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A Performance Manual of
Contemporary Techniques

re

PIt

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..re

pe
~

Robert Dick

~
~

le

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Oxford University -Pr e s s

Music Department

Ely House, 37 Dover Street. London W1 X L1AH


Toronto
New York
1975

!le

It!

I/S. SO
ACt

II

J
.J

for beautiful Pilar,


whose idea this book is and who gave it its title
and
for Robert Morris,
who most generously gave invaluable help and support throughout all the stages
planning and writing this book
.

rtJ Oxford University Press 1975


ISBN 0 19 3221 25 X
Printed in England

L.V, U7
I j

ii

Contents
Iritrocluct lon

vi

The Traditional Flute

A Mechanics of the Boehm Flute

B Different Varieties of Flutes


C Traditional Flute Writing

10

11

Single Sounds

A Tone Colouration: Natural Harmonics

B lvlicrotones :

C Glissandi:

12

Fingerings of Pitches in the Chromatic Scale


Changing Dynamics, Pitch, and Timbre by Embouchure Control
Quarter-tone Scales for Closed and Open-hole Flutes
Microtonal Segments
Microtonal Scale for all Flutes
Glissandi for Open-hole Flutes
Headjoint Glissandi

Multiple Sonorities

15
46
52
58

66
72
79
81

.>

A MUltiple Sonorities Based on Natural Harmonics

83

B fl.ultiple Sonorities Based on Fingerings of Pitches in the Chromatic Scale


C MUltiple Sonorities Based on the MicrotonaJ Segments

118

128

A
B
C
D
E
F

Other Resources
Flutter Tonguings
Percussive Sounds
Whisper Tones and Residual Tones
Jet Whistles
Singing and Playing Simultaneously
Substituting Other Sound Sources for the Headjoint

The Electric Flute

86

128
129
132
133
135
136
137

A Techniques of Amplifying the Flute


B Sonorities of the Electric Flute
C Electronic Modification of Flute Sonorities

J37
J38
140

Appendix A: Special Signs and Distributions of Parameters


Apr:rmdix B: After/ight, for flute alone (notes)
After/ight

149

III

153
inside back cover

Acknowledgements

There are a great many people who helped in the course of this work. I wish very muc
thank Mr. Gunther Schullerfor his encouragement and advice,James R. Meehan for writi the computer programmes used to classify the multiple sonorities, Mr. William Cahn bOLO
, for all his sound advice and for the photographs of embouchure positions and headjo
, glissandi, and Tim Shepard for the oscilloscope photographs used in the last chapter.
Special thanks are due to Professor A. Wayne Slawson, of the University of Pittsburg
Mr. James Michmerhuizen, of the Boston School of Electronic Music, and Profess~
Alejandro Planchart, of Yale University, for their efforts in reading the typescript and th
many valuable suggestions.
.
Aid, material as well as spiritual, came from both the Yale School of Music, with It"
'excellent electronic music studio, and the Yale College Department of Music - and I tha
Dean Philip R. Nelson of the School and Professor Claude V. Palisca, Music Departme Chairman. The Friends of Music at Yale also made a twofold gesture of encouragement fj
awarding the book their prize, making me happy indeed.
Important support came from several groups, to whom I really feel indebted. They ar
the many flutists and composers whom I deeply admire, whose encouragement a
insightful suggestions greatly helped me; my students, who willingly tried much of tflu
material and made vital commentary on it; and the many friends whose continued inter
'lightened my spirit during countless hours of writing and copying.
Finally and most important, I wish to thank Professor Robert Morris, Director of the Yale
Electronic Music Studio. His suggestions, especially those made during the early work _
the book, have had a major impact on its present scope and form. He is very much t
mentor of this work, and its dedication to him is heartfelt.

iv

.....,.
..
..

