeless architecture, yet designed with modern needs in mind. Its
governing premise, as is the case in Calgary, or in Seattle in the
Craftsman-themed Ravenna Cottages, in the AIA/Sunset Magazine
Western Home Awards winner The Third Street Cottages on
nearby Whidbey Island or at Erie-Ellington Homes, Bostons 50unit urban infill residential project in the historic Erie-Ellington
neighborhood, is that it is a community
that places people before cars.
Were not building something for people to disappear into
the interior of, says Prospect New Town developer John Wallace.
Were building something that when you are outside the exterior,
you feel like you are a part of something. The new urbanism
we have here is pedestrian-oriented, Wallace says. Its accessible,
and the houses are dealt with in a fashion that architecturally is
very appealing.
Instead of talking about density, Jim Soules, principal of the
Seattle-based The Cottage Company, a development group, and
Ross Chapin, of Ross Chapin Architects in Langley, Wash., talk
about intensity of living.
Instead of four homes on 7,200-square-foot lots, we said lets
build eight 850-square-foot detached homes on smaller lots with

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A D V E R T I S E M E N T

front porches and quality rather than quantity of space, says Soules.
We have been surprised by the response, says Chapin. We have
had an avalanche of inquiries from planning agencies, developers and
architects from all over the country.
These kind of developments, with a renewed emphasis on
architectural detail, demand that manufacturers pay similar attention
to detail, and we have done that, says Reynolds. We can now capture
the elegance of architecture of the past in a product that will perform
well in virtually any environment.

A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D
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CLICK FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIRED READING

The article continues online at:

archrecord.construction.com/resources/conteduc/
To receive AIA/CES credit, you are required to read this additional text.
For a faxed copy of the material, contact Mary Anderson at 888-535-3936;
or email maryan@jeld-wen.com. The quiz questions below include
information from this material.

4. The Craftsman architectural style is evidenced by: bands of


windows, broad porches and:

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

a. Victorian adornment

After reading this article, you should be able to:

b. Low-pitched roofs

Recognize new trends in residential housing developments

c. Metal finishes

Define Craftsman style of design and products

Identify new materials and performance standards of doors

5. The Craftsman bungalow style emerged in the period from:


a. 1905-1929
b. 1915-1939

INSTRUCTIONS

Refer to the learning objectives above. Complete the questions


below. Go to the self report form on page 266. Follow the reporting
instructions, answer the test questions and submit the form. Or use
the Continuing Education self report form on Records website
archrecord.construction.comto receive one AIA/CES Learning Unit
including one hour of health safety welfare credit.
QUESTIONS

1. The most technically advanced glass walls of the recent past


managed to eliminate mullions entirely by using the glass itself as a
structural material, relying on structural sealant joints, or by:
a. Pinning the glass to lightweight steel sub-structures.
b. Using silicone gaskets
c. Switching to triple glazing
2. Communities that created a sense of isolation and hid neighbors
from each other began transforming America in the
a. 1940s

c. 1925-1949
6. In general, in a climate where home heating is the primary issue,
select doors with a:
a. Low U-factor
b. High U-factor
7.

Which is true about doors?


a. The lower the U-factor, the greater the resistance to heat
transfer.
b. The higher the U-factor, the greater the resistance to heat
transfer.

8. For regions where air-conditioning is the primary concern, select


doors with a:
a. Low solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).
b. High solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).
9. What has been shown to help resist warping, buckling and

b. 1950s

splitting?

c. 1960s

a. Solid wood structures

d. 1970s

b. Laminated veneers

3. New Urbanist neighborhoods emphasize:


a. Community

c. Low U-factors
10. The U.S. Department of Energy Energy Star program mandates

b. Isolation

specific performance levels.

c. Decentralization

a. True

d. Individualism

b. False

(800) 877-9482, ext. CEUD


www.jeld-wen.com

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VISTAWALL PRESENTS

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

Architectural Aluminum
Curtain Wall Systems
The curtain wall is the element of a project on which, if you are not doing things
right, everybody can get hurt WALTER SCARBOROUGH , HKS INC .

CONTINUING EDUCATION

Use the learning objectives below to focus


study as you read Architectural Aluminum
Curtain Wall Systems. To earn one
AIA/CES Learning Unit, including one hour of
health safety welfare credit, answer the questions
on page 219, then follow the reporting instructions
on page 268 or go to the Continuing Education
section on archrecord.construction.com and follow
the reporting instructions.
your

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After reading this article, you should be able to:


understand the proper applications of architectural
aluminum curtain wall systems to best meet code
and design requirements.
have a greater understanding of new technologies
and system advancements in architectural aluminum
curtain wall systems.
Recognize industry standards in product testing and
classification of architectural aluminum framing systems.

ne of the most catastrophic and widely reported curtain wall failures occurred in January, 1973,
when, during construction of Bostons John Hancock Building, designed by Henry Cobb of then
I.M. Pei & Partners (now Pei Cobb Freed & Partners), 75-mile wind gusts caused more than 65 500-lb
glass panels to shatter and fall.
More panels broke and fell in the following months and, ultimately, all 10,344 panels on the sixtystory building were replaced, at a cost of $7 million. In the interim, exterior openings were covered
with plywood, leading to the joke in Boston that the Hancock Tower should be renamed the U.S.
Plywood Building.
Jokes aside, Nicholas Isyumov, research director for the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel Laboratory at
the University of Western Ontario, says engineers learned from the experience that they must pay
attention to the effects of wind not only on the structure, but also on the nonstructural cladding,
especially when that skin is of aluminum or reflective glass.
Despite the occasional calamity, the idea of an all-glass skin remained perhaps the most persistent
curtain wall theme of the 20th century. Starting with small metal window systems containing relatively
small glass panes, and moving towards larger glass sizes with smaller mullion profiles, the most
technically advanced glass walls of the recent past managed to eliminate mullions entirely by using the
glass itself as a structural material, relying on structural sealant joints, or pinning the glass to elegantlydetailed lightweight steel sub-structures.
In the 21st-century, the emphasis of curtain wall and slope wall manufacturers is on more highly
weather resistant packages with heightened energy efficiency, using more durable and long-lasting
materials and finishes, recyclable materials. Glass glazing, long thought to be a buildings weak link with
regard to energy performance, now rivals insulated walls in its ability to maintain a desired interior
Architectural Aluminum Curtain Wall Systems.

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A D V E R T I S E M E N T

One PPG Place, Pittsburgh, PA


John Burgee Architects with Phillip Johnson

climate while reflecting unwanted effects of the sun. Todays walls are more
sophisticated in every respect.
Today, says Carl Wagus, technical director for the American Architectural
Manufacturers Association, we are working on test methods for evaluating the
performance of thermally broken aluminumweve already developed a series
of standards for evaluating thermal barriers structurally.
The movement to green
architecture has meant that
structural systems are being asked
to support more material,
including sun shades and light
shelves. Our systems are being
tested structurally right now,
says the director of the curtain
wall division of one manufacturer. Architectural firms say
40 percent of what they are
designing right now has some type
of sun shade built into the curtain
wall system, says the source.
We take for granted in our
industry that architects know
what simple architectural
framing systems are and what
Muskegon Heights High School; Muskegon Heights, MI
applications fit them best, but
TMP Associates, Inc.
Today, various curtain wall infill products can be used
we get questions all the time
instead of glass. Examples are translucent panels, aluminum that indicate otherwise, says
and granite. Translucent panels were used on Muskegon
the director of the curtain wall
Heights High School (above), and aluminum panels
division of one manufacturer.
were used on the Delphi Automotive building (p. 215).

216

Most manufacturers test their products through standardized test methods


established by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the
American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA). Once having
defined performance characteristics for the project, the designer can specify
products through common guide specifications available from a number of
sources. AIA, and The Construction Specifications Institute specification
guides reference ANSI/AAMA guidelines.
Storefronts and curtain walls do not have a single performance standard,
but are grouped via a series of standardized performance test methods. The
three primary weather performance standards are ASTM International E 283,
Test Method for Determining Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows,
Curtain Walls and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the
Specimen; ASTM E 331, Test for Water Penetration of Exterior Windows,
Curtain Walls and Doors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference; and AAMA
501.1, Standard Test Method for Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors for
Water Penetration Using Dynamic Pressure.
Structural performance is measured by ASTM E 330, Test for Structural
Performance of Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors by Uniform Static Air
Pressure Difference. Thermal performance, U-values, and condensation resistance
factors are measured under AAMA 1503, Voluntary Test Method for Thermal
Transmittance and Condensation Resistance of Windows Doors and Glazed Wall
Sections and are standardized through AAMA 1504, Voluntary Specification for
Thermal Performance of Windows, Doors and Glazed Wall Sections.
It is important to note, however, says David W. Altenhofen, CSI, CCS, AIA,
chief of architectural technology at Philadelphia-based Kling Lindquist, that a
projects performance values cannot be determined solely through standardized
test procedures and specifications alone.
The architect must interpret and interpolate test results for manufacturers
standard assemblies, says Altenhofen. The discrepancies between the system
required for the project and the tested one may be substantial.
Selecting window, storefront and curtain wall systems is a far cry from just
reviewing standard products in catalogues and selecting the desired profile,
Altenhofen says in a recent article in The Construction Specifier.
A lot of architectsmost architectsare very good at what they do.
However, most of them cant keep up with the nuances of curtain walls, says
Jerry Johnson, senior design consultant for Dallas-based Curtain Wall Design
and Consulting Inc. There is so much going on, and the complexity of these
systems has increased dramatically.
Contemporary architectural aluminum framing systems are carefully
isolated from the building frame so that they support only their weight and the
force of wind. They are insulated and thermally broken to obtain higher energy
efficiency and reduce moisture condensation; utilize glazing and spandrel
materials that offer precise control of thermal performance and emissivity
and are carefully drained and gasketed to prevent water leaks.
Part of the confusion about specifying framing systems may stem from what
now have become industry-wide definitions, themselves.
There exists what Walter Scarborough, vice president and director of
specifications for Dallas-based HKS Inc., calls a terminology issue within the
curtain wall industry.
Our documents, for instance, now refer to glazed aluminum wall systems,
says Scarborough. The terms that the industry has come to use have different
meanings to different people. The term storefront, for example has come to
represent, what, by comparison, is a low-performance system. The contractor
will, too often, acquire a low-performance system, regardless of your needs,
and it is an uphill battle from there.
Until they have tried to understand window systems for what they are,
a lot of people dont understand the complexities of those systems or see the
importance of one system over another system, he says. If you have a building
20 stories tall on the coast of Florida and you install what is commonly referred
to as a storefront system, your building will perpetually suffer leakage,
and owners dont want to spend millions of dollars for a (cladding) system
and have it leak all the time.

Architectural Aluminum Curtain Wall Systems.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

Hathaway Brown School


Shaker Heights, OH
van Dijk Pace Westlake/Graham Gund Architects

Strom Thurmond Wellness & Fitness Center


University of South Carolina
The Budreaux Group Architects

A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D
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An operable vent within a curtain wall system.

Many manufacturers offer extensive lines of custom and standard skylight systems, translucent systems and architectural-grade window and vent systems; some
offer one-stop shoppingengineering, extrusion, fabrication anodizing, painting and testingall from one location. Some manufacturers also can direct the
entire material flow for a project. The results, say manufacturers: lower project costs, ease-of-installation and fewer jobsite headaches.
Essentially, says Fred Grunewald, research and development manager
for a Texas-based manufacturer, architects specifying (cladding) systems
need to know the local code requirements regarding items such as wind
loads, seismic considerations, and life safety issues to allow them to
determine the specific performance requirements for a project.
Before designing a curtain wall system, there are five items to consider.
They include: design criteria (wind loads, codes, etc.), structural criteria (live
load and deflection), thermal considerations (CRF and U values), anchorage
considerations and secondary water control.
Anchorages were a critical consideration in developing plans for Chicagos
new waterfront Shakespeare Theater. The design of the 75,000-square foot,
seven-story glass encased Shakespeare Theater, completed in 1999 as a final
phase of an overall 1.1 million square-foot urban redevelopment of Chicagos

Shakespeare Theater, Chicago, IL


VOA Associates

Architectural Aluminum Curtain Wall Systems.

Navy Pier, was to be reminiscent of a century-earlier Chicago side street.


Chicago-based VOA Associates, looking to contain costs while sprinting from
schematics to opening night in 15 months, chose an off-the shelf system,
which despite being pre-fabricated, was able to deliver many of the things we
were looking to do, including a prism-like bay that permitted panoramic
views of the waterfront, served to diffuse the impact of exterior sound, and
reduced the visual impact of seven-inch-deep mullions, says Jim Spacek, VOA
vice president and project manager.
Although not a contractual design-build project, the CM early on worked
with a curtain wall manufacturer and an installer. As a result, says Spacek,
we were able to consider proprietary issues earlier than normally would have
been the case. Among the issues: at which floors the attachments would take
place. We ended up with a plan in which alternate floors carry wind and
gravity loads and were able to plan for that in a way that minimized erection
issues down the road, Spacek says.
In this business, the water infiltration value is the thing that separates the
men from the boys, says Scarborough. The higher the resistance, the higherperforming the system, the more expensive the system is. On the vast majority
of projects we do, we start at the upper end of the (resistance) range, he says.
We generally start a project looking at 12 pounds (per square inch), in some
cases 15 pounds. Low-ratio systems offer water control at 1.77 and 6.24
pounds per square inch. At the upper end of the range are highly customized,
high- performance curtain walls.
At HKS, Scarborough says, there are a half dozen of us who have spent
our careers writing specifications. There are nine of us in the specifications
group. We meet for a half-hour every morning. At lunch, we frequently have
manufacturers come in and make presentations. We devoted September to
discussions of waterproofing issues. We spent the month approaching the
subject from an academic standpoint. Not every architect has that luxury,
but you cant do this stuff casually.
Architects, in general, he says, tend to think of themselves knowing everything, as the master buildersthose are the guys who get themselves in trouble.
You have got to reada lot, says HKS vice president Joe Sprague. You
have got to get together with the manufacturers. The thing I stress the most is
that if the architect doesnt understand somethinganythingfind the
manufacturer. Those guys will bend over backwards to accommodate us. Every
product in our industry is becoming more sophisticated, more technical, says
Sprague. The weakness in the design industry in the U.S. is that there is not a
formal mechanism to help the architect understand industries like curtain wall
manufacture. This stuff is not taught in school. There are good architects out

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there, who have gone to good schools, but when it comes to the technical
aspects of putting a project together, they fall down. The manufacturers know
that, and they know that they possess the knowledge that will enable architects
to do their jobs successfully. I spend time in plants. I call manufacturers.
They will fly in here to teach us how their systems perform. I say I dont
understand. Teach it to me. They will.
Ten years ago, it seems to me, manufacturers were more a part of the design
process, says Dan Rogers, director of the curtain wall division for a Texas
manufacturer. Due to many fast-track projects, we have lost some of that
interaction with architects, and we need to get it back.
Weve gone to great lengths to design and manufacture high-performance
systems, says Rogers. A lot has changed since Bostons John Hancock fiasco.
There are a lot more products available and they are available now with zero
sight lines, beveled, sloped or radiused exteriors, any color you want, any depth
and profile. Architects are best served, however, Rogers says, by using those
systems for the applications for which they were intended.
You wouldnt put a residential window in a school, says Rogers. If you
did, it might last five years. An architectural window in the same environment
might last 50 years. Systems are tested in the laboratory by subjecting them
to 2,500 wind cycles.
Nearly all of what designers need to know to specify aluminum
architectural framing systems is available at manufacturers websites.
You can go to the sites and pull up details. There are specification and
performance criteria, Grunewald says. It is important that you read the
performance requirements. What you end up with is a cut-and-paste
Word document, a reproducible file that can be transported directly to
design documents. The same is true with product details. Most manufacturers
offer a wide variety of products with various levels of performance and
aesthetic attributes. When the designer has determined the structural
requirements and elevation configurations, the manufacturer can assist
with specifying a product that meets both the performance and aesthetic
needs of the project.
Historically, architectural aluminum framing systems generally were limited
in color to gray, black or bronze (anodized). Today, specialty coatings mean that

Storefront or Curtain Wall:


Which Product is Right for my Application?

Left: The Millennium Tower in Addison, Texas, is a good example of a curtain wall application.
HKS Architects. Right: A storefront system was used on the H&R Block Headquarters building in
Kansas City, MO. BNIM Architects.

It used to be simple to choose between a curtain wall and storefront glazing


system. Curtain walls were for large, towering buildings. Storefront systems were
for small, one-or-two-story buildings, often retail stores.
The name said it all.
Today, things are a bit more confusing. There are more storefront systems
and more curtain wall systems. Many two-story buildings combine uses, such as
office/retail. As you look through brochures and CDs, you see center-set applications,
front-set applications, structurally silicone products, tubular and I-beam curtain
wallsand you wonder which of these many products will fit your project application.
To make matters more difficult, those towering buildings are not as common
now. Most have been replaced by buildings no more than 10-stories tall. So the
natural question is, Can't I use a storefront system on this six-story office building?
CDC consultant Jerry Johnson says the answer is not a simple one, but the
following rule of thumb can make it a pretty basic decision: Storefront systems
were designed primarily for use in one-to-four-story applicationsusually small
retail buildings or strip centers.
Other factors to keep in mind are the following differences between the two systems:
STOREFRONT

C U R TA I N WA L L

FINISH

One finish

Dual finish

GASKET

Vinyl

EPDM, Silicone

PERFORMANCE AIR

6.24 = .06 CFM/FT2

6.24 = .01 CFM/FT2

WATER TEST

10 psf per ASTM E 33196

15 psf per ASTM 331-96

The key factor in selecting a curtain wall or storefront system is the enclosures
ability to handle and control water. Water control is the ability of the glazing system
to collect and drain to the exterior of the building. As you can see by the storefront
and curtain wall detail illustrations, a storefront system has a very limited water
head compared to a curtain wall system, but a storefront system will perform very
well in the proper application.
Water control is a much bigger problem for specification writers than concerns
about structural requirements, says Johnson. It is usually obvious when a
storefront glazing system is not capable of meeting structural and wind load
requirements. When a system fails, water control is usually the problem.
The following checklist of questions about the project requirements and system
capabilities may help make the selection easier:
What do the specifications require
CRF and U value ratings?
Air, water and structural requirements? Specified gaskets?
Finish requirements?
Live-load slab deflections and seismic?
Cutting corners is not recommended when it comes to overall building
construction, and the glazing system is no different. A building owner might
get by using a storefront system when a curtain wall system is needed. However,
that decision might prove costly in the long run. That is why it is important to
determine the exact requirements of a glazing system before making your selection.
These two CAD drawings illustrate storefront (top) and curtain wall systems (bottom).