Introduction
The purpose of this book is to explore in depth the capabilities of the flute as a soundproducing instrument. It has become clear in recent years that the valid but limited
trGditional conception of the flute encompasses only a restricted number of the sonorities
the instrument can produce. In preparing the material for this work, I have dropped the
following preconceptions usually made about the flute:
1. The flute has only one basic tone quality and its ability to vary that quality is
sharply limited.
2. The flute can produce only one note at a time.
3. The mechanical construction of the Boehm flute allows production of only a few
microtones.
I have set out to remove the non-traditional aspects of the flute - such as unusual tone
qualities, rnicrotones. multiple sonorities, 'bending', etc. - from the category of 'special
effects' and into the realm of valid musical materials. To do so, the first step included
making explicit the habitual and/or intuitive pitch and colour adjustments flutists make
as a matter of course,' and developing new fingerings and techniques. The next step was
to notate these sonorities from a logical and acoustic point of view. Thus, the notations
presented for natural harmonics, microtones, whisper tones, residual tones, jet whistles,
and percussive sounds are, hopefully, more practical than the notations presently in use.
I hope that the contents of this book are without stylistic or aesthetic bias, and that it
will be useful to composers and instrumentalists alike. The traditional conceptual
limitations of the flute exclude it from many of the innovations taking place in the musical
fields of the avant-garde. jazz, and rock. Furthermore, the adaption of the Boehm flute to
the microtonal subtleties of non-Western music has. in general, so far been unsatisfactory.
Many flutists want to play in these idioms and therefore I feel it necessary to find wavs.ol
developing the instrument's inherent capabilities. Having been involved in much contemporary music that involves improvisation, I find composers extremely interested in
new sounds for the flute and eager for a work that codifies and notates these sounds.
i was inspired in writing this book by the works of two other researchers. John C Heiss,
whose articles contain the first published listings of multiple sounds for the Ilute.? and
Bruno Bartolozzi. whose book New Sounds for Woodwind J presents many concepts for
developing new sonorities for the woodwind group. These are pioneering works and it is
impossible to overstate their importance, for they are the preliminary investigations that
have shown the existence of new and vital musical worlds. This book encompasses the
examples given by Heiss and Bartolozzi, and, among its explorations, develops the areas
touched upon in their work.
This v61urne is or qaniz ed pedagogically. Flutists will find the easiest material presented
first in all chapters, and each chapter. to a degree, is a preparation for the next.Jn thiS light.
it is also significant to note that many flutists may find working with the new sonorities
and techniques beneficia I to their traditional playing, especially In the area of tone
development. Ouite simply, practice of the new sonoritics serves to develop both the
strength and suppleness of the embouchure.
Since ilutists may not be familiar with the new materials, composers should always
check any new sononties or techniques with a sympathetic player, rather than simply
copying from the book.
I have tried to present my findings in the most comprehensive and practical form
possible The wealth of sonorities for the flute is astonishing in its variety and quantity and
it i~; hoped that this VI/ark will help bring about some beautiful music .
1

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1. The Traditional Flute

A.

The present-day design of the flute is practically unchanged from the constructive
principles introduced by Theobald Boehm in 1847.' Boehrn's system is founded on three
main principles. First, the bore of the flute is cylindrical with the exception of the headjoint,
which has a combination conical/parabolic bore. Second. holes are made for each
chromatic note in their acoustically correct position. and are as large as possible for better
tone quality and intonation. Third, a mechanism is constructed to enable the fingers to

lie
~

Z
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Mechanics of the Boehm Flute

control all of the holes.


The flute is most often made of silver, though occasionally of wood. gold, or platinum."
The instrument is in three sections, the headjoint, the body, and the foot, and tone is
produced by blowing a focused air stream over the embouchure hole cut in ,the headjoint.
Pitch is determined by the length of a vibrating air column within the tube of the flute.
Presented below are two diagrams of the flute. The first shows the flute with its
mechanism removed, the second includes the mechanism. (The mechanism shown is the
basic design of the instrument which, occasionally, is elaborated with one or more extra
keys added at the discretion of the player.")

e.....

II!t

Flute with ~~nilm removed (not to Jeak):

duplicate G. halt

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~

,.8

....
..,
.,
..
..,.-

_------

foot

.---------------head joint

~----_
...........

18

"'---------...,,----body

'

embouchure hole
embouchure plate

D~

trill hole

c~ hole

ale
D~

ale

lilt

, Theobald Boehm. The flUrCbndflutc P/bying.trans Day ton C Mdler (1847. reprinted New York. 19(4) .
] The rn a t e rra l chosen for a flute IS largely 8 matter 01 taste vvoode n flutes have a very sweet sound. but do not project
as well as rne t al flutes The heavier metals. gold and platinum. do tend to yield a more mellow tone than s rlve r, but It IS
thrs authors ope"ence - both as performer and listener - that the gold Dnd p latrriurn flutes are not nearly as vers aule
)

as the sdver flute


Extra k e vs have b(fn added 10 flutes to enable the Idt little linger 10 close the low C:: or low B keys. facdltatlng urta'"
low 1"lls Aho. by "'eM'S of D 's plrt G::: k(y. the lelt Irttle flf'(I('r can close the G:: hole Without clOSing the A hole.
yleldlf'\l pr-r hrt rCSp()n~e a nd Intonation of [" An e lter auo n IS somellmes made", the desr\ln of the Bc h-vt-r so that
depresSlnn I1 wrll op(:n a spl'cliJlly bored 11OIl' add(:d to correcllhe Intonation and response 01 C::' and C::".