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Architectural Aluminum Curtain Wall Systems.

A D V E R T I S E M E N T
systems are available in nearly any color. As much as half the product lines
of some manufacturers today are coated.
The systems are also becoming less complicated to install and more
flexible in their applications, Grunewald says. Tomorrows systems will be
even more installer friendly, he says, and nearly all manufacturers are
developing systems that can be unitized, pre-fabricated and assembled offsite. Because off-site labor costs can be better controlled and the product
can be assembled and sealed in a protected environment, unitized and preassembled units are likely to make architectural framing systems increasingly
cost competitive.
High-performing, unitized systems, which some aluminum framing
manufacturers now offer and others are turning to, still are a little bit more

A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D
CONTINUING EDUCATION Series

expensive than stick-built, maybe in the range of 20-25 percent more,


says CDCs Johnson. But these systems offer secondary water control.
That issue is our biggest hang-up in this industry, always has been, always
will be. Secondary control covers your backside. Even if the system leaks,
you dont hear about it. A lot of owners dont want to spend the extra
money, but they are the first to squeal when water run down the inside
of the glass. Secondary systems should be mandatory.
Tomorrows architectural framing systems will be developed with
heightened consideration of sustainability, will see even higher thermal
performance, will accommodate specialty glazingphotovoltaics,
for exampleand the bar keeps being raised in terms of water and air
infiltration, says one manufacturer.

CLICK FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIRED READING

The article continues online at archrecord.construction.com/resources/conteduc/. To receive AIA/CES credit, you are required to read this additional
text. The quiz questions below include information from this online reading. To receive a faxed copy of the material, contact Sharon Harper at 1-800869-4567, e-mail slharper@vistawall.com.

A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D
CONTINUING EDUCATION Series
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this article, you should be able to:
understand the proper applications of architectural aluminum curtain wall
systems to best meet code and design requirements.
have a greater understanding of new technologies and system advancements
in architectural aluminum curtain wall systems.
Recognize industry standards in product testing and classification of
architectural aluminum framing systems.
INSTRUCTIONS
Refer to the learning objectives above. Complete the questions below.
Go to the self report form on page 268. Follow the reporting
instructions, answer the test questions and submit the form. Or use
the Continuing Education self report form on Records website
archrecord.construction.comto receive one AIA/CES Learning Unit
including one hour of health safety welfare credit.
QUESTIONS
1. The most technically advanced glass walls of the recent past managed to
eliminate mullions entirely by using the glass itself as a structural material,
relying on structural sealant joints, or by:
a. Pinning the glass to lightweight steel sub-structures.
b. Using silicone gaskets
c. Switching to triple glazing
2. U-values factors are measured under:
a. AAMA 501.1, Standard Test Method for Exterior Windows, Curtain
Walls and Doors for Water Penetration Using Dynamic Pressure.
b. ASTM E 330, Test for Structural Performance of Exterior Windows,
Curtain Walls and Doors by Uniform Static Air Pressure Difference.
c. AAMA 1503-98, Voluntary Test Method for Thermal Transmittance
and Condensation Resistance of Windows, Doors, and Glazed
Wall Sections.

3. Before designing a curtain wall system, you should consider design criteria,
structural criteria, thermal considerations, and:
a. anchorage considerations
b. secondary water control
c. Both A and B
d. Either A or B
4. A minimum condensation resistance factor (CRF) need to be established
base on local weather, interior temperature and:
a. Wind pressure
b. Reflectivity of glass
c. Relative humidity
5. Storefront systems typically are rated at:
a. 8 psf
b. 10 psf
c. 12 psf
6. Which system, has dual finish?
a. Storefront
b. Curtain wall
7. Which system, uses vinyl gaskets?
a. Storefront
b. Curtain wall
8. High-performing, unitized systems, still are a little bit more expensive than
stick-built, in the range of:
a. 10% more
b. 20% more
c. 30% more
9. The new high-performing unitized systems will offer easier installation and:
a. Storefront systems for 10 story applications
b. Secondary water control
c. Single performance standards
10. Thermally broken aluminum framing systems offer higher energy efficiency.
a. True
b. False

803 Airport Road


PO Box 629
Terrell, TX 75160
800.869.4567
www.vistawall.com
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Architectural Aluminum Curtain Wall Systems.

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POLYVISION PRESENTS

Interactive
Communication Products:
Advancing Knowledge
Through Collaboration
By Barbara A. Nadel, FAIA

In a time of turbulence and change,


it is more true today than ever that
knowledge is power.
U.S. President John F. Kennedy (1917-1963)
The new generation of interactive whiteboards with remote control is the epitome of transparent technology.

nowledge generation and dissemination has changed dramatically over


the last 40 years, when President Kennedy astutely predicted an enduring
truth about the role of information in society. Design professionals, teachers, and everyone who works in collaborative environments are constantly
transferring and absorbing knowledge in a variety of formats.
Workplace studies have shown that 80 percent of ideas grow out of interpersonal
communication. From in-house brainstorming sessions, presentations and conference educational programs, to boardrooms, K-12 classrooms, university and training
settings, establishing
CONTINUING EDUCATION
personal connections
Use the learning objectives below to focus
between speakers and
your
study as you read Interactive Commuthe audience is essennication Products: Advancing Knowledge
tial to effective knowlThrough Collaboration. To earn one AIA/CES
edge generation and
Learning Unit, answer the questions on page 225,
delivery. Face-to-face
then follow the reporting instructions on page
meetings, the internet,
268 or go to the Continuing Education section
distance learning,
on archrecord.construction.com and follow the
and video conferencreporting instructions.
ing have widened
the opportunities
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
for instant, real time
After reading this article, you should be able to:
workplace collabora Explain how knowledge is generated and transferred in
tion. Interactive visual
collaborative settings.
communications
Describe the planning and design criteria for creating
products are ideally
effective collaborative workspaces and the products that
suited for workplace
support these areas.
Identify case studies where knowledge delivery through
and educational setcollaboration occurs.
tings, because they
Provide examples of how information flows among
facilitate learning
individuals and workspaces.
and collaboration.

New, transparent technology and multimedia electronic products have created exciting options for knowledge creation and sharing. Transparent technology means devices that dont look, feel or behave like complicated
machines. Transparent technology should not require users to read a manual,
acquire new skills or possess special knowledge for operation. Television is a
prime example of transparent technology. Switch it on, and a picture appears
on the screen. Children and adults can immediately operate a television, and
the ease of use is high.
This article will explore how to integrate knowledge generation, visualization, dissemination and learning with the latest interactive communication
technology products.

KNOWLEDGE: SHAPING THE 21ST CENTURY WORKPLACE


Knowledge is the driving force creating intellectual and monetary capital within
the workplace. In a knowledge driven economy, intellectual capital is the currency from which good design evolves, business thrives and success follows.
Successful projects are most often the result of effective collaboration, teamwork
and relationships among people, whether in a single office, a global organization, or a virtual project team.
For example, as buildings and projects become more complex, demanding
special expertise from firms and consultants remotely located from each other,
organizations and individuals increasingly form teams on a project basis,
regardless of location. Electronic, web-based and voice communication allow
information transfer of drawings and data to occur in real time, lending greater
viability to virtual project-based teams.
Collaboration, and the creation of intellectual capital, is based on people,
an organizations most important asset. Experts in workplace issues have identified the basic elements of collaboration:
Diversity is desirable. Studies indicate diverse workforces lead to higher
collaboration levels and more innovation.
Trust is essential. People with diverse backgrounds must find common

Interactive Communication Products: Advancing Knowledge Through Collaboration.

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ground and shared values to achieve trust necessary for effective collaboration.
Barriers are real. In a technology age, chances for building trust may be
minimal or nonexistent.
Face time is vital. Nothing replaces working face-to-face in shared time and space.
Workplaces add value. High performance workplaces facilitate collaboration.
Global economist Francis Fukuyama, in his book, Trust: The Social Virtues
and The Creation of Prosperity (Free Press, 1995), asserts that to build trust,
an organization must start with strong human capital, and foster coordination.
Trust does not reside in integrated circuits or fiber optic cables. Although it
involves an exchange of information, trust is not reducible to information, he says.
The workplace alone cannot build trust within an organization. However, as
many designers have learned from corporate clients, workplace design and related elements can encourage behavior leading to effective communication, and
create an atmosphere to foster trust.
Extensive workplace studies have shown that technology, if not easy to use
and apply, becomes a costly distraction interfering with, rather than enhancing,
human interaction. Technology should support collaboration, and inspire trust
in users. Technology products that are not easy to understand or operate upon
first use are not likely to be used again.
Trust must also be established among geographically diverse team members
before technology can effectively connect them. The right tools and technology
play an important role, but they do not replace the wealth of information communicated in face-to-face human interaction.
Cultural anthropologist Karen Stephenson, who studies workplace social interaction, notes the value of human capital expands when two people work together. She
wrote in CIO Enterprise Magazine, Very little of the working knowledge deemed
necessary to make products or deliver services lies in the formal, procedural company policies. Real working knowledge lies in the relationships between employees.

Top managers spend over 90 percent of their working time in meetings and

Cross-functional project work and communication intensive teamwork are

The Value of Face-To-Face Meetings


Studies have shown that 70 to 90 percent of communications are nonverbal.
During face-to-face interaction, a rich array of signals is transmitted: body language, facial expression, and tone of voice, that are not available on conference
calls and web-based meetings. Meeting participants who see visual cues, such as
non-verbal behavior in conjunction with written messaging, tend to stay more
focused and better understand the message. Additional studies have revealed:

conferences, not at their desks.


replacing traditional forms of work and organization, which functioned well
in constant market conditions.

Development processes, previously been carried out by various departments


in succession, are now initiated and implemented by cross-functional groups.

Meeting minutes, intended to document results, are often not kept or arrive
late, and are generally incomplete and biased.

Information Persistence
Information persistence refers to visual cues, and the act of capturing and displaying information for extended time periods. When team members capture
thoughts on a whiteboard, for example, they can rapidly achieve a shared mind
in any group setting, and share access to graphic data. Information is transferred
among individuals, and transformed as people start working together.
Transformation, the iterative exchange and development of ideas, is the primary
collaborative activity at the heart of the knowledge creating process.
When shared notes are preserved and posted for project duration, group
members can direct individual work and track progress. Whether information is
stored on a whiteboard, or a high-tech flat screen, ongoing access to visual display of information enables everyone to get up to speed when the group reconvenes. Supporting visual memory with information persistence augments communication, learning, decision making and problem solving. Persistent information leads to fewer errors, misunderstandings and wasted time.

Intellectual Capital: Explicit Information and Tacit Knowledge


Experts in knowledge management refer to tacit and explicit kinds of information and knowledge.
Explicit information is factual, objective, and can be captured in words, diagrams or numbers. It can be transferred in various ways, but the most efficient
transfer is in writing. Examples of explicit information include clearly defined
facts that can be captured on paper or in digital form, such as assembly instructions, maps, procedures, and financial statements. This information can readily
be shared via information technology.
Tacit knowledge is more challenging to capture. It is based on
a complex accumulation of knowledge, experience, observations,
findings and interaction. It is experiential, subjective and far more
challenging to capture in words only. People acquire tacit knowledge by experiencing, doing and participating.

Value Added Workplaces


Business leaders have discovered that a high-performance workplace yields superior business results. Face-to-face collaboration
occurs in various forms, from casual, spontaneous interaction,
to formal, structured work sessions. In shared space and time,
people readily adjust their work styles to the environment and
project needs. Depending on the setting, tools, and tasks, people
collaborate in very different ways.
Designing a high-performance, collaborative workplace is a
multi-disciplinary undertaking calling for the skills of architects,
designers, engineers, anthropologists, workplace experts and communicators. The basic elements are:

Take care of people

Incorporate technology and tools

Embrace corporate culture and change

WORKSPACE DESIGN TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY

Multimedia whiteboard systems have transformed the way information is captured and transferred.

222

Effective workplaces include technology and tools supporting information sharing and transfer, formal and informal communication,
and encourage socializing. Good design, along with the right tools,
enhances collaboration, while building social and intellectual capital.

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Power and data tracks combine the ultimate space flexibility with aesthetics.

When workspaces are not designed and equipped properly, effective collaboration and communication decrease. Participants may need 30 minutes of a
meeting to set up the technology, start the projector, speakerphone, interactive
whiteboard or laptop. Bad lighting prevents meeting participants from seeing
information written on the whiteboard or what is being projected onto the board.

Environments Supporting Collaboration


On average, people retain 20 percent of what they hear, 30 percent of what
they see and 50 percent of what they hear and see. Writing surfaces, such as
multimedia interactive whiteboards, are effective tools to capture and disseminate knowledge and data generated in collaborative environments.
Almost half, or 44 percent, of all meetings are spontaneous, underscoring
the importance of transparent technology to capture information. Users walk
into meeting spaces and immediately need access to surfaces to begin visually
communicating ideas. Some interactive whiteboards require eight to ten minutes to set up, assuming participants planned ahead, brought a laptop loaded
with software, and remembered what to do next. Electronic whiteboards must
be easy to use the first time, or they are seldom used again. If problems arise
a second time, users will not use the products again.
All meeting participants want to walk away with the important visual and
intellectual content discussed. Often, they dont know the important points
until the end of the meeting. At that point, they want to capture and share the
information theyve learned.

VISUAL COMMUNICATION PRODUCTS


Teachers and presenters can engage audiences by using newly designed interactive
whiteboards equipped with remote controls, allowing presenters to walk and
control the interactive whiteboard from anywhere in the room. These visual
communication tools support a variety of teaching and presentation styles,
so that anyone can walk up and use them immediately, without special software, classes or training.
Interactive whiteboards and multimedia systems have transformed the way
information is captured and transferred. In classrooms, these systems allow a
lesson plan to be printed out, saved to an internal hard drive as a file, or posted
to the classroom website. Students and teachers can access the material anytime.

IMAGE CAPTURING SYSTEMS


Image capturing systems reinforce the tacit and explicit knowledge conveyed
during a lesson plan or presentation. Small working groups often develop
rapid-fire ideas that cant be impeded by note taking. Image capturing systems
improve idea generation by transforming whiteboards into copyboards.
Spontaneous collaboration occurs without pre-planning, while meeting participants focus on ideas, and not miss vital information.

How Image Capturing Systems Work


A presenter writes on the whiteboard and an intuitive control panel offers the
ability to save images to an internal digital archive, or a web site, on the LAN,

Interactive Communication Products: Advancing Knowledge Through Collaboration.

save to a floppy disk, or print to a wireless color printer, through a single button.
Notes on the whiteboard can later be viewed on the digital archive, web
site, or downloaded to a computer, making them available to send by email,
for printing and hard copy paper distribution.
System components may include a camera arm, to capture drawings and writing in any color; a control pad, to select direct capture to the printer, diskette or
built-in web server; a wireless color printer; floppy diskette drive, and a built in web
server, capable of retaining images even during power loss, and accessible from anywhere on a LAN using a standard web browser. Image capturing systems are compatible with any marker or chalkboard up to four feet high and eight feet wide.

NEW GENERATION OF INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARDS


With newly designed interactive whiteboards, a teacher or presenter can walk
among the class or audience while controlling the presentation and whiteboard
activities through an intuitive remote control device. The remote, like those
used for a television, controls the power and flexibility of the whiteboard,
allowing the speaker to project, write with projected ink, erase, save, print,
and access the web. This transparent technology, easy to operate on first use,
is one less complication for presenters to worry about, enabling them to focus
on their information, not hardware and software.
Certain interactive whiteboards can be used with any PC or laptop, at any
time, with available technology allowing plug-and-play capability. For maximum impact, and greater flexibility, a track system can be installed, embedded
with power and data to optimize wall and writing system space, while eliminating
hazardous wires. Infrared wireless computer connections also eliminate wires.
A power and track system combines space planning flexibility and aesthetics, by hiding power cords, and allows users to slide the interactive whiteboard
along the track, multiplying writing surfaces and enhancing presentation capabilities. For optimal flexibility, specifying a track system at least double the
length of the whiteboard is advised.

How Interactive Whiteboards Work


Using a laptop computer projecting an image on a screen, a presenter controls
the computer by tapping a finger, instead of a computer mouse. Whiteboard
writing surfaces on either side of the screen are used for notes in marker to
highlight ideas. The sliding capability of the interactive whiteboard along a base
whiteboard writing surface increases flexibility and provides more opportunities
for a presenter to augment information projected from the computer screen.
The use of a compatible remote control anywhere in the room further engages
listeners to remain aware of the knowledge communicated.
Base whiteboards are typically available in four-foot height, and any width,
up to 16 feet without joints. A typical installation includes two panels at eight
feet in length.
Features, such as capture and save, enable audience participants to access
the same take-away information. Images can be printed or saved in PDF, BMP,
TIFF, PNG or JPG, or other formats.

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POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR VISUAL COMMUNICATION PRODUCTS


Interactive whiteboards and image capturing systems are ideal in:
K-12 environments, to enhance learning at all levels and abilities.
Schools with special needs students, where an aide takes class notes.
Colleges and universities, where students need information, or when
they miss a class.
Collaborative settings, such as non-profit organizations, where meeting
information can be printed, distributed and posted on a website.
Corporate workplaces, including multi-office venues with virtual project
teams in different locations.
Institutions, such as hospitals, where sharing information among departments, floors and satellite facilities enhances staff efficiency and patient care.
Convention halls, conference centers and hotel room meeting spaces,
where transparent technology boosts appeal of meeting venues for
presenters, and rapid room turnover of large audiences.
New construction and retrofits, to update existing facilities. They signal
to parents and presenters that older facilities have new ideas about
communicating and disseminating knowledge.

Power and data track system detail illustrates how sliding interactive whiteboard system moves along
writing surface.

COMMUNICATION STYLES AND SETTINGS

High-Performance Training And Learning Spaces

Collaboration and technology support knowledge generation and dissemination.


Great ideas should be acted upon quickly. Meeting participants in a boardroom
are prepared for discussion. Impromptu breakout spaces equipped with whiteboards encourage idea development. Project work areas produce implementation, while training and learning spaces launch ideas into reality.