I!I

,.

III

nrmn=

Me,

...

Body and foot of flute with mechanism (not to scale): I

la

3a

5a

7
14

16a 15a

1 See

8
15

16

6a

10

c hart below

A key has the name of the note sounding when it is depressed, provided all the holes to
the left of the key are covered (with the exception of cross fingerings found in the higher
octaves). For example, when the A key is depressed, A: sounds, provided the C key and
the B key are also depressed.
Holes are covered in two ways:
1. Hole closed by key directly above.
2a. Hole closed by hole-cover operated by depressing a remote key.
b. Hole opened by hole cover operated by depressing a remote key.
Keys cover the holes in three ways:
1. Finger on key closes hole beneath key.
2. Finger on key closes hole beneath key and additional hole or holes.
3. Finger operates key which opens or closes a remote hole or holes.
The keys and their functions in isolation are found in the following chart. Note that
most fingerings consist of mare than one key depressed at a time, and that the B hole cover
,md the G hole cover are operated by several keys. The B hole cover is closed by the F key,
A key, B:> thumb-key, and B:> lever. The G hole cover is closed by the F key, E key, and
D key.

Function of the Keys of the Flute


Number

Name

C key

1a

C hole cover

Finger (if operated


directly by a finger)
left index

Function
(when depressed)
depresses C
hole cover
covers C::; hole

Notes

linked to

C key

Occasionally, there is more than one traditional fingering for a


there are three fingerings for BD~ These are:
'l , The C key, B key, F key, and D~ key are depressed.
2. The C key, Bb thumb key, and D~ key are depressed.
3. The C key, B key, B~ lever, and D~ key are depressed.
In the first fingering, the C key closes the C~ hole, the B key closes the Cq hole, t
F key closes the B~ hole, the G~ hole, and the H hole, and the D~ key opens the D~ H e
In the second fingering, the C key closes the C~ hole, the Bb thumb key closes th
hole and the B~ hole, and the D~ key opens the D~ hole, In the third fin'gering, the Cl,
closes the C~ hole, the B key covers the C~ hole, the B~ lever Closes the Bq hole, and
0: key opens the D~ hole.
Given in the following chart are the regular fingerings from low B3 to high F;P.rease of reading the fingerings, only the keys are shown that are directly operate
fingers, Throughout this book, all fingerings (except those given in the section
glissandi) are presented in the following manner:

o "'

e.

Kryup

Kev depressed

G key

Gl key

O. key

F key

The B~ thumb key, B~ lever, and D and D~ trill keys are shown only when depress
and are represented by the following symbols:

0.00 QOP.Od~
/

B b t h um b k ey

r or

8.

,t . I

D~ trill key

the n arne s of rvore s see Appe ridrx A

';;in'" key

The actual configuration of open and covered holes for each fingering can be inferred
from the fingering diagrams. For example, the three fingerings for B~", whose hole
configurations have previously been explained, are shown as follows:

flegular

Fingerings

from

BGJ

to F~7

. ... . . . . . ..

c:::>

c:::> c:::> c=:>

c:::>

c:::>

c:::>

c:::>

O'

..

~~~~

~I'

- --

o o

c::::> ~

o
o

o. .......
O

O.

00

~IO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO qOO qOO


eoo
0000
0000
.000
0000

o
o

ea

~OO

c:::>c:::>c:::>c:::>c:::>c:::>c::::::>c::::::>c::::::>

...

00

ea...

.....

O
~

O
~

O O

......

~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO

~OO

~\j

~.

.00

00

O O

q .

--

#_ b.

.. O 0 O O O
CJ c:::> c:::> c::::> c:::> c:::::> ~
O
O O O O

O 00
O O O

c:::::> c::::>

~.

c:::::>

c::::::>

eo
O
O O O
000000.
O
O.
O
......................
~

~OO \100 ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO

#_b.a ~.a #.ab. ~.

--

= q.a #.b. q.-= #.b.a


=
-- ~..
=

= ==

000

O
0
00
00

OO

O
O

00

..

c:::>

00

c::::::>

c::::>

O()

O O

...

.....

~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~Ot

O
c:::>

O
~

~OO ~'O

c::::> ea.
~

O.

O O

---

O.
c:::>
O.

..

------

O
c:::>

............
~OO ~OO

~OO ~OO

O ~OO ~OO

To facilitate certain trills that are extremely ?ifficult to perform ~ith ~egular fingerings,
special fingerings are often used. The followmg chart presents fmgenngs for semitone
and whole-tone trills. Those tri/ls that are normally played with regular fingerings are
omit1ed from the chart.

SemitoM 100 Whole-tonl Trills

o"

key trilled

00

.O
O
O
e
O
~OO ~00

~OO

c::>950
c::>,-O
c::>

O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
J2
0' ..
DA

;.

;..e,o . ;,

:~\_

..

<;,,;:;;;;'''.;:~.

:::.::::=:- ... _~_ :.._-~

00

'~..:;.
--,..

o',~~_,+

---f'"

,,--,,_,",.,,.-,,"~~_
..~,.-_
.

p.

O
O

0'0
.

0000.
..

,..

qOO

~OO ~OO

o.
o. e
O --8

O
O

...

o 00

o.

c:=::>