Great ideas should hit the marketplace quickly. The speed at which an idea
is disseminated depends on how effectively teams are trained and deployed.
Instructors should feel inspired as they deliver training programs; trainees
should understand what they see and hear.
Visual communication products enable both parties to teach and learn effectively, through walk up and use products. Instructors can readily adapt to plugand-play technology and interactive whiteboards that free them to engage their
audience while walking around the room. Trainees appreciate the benefits of
real-time capture and instant access to board content for post-training review.
Inspired training leads to attentive learning and peak performance.
The most effective training rooms are designed for user flexibility.
Spaces should be capable of reconfigurations to suit different work styles,
from formal lectures to smaller, collaborative work groups.

Project Workrooms
Ideas evolve in project workrooms. Teams have brainstormed and are ready for
implementation. Content created in workrooms is close to a formal presentation
prompting an organization into action. The space, and communication equipment, must be available for instant modification, publication, and seamless
transmission by any team member without delay.
Outfitting workspaces with appropriate technology is pivotal to realizing
project implementation. High performance work tools support the collaboration process with easy to use interactive technology. Transparent technology
tools allow any team member to access information, offer contributions,
and share ideas with anyone around the world.

Image capturing systems support idea generation through spontaneous collaboration.

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K-12 Classrooms
Children learn from seeing and hearing teachers explain fundamental concepts.
Classroom design and technology should support and enhance, not distract
or interrupt teaching styles and training methodology.
Various classroom styles may include Socratic teaching,
designed to foster critical thinking, and collaborative,
formal, and group presentations.
Users should be able to understand the function of the
space and the technology elements. Technology must be
plug-and-play, to enable immediate operation by any faculty member and user.
Wall-mounted interactive whiteboards, allowing teachers
to walk and talk anywhere in the classroom during their
lessons, combine technology and information.
Transparent technology allows teachers to use color
markers on whiteboards for hand written notes, internet
screen projection from a laptop, and capture class notes
for hard copy distribution and website postings.
Learning is enhanced and students benefit from maximizing information persistence, providing the visual reinforcement of what they see and hear from teachers.
The multimedia approach, combining technology, color,
web-based and electronic presentations engages students,
especially those with short attention spans. Publishing
class notes reinforces the lesson of the day.
In addition to classrooms, interactive whiteboards

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A D V E R T I S E M E N T
are ideal for K-12 media centers, sports training facilities, and project
rooms for interactive group work of 12-15 students.

Higher Education
At colleges and universities, interactive multimedia tools play to a more
sophisticated audience, especially when time management, fast room
turnover and large volumes of students and several faculty members use the
same classrooms daily. Transparent technology, plug-and-play and ease of
use capabilities are essential, because special training is not required.
Interactive whiteboards provide a synchronous learning experience, or the
ability to effectively have multiple locations participate in the learning experience. For team teaching and distance learning in several venues, this feature
allows wider, efficient dissemination of a single lesson plan.

A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D
CONTINUING EDUCATION Series

Interactive communications products are ideal within higher education lecture halls, faculty offices, conference rooms, and classrooms for
30 to 50 students.

COLLABORATIVE TECHNOLOGY
The most effective project teams can transition quickly from knowledge
transfer, brainstorming ideas to implementation with the right tools and
properly designed work and meeting spaces. Collaborative technology
should not require set up and should support spontaneous use by all participants. All room users should expect to present, capture and communicate
ideas easily and without special skills. Through the use of visual communication products, such as interactive whiteboards and image capturing systems,
these goals are readily achievable in any workplace.

CLICK FOR ADDITIONAL REQUIRED READING


The article continues online at archrecord.construction.com/resources/conteduc/. To receive AIA/CES credit, you are required to read this additional text. The quiz questions below include information from this online reading. To receive a faxed copy of the material, contact Customer Service
at 800-620-POLY or e-mail literature@polyvision.com.

A I A / A RC H I T E C T U R A L R E C O R D
CONTINUING EDUCATION Series
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After reading this article, you should be able to:
Explain how knowledge is generated and transferred in collaborative settings.
Describe the planning and design criteria for creating effective
collaborative workspaces and the products that support these areas.
Identify case studies where knowledge delivery through collaboration occurs.
Provide examples of how information flows among individuals and workspaces.
INSTRUCTIONS
Refer to the learning objectives above. Complete the questions below.
Go to the self report form on page 268. Follow the reporting instructions, answer the test questions and submit the form. Or use
the Continuing Education self report form on Records website
archrecord.construction.comto receive one AIA/CES Learning Unit
including one hour of health safety welfare credit.
QUESTIONS
1. Workplace studies have shown that ___ percent of ideas grow out of inter
personal communication.
a. 60
b. 70
c. 80
d. 90
2. Transparent technology refers to:
a. Using overhead projectors to share information in a meeting
b. Technology that does not require new skills or special knowledge to use
c. Sharing information simultaneously in multiple locations
3. Studies have shown ____ percent of communications are nonverbal:
a. 25 - 50
b. 50 - 70
c. 70 - 90
4. Information persistence refers to:
a. Capturing and displaying information for extended time periods
b. Technology that can run 24/7
c. Face-to-face communication in shared time and space

5. An example of technology that can support information persistence is:


a. Televisions
b. Palm Pilots
c. Whiteboards
6. On average, we retain ____percent of what we hear, ___percent of what
we see, and___percent of what we hear.
a. 20/50/30
b. 50/30/20
c. 20/30/50
7. What element can combine space planning flexibility and aesthetics?
a. Power and data track system
b. Remote control of whiteboard
c. Plug-and-play capabilities
8. Workplace studies indicate ___ percent of work time consists of
collaborative work.
a. 25
b. 50
c. 75
9. What provides the ability to have a synchronous learning experience,
or the ability to effectively have multiple locations participate in knowledge
dissemination?
a. Interactive whiteboards
b. PowerPoint slides and LCD projector
c. Informal meeting spaces
10. Which type of workspace design criteria would include
Visual communication product: Image capturing system with
a high-contrast whiteboard.
Lighting: Wall washing incandescent or fluorescent lighting on the
whiteboard; adequate task lighting.
Technology systems recommended: Printer.
Wiring method: Power and data outlets for attendees.
Furniture: Comfortable seating with mobile and adjustable work surfaces.

a.
b.
c.

Other issues: Window treatment.


Classroom
Private Office
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Norcross, GA 30071
Tel: 800-620 POLY / 770-447-5043
Fax: 770-446-5951
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Interactive Communication Products: Advancing Knowledge Through Collaboration.

225

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SPI REPRESENTATIVE.

Lighting
From the Pacific Northwest to the
Pacific Rim, lighting benefits centers
of culture, commerce, and transit
BRIEFS
The 1992 federal Energy Policy
Act (EPAct) mandated that all states
upgrade their energy codes to meet ASHRAE
90.1-1989. Under that act, its now time to
upgrade again, to ASHRAE 90.1-1999.
States have until July 15, 2004, either to
improve their own energy building codes to
meet that standard or explain why they cant
(or wont) comply. In an upcoming issue of
RECORD, we will review code revisions and

compliance issues. The

third Light +
Building trade fair takes place in

Frankfurt, Germany, April 18 to 22, 2004.


With more than 2,100 exhibitors, the show
has added sessions and products related to
daylight technology. For more information, go
to www.light-building.messefrankfurt.com.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : E D UA R D H U E B E R

CONTENTS
229 Creative Uses
230 Marion Oliver McCaw
Hall, Seattle
Leni Schwendinger Light
Projects; Horton Lees Brogden
Lighting Design
239 Roppongi J, Tokyo
Isometrix Lighting + Design
242 Changi Airport Rail
Station, Singapore
SBLD Studio
249 Lighting Technology
Fluorescents in green homes
251 Lighting Resources

rriving, departing, staying a while, or just passing through, patrons of


urban centers worldwide are being romanced by new architectural spaces
with particularly effective lighting. This month we report on three metropolitan projects from the Pacic Northwest to the Pacic Rim that represent
different building typesa bar and restaurant enclave, an airport transit station, and
a renovated performance hall for symphony and ballet. Each project required creative
lighting tailored to its individual architectural details and program. In each case, lighting functions as an integral component of the architects space-making, whether as a
signature visual element or inherent waynding device.
In Tokyo, a 27-acre, mixed-use urban center launched by developer Minoru
Mori features a galleria with more than 200 agship stores and restaurants. As only one
diversion, Roppongi J is a single destination that encompasses two restaurants, bars,
and private function rooms designed by
Rockwell Group working with Isometrix
Lighting + Design. Abstractions of nature
build from the palette of architectural
materials to lighting that encompasses
such effects as glowing groves of bamboo
and a hologram of a sh swimming along
a waterfall. The interiors take patrons on
what design architect David Rockwell
calls a narrative journey threaded
through the sequential spaces.
Next stop, Singapore: Skidmore,
Owings & Merrill has unveiled another
phase of its master plan for the Changi
Airport. While construction of a third
terminal is under way, a sleek transit station is already connecting passengers to
their ights or to the city center. SBLD
Studio devised layered illumination for
efficient, engaging pedestrian routes.
At Marion Oliver McCaw Hall
(right), the renovated incarnation of the
Seattle Opera House, an exterior lighting
installation by artist/lighting designer
Leni Schwendinger takes its cue from the saturated colors of Abstract Expressionist
paintingand, its said, the hues of Seattle sunsets. A procession of metal-mesh scrims
perpendicular to the buildings new curtain wall captures a changing collage of colored
light that is visible both outside and within the soaring lobby. An evening at the opera
has rarely been this showstopping before the curtain rises. William Weathersby, Jr.
11.03 Architectural Record

227

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Light is the catalyst for a collection of expressive artworks commissioned by Targetti

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY TA R G E T T I ( TO P T H R E E ) ; S K E R T Z ( B OT TO M T W O )

Throughout the history of art, the


portrayal of light has been an ardent
pursuit of creative minds in many
media. In a traveling exhibition of
artworks commissioned by the
Italian lighting manufacturer Targetti,
light is both form and content.
The Targetti Light Art Collection
was launched in 1997 as the brainchild of C.E.O. Paolo Targetti.
Curated by Amnon Barzel, former
director of the Jewish Museum in
Berlin, the artworks are linked by a
common denominator of light. Each
artist was asked to create a piece
that would best use the expressive
potential of light to convey its
emotional power. Different lighting
techniquesvariously employing
fluorescents, dichroics, neon, fiber
optics, and body-motion sensors
support artists concepts, language,
and style.
The collection is permanently
housed in the Villa La Sfacciata,
situated in the hills outside Florence

and now home to the Targetti


Lighting Academy, a foundation dedicated to promoting
synergy between light, art,
and technology. Targetti
retains its close ties to the
art world; besides its array of
commercial fixtures, its lamps
illuminate Michelangelos
David and Leonardo da Vincis
Last Supper, among other
masterworks.
After exhibitions in cities
including Frankfurt, London,
Artworks by (clockwise from above) Shinji
Buenos Aires, and Milan, 32
Yamamoto, Fabrizio Corneli, and Luiselli
works in the collection made
Clara made their U.S. debut last May.
their North American debut
last May through July at the
Chelsea Art Museum in New York
establish the biennial Targetti Light
City. More international stops on the
Art Award, a competition for artists
tour are in the planning stages.
under 35. Four winners will be
To maintain the collections
announced from 14 finalists in
continuity and promote the use of
December. For more information
light as an expressive tool, Targetti
on the competition and the entire
has teamed with Italys Modern and
collection, go to www.targetti.com.
contemporary art fair, ArteFiera, to
William Weathersby, Jr.

A color box of light brightens the facade of a once-painted cathedral


The nighttime colorization of NotreDame Cathedral in Amiens, France,
is both a revelation and an ingenious
solution to a tricky archaeological
dilemma. Begun in 1220, Amiens is
Frances largest and one of its most
beautiful Gothic cathedrals. It seems
it also has a colorful past.
In 1992, at the start of a major
restorative cleaning, traces of color,
as well as white primer, were found
in the recesses of facade sculptures. A wealth of color fragments,
including vibrant blues, greens,
ocher, and gold, proved that almost
800 years ago much of the facade
was painted. The question became
what to do with the knowledge. No
The saints of the Amiens Cathedral
are newly awash in colored light.

archives existed to show the extent


of the polychrome detail, and the
idea of reapplying paint to the edifice was rejected as too invasive.
Instead, the solution was to
re-create the effect of color with
lighting. The city called on Parisbased designers Skertz. Working
on the main entry sculptures, where
there was enough data for an accurate re-creation, Skertz first had
to match the original paint pigments
in light and then find a way to give
their projections depth, wrapping
the sculptures in color.
The team used the age-old
lanterne magique technique, in
which a transparent image is placed
between a light source and a magnifying lens so that the image is
enlarged as it is projectedbut with

an additional step. Before they could


paint the facade via computer and
transfer the images to film, they
first had to trace the three recessed
doors from the same vantage point
as that which would be used for the
final projections, and photograph the
work on the same axis. This would
achieve a more realistic effect in
perspective, with shade and shadow.
For the system to work, the projectors had to be placed at the exact
same spot where the drawings were
done. Skertz used six projectors,
two for each door. Another two
lamps project ephemeral images
onto the surrounding facade. The
newly colored facade can been
seen each evening from June to
September and during the winter
holidays. Claire Downey
11.03 Architectural Record

229

LIGHTING

Creative
Uses International artists explore the medium of light in an exhibition making
its North American debut Lighting transforms the facade of the 13th-century cathedral in Amiens, France

By Alice Liao

n Seattle, where diffuse daylight is often ltered through clouds


and mist, a redesigned civic complex enveloped in color and light
recalls a sighting of the aurora borealis. As part of a multiphase
revitalization of the Seattle Center fairgrounds, LMN Architects
has orchestrated a $127 million redevelopment of Marion Oliver
McCaw Hall, previously called the Seattle Opera House. Framing the
complex as a beacon of recharged theatrical energy is a choreographed
spectacle of illumination by Leni Schwendinger Light Projects.
The project upgraded the home of the Seattle Opera and Pacic
Northwest Ballet by restructuring the interior plan, replacing mechanical
and technical systems, and adding amenities such as a lecture hall, caf,
and lounges. To enhance exterior architectural details while promoting
public interaction in the compact plaza between the hall and the nearby
Phelps Center, the architects commissioned New York City artist and
lighting designer Leni Schwendinger to create a site-specic work.
Because the promenade links Mercer Avenue, a major city conduit, to
Seattle Center, the display not only draws visitors to the theater but serves
as a dramatic gateway to the 74-acre landmark campus.
Nine, 30-foot-tall metal-mesh scrims are suspended at a 90Alice Liao is a freelance writer based in Teaneck, New Jersey. She frequently writes
about architecture and lighting.
Project: Marion Oliver McCaw Hall,

Seattle
Architect: LMN Architects
Interior designer: Sussman/Prejza
Lighting designer (exterior): Leni
Schwendinger Light ProjectsLeni

Schwendinger, principal; Ted


Sullivan, Charles Cameron, Paul
Hudson, Gwen Grossman, Severn
Clay, Anna Souvorov, project team
Lighting designer (architectural):

Horton Lees Brogden Lighting Design

P H OTO G R A P H Y : E D UA R D H U E B E R , E XC E P T A S N OT E D

L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

Dramatic lighting envelops


Seattles Marion Oliver
McCaw Hall to evoke
artists dreaming in color

The mesh panels are


spaced at 20- to 40foot intervals. Each
panel is illuminated
from above by two or
three 575-watt metalhalide fixtures (this
page and opposite).

Scrims suspended by aircraft


cables contribute to the floating quality of the color fields
(above and left). In the fivestory lobby (below), PAR38
downlights accent the grand
staircase, which offers a view
toward the color-changing,
illuminated plaza.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : L A R A S W I M M E R / E S TO ( B OT TO M T W O )

L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

degree angle between the new glass facade of the performance hall and
the Phelps Center. Schwendinger illuminated the scrimswhich range in
size from 30 by 70 feet to 30 by 40 feetusing 575-watt metal-halide
oodlights equipped with dichroic lters and dowsers. We wanted to
nd the simplest way to light the scrims, says Schwendinger, who favored
the xture for its panoramic beam spread and color-changing ability. The
solution capitalizes on the transparency of the mesh panels and their ability to layer color upon color.
The installation, titled Dreaming in Color, was inspired by the
work of Color Field painters such as Mark Rothko, Helen Frankenthaler,
and Jules Olitski, Schwendinger says. The plaza immerses passersby in a
dynamic environment of saturated hues. While each scrim is bathed in a
single color, when viewed from different angles the nine panels appear as
oating, variegated bands whose shifts and mutations are choreographed
in four distinct compositions. Creating what Schwendinger calls a visual
musical score, the compositions of layered light range in duration from
212 minutes to 10, and vary in rhythm and palette. Color sequences were
programmed into a DMX controller that rotates them daily throughout
the week. Each night, one composition is shown at the top of each hour
and then followed by a longer period during which the scrims are illuminated with white light, a blank page upon which the compositions can
play, Schwendinger says.
The vibrant play of light penetrates the curved glass curtain wall
to lend drama to the grand lobby. Sensitive to the arrival experience of

232

Architectural Record 11.03

Light

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Sui design Carlottta de Bevilacqua

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L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

The auditorium incorporates recessed


incandescent and lowvoltage downlights.
Low-voltage striplights
illuminate balcony
fronts. A staircase has
a warm glow (below).

theatergoers, architectural lighting designer Horton Lees Brogden


Lighting Design employed a combination of PAR lamps and MR16
downlights to articulate architectural features and provide ambient light.
At night, the restraint of the lighting transforms the lobby into a subtle
counterpart to the magic of the promenade framed by the curtain wall.
Throughout the upper lobby spaces, 90-foot horizontal bands along the
fabric-upholstered walls designed by Sussman/Prezja interpret the spectrum of the aurora borealis, changing colors depending upon lighting and
the position of viewers. In the auditorium, the house lighting is discreet,
complementing mauve walls and teal seats and adding punch to architectural details. Through the collaboration among the project team
members, the building and its public art element are inextricably bound
by a visual dance of vibrant hues and intensities of light.
Sources

Halogen accent lights: Lumire

Exterior lighting: Coemar; ETC

LED striplights, fluorescent step

Recessed low-voltage downlights:

lights: Belfer

Lucifer Lighting

Halogen wall washers: Elliptipar

Fluorescent, incandescent downlights: Edison Price Lighting


Accent lights: Rambusch Lighting
Low-voltage striplights: Primus
234

Architectural Record 11.03

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.