~~~

::

.,

c:::>

.............

~OO qOO

00
o 0
c:::>

~OO

00

o.

c:::> oc::::> O

c:::::::>

o o

{21

o
o. o

...........

~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO

~00 O

c:=::>

9=>n

~c:::::>

O ....
O O O

0 0 0
o
c:::>
c:::> __
~ J2 o J2 o o
oo
., oo J2O~~-n
~

::

__

~OO ~OO qOO

qOO

p0

00

C:::::>C:::>c::>c:::::>c:::::>c:::>

_.,,, ".".

~OO ~OO

..
~:q-'D"'-~"'#:#~~.1f:'q.""~",D;~.~"-D:-"q.#~~':~ /~.:~.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - --. --;,--


be

.-.

....
..............

c:::::>

c:::::>

~O

0
0

{2)

0
0

c:::::>

0
0

[21

91

91
0

c:::::>

0
0
~

~OO ~OO ~OO ~OO

c:::::>

0
0

91
0
0
0

~~

00 \))0

.-

..
0

c:::::>

0
0
0

c=::>

0
0
0

~~

~OO ~OO ~OO

10-0

c=::>

0
0
"0

~OO

B. Different Varieties of Flutes


In common use today are closed and open- hole flutes, and flutes with a low C or 10 .
B footjoint.> On closed-hole flutes all the keys are built to cover the holes completely,
while on open-hole flutes the centres of the A G, F, E, and D keys are open to improv
the venting of air and thus clarify the tone. When these keys are depressed, the finger
must cover the open portion of each key in order to cover the hole completely. In thi.
book, however, the technique of depressing only the rim of an open- hole key - leavin
the centre hole open - is introduced for some alternative fingerings, microtones, anu
glissandi.
Various Ilutists. from beginners to professionals, have tested the materials in this work,
and have found the contents accurate and applicable to flutes of all manufacturers. Th
highest quality flutes did, of course, respond better to the new sonorities than the lesse
instruments. Moreover, the slight variations in placement of the tone holes and in certain
characteristics of the headjoint found between flutes of different manufacturers means
that not all pitches and multiple sonorities will sound exactly as notated. or with th
same ease. It is stressed, though, that players of all Boehm flutes will find this boo
useful.

One fUrlh(:f v anr-tv of Bmhm lIute eXl~I~. and althouqh I1 IS qUII" rar e to dav il ~m,lIl nurnl.r-. of flu!I~!<, play In~.tlunH'nlS
G~ ~,t:y 1ht~~,j' llLJlt:~ hilV(' only OtH: G;: !l{)I(~. itnd Ita' G:: "..t'y ()~)(I.:tlt:~. 01 holt, r r i vt-r 111,11 C/(J!>('.\ Itl(' G:::
halt: In~ll'iJd of Opt:fllflH 11. the' f(V{~':-.t' of ttlL' u sual nu-t ll{trlJ~n1 rlutlsl~ who p!i1Y 0lll"fl (i:: "tov flLJll.~. ruu-.: r('v('r~l~ the
rt'ad,nH 01 i1l1 tlrl~~L:rH)n~ thitlll1dlcjllt'lht, G:: "-t'y d('p'l'~~l'U 1 lru s fOf Opt'n G: ~,l'Y f1ulL'~. only
\l\.llth ,H1 open

'

G~

key up

o'G~

key

depr"s~ed

10

....

c.

Traditional Flute Writing

Traditional music for the flute calls for one note at a time and for the pitches in the
chromatic scale. Within these boundaries, all manner of phrases, rapid skips, and
u;ticulations are found in the literature. The flute is among the most agile of instruments,
and practically any passage within its range can be performed. A fine, though conservative
description of the flute's capabilities and its function in the orchestra is given by Waiter
Piston." (In addition, a good description of the acoustics of the flute is made by William
Backus. 7 )

r-e

{, Wailer Piston, Dt ctics tt stio n (Nt...., York. 1955),


Will,am Back us. Ac oustrcet Foundstions of Music (New York. 19G9) .

11

2. Single Sounds
A. Tone Colouration
Natural Harmonics
Natural harmonics' are the simplest of all ways to vary the flute's tone quality. Cam
have long called for the bright, distant effect of these harmonics and have used
for echo effects or extremely soft fade-outs on high notes. With the exception of
F". for which there are no alternative natural harmonic finqerinqs.? up to five altern
tonal qualities clearly distinguishable from the regular fingerings are available throu
the second and third octaves of the flute.
Natural harmonics are produced by overblowing regular fingerings from low
D~5. The pitches produced follow the overtone series for pipes open at both ends.
if low C~ is overblown, the following harmonics are emitted:

@~--t

:e

- - - fundamental

The fingering of the fundamental greatly affects the timbre of the harmonics. A resi u,
tone and/or pitched noise is often heard along with the desired pitch of the harrno
The residual tone sounds at the pitch of the fundamental; it is noise-like in qual'
consisting of a very weak fundamental and several overtones. Composers may, perha
be interested in the polyphonic effect of the natural harmonics that are heard
pronounced residual tones.
All natural harmonics above a fundamental at a given interval have similar to
qualities. For example, the natural harmonics overblown an octave and a fifth abov ,
fundamental are clearly related in timbre and are easily distinguished from the natu
harmonics that are overblown above a fundamental at any other interval.
The following chart presents the natural harmonics, which are organized accordi
to the pitch sounding. Additionally, indications for intonation, ease of response, dynan"""
range, and res idual tone are given for each natural harmonic. (For details of these par
meters see Appendix A.)

Naturol ha rrno ruc s are citflned as nore s


a produced by ove,blnwlnll " rellulill fl/'ge,I/'ll Ir o rn low B'lo 0::" (;J!)(lV" t lu- h"rnlCHII( 0::" ,1I1 n:ltul,,1 h ar rnoruc s "rE
fl/'W"I,d more than an oc.tavc below lhl' pItch soundr.d )
b traditIOnally s hown hv r
e !tlal follow the o vcr toru- ~'''It~ fo, p,p,'s opr-n al both r-nds
") Since the ,t!~ular tlngt'rHI9~ h{)!}} E' to C:I, tlrl' tilt' or.t avt: h;Hnl()n!(_~ 01 ftlf~ ({Htt'~,p()r){!!/lO low rl()II'~' tilt. flutL' . . v ouic
h.rvr: to bt! extended to low A 1 In otdt'I to prol/lc1e idft'trldtrvl.: Il;Jtulal h.rr ruo n frrHjl'rrflq~> for f" ilrld r',
VideO With low C f()()tJOlflt~. there Lilt: i11!:.() 1I(} (jltt-InCillve n a t u r a l h,HrTlOrlr( fJrl~1!'tlnn~'f(H
,

r:"

12

EXllmple:

;n(on";On
pitch sounded

fingering

ease of response

n-ff

dynamic

residual

!'I

nff

nff
234 n-uu
n-f!
n-ff
3

bn-fff
3cbc

nff 2n-ff
2

range
tone

n-ffc

132

----------

4
n-ff

4
rrff
c

3
n-ff
c

nttt
c

2
rrff
c

ff
c

5
ff
c

5
ff
c

n-ff-

n-tt

n-tt

ff

.
ff
c

5
ff

5
ff
c

5
ff

Natural harmonics can be produced for all the notes above high Be, but they are extr
difficult to find and reach cleanly,
Fingering of Pitches in the Chromatic Scale
The fingerings used in traditional playing have one basic aim: to produce what is accq
as a 'good' tone - full, round, and sweet. Modern f1utists have developed this skill
amazingly high degree. Such artists as Julius Baker, Aurele Nicolet. James Pappout
and Jean- Pierre Rampal - each of whom has a distinctly individual tone quality - 1
overcome the natural individual tendencies of each pitch and have achieved rernai .
uniformity of tone, yielding wonderful results in traditional music. Variety of tone c
is, of course, possible within the framework of traditional fingerings, ' and an experie
player uses tone colour as a means of expression.
The concept behind introducing the maximum number of fingerings for the chro
scale is to extend the range of tone colour for the flute as far as possible. Many altern
fingerings are found in traditional playing, but they are mainly used to facilitate trill Co
difficult passages in which the unusual quality of these 'false' fingerings is not exp
Every fingering, traditional or new, has its own distinctive tonal flavour, which can
be modified and extended through embouchure control. The new fingerings intro
in this section often easily yield tone colours that are extremely difficult to produce
regular fingerings and introduce timbres unlike anything in traditional playing.
New fingerings are presented up to and including Fq6. Above this pitch, the differe
between individual flutes become too great to determine consistent fingerings.
The fingerings for each pitch are arranged in order of relationship to the r
fingering, which is always listed first. The second fingering is the one most like the

See Chapter 2, Section A.