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By Leanne B. French

n midtown Tokyo, Roppongi Hills is a new, $4 billion mixed-use


redevelopment project by builder Minoru Mori that aims to be a
premier international tourist destination and cultural center.
Nestled at the foot of Mori Tower, a 54-story office complex
topped by a museum, is a low-rise galleria zone of 200 shops and restaurants. Among the attractions in this city within the city is Roppongi J,
a trio of nightspots that presents a conuence of Eastern and Western
cuisine, supported by a similarly multicultural mix of design elements.
The J in Roppongi J is emblematic of a journey through
three distinct environmentsa bar at the entry, an international restaurant with a Japanese accent by chef Nobu Matsuhisa at the center, and
American restaurateur Todd Englishs Mediterranean-inspired Olives
eatery as epilogue. The Roppongi J odyssey is both culinary and spatial
the design by New Yorkbased Rockwell Group carves out distinct niches
for each environment while building a dramatic ebb and ow enlivened

P H OTO G R A P H Y : S H I N I C H I S ATO

Leanne B. French is a freelance writer based in New York City. She frequently
writes about lighting for record.

Groves of resin rods lit by


halogen sources are an
abstraction of Asian bamboo
framing the bar area (below)
and Xen restaurant (opposite).

with lighting by London-based Isometrix Lighting + Design.


The narrative of a journey was particularly apt for design architect David Rockwells debut project in Asia. His concept was to make an
impact through an artfully choreographed interplay of light and materials. Because the emphasis was on a journey, we wanted to make
Project: Roppongi J, Tokyo
Design architect, interior designer:

Rockwell GroupDavid Rockwell,


president; Diego Gronda, David
Wilbourne, principals; Niels
Guldager, Jun Aizaki, Eri Nagasaka,

Kimberly Silvia Hall, Kendra


Sosothikul, project team
Architect of record: Nomura Co.
Lighting designer: Isometrix
Lighting + DesignArnold Chan,
principal; Mark Elliott, designer

L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

A trio of nightspots within Tokyos Roppongi J takes


patrons on a journey amid an interplay of abstraction

In Xen, a curved wall


morphs into the ceiling, grazed by a light
trough at its base. A
laser hologram of a
fish is projected onto
the waterfall (below).

A WATERFALL GRAZED BY A HOLOGRAM OF


A FISH AND GROVES OF GLOWING BAMBOO
ARE FANCIFUL ABSTRACTIONS OF NATURE.
sources at the top and bottom of each rod. Placed asymmetrically, the
bamboo columns screen the bar from the adjacent Xen restaurant.
The shimmering ambience is repeated by an illuminated, amber
resin bar top that engages the senses. A series of 712-foot-tall turntables
rotate liquor bottles behind the bar, backlit by a light box of dimmed,
color-gelled uorescents.
Beyond the Bamboo Bar, patrons pass over a narrow bridge into
the Xen restaurant, where the ceiling, walls, and oor are clad in warm,
natural wood. Metal-bead curtains, accented with splashes of orange light
from theatrical projectors, create a sense of movement and transition
from the youth-oriented bar area to this cloistered dining experience.
The centerpiece of Xen is another abstraction of nature, a
9-by-9-foot cascading waterfall enlivened with a 3D hologram of a sh

gelled fluorescents

features towering

(left). In the curved

turntables of liquor

space of Olives (below),

bottles, which are

each table is spotlit

backlit by a light

to create an intimate

box fitted with color-

dining experience.

projected by laser at its center. Additional spotlights graze the waterfall for
accent illumination. Across from the waterfall, Rockwell staged the sushi
bar like a kabuki theater, placing chefs on a platform in front of a simple
backdrop as though they are performers front and center, he says.
Polished red resin bento seating and tables appear to oat in a
red glow from integral LED striplights that cast light from beneath the
furniture. A curved wall is grazed with discrete illumination from oor
troughs. Narrow-beam, ceiling-recessed spots accent family-style tables,
which visually appear to drift away from the wall.
In the more formal dining room of Olives, a central mobile of
abstracted aspen leaves rendered in leather serves as a subtle divider. Dark
natural planes, from green marble ooring to textured stone walls, are
grazed by dramatic accent lighting. A linear crystal chandelier is elegantly
poised above the bar. On a wall opposite windows framing views of the
city, a velvet curtain is cross-lit with narrow-beam spotlights. Dark materials absorb light, so we used more accents on the curtains and tables to
create a heightened sense of intimacy, says Chan.
Beyond Olives, there is a small oval V.I.P. room framed by
50 candlelike wall sconces. Coves along the ceiling and oor provide
ambient light. The light xtures create a warm glow that makes the
room feel like a shrine or a hearth, says Rockwell. At the end of
Roppongi Js narrative journey, the exclusive inner sanctum is a grace
note of texture and light.
Sources

Undershelf downlights: Yamagiwa

Low-voltage halogen downlights,


striplights: Forrest Lighting
Pinhole halogen downlights: Odelic

Lighting

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.
11.03 Architectural Record

241

L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

connections through materials that are familiar but are reinterpreted with
an element of surprise, Rockwell says. Resin, timber, stone, and metal
nishes are juxtaposed with water features for a layered, mysterious environment. Lighting emphasizes the array of materials and creates a sense
of movement through the space.
The feeling is that there are different atmospheric pockets as
patrons move through the distinct destinations, and the lighting adapts to
the different moods, adds principal lighting designer Arnold Chan.
At the entry, Rockwell evokes Asian bamboo by abstractly casting it in resin as a series of vertical forms, framing the Bamboo Bar. Chan
illuminated the grove of glowing vegetation by embedding halogen

The Bamboo Bar

By William Weathersby, Jr.

ince it opened in 1981, Singapores Changi Airport has often


ranked as one of the most efficient and inviting international
aviation hubs in surveys of international travelers. As a prelude
to an expansion in 2006 with a third terminal designed by
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), a new transit station by the same
architects has laid the groundwork for a streamlined mode of transporting pedestrians from the city and throughout the airport. Though it
descends three levels below grade, the transit station is infused with daylight and engaging architectural illumination. SOM collaborated with
lighting designer SBLD Studio on lighting that enhances expressive, glassclad forms, including two curtain-wall atria and a graceful pedestrian
bridge that spans the lower circulation corridors. The Changi transit
station offers a new meaning for the term traveling light.
As part of an expansion of the Singapore Mass Rapid Transit
(MRT) system, the east-west line was extended from the city center 20
miles away to the new Changi station, situated between Terminal 2 and
the site for Terminal 3. The station is entered from each terminal through
one of two glass atria containing escalators and elevators that move
passengers between airport circulation and transportation levels. The
three-story atria allow generous daylight to penetrate the interior spaces;
when illuminated at night, the enclosures become beacons that function
as signature landmarks for the airport.
The atria of the station are the primary elements of the hub
one sees above ground, says SOM project manager Hamid Kia, AIA. We
wanted a lightness to the structures that would welcome passengers to the
station, a feeling that continues as travelers move down through the
underground levels.
The atria feature curtain walls of glass panels hung by tension
cables. Each atria frames views of landscaped gardens graced with waterfalls and integrated lighting. A grade-level skylight between the atria
provides daylighting for the subterranean levels and adds to the beacon
effect when lit at night.
The lighting design expresses the architectural envelopes of
both the atria and the underground levels while providing continuity for
travelers maneuvering throughout the station, says principal lighting
designer Susan Brady, IALD. The emphasis is not on individual lighting
xtures in the foreground. Instead, materials, planes, and volumes are
supported by integrated lighting.
During the day, the atria are awash in sunlight. Horizontal

Metal halides uplight


horizontal metal-mesh
fins for ambient light
(above). The winglike
ceiling members
appear translucent
when lit by fluorescent
uplights (left).

Project: Changi Airport MRT Rail

Station, Singapore
Architect: Skidmore, Owings &
MerrillDavid Childs, FAIA, design
partner; Marilyn Taylor, FAIA, planning
partner; Hamid Kia, project manager;
Ross Wimer, senior designer; Reiner
242

Architectural Record 11.03

Bagnato, senior technical coordinator


Lighting designer: SBLD Studio
Susan Brady, principal; Attila Uysal,
senior designer/project manager
Structural engineer: Arup
Electrical contractor: Bizlink
Associates

P H OTO G R A P H Y : T I M G R I F F I T H , E XC E P T A S N OT E D

L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

Singapores Changi Airport Rail Station transports


travelers through multiple levels infused with light

At night, the stations


two atria become
internally illuminated
beacons. The gradelevel skylight provides
a visual cue to the
transit levels below.

L IGHT ING PRO JECTS


A luminous glass floor

adjacent terminal

extends the length of

(above and below).

the 200-yard bridge,

Ceiling coves and verti-

which provides pedes-

cal wall slots are fitted

trian access to the

with fluorescents.

metal-mesh ns along the curtain walls provide solar shading. At night,


the ns are illuminated by 35-watt PAR20 metal-halide uplights, transforming them into reectors. The conguration provides ambient
illumination while accentuating the formal rhythm of the architectural
enclosure and ns. Along the ceiling, a central spine incorporates metalhalide downlights and conceals asymmetric uorescent uplights that
illuminate the winglike metal-mesh framework.
Escalators provide a transition down to the stations subterranean levels. At the entrance to the transit sector, clusters of metal-halide
downlights, integrated within the frame of a skylight, supplement the
daylight and provide nighttime accents.
A 200-yard, free-span glass bridge is the unifying feature of the
stations lower levels. As the bridge passes through the transit station,
it serves as the dominant visual and lighting element, Brady says.

THE ILLUMINATED GLASS BRIDGE


ANIMATES THE PEDESTRIAN CORRIDOR
AND IS A CANOPY FOR THE LEVEL BELOW.
Circulation between the terminals for air passengers is facilitated by the
footbridge, which dramatically spans the length of the clean-lined, threestory station box.
Once passengers descend underground, the oor grid creates a
sense of direction and expanse. The bridge is clad with laminated glass
made with a white, translucent interlayer selected to allow the entire
244

Architectural Record 11.03

Architectural
Lighting

Architect: Obora Phillips & Associates, Chicago


Project Location: Lobby, 12 East Eire St, Chicago
Item Number: 65700 Combines satin finished
aluminum, hand painted faux alabaster and
mahogany-stained makore wood

NEW METAL CRAFTS


Our expert design staff can assist you in all aspects of your custom project.
Visit our showroom/warehouse to see our vast collection
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812 N. Wells Chicago, IL 312.787.6991 Out-of-State 800.621.3907 Fax 312.787.8692
www.newmetalcrafts.com inquiries@newmetalcrafts.com
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L IGHT ING PRO JECTS

bridge to function as a light box. Metal-halide and compact uorescent


sources illuminate the bridges glass panels, offering ambient light.
One level below, the underside of the bridge creates an ethereal
canopy for the metro-transit platform areas. Linear uorescents set
within vertical slots along the metal-clad walls add another layer of ambient light and provide a visual rhythm along the bridges length. We
couldnt evenly light the metal panels directly, so the vertical slots bring
light down the walls and cast a diffuse light, Brady says. Recessed uorescent slots also illuminate the edges of the train platforms and the
openings of the train doors as they arrive and depart.
The traveling light show will continue soon at Terminal 3.
SOMs intrigung design features a at roof tted with louvers above and
below a system of skylights. At night, indirect lighting will enhance the
sculptural canopy overhead.
Sources

metal-halide uplights, floodlights:

Fluorescent and compact

BEGA

fluorescent uplights: Zumtobel

Bridge glass: Solutia

underside of the bridge

Metal-halide downlights, spot-

transit station, the

is an ethereal canopy,

lights, accent lights: ERCO

bridge is a dominant

with vertical wall slots

Fluorescent striplights: Philips

visual and lighting ele-

providing rhythm along

Lighting

ment (above). The

its length (below).

Compact fluorescent step lights,

For more information on this project,


go to Projects at
www.architecturalrecord.com.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : G A B R I E L TA N

Passing through the

246

Architectural Record 11.03

A S P H A LT S H I N G L E S S OA R A B OV E T H E I R T I L E , M E TA L , A N D W O O D R I VA L S .
Tile is heavy. Metal dents. And wood shakes arent exactly prized for their fire-resistance. The simple fact
is that no roofing material matches asphalt shingles all-around combination of affordability, performance,
color, style, and ease of installation and repair ... not to mention stunning good looks. Perhaps thats why
asphalt roofing has dominated North Americas skies safely and beautifully for almost 150 years.
Request your FREE brochure at our website: www.asphaltroofing.org Have you seen whats up with asphalt roofing?

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Manufacturers Association

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2003 Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Association

L I G H T I N G T EC H N O LO GY

Fluorescent gets respect in green homes


CONSERVATION-MINDED CLIENTS WHO ARE BUILDING OR REMODELING HOUSES WANT FLUORESCENT
INSTEAD OF INCANDESCENT FIXTURES, AND MANUFACTURERS ARE STARTING TO RESPOND

By Lindsay Audin

rchitects are nding that green-minded clients building or


remodeling homes are willing to use uorescent almost anywhere they previously would have used incandescent. They take
pride in the fact that they are saving energy, conserving natural
resources, and that using uorescent means they are contributing less to
the waste stream. Lead and mercury in lamps has also been eliminated or
drastically reduced. Fortunately, the term decorative, energy-efficiency
lighting is no longer an oxymoron, and high cost is also not the barrier it
once was. Likewise, good quality lightingnot just bright, expensive, or
fancyadds to the resale value, comfort, and safety of a home.

P H OTO G R A P H Y : C O U R T E SY S H A P E R L I G H T I N G

Finding the right fixtures

than standard incandescent. Some halogen lamps have notoriously short


life spans and create a tremendous amount of heat.
Cautions and considerations

When people start using uorescent extensively, there are a few new
things they need to know. One is that T8 lamps, 1 inch in diameter, are
now sold in home centers side by side with older T12s, which are 112
inches wide. These are not interchangeable, even though their mounting
pins are identical. While a T8 mounted in a T12 xture may work for a
time, the T8s will eventually icker or burn out. Another caution is that
you may nd old lamp-starting technology inside new CFL xtures. Some
still use preheat starting, which means that the lamps may icker for a
second or two when switched on, which is unattractive and hard on the eyes. Be sure the xtures
you specify are rapid starting.
The new T5 uorescent lamps are
extremely slim, and the xtures they t within are
compact. The drawbacks are that T5 lamps take
noticeably longer to reach full brightness; replacement lamps and ballasts are not yet available at
The Recessed Pendant by Shaper
retail stores; and good dimming ballasts can be
Lighting hangs below a CFL downlight.
quite expensive. These problems will disappear as
It works well where ceilings are low.
T5s become more popular.

Most consumers shy away from using uorescent


because they think the xtures look too institutional.
You may have to do some extra work to help clients
nd xtures that have a residential appearance. Dont
let the idea of what is possible be limited by what
appears in lighting xture stores or home furnishings
catalogs. There are also three useful Web sites that
can be searched for xtures suitable for residential
use: www.lighting.com; www.lightsearch.com; and
www.lightinguniverse.com.
One of the best ways to avoid making
uorescent lighting look institutional in the home
is to use indirect cove lighting. These xtures bounce soft light off the
ceiling, creating minimal glare. This makes them ideal for rooms where
television or computer screens are present. When combined with dimmable ballasts, the inits brightness can be decreased when sunlight is
present, preventing rooms from being overlit, and thus saving energy.
Coves allow ceiling planes to remain unbroken, which helps rooms
appear spacious. Because xtures are made in specic lengths, architects
should familiarize themselves with these dimensions, keeping them in
mind when working out room sizes.
Undercounter uorescent lights have been staples in kitchens for
a long time. Whats new is that lamps are now available for them in highcolor rendering versions that make food look more appealing than it does
under cool white light. Self-ballasted, screw-in compact uorescents (CLFs)
are now small enough to t into almost any table lamp, and the ubiquitous
300- to 500-watt halogen torchres can now be economically replaced with
CFL torchres. Not only can your client thereby eliminate one of the most
expensive power draws in a home but also the danger of res that the excess
heat produced by halogen can cause if torchres are tipped over or come
into contact with fabric. Homeowners who place a priority on energy efficiency should also be advised that halogen is only marginally more efficient
Lindsay Audin is the president of Energywiz, Inc. (www.energywiz.com), an
energy and lighting technology company in Croton, New York.

Keep control systems simple

There are control systems available that can do almost anything with a
lighting system that a person can think of. But in practice, the complexity
and cost of advanced controls may not be worthwhile, so avoid installing
anything smarter than the people who will use or maintain it. As with
many security systems that confuse homeowners, some lighting panels
now just gather dust. Other gee-whiz options, like putting occupancy
sensors for lighting in garages or laundry rooms may or may not work
wellcheap occupancy sensors from the hardware store tend to false
trigger and are sensitive to temperature changes. Here, consider using
dual-technology sensors that use either infrared motion plus sound
sensing, or infrared plus ultrasonic motion sensing. In no case should
occupancy sensors be used on circuits with preheat-start xtures. The
constant signal current produced by the controls will burn out their
starters within a few months.
Be open to lots of options

Fluorescent lighting may not be appropriate everywhere, but it is pleasing


to know that its use has become more commonplace. As always, use common sense when specifying for clients; dont saddle them with systems
that are difficult to use and maintain, and encourage them to be open to
innovative and exible designs.You can almost bet that a childs nursery
will one day become a home office.
11.03 Architectural Record

249

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We Set the Highest Standards.


For free pictorial guides and design aids for your
next project, call 1-800-PRECAST or visit www.highconcrete.com.
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Precise and wavy design

LIGHT ING RESOURCES

Lighting Briefs

Founded by a watchmaker and a surfer,


Rhubarb was one of the new design companies on display at this years ICFF show
in New York. Playing with positive and
negative space, the designers found the
inspiration for the Bow lamp through the
simple shape of a bowed piece of paper.
A 24'' and a 48'' version are available in a
Finn Birch ply core supported by a selection of wood or structural paper veneers.
415/268-0772. Rhubarb, San Francisco.
CIRCLE 200

in a series through the


use of a simple ring. The
 Fiber-optic backlighting panels

Crosslight will be available

Lumenytes newest fiber-optic lighting system is the LumenPanel backlighting

in white and orange and

fixture for light-box and other rear-illumination applications. The custom fiber-optic

for special projects in an

fixtures offer a bright, even distribution of light as a solution for lighting stained

afterglow version that

glass, etched and molded glass, luminous walls, and other applications. The

allows the lamp to keep on

fixtures can be built in any quantity, shape, or size up to 5' x 10' and offer color-

glowing for a few hours

changing options. 949/829-5200. Lumenyte, Foothill Ranch, Calif. CIRCLE 201

after being turned off. The


ability to form interesting
color and shape combina Make a connection

tions with the lamp makes it well suited

At this years NeoCon, Lightology

The award-winning Crosslight, available

for bars, restaurants, shops, lounges,

unveiled its signature line of light-

from Dark, is a hanging lamp with a dou-

and private interiors. 32/050718140.

ing fixtures, the Lightology

ble cross design that can be connected

Dark, Maldegem, Belgium. CIRCLE 202

Lyrical lighting

Architectural Collection. Specified


either on its own or as an accent
to the Lyra 60 and 120 series of
fluorescent suspensions, the Lyra
wall sconce comes with a white
diffuser and a satin aluminum finish. The ADA-compliant fixture (15'' wide x 2'' high x
4'' deep) offers direct and indirect light distribution and includes a T5 compact fluorescent lamp. 773/883-6111. Lightology, Chicago. CIRCLE 203

 Technology transfer

For more than 10 years, Lighttools Soft Egg Crates have been the standard in the
motion picture industry for shaping soft light. Now available for architectural applications, Lighttex Soft Egg Crates diffuse and shape hard light while creating transparent
walls and spaces with various visual effects. Lighttex was recently selected for the Ifra
Newsplex, a prototype newsroom at the University of South Carolina. 800/417-7431.