14

the third is a little more different from the first. etc. Fingerings that call specifically for
open- hole flutes are listed last, and are also arranged by similarity to the regular fingering.
It is suggested that when practising the fingerings for each pitch, the player first play
through them in order, then in various permutations and rhythms. In addition, it is very
useful to practise alternating the regular fingering with the others. This will develop the
necessary embouchure control to move fluently between the variety of fingerings.
The variety of tone qualities made possible through the extensive use of alternative
fingerings tremendously enriches the flute's realm of tonal colour, for any number of
unique pitch and timbre successions can be constructed. Composers should feel free to
explore these possibilities, observing the dynamic ranges given and noting that compositions calling for new fingerings will take more time to prepare for performance than
those that use regular fingerings.
Fingerings of Pitches in the Chromatic Scale
The first fingering listed for each pitch is always the regular fingering used in traditional
playing.
Fingerings are listed by roman numerals. For details of the various parameters see
Appendix A.
_
The sound produced by each fingering was recorded on an Ampex 440 stereo tape
recorder and the resulting tape was played through a Multimode Filter/Resonator
manufactured by Tonus, Inc. The result was then amplified so that the output of the
module could be heard. The module was set in narrow band pass mode. By tuning the
centre frequency and adjusting the quality factor (0), one could listen to each of the
harmonics in the flute sound. A rating by audition was determined to rank the relative
strength of the various harmonics.
The author had already categorized the various tone colours yielded by the new
fingerings by descriptive words - normal, bright, diffuse, and muted. It was found that
there was always a strong correlation between each of these names and the relative
strength of the harmonics, resulting in the timbre descriptions given in the Appendix.

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Changing Dynamics, Pitch, and Timbre by Embouchure Control


By means of varying embouchure position and breath pressure, it is possible t
modify greatly dynamics, pitch, and timbre. The following chart (which includes pictur
of the author's embouchure) shows the changes in embouchure and breath pressu
needed to
1. Play in tune the full dynamic range of each pitch
2. 'Bend' each pitch as far as possible both up and down'
3. Change tone colour.
The flute's range from B3 to A~lS is divided into fairly short intervals, groups of third
and fourths. Within each interval, all the pitches have very similar characteristics; thu
the changes shown will affect each pitch almost identically. These intervals also mar
the divis ions found in the glissando from low B 3to high A~lS.
The parameters shown are angle of the flute, lip opening, lip position, and breat
pressure. They affect the dynamics, pitch, and timbre as follows:
1. Angle of the flute
This primarily affects pitch; as the flute is turned in towards -the player, th
pitch is lowered. Conversely, the pitch rises as the flute is turned out, awa
from the player. However, the angle of the flute does affect tone quality. I
the flute is turned out beyond the normal playing angle, the tone become
first more brilliant, then breathy. Whisper tones are produced either alone or
along with a desired pitch from low B3 to A-;5 by blowing gently and turnin
the flute well out beyond the normal playing angle. Turning the flute in tend
to increase the strength of the higher partials in the tone and weaken the
fundamental. Thus, either an edgy or a covered quality can be produced.
2. Lip opening
The lip opening focuses the air stream, and primarily effects the control of
overblowing into the upper octaves. Lip opening is also important in the
control of dynamics and timbre; the focus of the air stream at all dynamic
levels is crucial to the tone quality. A wide opening tends to make the tone
louder and breathy, a small opening tends to reduce volume and to clarify
the sound (i.e.. reduce noise and residual tones).
3. Lip position - motion of the corners of the mouth
Basically, the effect of the lip position is similar to the coarse focus on a
microscope or camera. A correct lip position for a given dynamic and/or
timbre places the embouchure at a point where it is relatively easy to control
the sound. Individual players' styles naturally differ in the degree and precise
direction of lip motion. but two basic types of motion can be described. First,
the lower the pitch and/or the louder the dynamic, the further the corners of
the mouth move back. For example, when playing a crescendo on low CIl
from ppp to ff, the lip position changes as the corners of the mouth are
drawn from far forwards (almost pout-like) back to an almost smiling
position. In the second type of lip motion, the corners of the mouth are drawn
downwards rather than back. Both lip motions have similar effect, and many
players mediate between them.
4. Breath pressure
The intensity of breath pressure, which is controlled from the diaphragm,
determines the dynamic level of a note. Ideally, the breath pressure used to
play at a given dynamic level is constant throughout the entire range of the
flute. Thus, the same breath pressure is used to play both B 3 and B 6 ppp.
The intensity of breath pressure is directly proportional to the dynamic level.