 Not so standard editions

Lighttools, Alberta, Canada. CIRCLE 204

Previously available only by commission, McEwen Lighting Studios has


launched MLS Editions, a new line of lighting fixtures for the home and
office constructed in cast and fabricated metal, turned and lacquered
wood, and blown and kiln-formed glass. Louver is available as a ceiling
fixture or a 72''-high floor lamp featuring a cast-aluminum vented head
with a kiln-formed glass shade. A suspended ring of corrugated copper
lined with opal glass, Gear measures 10'' x 48'' and features a deep
brown oxide or copper finish and a 220-watt T3 lamp. 510/547-7791.
McEwen Lighting Studio, Emeryville, Calif. CIRCLE 205

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11.03 Architectural Record

251

LIGHT ING RESOURCES

Lighting Briefs

Floating LEDs

Orgatechs new Lightstar LED


indirect luminaires give the illusion of rows of LEDs floating in

Skeletal designs

space with no visible power

Through the use of an amber

source. While the two dimmable

paper or white linen diffuser, the

54-watt T5HO lamps with wide-

EXO collection, Neidhardts new

distribution reflectors provide

line of architectural lighting fix-

primary illumination, the 80 blue or white LEDs mounted in twin, laminated clear-

tures, transforms the traditional

tempered glass panels are powered by an invisible low-voltage power supply.

cold light of fluorescent lamping

626/969-6820. Orgatech Omegalux, Azusa, Calif. CIRCLE 207

into a soft, warm glow. A friction


mechanism in the adjusting joints
of the EXO floor lamp and the EXO
vertical/horizontal sconce allows
for variable positioning and lighting

 Two new families of illumination

The Spina line of T5 luminaires (below right) is available in 2', 3', and 4'

options. The sconces and pen-

configurations as pendant or surface-mount fixtures. Perforated lamp

dants are available in two shade

shields can be clipped on to provide visual shielding while maintaining

sizes, 25'' x 7'' and 37'' x 7'',

a minimal profile. The Kone family of luminaires (far left) use compact

and feature a combination of

fluorescent sources and are

satin-silver and tumbled-aluminum

available in two sizes of clear

detailing. All EXO fixtures are

and opal glass. The group comes

equipped with an electronic smart

with an adjustable aircraft-cable

ballast and can be specified for

mounting system that allows

use with either T5HE or T5HO

the lamps to be adjusted to any

lamps in a 25'' or 37'' version.

length. 818/982-3715. Delray

800/978-8828. Neidhardt,

Lighting, North Hollywood, Calif.

Redwood City, Calif. CIRCLE 206

CIRCLE 208

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TEKA

ILLUMINATION

Classic Design
Copper, Bronze, Brass
86 Gibson Road #3
Templeton, CA 93465
T (805) 434-3511
F (805) 434-3512
info@teka-illumination.com
www.teka-illumination.com

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CERAMIC
TILES
OF ITALY
DESIGN
COMPETITION
2004
The Ceramic Tiles of Italy Design Competition was started ten years ago
to recognize outstanding achievement by North American architects or
interior designers using Italian ceramic tile in commercial, institutional or
residential installations. Projects are judged on their creative attributes as
well as how they meet their functional and technical requirements. Domestic
and international new construction and renovation projects are eligible.

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Sponsored by:
Assopiastrelle, Association
of Italian Ceramic Tile
Manufacturers,
The Italian Trade Commission

Award:
$5000 for each category
(residential, commercial,
institutional) awarded
during Coverings 2004

Deadline:
January 30, 2004
(no fee for entry)

For more details visit:


www.italiatiles.com or
www.italytile.com

CERAMIC
TILES
OF ITALY

LIGHT ING RESOURCES

 Lighter than air

Lighting Briefs

A new collection of contemporary table


lamps, pendants, and standing fixtures
is now available from Oxygen Lighting,

Wedge of light

a division of Quorum International. The

The inFINity wall sconces provide adjustable,

new line features hand-sculpted pieces

asymmetric, indirect lighting for walls, ceilings,

suitable for commercial and residential


environments. The Lucia pendant, shown

canopies, displays, and signage in a range of com-

below, is part of a family of fixtures

mercial and light industrial environments. The fixtures

featuring crystal-clear and satin-glass

feature a discreet wedge-shaped housing design


and an arced secondary external

diffusers and satin-nickel detailing.

reflector. 714/549-9765. LAM

817/302-5318. Quorum International,

Lighting Systems, Santa Ana,

Fort Worth, Texas. CIRCLE 210

Calif. CIRCLE 209

 Switch your system




Regulate uctuations

Aiming to provide a single-panel

The Thomas Research ELV Family of

solution for small-to-medium appli-

low-voltage controllers convert fluctuat-

cations, Lutron introduces the

ing, unregulated line voltage to a

SoftSwitch48 switching system that

consistently regulated, energy-saving

combines SoftSwitch technology

11.6 volts of low-voltage power output.

with a new XPS Controller. Featuring

Ideal for use with outdoor and indoor

an LCD user interface, the XPS

incandescent low-voltage lighting fixtures of all kinds, including recessed ceiling down-

Controller is used to configure and

lights, track lights, and pendant lights, the ELV Family preserves the lighting designers

operate the entire switching system.

original design intent and saves on unnecessary maintenance and contractor call-

610/282-3800. Lutron Electronics,

backs. 888/877-4456. Thomas Research Products, Wauconda, Ill. CIRCLE 211

Coopersburg, Pa. CIRCLE 212

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New Products

Since the industrys top flooring options (including carpet,


tile, wood, vinyl, and laminate) may not always be the most
appropriate choice for every project, architects are often
given the opportunity to investigate alternative flooring options. Using materials
ranging from natural fibers to recycled rubber to poured polyurethane, these floors
might serve as a safe play area or a work of public art. Rita F. Catinella

Aeronautic students tread on colorful elevations of earth and clouds

A base layer of green


polyurethane was
painted to give depth to
the buildings floor.

Working in collaboration with


polyurethane manufacturer Bolidt,
designer Petra Blaisse created a floor
for the new Aviation and Aerospace
Faculty Building of the Technical
University in Delft, the Netherlands,

that lets students keep one foot on


earth and the other in the clouds. The
client, along with an arts committee,
invited Blaisses firm, Inside Outside,
to implement an art piece that would
add more color and visual tension to

the building, designed


by Dutch architect Rudy
Uytenhaak. The pouredpolyurethane floor forms
the main artery of the
building, covering the
entire ground level and
ending fluidly at the top
of a stair. While the
material allowed Blaisse
to create depth in the
flat surface of the floor, it had other
advantages, as well. From a technical point of view, its good because
you can get very equal and smooth
surfaces, and contrary to epoxy, the
material is acoustically absorbing,
says Blaisse.
To realize the design intent of
an interior landscape of changing
elevations, the team poured an

underlayment of green polyurethane


and then painted over it in different
shades of green. Painting with
polyurethane shows no visible difference from pouring, says Blaisse,
and the character of the material
stays the same everywhere, as well
as the colors. In a technique developed with Bolidt, the designers
created the areas that represent
clouds by freely pouring black, white,
and several gray tones on the floor.
The team then mixed the colors
and softened the edges with hand
rollers to convey a sense of weightlessness and depth. As opposed to
the matte-green areas, the clouds
have a polished finish to suggest their
watery atmosphere. 31 786845444.
Bolidt Synthetic Products & Systems,
Ambacht, the Netherlands. CIRCLE 213

Seamless polymeric floor surfacing offers a variety of design options


Dex-O-Tex Micro-Topping is a thinsection, seamless polymeric floor
surfacing that is less moisture sensitive than conventional sheet and

tile flooring and provides a clear,


wear-resistant finish. In addition to
flooring, Micro-Topping can be
applied on countertops and walls
over materials including
concrete, brick, metal,
masonry, and wood,
making it ideal for
remodeling projects by
eliminating the cost of
expensive removal.
Lightweight and easier
to install on multilevel
buildings than concrete,
it is suitable for new
construction projects,
as well. A two-component product,
Dex-O-Tex consists of
a polymer-fortified,
rubberlike liquid that is
mixed at the time of
The topping can be stained in a selection of colors.
application with a

cement-aggregate blend. The product is then applied by trowel,


squeegee, roller, or spray in a
thickness of approximately 332''.
Micro-Topping can be antiquated
or chemically stained with a range
of colors to create variegated
hues. It also allows the application
of stencils and saw-cuts for limitless design options, including
patterns and logos. A wide selection of polyurethane sealers is
offered with varying degrees of
gloss or slip-resistant properties
that will stand up to repeated floor
cleanings. Companion products
include self-leveling underlayments, waterproof membranes,
moisture vapor retarders, and
crack repair systems. 310/8869100. Dex-O-Tex, Division of
Crossfield Products, Rancho
Dominguez, Calif. CIRCLE 214

For more information, circle item numbers on Reader Service Card or go to www.architecturalrecord.com Advertisers & Products info.

Rubber flooring
inspired by nature
Norament 925 B Krypto Earth and
Krypto Sky rubber flooring can be
specified for extra-heavy traffic
areas requiring a colorful visual
appearance along with lasting wear.
Designed to bring an outdoor feeling
to interior spaces, Krypto Earth
patterns and color options (ranging
from gray to burnt orange) are
inspired by granite and terrazzo. In
Krypto Sky, color granules form a
tone-on-tone integration with base
colors in brighter hues. 800/332NORA. Freudenberg Building
Systems, Lawrence, Mass. CIRCLE 215
11.03 Architectural Record

257

 Natural ber ooring

New Products

Prosource Wholesale Floorcoverings Showrooms will offer 17 new styles of natural


fiber carpeting from its Somerset House division. Selections will include wool, sea
grass, mountain grass, and bamboo offerings. The Somerset House brand carries

Softer landings

products consisting of fashion-forward natural fiber products ranging from printed

The ECOromp Play Area flooring

wools to flat weaves to woven Wiltons. 800/787-7748. Prosource Wholesale

system was developed specifi-

Floorcoverings, Earth City, Mo. CIRCLE 217

cally for young childrens play


areas often found in malls, airports, or doctors offices. The
four-part flooring system consists of adhesive, 114'' thick
recycled rubber ECOromp
underlayment, and .112'' or .2''
ECOsurfaces, sealed with a
water-based protective coating.
ECOromp meets playground critical fall tests at standard indoor room temperature
for 3' and 4' drop heights. 877/326-7873. Ecosurfaces, Lancaster, Pa. CIRCLE 216

Indoor sports ooring

The Omnisport Collection from Tarkett


Sommer combines four distinct vinyl

Engineered ooring

and linoleum flooring products

Amerisport II Wood and Solids, Training,

Public works artist Scott Parsons

Linosport, and Granit Acoustiflorfor

received the National Terrazzo and

a variety of indoor recreational facilities

Mosaic Association Job of the Year

that require proper traction and cush-

Award for 2002 for the 10,200-

ion. 800/USS-TILE. Domco Tarkett

square-foot epoxy terrazzo floor

Commercial, Houston. CIRCLE 218

entitled Algorithmic Tapestry for a


nanotechnology research facility on
the UW-Madison campus designed
by Kohn Pederson Fox Architects

 Shimmering vinyl yarns

and Flad & Associates. The large

Chilewich is introducing two new weaves in their Plynyl floor covering collection, Grass

black fractal with mother-of-pearl

Cloth and Bamboo. Both of these new weaves utilize bicolor vinyl yarns, which add

chips extending almost 200 feet

a textural dimension to the surface. The addition of muted gold and silver yarns in

across the atrium and winding down

each of the colorations creates a subtle and powdery sheen. The Grass Cloth weave

two hallways is based on the fractal

has the appearance of a wool crepe, while the Bamboo weave has what Chilewich

behavior of Newtons Method, an

describes as a woodsy texture. The complementary weaves can be used in both

algorithm relating to almost all

wall-to-wall and tile installations.

branches of engineering. 303/902-

212/679-9205. Chilewich, New

0625. Scott Parsons, Denver. CIRCLE 220

Economical slate look

Flooring and paving take on the


look of hand-laid natural slate with
Yorkshire Stone, one of the latest
additions to Bomanites line of
colored, textured, and imprinted
cast-in-place architectural concrete
paving. An economical alternative
to natural stone, Yorkshire Stone
comes in individual stonelike patterns in eight different sizes, from 6'' x 24'' to 36'' x 36'', and offers a choice of
two different texture directions. This product allows for a random, nonrepeating,
natural design that helps mimic the look of real stone. 559/673-2411. Bomanite
Corporation, Madera, Calif. CIRCLE 221

258

Architectural Record 11.03

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P H OTO G R A P H Y : A N TO I N E B O OT Z FO R C H I L E W I C H

York City. CIRCLE 219

The Highest Quality in


Authentic Italian Finishes

Fresco
Stucco Veneziano
Velatura
Marmorino Metallico
Encausto
Dilavato
Marmorino
Travertino

MIMOSA INTERNATIONAL offices:


New York 217 Centre Street, 2nd floor NYC, NY 10013
Tel 212-334-0330 Fax 212-334-8288
San Francisco 1045 Mission Street, #8 SF, CA 94103
Tel 415-703-0900 Fax 415-703-0905
www.mimosainternational.com
info@mimosainternational.com 1-866-4-MIMOSA

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Product of the Month


AlgoRhythms

Product Briefs

AlgoRhythms is a line of architectural prod

Fauxbulous glass

ucts created collaboratively by Dr. Haresh

The luminous finish of Nathan Allan

Lalvani, an architect-morphologist, and the

Glass Studios Faux Glass is a result of

Brooklyn-based architectural-metal-fabrication firm Milgo/Bufkin. The line cur-

metallic color combinations (such as

rently includes curvilinear column covers, wall panels, and ceiling systems for

Ebony/Gold, Emerald/Mint, and Cobalt


Blue/Gold) applied to coated cast glass.

exterior and interior spaces. In the design process, parameters are entered

The glass can be attached directly to

into a computer, where preprogrammed algorithms generate patterns that go

walls or counters or be pin mounted in

to a computer-controlled laser cutter that shapes the single metal sheet into

vertical or horizontal applications. All

a wide range of forms that will not harm the integrity of the material, whether

panels can be safety tempered and

steel, stainless steel, bronze, aluminum, perforated metals, or composites.

produced as large as 6'6'' x 11'6''.

Future projects will involve larger structural building components as well as

604/277-8533. Nathan Allan Glass


Studios, Richmond, B.C. CIRCLE 222

complete environments. 718/388-6476. ilgo/Bufkin, New York City. CIRCLE 223

Historic glass

A new technology from Solutias


Vanceva Design brand allows
photographs or graphics to be
captured in laminated glass
while retaining the precision of
digital technology. The technology can be used in applications
including wayfinding systems,
architectural graphics, and exhibition design. Since the image
is encapsulated between two
pieces of glass, there are no
cleaning or durability issues.
historic photos at Virginias

 Manual or
hands-free faucets

Martinsburg Federal Building,

In partnership with T&S Brass

designed by Lehman-Smith +

and Bronze Works, Sloan Valve

McLeish with graphics by

Company has entered the

Propp + Guerin. 877/674-1233.

manual-faucet business in

Solutia, St. Louis. CIRCLE 224

order to offer architects a

Shown here is an exhibition of

single source for public-rest-

P H OTO G R A P H Y : S H A R O N R I S E D O R P H FO R S O L U T I A

room projects. The Polaris


Furniture Fair. A more

manual faucet line is the

traditional system than

latest addition to the Sloan

the Pininfarina-designed

brand of plumbing products,

Acropolis system that

including solid-surface lava-

highlighted the previous

tory systems, soap dispensers,

show, Certosa features

hand dryers, scrub sinks,

sliding doors for base

and pressure-assist flushing.

and wall units, silver oak

800/9-VALVE-9. Sloan Valve

wood or cherry finishes,

Company, Franklin Park, Ill.

Modern sink tops, and

CIRCLE 226

a functional island.
 New Italian kitchen designs

Appliances from companies such as

Snaideros Certosa kitchen system will

Miele, Gaggenau, and Viking work best

be one of several new designs on display

with Snaideros modular kitchen systems.

at Eurocucina 2004the biennial

310/516-8499. Snaidero USA, Torrance,

show held concurrently with the Milan

Calif. CIRCLE 225

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11.03 Architectural Record

261

Product Briefs

Faster and stronger system

Offering speeds up to 1,200 fpm and


lifting capabilities up to 4,500 pounds,
KONEs Alta elevator system is the
companys fastest and most powerful
vertical transportation system to date.
Powered by gearless KONE EcoDisc
technology, Alta minimizes the machine
room and provides more leasable
space and design freedom. The first
U.S. installation will be in Chicagos
47-story 71 South Wacker Drive/Hyatt
Center office building. 800/956-KONE.
KONE, Moline, Ill. CIRCLE 228

Better than the real thing

GranitiFiandre presents an alternative


 Solar power inverter

for professionals looking for the deep

Sharps 3500W Sunvista inverter is engineered to blend solar energy from up to

chromatic effect of Sodalite Blue, a rare

three input strings, each varying by number, model, and angle of modules. The

marble quarried from the top of the Andes

inverters neutral-toned housing integrates well with exteriors, while the interior LCD

in South America. The company has

monitor displays instantaneous and cumulative electricity generation and CO2 reduc-

engineered a technically enhanced stone

tion levels. Matched to Sharp solar modules and mounting hardware, the system is

that possesses a deep blue coloration

also compatible with other manufacturers systems and is ideal for both residential

accented by medium-size speckles and

and commercial applications. 800/SOLAR-06. Sharp Electronics Corporation,

areas of lighter veining. 630/285-1110.