'Bending' pr o duc e s a change in pitch without a change in fingering. and is prrmarily a function of the angle of the flute.
Downward 'bends' are made by turning the flute m, towards the player. and upward 'bends' are produced by turning the
flute out. away from the player.

46

....

The softest notes are played with the least breath pressure, the loudest notes
with the most intense pressure, Breath pressure also influences pitch.
Increased breath pressure tends to sharpen pitch, decreased breath pressure
tends to lower pitch unless compensated by adjustments of one or more of the
other parameters.
The four parameters are, of course, closely interdependent, and control over all of them
is necessary-to make adjustments freely and sensitively in dynamics, pitch, and timbre.

Angle of the flute:

normal playing angle

U '"

o '"
C

slightly turned out

s.Iightly turned in

.. flute turned out as far 85 possible without pitch breaking

::> '" flute turned in as far

8\

possible without note stopping

Lip opening:

C::>" wide opening, as

c::>

in playing

"moderate opening, as in playing

o ";.mall opening, as in playing


~

",'cry small opening, as in playing

!!lilt
~
ill

...

47

"H?

ffi'f'iitit""

8 reath pressure: 1-8


1 - as in playing ppp
2 - as in playing pp
3 - as in playing p
4 - as in playing mp
5 - as in playing m!
6 - as in playing f
7 - as in playing ff
8 - as in playing fff
While lip position varies slightly with each pitch, and from flutist to flutist. four
basic lip positions - far forward, partly drawn back, drawn back, and drawn far
back - can be shown. For players who use a downwards lip motion, the basic
positions would be lips straight (or slightly upturned). lips brought partly
downwards, lips brought downwards, and lips drawn far downwards.
1. Lips far forward

2. Lips partly drawn back

,.Cl"'J'

4.