Huntington Beach, Calif. CIRCLE 227

Trans Ceramica, Itasca, Ill. CIRCLE 229


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FAIR
HOUSING
ACCESSIBILITY
FIRST

Fair Housing Instruction, Resources,


Support, Technical Guidance

Plan for Compliance

FIRST

Skylights To Go!
Major Industries has the ability to deliver fast.
Quick Ship skylights are available 24/7 from our
website at www.majorskylights.com. Our selection
of pre-engineered skylights are easy
to order and ship ready to go.

Fast Delivery
Installation Ready
Saves Money

To Learn How Contact:


www.fairhousingfirst.org
1-888-FH1RST1
1-888-341-7781 V/TTY

Toll Free

Design and Build


in Compliance
with the
Fair Housing Act
Major Industries, Inc. P.O. Box 306
Wausau, WI 54402-0306
(715) 842-4616 voice (715) 848-3336 fax

888 SkyCost

www.majorskylights.com
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Product Literature
Quickship From
Bendheim.
The Glass You've
Been Looking For
Shipped Ready To Install
In Two Weeks Or Less!

Roof details CD
GAF Materials Corporations new Smart

NEW SITES FOR CYBERSURFING

Details CD contains photographs of

View more than 1,000 plumbing products


including sinks, faucets, watercoolers,
and fountains www.elkayusa.com

more than 50 key roof details, including


drawings and step-by-step images of
actual installations, to be used for training purposes or as an on-the-roof guide
to proper installation. 973/628-3000.
GAF Materials Corporation, Wayne, N.J.
CIRCLE 233

Landscape lighting brochure


Rockscapes has introduced a new
full-line color catalog depicting the companys complete range of low-voltage
and line-voltage outdoor landscape lighting fixtures. The new catalog includes

Technical Glass Products site aims to


simplify fire-rated glass and framing
product selection www.fireglass.com
Design and order glass-block windows
online www.pacificaccent.com
CAD drawings for Zero Internationals
door gaskets available electronically
www.zerointernational.com

information on the companys low-voltage


power-supply regulators, the I.Q. System.

Knotty pine door literature

800/677-6811. Rockscapes, Chatsworth,

Simpson Door Company has introduced

Calif. CIRCLE 234

a new brochure featuring their knotty


pine interior doors. Designed to accompany Simpsons Doors of a Lifetime

Ahrend International offers a new 26-

catalog, the brochure features detailed

page color brochure that details Ahrend

product specifications, four-color photog-

700, a vertical desk system for offices,

raphy, and the complete collection of

designed by architects Perry A. King and

knotty pine French, panel, and bifold

Santiago Miranda. 212/619-0060.

doors. 800/952-4057. Simpson Door

Ahrend USA, New York City. CIRCLE 235

Company, McCleary, Wash. CIRCLE 236

SWIRL

Architectural desk system

since 1927
www.bendheim.com
BENDHEIM EAST
800-835-5304
BENDHEIM WEST
888-900-3064

Bendheim the company


known for its vast selection
of architectural glass introduces
Quickship, a selection of 14
specialty laminated glasses,
cut to size and ready to ship
in two weeks or less.*
Quickship combines the qualities
of uniqueness and timeliness
together with the inherent safety,
security and sound control benefits
of laminated architectural glass.
Quickship provides quality and
character to a space in a fraction
of the time at reasonable cost.
*Some Limitations may apply.

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Hardwood plywood manual

Western red cedar brochure

A Complete Guide to Hardwood Plywood

Weyerhaeuser Building Materials

and Face Veneer (formerly A Hardwood

Cedarone Distinctive Landscapes

Plywood Manual, published by Columbia

brochure is intended for architects

Forest Products) will be republished by

and builders interested in using Western

Purdue University Press. The 136-page

red cedar for their outdoor landscaping

book is organized into sections on topics

projects. The 15-page brochure offers

that include variations in appearance

full-color product photos and landscap-

and the veneer manufacturing process.

ing project ideas for arbors, trellises,

703/435-2900. Hardwood Plywood &

benches, planters, decks, and gazebos.

Veneer Association, Reston, Va.

It also includes information on product

CIRCLE 237

standards and recommendations for


finishing Western red cedar products.

Site lighting spec sheets

800/525-5440. Weyerhaeuser Building

Beacon Products offers a new three-ring

Materials, Federal Way, Wash. CIRCLE 240

binder containing color product-line


brochures and individual spec sheets on

Window/door resource guide

its outdoor site lighting and related prod-

Vetter Windows & Doors has introduced

ucts. 941/755-6694. Beacon Products,

a new Architectural Resource Guide on

Sarasota, Florida. CIRCLE 238

CD-ROM so architects and designers


can access comprehensive technical

Bathroom renovation help

information, product specifications, war-

Renovating Bathrooms is a new 32-

ranty details, and architectural drawings.

page brochure from German bath

The first of several tools Vetter will be

furnishings manufacturer Missel. The

developing for the A&D community, the

brochure illustrates how the companys

Architectural Resource Guide CD allows

compact plumbing systems can

users to view, download, and print archi-

make the most of smaller spaces.

tectural drawings into various CAD

0711 5308 106. E. Missel GmbH &

programs. 800/VETTER2. Vetter Windows

Company, Stuttgart, Germany. CIRCLE 239

& Doors, Mosinee, Wis. CIRCLE 241

For more information, circle item numbers on Reader Service Card or go to


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ARCHITECTURAL TERRACOTTA

Product Literature

Zuiderhof II, Amsterdam, NL


Architects: Ellerman, Lucas van Vugt, Rijkswijk

Estetics knows no compromise. That is why the most


famous architects design their buildings using TERRART,
the ventilated curtain-type faade system, whose visible
parts are exclusively made of classic terracotta. TERRART
is the original of the terracotta faade in contemporary
architecture with large-format elements up to a length
of 1,500 mm. Individual and project-related manufacture
for a unique architecture.

NBK Keramik GmbH & Co. KG


Reeser Str. 235 D-46446 Emmerich Germany
Tel. +49 (0) 28 22 / 81 11- 0 Fax +49 (0) 28 22 / 81 11 - 20
E-Mail: info@nbk.de www.nbk.de
Area Sales Manager, U.S.A. F.J. Bud Streff, jr.
Massachusetts, U.S.A.
Tel. (7 81) 6 39 - 26 62 Fax (7 81) 6 39 - 80 55
E-Mail: bud.streff@aol.com
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113EDITQ

Program title: Architects Slowly Begin to Expand the Traditional Palette of Materials, Architectural Record (11 /03, page 195).
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Program title: Residential Renaissance, sponsored by JELD-WEN Windows & Doors (11 /03, page 209)
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A D V E R T I S E M E N T

RECOR D LIGHT ING

PRODUCT NEWS
150 Watt Metal Halide
Framing Projector

Helos

Presenting the unique 150


Watt metal halide recessable
framing projector for multiple
illumination from one source
by means of patented photographic imaging process. Call
toll free (800) 528-0101 or log
on to www.wendelighting.com.

The Helos family of lighting fixtures features a classic industrial design in a coordinated
collection of pendant, ceiling,
wall and post mount configurations. Helos is offered with choice
of incandescent or energy-efficient compact fluorescent or
HID lamping. A full palette of
painted and metallic finishes is
available, as well as custom colors on request. All fixtures in the
series are suitable for exterior
or interior applications. (800) 9406588 or visit www.luraline.com.

Modern
Architectural Lighting

Opus by Prima Lighting


Sunrays

Our collection of modern lighting features clean design and


simple fabrication. Each pendant fixture, surface mount
light and wall sconce combines
finely finished metals with
either hand-blown colored, or
shaped and textured glass.
This distinctive marriage of
glass and metal creates a 21st
century look that is captivating yet affordable. Tel. 206282-3023 Fax 206-282-3276
www.fluxinc.org

Exceptional in both form and


function, Sunrays will brighten
any area. The light glows from
the fixtures glass wings and
softly illuminates the area
below. Sunrays can be used in
low voltage monorail, cable,
and mono-point / multi-point
canopy systems. Choose polished chrome or silver finish. Max
50W JC Xelogen bulb. Please
call us toll free 866-885-4915
or visit www.primalighting.com.

Wendelighting

Luraline Product Co.

Flux, Incorporated

Prima Lighting

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RLM Fixtures

New Hole in the Ceiling


Downlights

New Building Mounted


Lighting Family: G2TM Designs

European Lighting

ARK Lighting has a broad line


of RLM fixtures ranging in size
from 6" to 20" in diameter. For
use with incandescent, low
voltage, fluorescent and HID
lamps. All fixtures are ETL
approved and most rated for
wet locations. Variety of finishes
are available. Check our website
for details: www.arklighting.com

These innovative fixtures utilize


compact fluorescent, incandescent or metal halide lamps. The
GRG (fiberglass reinforced gypsum) casting has integral electrical components which are
accessible through the bottom
of the fixture. Installed, it looks
like a custom, formed drywall
light niche that blends with any
interior motif. UL/CUL listed.
Contact us at 626-579-0943.

Bisecting geometric shapes


articulate a new vision in building mounted lighting: a design
signature in context with
architecture. G2EDGE (shown),
G2PLATE and G2BLOCK configurations allows designers to
augment the distinguishing features of a structure or blend
inconspicuously into it. Ten high
performance optical systems
provide varying light patterns
for safe and secure perimeter
lighting as well as accent lighting effect. www.hydrel.com

ARK Lighting

Engineered Lighting Products

Hydrel

Global Lighting

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Clean and contemporary


European lighting. Global
Lighting services the hospitality and design professionals through our nationwide
architectural lighting representatives. Call (800) 3260725 or visit our web site at
www.globallighting.net for further selections.

11.03 Architectural Record

269

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

RECOR D LIGHT ING

PRODUCT NEWS
Vintage Style Lighting
Fixtures & Ornamental Poles

270

Complete Light Distribution

Architectural Ceiling Fans


and Lighting

Eurospan the Wide-Span


Acoustical Fabric System.

Balanced design that pleases


the eye, creates a mood, a
gentle breeze. Moving sculptureThe San Francisco ceiling fan a Good Design Award
winner. Whisper quiet, powerful
and beautifully made. Lifetime
warranty. To buy high-design
architectural fans and lighting
please visit www.g2art.com.
Toll Free 877 858 5333 (6am to
6pm PST)

With Eurospan Fabric system,


architects can design effective
acoustic treatments without
compromising their creativity.
Flat, domed or coffered ceilings, custom floating clouds or
high walls in any commercial or
institutional environment are
perfectly suited for the system.
Visit www.walltechnology.com.
Wall Technology, an Owens
Corning Company.

Manufacturer of vintage style


luminaires, ornamental poles,
decorative traffic signal poles,
coordinating bollards and landscape furnishings, available in a
wide variety of designs. Welded
for single unit durability and
topped with a choice of high
performance lamping, reflectors
and refractors. For more information request catalog. 847-5883400, Fax 847-588-3440. Email:
info@ster nberglighting.com
www.sternberglighting.com

Primelite Manufacturing offers


sign lights of high quality. Wide
assortment of heads/arms bent
to specification. Heads & arms
made of aluminum. Available
incandescent, PL, HID. twenty
one standard colors. Powder
coating. Primelite offers an
entire line of decorative outdoor fixtures, poles, wooden
posts, post lights, wall brackets.
Indoor and outdoor fixtures,
factory shades. 516-868-4411,
800-327-7583, Fax: 516-8684609. Web: Primelite-Mfg.com

Sternberg Vintage Lighting

Primelite Manufacturing

G Squared Art

Wall Technology

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TGP Introduces
Fire-Rated Curtainwall

The Patented Screen Tight


Porch Screening System

Fabric Structures

Fire-rated glass:
PyroshieldTM Plus

The new Fireframes Curtainwall


Series from Technical Glass
Products is an interior or
exterior framing system that
gives architects the option of
designing with large expanses of glass in locations that
are fire-rated. The Curtainwall
Series incorporates extruded
steel frame components, pressure glazed with silicone gaskets. Custom exterior face
caps offer a wide variety of
appearances, including stainless steel. www.fireglass.com.

Screen Tight combines the


proven method of spline
screening with the low maintenance features of vinyl,
resulting in a clean appearance
and a tighter screen. No more
rusty nails, latticework, staples, saggy screens, or painting. The two-part system is
offered in 1.5" and 3.5" widths
and four popular colors and
can accommodate openings
up to 40 square feet. 800-7687325. www.screentight.com

Eventscape is a custom manufacturer of superior quality fabric structures for architectural


interiors and custom exhibits.
Since 1993 Eventscape has
been instrumental in the growing awareness and use of frame
and fabric as a versatile solution
for a variety of design applications. Eventscapes expansive
palette of workable fabrics gives
designers the freedom to create without boundaries. t.416.
231.8855 www.eventscape.net

In response to the changes in


the IBC 2003 and NFPA 5000
building codes, General Glass
International has introduced
PyroshieldTM Plus, a laminated
polished wire glass manufactured by Pilkington Glass UK. It
is the most cost-effective 45
minutes fire-rated glass including hose stream and has been
approved for safety glazing in
CPSC Category I applications.
For further information call
800.431.2042 Ext. 227.

Technical Glass Products

Screen Tight

Eventscape

General Glass International

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Architectural Record 11.03

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

PRODUCT NEWS

TO ADVERTISE: Contact Deidre Allen


T: (212) 904-2010 / F: (609) 426-7136
deidre_allen@McGraw-Hill.com

North Country Slate

Durability Security Distinction


Fencing & Access Control

DuPont Zodiaq.
Its nature, improved.

Columns, Balustrades
& Mouldings

North Country Slate offers a new


brochure explaining the design
and performance advantages of
their remarkable roofing material
to your residential customers. In
six glossy pages, Slated for
Excellence presents all the features and benefits to your client,
the homeowner. Make sure you
have this brochure on hand for
your next discussion on slate
roofing. For more information,
call 800-975-2835, email us
at info@ncslate.com or visit:
www.northcountryslate.com.

Master Halco has been designing and manufacturing the


highest quality fence systems
for more than 40 years. Let our
designs be a reflection of
yours, no matter what type of
fencing your project calls for.
Choose from a complete line
of estate gates, ornamental
iron, aluminum, vinyl, wood,
chainlink and gate operators. To
request a specification binder,
please contact us at (800) 2295615 spec@FenceOnline.com
www.FenceOnline.com

DuPont Zodiaq quartz surfaces capture the alluring look


of nature and takes it to a new
level. This beautiful combination of quartz crystals and
DuPont technology creates a
surface thats more durable,
consistent and easier to care
for than natural stone. Available
in over 25 colors, including
intense colors not found in
nature. www.zodiaq.com

Melton Classics columns, balustrades and mouldings are the


standard for quality and design.
Columns are offered in fiberglass, poly/marble composite,
synthetic stone, cast stone,
GFRC and wood. Balustrades
are offered in synthetic stone,
poly/marble, polyurethane and
cast stone. Ask us about our
full line of cast stone products,
and polyurethane mouldings
and details. 800-963-3060,
meltonclassics.com

North Country Slate

Master Halco

DuPont Surfaces

Melton Classics

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Three-Sided Fireplace
for Unlimited Installations

Architectural Precast
Concrete Panel System

Granite Cobblestone
in Modules

Chadsworths 1.800.Columns
www.columns.com

Heat-N-Glo introduces model


PIER-TRC, a three-sided direct
vent fireplace that can be terminated vertically or horizontally to accommodate nearly any
application. The PIER-TRC is
perfect as a room divider, bar,
end of counter or a wide variety
of creative installation possibilities. As with all Heat-N-Glo fireplaces, the PIER-TRC can be
operated by remote control for
the ultimate in convenience.
Call 888-427-3973.

Slenderwall is the right answer


for exterior cladding for new construction and recladding projects. Panels feature 2" of precast
concrete secured to a heavygauge galvanized steel frame
by epoxy-coated stainless steel
Nelson anchors. 28 psf means
lighter structural steel frames &
foundations can be used. Exclusive lift-and-release panel landing system reduces installation
time, costs. Low thermal transfer
rate, integrated wall studs. 800547-4045 www.easiset.com.

An updated catalog features


authentic European cobblestone preassembled in modular
form. Modules in square, fan,
concentric ring, and custom formats arrive at the jobsite ready
for a quick and easy installation.
Pedestrian or vehicular application. Eurocobble has supplied
the design community with traditional and customized paving
solutions for over 20 years. Call
toll free 877-877-5012 or visit
us at www.eurocobble.com.

Columns, pillars, pilasters and


posts available in wood,
PolyStone and fiberglass.
Interior, exterior. Variety of sizes
and styles. Competitive prices.
Job-site delivery. Worldwide
shipping. Our award-winning
Idea Book features an exciting collection of column projects. Includes Columns Product
Portfolio, $20. Columns Product
Portfolio $5 (credited to first
order). Free brochure. 800.486.
2118, Fax 910.763.3191

Heat-N-Glo

Easi-Set Industries

Eurocobble

Chadsworths 1.800.Columns

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271

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

PRODUCT NEWS

272

Pine Hall Brick


Rumbled Pavers

FAAC Introduces New


Economy Operator...

We Know Saunas!

Pine Hall Brick Companys


newest genuine clay paver
has created quite a rumble!
They are tumbled after firing
to represent an old world
look. Available in Full Range
(pictured), Ironspot, Main
Street (Full Range with white
added) and Rose Full Range.
Rumbled pavers have the
cobblestone look of a paver
thats been around for hundreds of years. 800-334-8689
www.americaspremierpaver.com

FAAC is the worlds largest specialized manufacturer of operators for swing, slide and barrier
gate systems. The new Model
412 low voltage swing gate operator is designed specifically for
single family residence use. The
412 is UL 325 compliant, offers
slow down soft stop convenience and features famous FAAC
performance and reliability. Call
1-800-221-8278 for a brochure
or visit www.faacusa.com.

Finlandia Saunas are a cut


above the rest with highest
quality materials and old country craftsmanship. In fact, we
still use 1" x 4" wall and ceiling
boards while our competitors
use only 1/2" x 4". Thats why
more architects and builders
come back to Finlandia again
and again... for easy installation
of any standard or custom size,
as well as best finished product. www.finlandiasauna.com

TO ADVERTISE: Contact Deidre Allen


T: (212) 904-2010 / F: (609) 426-7136
deidre_allen@McGraw-Hill.com

Decorative, Thin-Film
Intumescent Fireproofing

Improved spray characteristics &


ratings up to 3 hours! A/D FIREFILMII permits designers to use
the appearance of exposed steel
with the steel protected from fire.
The product is applied as a thin-film
coating 0.4 to 3.3 mm (16 to 130
mils) thick. When exposed to fire it
expands to form a meringue-like
insulating layer up to 4 in. thick. A/D
COLORCOAT topcoat is available
in a wide range of colours. Call
800-263-4087 or 416-263-4087.
Internet: www.adfire.com See
us in Sweets.

Pine Hall Brick

FAAC International, Inc.

Finlandia Sauna Products

A/D Fire Protection

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StandOff Systems

Get Safewith the NEW


School Safety Kit!

Shoji Custom Dividers,


Passage and Pocket Doors

Certified Wood Doors

Gyford Productions, creator of


The Original StandOff SystemsTM, stocks over 250 aluminum components within 5
interchangeable product lines.
Made in the USA! Custom
orders welcomed. Call for a
free catalog 775.829.7272.
standoffsystems.com

Discover the latest advances


in fire rated glass technology
with our NEW School Safety
Kit, Keeping Them Safe. The
kit includes an informational
brochure on the benefits of
new technology fire rated glazing in schools; our latest
Quick-Spec, so you can begin
specifying clear, fire and safety
rated glazing right away; a
U.S. map and box of crayons
so your kids can Color It
Safe! Request yours today at
www.firesafe-glass.com.

Custom Shoji screens built


with exceptional Craftsmanship
and Design. Made in the USA
using finest hardwoods, durable
facings and unsurpassed joinery. Perfect for Commercial,
Hospitality and Residential
projects. Order 28-page catalog featuring latest in Shoji
Design ideas. 800-634-3268 or
www.cherrytreedesign.com

Going Green, a special report


examining the technology and
procedures required to deliver
architectural wood doors that
comply with Forest Stewardship Council specifications for
certified materials, is available
from the marketing and communications group at VT Industries.
800/827-1615, ext. 210 or 304.
VT Industries, Holstein, Iowa.

Gyford Productions

InterEdge Technologies

Cherry Tree Design

VT Industries

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PRODUCT NEWS

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deidre_allen@McGraw-Hill.com

Trespa Meteon Exterior


Cladding Systems

Fine Solid Bronze


Architectural Hardware

System M2

Circum Stainless
Pre-Engineered Railings

The Trespa Meteon system is a


unique exterior faade cladding
for new construction & recladding
projects. Weather resistance, high
color stability, impact resistance,
and a nonporous surface structure result in a product suitable for a wide range of exterior applications. Trespa Meteon
is available in a variety of standard solid colors, natural prints
and rich metallic hues as well as
satin, gloss and rock textures.
Trespa is BEES listed and a member of USGBC. 800.487.3772

Sun Valley Bronze designs and


manufactures the original and
most complete line of handcrafted and hand-finished solid
bronze door, window, kitchen,
bath and cabinet hardware. The
collection is offered in either silicon or white bronze and in a
variety of finishes. The understated elegance of our contemporary and traditional
styles will enhance any architecture and add distinction to
any project. Ph: 208.788.3631
Fax: 208.7881306

As innovators of washroom
plumbing design, Neo-Metro
Collections System M2 is the
solution that merges creative
design with ease of installation. Only one plumbing connection is required for multiple basin arrangements, in a
variety of modern basin styles
and options. System M2 is
the ideal washing system for
modern office spaces, restaurants and hospitality venues.
Call (800) 591-9050 or visit
www.neo-metro.com.

HDI provides INOX railing system with top rails available in


either stainless steel or various
wood types. Infill options include
glass, perforated stainless
steel panels or horizontal rails
of stainless steel. A complete
supply and installation service is available throughout
North America, which include
INOX, Circum, HEWI nylon and
D LineTM railings. Designed to
meet all applicable building
codes and standards. 717-2854088, www.hdirailings.com

Trespa North America

Sun Valley Bronze

Neo-Metro Collection

Handrail Design, Inc.

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Roof Garden Walkway


& Deck Systems

Titus TileTM

Sound Solutions

There is No Substitute
for Cedar Siding

EcoStarTM, a manufacturer of
premium steep slope roofing
products, is proud to introduce
Titus TileTM to their existing line of
revolutionary premium steep
slope roofing products. Titus Tile
was created for large roof areas
where a specific traditional historic European look is desired.
At 2-1/2 times the size of normal
tiles, Titus Tile is very economical due to the use of fewer tiles
and less time for installation. For
more information: 800.211.7170
www.premiumroofs.com

20 page practical guide to


understanding the science of
sound and how it applies to
door openings. Sound Solutions
From Zero will help you analyze noise problems and
select the system to solve it. It
covers the basic principles of
acoustics, sound transmission,
STC ratings and gasketing
systems for door assemblies.
www.zerointernational.com

Envirospec Inc.

EcoStar

Zero International Inc.

Western Red Cedar

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Envirospecs PAVE-EL Pedestal


System is a proven method for
setting paver stones on rooftop decks and roof garden
walkways. PAVE-EL elevates
paver stones for perfect drainage on water-proofed roofs. It
also levels pavers and ensures
their uniform spacing for an
ideal roof terrace surface.
Call 716-689-8548 or visit
www.EnvirospecInc.com

Western Red Cedar siding is


prized by architects worldwide
for its beauty, versatility and
durability. Its rich grain and
texture complement any architectural design, and cedars
inherent structural properties
provide moisture-resistance and
a powerful barrier to improve
energy efficiency. To order
Western Red Cedar Siding literature, call 1-866-778-9096
or visit www.realcedar.org.

11.03 Architectural Record

273

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

PRODUCT NEWS

274

TO ADVERTISE: Contact Deidre Allen


T: (212) 904-2010 / F: (609) 426-7136
deidre_allen@McGraw-Hill.com

Authentic Italian
Wall Finishes

Dimension Stone Design


Manual VI

CrossingGardTM Emergency
Response Grille

Eliason
Easy Swing

Mimosa International specializes in the application of


authentic Italian finishes for interiors and exteriors. 100% natural materials hand-applied by
craftsmen to produce a range of
washable, water-resistant, odorless and durable finishes. The
products can be applied to any
surface and produced in custom
made color and texture. 1-866464-6672; NYC: 212-334-0330;
San Francisco 415-703-0900.
www.mimosainternational.com

Newly updated, this comprehensive technical resource from the


Marble Institute of America is
the authoritative source for
guidelines on using natural stone
in architectural designs. New
edition features expanded technical data, installation guidelines,
and maintenance tips for all types
of stone; standards and specifications for stone products; reference charts; and sample contracts. $90 MIA members; $99
architects; $175 others. 440-2509222. www.marble-institute.com

Every day, the CrossingGard


ERG protects the corridors of
schools, hospitals and public
buildings with an exclusive antilift, AutoLock device. But when
crisis strikes and the alarm
sounds or power fails, the failsafe motorized CrossingGard
opens automatically, clearing
the path and allowing immediate escape. Specification at
www.cornelliron.com or call
800-233-8366.

2003 Price/Spec door catalog


now available. Doors are sold
direct. Call today for free door
catalog. Eliason Corporation,
Kalamazoo, MI 49003, Phone:
1-800-828-3655, West Coast
Division: Phone: 1-800-8282655. www.eliasoncorp.com
www. restaurantdoors.net.

Mimosa International Ltd.

Marble Institute of America

Cornell Iron Works, Inc.

Elisaon

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Graffiti Resistant Panels


For Infill Applications

CLADTEK: Transparent
Sublevel Access Enclosures

Acrovyn Renaissance
Collection

Ancor Granite Tile

Mapes Industries offers a complete line of graffiti resistant


panels with a genuine porcelain enamel on aluminum surface. In-house color matching
capabilities combined with various component options provide the designer with unlimited design solutions. Kynar,
anodized and baked enamel
finishes are also available. For
more information, contact the
factory at www.mapeind.com

This point-supported laminated glass and stainless steel


structure seamlessly blends
form and function. By providing shelter with the added
security of natural light over
access routes to lower level
parking and urban rapid transit
systems, these maintenancefree CLADTEK enclosures combine beneficial safety features
with sleek, modern design. For
assistance with your design
please contact us at: 513-5777980 or www.waltekltd.com.

Acrovyn Renaissance Collection of wall protection products


from the C/S Group features
handrails, crash rails and corner
guards that combine the beauty
of wood with the practicality of
stainless steel. The collection is
offered in four wood species
and four finishes. Call 888-6213344 or visit our website at
www.c-sgroup.com.

Ancor produces over fifty No.


American and Imported granites in a full range of colors and
finishes for residential, commercial and institutional use.
Standard format is 12 x 12 x
3/8"; other sizes up to 18 x 18 x
1/2" available. Honed finish tile
is particularly suitable for high
traffic commercial areas, 435
Port Royal West, Montreal,
Quebec, H3L2C3, Canada.
Phone: 514-385-9366, Fax:
514-382-3533.

Mapes Industries, Inc.

Waltek

C/S Group

Ancor Granite

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Architectural Record 11.03

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING

TO ADVERTISE: Contact Janet Kennedy


T: (212) 904-6433 / F: (212) 904-2074
janet_kennedy@McGraw-Hill.com

FACULTY POS IT IONS

Syracuse University
UNIVERSITY OF OREGON / Department of Architecture
The Department of Architecture at the University of Oregon seeks thoughtful, skillful, and effective faculty members for anticipated
tenure-track positions at the rank of assistant or associate professor. Successful applicants must be able to demonstrate the promise of
effective and inspiring teaching in design studios in architecture or interior architecture programs, and specific subject-area courses.
Architectural Design + Theory and Practice The department is seeking one or two excellent design studio faculty members with additional interests/expertise in teaching subject-area courses including but not limited to: social and behavioral factors,
research methods, and theory and criticism.
Architectural Design + Structures or Construction Technology The Department is seeking candidates who address the
synthesis of structure, construction and architecture in their teaching, research and/or creative work and have a strong interest in
helping students learn to integrate building technology principals into architectural design. This position involves teaching required
courses in the structures and construction curriculum and architectural design studios at the graduate and undergraduate levels.
Furniture Design + Theory The Interior Architecture program in the Department of Architecture seeks a dynamic and talented designer or artist with expertise and experience in furniture design and production. The primary teaching responsibility of
this position is to facilitate undergraduate and graduate students' exploration and manufacture of full-scale furniture or object
prototypes using a range of materials in a workshop setting. Teaching in the areas of furniture theory, interior detailing, industrial design or exhibit design is also possible.
Visiting Fellowship in Architectural Design The Department is seeking post-graduate and/or professional candidates with
an interest in developing a career in teaching. The design fellowship offers the opportunity to gain experience in studio instruction and to develop an area of subject course specialization. Expectations include teaching design studios; teaching or co-teaching
two approved subject area courses, for a total five courses on a three-term, nine-month appointment.
Distinguished Visiting Professorships (three one-term positions) Frederick Charles Baker Chair in Architectural Design.
The Baker Chair is an endowed chair with a special focus on the study of light and lighting as a phenomenon in architectural design. Pietro Belluschi Distinguished Visiting Professor in Architectural Design. Belluschi professors are prominent
architects and architectural educators who will bring true distinction and unique opportunities to the University of Oregon.
Margo Grant Walsh Professorship in Interior Architecture. This professorship supports a prominent visiting designer, architect,
or educator to teach, lecture, and counsel future generations of design students.
Qualifications All applicants must hold appropriate advanced degrees with aptitude/achievement in teaching, research, practice.
Application process Complete descriptions of the individual positions and specific application requirements for each are available on our web site: http://architecture.uoregon.edu/people; or you may contact Nancy McNaught, Office Manager, Faculty Search
Committee, Department of Architecture, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403-1206. Telephone: 541/346-1435; e-mail:
mcnaught@uoregon.edu. Review of applications will begin January 5, 2004 and continue until the best candidates are identified.
The University of Oregon is an equal opportunity, affirmative action institution committed to cultural diversity
and compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply.

Syracuse University School of Architecture


invites applications and nominations for the position of
Dean of the School of Architecture.
The Dean of the School of Architecture is the chief academic, administrative and fiscal officer of the school. The
dean also acts as the principal spokesperson for the school
to the wider university community, to alumni, prospective
and current students and the profession at large. We are
seeking a dynamic leader who will cultivate a lively intellectual and creative climate.
The dean will have significant opportunities to enhance the
schools standing and influence. Among them are the
expansion and renovation of existing facilities, the hiring of
new faculty, a new interdisciplinary design center, and the
expansion of graduate programs. In addition, the university intends to make the School of Architecture an interdisciplinary focus, or spire, of excellence within the university.
Candidates should demonstrate a high-level of achievement in architectural design or scholarship, and have
achieved stature and credibility in the field. Advanced
degree in architecture required. Professional registration preferred. For a full job profile see the School of
Architecture web site at http://soa.syr.edu. Inquiries may
also be directed to Ellen Brown of Heidrick & Struggles at
(404) 577-1121, or ebrown@heidrick.com.
Screening of candidates will begin immediately and continue until the position is filled. To apply, send a curriculum vitae and letter detailing your qualifications to:
Syracuse University School of Architecture Dean Search
Esther E. Gray, Special Assistant to the Vice Chancellor,
Office of Academic Affairs, 304 Tolley Administration
Building, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244-1100.
(315) 443 2941. eegray@syr.edu
Syracuse University is an Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer.

11.03 Architectural Record

275

TO ADVERTISE: Contact Janet Kennedy


T: (212) 904-6433 / F: (212) 904-2074
janet_kennedy@McGraw-Hill.com

DIRECTOR, SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE

The College of Fine and Applied Arts, University


of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign invites nominations and applications for the position of
Director, School of Architecture. The Director
reports to the Dean of the College of Fine and
Applied Arts; is responsible for managing the
school, shaping future directions, and sustaining
excellence in all of its programs; represents the
School to the broader university, alumni, donors,
the professional community, and the public.
Successful candidate will demonstrate outstanding accomplishments and will be qualified for
appointment as a tenured full professor. Candidates must meet at least one of the following
requirements: a professional degree in architecture with a license to practice architecture, a Ph.D.
in architecture or in a related field, or an equivalent record of achievement in architecture. The
Director must have demonstrated administrative
abilities, be able to work with a diverse faculty and
student body, and possess excellent communication skills. Preferred starting date for this
full-time position is August 16, 2004. Salary
commensurate with qualifications. For full consideration, nominations and applications should be
received by December 15, 2003. Applicants should
submit letter of interest summarizing qualifications, curriculum vita, and names of at least three
references. Send to: David Daniel, Chair, School of
Architecture Director Search Committee, University of Illinois, College of Fine and Applied Arts,
608 E. Lorado Taft Drive, MC-622, Champaign, IL
61820, phone 217-333-2150, email: dedaniel@uiuc.edu.
Further information about the position may be
found at http://www.arch.uiuc.edu/directorsearch/.
The University of Illinois is an affirmative action,
equal opportunity employer. Women and minorities are encouraged to apply, and other designated
class members.
KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE
TWO TENURE-TRACK POSITIONS

The Department of Architecture invites applications for two tenure-track faculty positions at the
assistant professor level. Candidates must hold a
Master of Architecture or the equivalent. Professional licensure is desirable. The appointments
will commence in August 2004. Position 1. The
successful candidate will have a strong desire to
teach studios in architectural design. He or she
will also have the interest and ability to develop
and teach courses in environmental systems.
These courses focus on the integration of thermal,
illumination, water, sanitary, and acoustical systems into the design process. Ideally, the candidate
will have a teaching, research, and/or design interest in green architecture and sustainable design.
Position 2. The successful candidate will have a
strong desire to teach studios in architectural
design. He or she will also have the interest and
ability to develop and teach lecture and studio
courses in building construction systems. Topics
covered will include materials and methods of
building technology as well as the preparation of
construction documents. Candidates should send
a letter of interest; a curriculum vitae; a list of
three academic and/or professional references
with addresses and telephone numbers; and some
non-returnable examples of creative/scholarly
work to: Chair, Faculty Search Committee,
276

Architectural Record 11.03

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
Department of Architecture, 211 Seaton Hall,
Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 665062901. Review of candidates will begin March 1,
2004, and will continue until positions are filled.
Tel: 785-532-5953. Kansas State University is an
Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action employer
that actively seeks diversity among its employees.

POS IT IONS AVAILABLE


CAD MANAGER (MANH, NY)

Develop and implement CAD standards. Customize


menus and LISP routines. Maintain CAD HTML
website and software updates. Train/provide software support to staff. Create 3D perspective CAD
drawings. Bach in Arch +5 yrs AutoCAD exp (incl
AutoCAD 2000 or higher). Strong skills in CAD
production, Photoshop, Viz rendering/virtual walkthroughs. Fax CV to (212)792-4601, Attn: C. Melillo
INTERN ARCHITECT-ATLANTA, GA

Under supervision of licensed Architect to prepare


construction docs and perform computer-aided
drafting using AutoCAD, Art Lantis, Photo Shop 6 &
Radar ch ArchiCad 6.5, detailing, freehand sketching, color rendering & computer generated 3-D
conceptual models & animation. Req. Bachelor's
Deg. in Architecture or foreign equiv, 40 hrs/wk.
Resume w/Portfolio to H.R. Phillips Partnership, PC
9000 Central Park West, Ste 400, Atlanta, GA 30328.
ARCHITECTS - ALL LEVELS / ALL SPECIALTIES

JR Walters Resources, Inc. specializing in the placement of technical professionals in the A&E field.
Openings nationwide. Address: P.O. Box 617, St.
Joseph, MI 49085 Tel: 269-925-3940 Fax: 269-9250448 E-mail: jrwawa@jrwalters.com VISIT our web
site at www.jrwalters.com
ARCHITECTURAL DRAFTER

Arch, Plng, Interiors Firm in Los Angeles, CA seeks


FT Arch Drafter w/BS deg in Arch & 2 yrs exp in job
or as Arch Designer to prep detailed arch dwgs/plans
for const proj using AutoCAD Arch Desktop. Comp
Salary. Fax resume: DBP, INC., @ (310) 670-8999
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNER

VBN Architects in Oakland, CA. B.S. in Architecture. Email: hr@vbnarch.com


GREAT JOBS IN NEW ENGLAND

Looking for a job in Boston or the surrounding area?


Check out the Boston Society of Architects/AIAs
Building Industry Classified at www.architects.org.
This online service includes job opportunities, space
available and service listings.
ARCHITECTURAL DESIGNER

For Mansfield, Ohio architectural, engineering


and design firm. Work under principal-in-charge.
Follow directions and client input to design draft
and present proposed architectural plans using
ArchiCAD software. Prepare project designs and
plans. Coordinate bid process and follow up with
contractors as instructed. $38,000/yr 7:30 am
4:30 pm M-F. Requires BS in Arch. or Arch. Engg.
And 1 yr exp in job offered or as intern arch/
drafter, which may be gained before, during or
after degree. Send 2 resumes and cover letters
(no calls) to: Ref#10718JED, PO Box 16808,
Columbus, OH 43216. EOE.

Marketing Manager
CENTRIA an innovative manufacturer of
engineered wall and roof systems is looking for a marketing individual to fill a
newly created position as Marketing
Manager. The successful candidate will
have a unique opportunity to design programs to develop and grow CENTRIAs
market share. This position will report to
the Director of Marketing & Business
Development, and will be responsible for
developing, coordinating and implementing
marketing strategy and tactics for the promotion of CENTRIA Architectural Systems
products and services. The CAS Marketing
Manager is responsible for the CAS marketing team consisting of Product Managers.
The minimum requirements are a 4 year
College degree and 5-10 years experience in
sales, marketing or product management in
a related industry.
You can learn more about CENTIA and the
job at www.centria.com. Refer to careers for
the job description and tour our site to learn
more about our company. Please e-mail your
resume to rleighton@centria.com or fax
information to 412-299-8051. EOE.

ARCHITECTS

Well established, So. Florida Architectural Firm


with 18+ years history has openings in the following
fields: Education, ADA, Healthcare, Design, Roofing.
Min. 7 to 18 years exp. required, Offering excellent
benefits, EOE, E-mail info@acaiworld.com or Fax
to 954.484.5588

ARCH ITETURAL PHOTOGRAPHY


ARCHITECTURAL PHOTOGRAPHY

Quality work, Colour & B/W. Sensible rates, satisfaction guaranteed. 30 yrs. experience, tear sheets
available. Anywhere USA. Fred Figall (540) 937-5555
Fax: (540) 937-3781. ffigall@juno.com

RENDERINGS
WATERCOLOR RENDERINGS

Fortune 500 clientele, Watercolor: 11" x 17" 3 days.


Evocative, Poetic, Effective Quick Sketches Too!
Visa, MC, AmEx. Mayron Renderings, 1-800-5379256, 1-212-633-1503. Visit www.mayronrend.com
COMPUTER RENDERINGS

Commercial, industrial, and residential. Any view


including birdseye. ARG Illustrations Inc. 905-4721441 www.arg-illustrations.com

BUS INESS OPPORTUN ITIES


ARCHITECTURAL FIRM FOR SALE

Well-established firm with sales approaching $1


million serving commercial clientele in Central
Pennsylvania. Call 814-238-4638.

CLASSIFIED ADVERTISING
LEGAL NOTICE
U. S. POSTAL SERVICE
STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP,
MANAGEMENT, AND CIRCULATION

TO ADVERTISE: Contact Janet Kennedy


T: (212) 904-6433 / F: (212) 904-2074
janet_kennedy@McGraw-Hill.com

SPECIAL SERV ICES

(ACT OF AUGUST 12, 1970: SECTION 3685, TITLE 39, UNITED STATES CODE)

1. Title of publication: Architectural Record


2. Publication number: 132-650
3. Date of filing: October 1, 2003
4. Frequency of Issue: Monthly.
5. Number of issues published annually: 12.
6. Annual subscription price: $64 (U.S.), $79 (CAN/MEX), $199 (other).
7. Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication: 1221 Avenue of
the Americas, New York, NY 10020-1095.
8. Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters of General Business Offices of the
Publisher: Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121-2298
9. Full Names and Complete Mailing Addresses of Publisher, Editor, and Managing
Editor: Publisher: James H. McGraw, IV, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 101212298; Editor: Robert Ivy, FAIA, Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121-2298;
Managing Editor: Ingrid Whitehead,Two Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121-2298.
10. Owner: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas,
New York, NY 10020. Stockholders holding one percent or more of outstanding
common stock: Harold W. McGraw, Jr. Trust c/o The McGraw-Hill Companies,
Inc, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020; William H. McGraw;
c/o White & Case LLP, 1155 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020;
Bank of New York, 925 Paterson Plank Road, Secaucus, NJ 07094; Boston
Safe Deposit & Trust Company, 525 William Penn Place, Suite 3631,
Pittsburgh, PA 15259; Fidelity Investments c/o Compliance Dept., 82
Devonshire Street, Boston, MA 02109; Investors Bank & Trust Company c/o
compliance Dept., 100 Fillmore St., Denver, CO 80206; Janus Capital
Management, c/o Compliance Dept., 100 Fillmore St., Denver, CO 80206;
Mellon Financial Corporation, One Mellon Bank Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15258;
State Street Bank c/o Global Proxy Unit, P.O. Box 1631, Boston, MA 02105;
Pioneer Investment Management, Inc., 60 State Street, Boston, MA 02109.
11. Known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security holders owning
or holding one percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages or other
securities: None.
12. Not applicable.
14. Issue date for circulation data below: September 2003
15. Extent and nature of circulation:
A. Total number of copiesaverage number of copies of each issue
during preceding 12 months, 128,383; actual number of copies of single
issue published nearest to filing date, 128,173. B. Paid and/or requested
circulation(1)Paid or requested outside-County mail subscriptions stated
on Form 3514average number of copies of each issue during preceding
12 months, 100,012; actual number of copies of single issue published
nearest to filing date, 97,808. (2) Paid In-County subscriptionsaverage
number of copies of each issue during preceding 12 months, 0; actual
number of copies of single issue published nearest to filing date, 0. (3)
Sales through dealers and carriers, street vendors and counter sales, and
other non-USPS paid distributionaverage number of copies of each
issue during preceding 12 months, 19,861; actual number of copies of
single issue published nearest to filing date, 22,632. (4) Other classes
mailed through the USPSaverage number of copies of each issue during
preceding 12 months, 0; actual number of copies of single issue published nearest to filing date, 0. C. Total paid and/or requested circulation
average number of copies of each issue during preceding 12 months,
119,873; actual number of copies of single issue published nearest to filing date, 120,440. D. Free distribution by mail(1) Outside County as
stated on Form 3541average number of copies of each issue during
preceding 12 months, 3,385; actual number of copies of single issue published nearest to filing date, 3,643. (2) In-County as stated on Form
3541average number of copies of each issue during preceding 12
months, 0; actual number of copies of single issue published nearest to filing date, 0.(3) Other classes mailed through the USPSaverage number of
copies of each issue during preceding 12 months, 0; actual number of
copies of single issue published nearest to filing date, 0. E. Free distribution outside the mailcarriers and other meansaverage number of copies
of each issue during preceding 12 months, 3,223; actual number of copies
of single issue published nearest to filing date, 2,555. F. Total free distribution average number of copies of each issue during preceding 12
months, 6,608; actual number of copies of single issue published nearest
to filing date, 6,198. G. Total distributionaverage number of copies of
each issue during preceding 12 months, 126,481; actual number of copies
of single issue published nearest to filing date, 126,638. H. Copies not distributedaverage number of copies of each issue during preceding 12
months, 1,902; actual number of copies of single issue published nearest
to filing date, 1,535. I. Totalaverage number of copies of each issue during preceding 12 months, 128,383; actual number of copies of single issue
published nearest to filing date, 128,173. J. Percent of paid and/or
requested circulation:averagenumber of copies of each issue during
preceding 12 months, 94.78%; actual number of copies of single issue
published nearest to filing date, 95.11%.
17. I certify that the statements made by me are correct & complete.
The McGraw-Hill Companies, James H. McGraw, IV, Group Publisher, 9/5/03.

Read Architectural Record for Continuing Education Credits.


archrecord.construction.com/resources/conteduc/

11.03 Architectural Record

277

ADVERTISERS INDEX
193
71

55

214
220
263
29

18

166

81

186

83

70

54

267
279
31

20

A/E/C Systems
aecsystems.com
Adams Rite Manufacturing Co
adamsrite.com
AIA Bookstore
aia.org
AIA Firm Survey
aia.org
AIA/AR Continuing Education
aia.org
Y Alcan Composites USA Inc
alucobond.com
Y Alcoa Cladding Systems
alcoacladdingsystems.com
Antolini
antolini.it
Architectural Details
arch-details.com
Architectural Record/Digital
archrecord.com/digital.asp
Architectural Record Reprints

32

21

58

44

70

53

45

33

111

73

48

36

72

57

47

35

126

78

Y Architectural Woodwork Institute

35

24

262

116

247

104

46

34

44

32

14
2cov-1

232A-F
233

99

248

105

187

84

105
207
77

60

19

10

15

149

260

115

264

119

16

256A-B
20

11

80A-H
42

30

28

17

43

31

72

56

21

12

255

112

51

39

83

65

188

85

256

113

189

86

255

110

Bold: Indicates Page Number. Italic: Indicates Reader Service Number.

awinet.org
architecturalrecord.com
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Armstrong
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Artemide
artemide.com
Artemide
artemide.com
Asphalt Roofing Manufacturers Assn
asphaltroofing.org
Assocave
assocave.it
Autodesk
autodesk.com
Autodesk
autodesk.com
Avonite
avonite.com
B-K Lighting
bklighting.com
BEGA
bega-us.com
Belden Brick Company, The
beldenbrick.com
Bendheim
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Bentley Systems Inc
bentley.com
BetterBricks
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Bradley Corporation
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Brick Industry Association
brickinfo.org
Brother
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Building Systems Design
bsdsoftlink.com
C/S Group
c-sgroup.com
Cascade Coil Drapery
cascadecoil.com
CENTRIA Architectural Systems
centria.com
Charles Loomis
charlesloomis.com
CNA/Victor O Schinnerer & Co Inc
schinnerer.com
Conrad
conradshades.com
Consorzio Cavatori-Produttori Porfido
porfido.net
Cricursa
cricursa.com
Davil Travertini SRL
daviltravertini.com
Delray Lighting Incorporated
delraylighting.com

236-237 101
113

74

204
250

106

37

26

68

52

74

59

82

63

185

82

192
33

22

208

93

2-3

209-213 94

115

75

199

90

54

42

263

118

27

16

86

69

254

109

38

23

235

100

107

71

262

117

Dex-O-Tex
dexotex.com
Domco Tarkett Commercial
tarkett.com
Doug Mockett & Company Inc
mockett.com
DuPont Tyvek
tyvek.com
DuPont Zodiaq
zodiaq.com
E Dillon & Company
edillon.com
East Teak Trading Group Inc
eastteak.net
Ecophon Accoustic Ceilings
ecophon-us.com
EFCO Corporation
efcocorp.com
Ellison Bronze
ellison-bronze.com
Ellison Bronze
ellison-bronze.com
EPIC Metals Corporation
epicmetals.com
Fair Housing Accessibility First
fairhousingfirst.org
Flexco
flexcofloors.com
Follansbee Steel
follansbeeroofing.com
Gage Corporation
gageverticalsurfacing.com
Gardco Lighting
sitelighting.com
Glen Raven Inc
sunbrella.com
Hewlett-Packard
hpengineeringsolutions.com
High Concrete Structures Inc
highconcrete.com
Hydrel
hydrel.com
InterfaceAR
interfacear.com
IR Security & Safety
irsecurityandsafety.com
ISG Resources
isgresources.com
Italian Trade Commission
marblefromitaly.com
Italian Trade Commission
marblefromitaly.com
JELD-WEN Exterior Doors
jeld-wen.com
JELD-WEN Interior Doors
jeld-wen.com
JELD-WEN Windows & Doors
jeld-wen.com
JELD-WEN Windows & Doors
jeld-wen.com
Jenn-Air
jennair.com
Johns Manville
specjm.com
JOMY Products Inc
jomy.com
Kepco+ Incorporated
kepcoplus.com
Kim Lighting
kimlighting.com
Kyocera Mita America Inc
kyoceramita.com
LightingUniverse.com
lightinguniverse.com
LM Scofield Company
scofield.com
Lucifer Lighting Company
luciferlighting.com
Lutron
lutron.com
Major Industries
majorskylights.com

Y: Indicates Sweets Marketplace Participation


62

46

Y Masonite Corporation

56-57
259

114

89

70

34
255

111

55

194

89

265

120

3COV

121

245

103

203

92

49

37

6-7

119

77

53

41

79

61

8-9

Y
Y

256C-D
80

62

55

43

192A-L
221-225 96
85

68

39

27

84

66

50

38

30

19

117

76

52

40

190

87

66

49

66

50

24

15

67

51

84

67

65

48

226

97

82

64

228

98

22

13

masonite.com
McGraw Hill Construction
construction.com
Mimosa International Ltd
mimosainternational.com
Mitsubishi Chemical America Inc
alpolic-usa.com
Mz Metal Laminates
mozdesigns.com
MP Lighting
mplighting.com
National Building Museum
nbm.org
National Gypsum Company
nationalgypsum.com
NBK Keramik
nbk.de
Nemetschek North America
nemetschek.net
New Metal Crafts
newmetalcrafts.com
Nora
norarubber.com
Norton
nortondoorcontrols.com
Oldcastle Glass Group
oldcastleglass.com
Owens Corning
owenscorning.com
Panelfold
panelfold.com
PCI/Precast/Prestressed Concrete Inst
pci.org
Pella Windows & Doors
pella.com
PGT Industries
pgtindustries.com
Pilkington
pilkington.com
Pinecrest
pinecrestinc.com
PoliForm Varenna
varenna.com
PolyVision
polyvision.com
Portland Cement Association
cement.org
Prodema
prodema.com
Rakks
rakks.com
Rejuvenation Inc
rejuvenation.com
Rocky Mountain Hardware
rockymountainhardware.com
Roppe Corporation
roppe.com
SAFTI/O'Keeffes Inc
safti.com
Santa Margherita
santamargherita.net
Seattle Stained Glass
seattlestainedglass.com
Seiho International Inc
seiho.com
Shaw
ecoworx.com
Sherwin-Williams
sherwin-williams.com
Slip Tech
sliptech.com
Sloan Valve Company
sloanvalve.com
SPI Lighting Inc
spilighting.com
Stepstone Inc
stepstoneinc.com
Sterner Lighting Systems Inc
sternerlighting.com
Sto Corp
stocorp.com

For additional information on these advertisers, circle corresponding number on Reader Service Card, or go to www.leadnet.com/pubs/mhar.html.
To reserve your 2003 Sweets call 1-800-442-2258
278

Architectural Record 11.03

ADVERTISERS INDEX
191

88

36

25

165

80

252

107

238

102

60-61

45

41

29

201

91

109

72

64

47

164

79

73

58

Y Stonecor Distributors

215-219 95
40

28

18

123

10-11

23

14

4cov

122

12

253

108

109

72

continued

stonecor.com
Sun Valley Bronze
svbronze.com
Sustainable Forestry Initiative
aboutsfi.org
TEKA Illumination
teka-illumination.com
Terrazzo
ntma.com
Timely
timelyframes.com
Toto USA Inc
totoneorest.com
Toto USA Inc
totousa.com
Toyota
toyota.com/tomorrow
Trus Joist
trusjoist.com
USC School of Architecture
usc.edu/architecture
Viking Range Corporation
vikingrange.com
Vistawall Architectural Products
vistawall.com
Voli
volidesign.com
VT Industries
vtindustries.com
Vulcraft, A Division of Nucor Corp
nucor.com
Wausau Window and Wall Systems
wausauwindow.com
Weather Shield Windows & Doors
weathershield.com
Western Red Cedar Lumber Assn
realcedar.org
World Exposition of Ceramic Tile
italytiles.com
www.toyota.com/tomorrow
toyota.com/tomorrow

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11.03 Architectural Record

279

Profile

Q:

What prompted you to start your own line? Ive

always been involved in manufacturing my own


products. I started off in this business with my own production partly because British manufacturing was never
particularly interested in producing new ideas, and partly
because I made things just for the pleasure of making
them. It was only when people started to buy these
products that I realized I had hit on a form of alchemy
I could turn a pile of scrap metal into gold. I founded
Space Studio in the early 90s as a design studio for
stage design, shop-fitting, and metal-based batch furniture. A few years later, I formed Eurolounge so I could
manufacture my own line of plastic lighting.

Did you feel limited when designing for other manufacturers? Of course it can be limiting designing for other
manufacturers, but there is also a joy in stretching them
and exploring the unseen possibilities in their processes.
And I will continue to work with other manufacturers in
specialty areas, such as electronics and upholstery.
However, I am interested in much more than just the form
of the object. I like to be involved in the whole picture,
beginning with materials and factory production to packaging, distribution, and retailing.

What is your primary goal with this new line? What are
some of the challenges involved? We hope to explore indepth some processes or materials that are currently
unfashionable or underexploited, materials like stone or
enamel or processes such as blow-molding or extrusion.
The Fresh Fat series, for example, is made from a plastic
extrusion machine. Spaghetti type extrusions are woven,
twisted, or molded while still warm into handmade forms.
Weve developed a range of products with this unique
material that includes bowls, light shades, and one-off
furniture pieces. The extrusion machine was placed in
Selfridges window for a two-month period. Items were
made to customers requirements and sold to them still
warm from the manufacturing process. The current challenge is to be able to create products such as these in a
smallish company that are world-class enough to compete with global companies or specialist manufacturers.

Tom Dixon: Turning raw


materials into design gold
Interviewed by Josephine Minutillo

British designer Tom Dixon has never been known to do things conventionally. His unorthodox career path began in the early 1980s, when he was a
musician and nightclub promoter in the London club scene. With his days free,
he took up welding objects from recycled materials and industrial scrap.
Among the rst to work with rotation-molded plastics, Dixons early design
experiments caught the eye of top manufacturers abroad. Now one of the most
recognized names in design, he has pieces such as the S-Chair for Cappellini in
museum collections around the world. Last year he introduced his eponymous
line of products, examples of which are now available in the U.S.
280

Architectural Record 11.03

When you began welding as a hobby, could you have imagined that it would
lead to all this? Honestly, I cant remember ever holding an ambition to be a
designer. It just slowly came over me as I rejected notions of being an artist or
a craftsman. Even today, I prefer the idea of being an industrialist.
Photograph by Ashley Cameron of Dixon in front of the Extendable Screen,
part of his new line of products