3. Lips drawn back

--

Lips drawn far back

~~~,
.. , .. - . ; ....... ~
.

>

4#0

.-

" .

.~,

l'~

...... _ _

~'

-'-

, ~..

'.

"...

)'"
,

Within the chart, lip positions are referred to by their number as given above.
It is stressed that the lip positions shown provide only an approximate guide,
and that each flutist must modify them as he finds necessary.
In reading the following chart, note that the four parameters - angle of the flute, lip
opening, lip position, and breath pressure - are interdependent. The lhre_e columns
represent the continua of dynamics, bending, and timbre. In order to play the full ranges
of these continua, one produces the changes in each of the four parameters within each
column, For example, in order to play D4 from ppp to ttt, the following changes are made
together: the angle of the flute is turned from slightly outwards to slightly in from the
normal playing angle; the lip opening is widened from a narrow to a moderate opening;
the lips are drawn from a far forwards to an almost smiling, far back position, (or from a
straight to a far downwards position) ; and the breath pressure is increased from minimum
to maximum.

Normal playing
range
ppp
ff

Bcnding
upwards
downwards
'!.-tone
'!.Yrtone

Colour

u-[--cJ

.-~-o

Anglc
Lip opening
Lip position

Breath pressure

Normal playing
range
ppp
ff

4 -[2-3J-[1_2J
[2_BJ--[1- 3J-[1

Bending
upwards
downwards
'!.-tone
'!.'!,-tone

Lip posilion

--.411_4

Bre,th pressure

--'717-

:~~~#~
.------:---JUo ~[/-cJ
o ---......
(/-0
e

4172
-----73[~
ff wh
..~ '/.tone
4__
upwards
'/,1tone
diffuse
1downwards
Colour
69
1 Bending
Normal
edgy
3]_-isperc::>
tones
c::>
--- playing

[2 -~

8J --- [1 __
[1 2]
- 3J ---~
[1_

c:::> ---

4 ~[2--~

dilluse

3J

with

3J

dillus.e with
.hisper tones

dilfus.e

edgy

u ..---[(/

Lip opening

Colour

Angle

lit

dillusc with
whispcr tones

dilluse

edgy

-e]
o

--

~ -- ~

[2-- 8J...-- [1- 3J--

[1-- 3J

__

Normal playing
range
ppp
ff
Angle
Lip opening

o -c:::>

Lip position

Breath pressure

--

Normal playing
range
ff
ppp
Angle
Lip opening

o ---c:::>

L ip p05ition

----

Breath pr~ure

---

o -

Angle
Lip opening
Lip position
Breath pre<osure

Colour

o -- U~[-eJ

c:::>-

edgy

diffuse with
whi!>per tones

diffuse

4-[2--3J_,

Q- 8J_[1- 4J- ,

----

[, -- 2]

0U-[-e]
- c::::>- o

::::>

----;10 Ue-[-e]
13-

Colour

c::>-
7

c::::> -

[1--8J- [1--8J-

Bending
upwards
downwards
Y.-tone
%-'I.,-tone

--

4 _[2--3J-

_4
7_

e --

diffuse with
whisper tones

diffuse

edgy

e -::::>

OO
---1

B-

Bcnding
upwards
downwards
Y.-tone
y,-'-tone

4downwards
fff1 wh
upwards
Y'-7~-tone
diffuse
c::::>
edgy
isper tones
Normal Y.-tone
playing
Bending
::::>

...

--8J--[1 -- ~-

C%ur
[5 diffus.e with

[2 -

4J

. -' ..-. ,~.. _..~.....-----.

.__

1--8 [2- 3J
8
II cO-CJ
0--11____
&--0
4 fff upward~
'!.-tone
o'!.-'h-tone
downward~
Normal
playing

pp

"

rangc

.....
H/-...

".-"

~ .._...__,_,
..._

.
Colour

:::>

Bending

cOl/ered

edgy

diffuse

---

--

c::>
[1 -

2J

[5-~-['-~--[2-4]

0
c-

~.. ff3
O
8-0
V
[12J
O II---[1--3J4O

1[2-i[5-~
:::>

...
".3 X -tone
14 upward~
cOI/erro
..
..
downward~
X-tone
e-dgydilfuseColour
Normal
Bcnding
--4 playing
..
4J

ppp

Angle
Lip opening
L ip po<.it ion
Breath

pressure

,.
..,
~

f'

J.e

'"J#G

dnd

E6 will llend

downwards

only

X-tone.

!lit

!'
~

51

B. Microtones
The f1ute has long been known to be capable of producing so me microtones.' but its fuI!
range of microtonal possibilities has been left largely unexplored and unexploited.
Accurate pitch sequences of intervals even smaller than the sixteenth tone are possible
and often very easily played.
For performance of music calling for quarter-tones, two extremely accurate quartertone scales. for closed and open- hoJe flutes, are presented in this section.The quarter-tone,
however, is a logical rather than an acoustic extension of the chromatic scale. Oriental
music practices and theories. for instance, often cal! for microtonal intervals but never
actually use exact quarter-tones. For full development of microtonal performance and
composition for f1ute, two other topics are explored in addition to the quarter-tone scales:
1. Microtonal segments - short, easily played scales of extremely small steps.
2. A microtonal scale for all flutes from low D~ to high G 6 which contains intervals
as small as the sixteenth -tone.
Quarter-tone

Scales

for

Closed

and

Open-hole

Flutes

The two quarter-tone seales cover the flute's range from low D~ to high P. The first
scale is for closed-hole flutes, the second for open-hole instruments. The quarter-tone
fingerings are especially designed to be used with the traditional chromatic scale
fingerings, but were also chosen on the basis of accuracy of intonation and uniformity of
tone quality. Other quarter-tone fingerings are possible and many are presented in
the sections on microtonal segments and multiple sounds.
The fHSt five fingerings in the quarter-tone scale for closed- hole flutes - D~", bA, E~~,
F;A, and G::~_ indicate that the low B key on the footjoint is to be depressed. Flutes with
low e footjoints can play these pitches, but they will be sharper than indicated on the
chart, and must be lipped down accordingly.
Example:

intonation

t1
nmp

ease 01 r esponse
~

dynamic

range

uarter-tone

scale tor c1oscdholc

tlutcs:

1
n-ff

1
nf

1
n-mp

nmp

1
nf

nmf

~II

~"
~II
O O

c::::>
c::::> ~c::::>
~
~

~OO

.,

..,
(II!t

f
1

pp

nmf

~~.
,..-

nmf

nff

n.ff

n.ff

#~.

: O

.,.8 . O
~

c::>

a...

~OO

~OO

~OO

~OO

~OO

fj3
.1' ...

:':':".:~?~'

---- ..'"..~.:,."-~~

nf

...,:"",.,_'==""'~".,,,.,...,.~,.,,~_
...
_,~

__
._._.._

O
O
O

nf

Oc::>
c::::> Oc::::>

0
:0
O
O

.,

1
1

~.{.-{-

..
c::::> c::> c::> c::>
~
:.

1
1

I!L

~OO

~OO

~OO

d. ~.

- ...

.:.r_'.....

~;..,_

'.0 ..."., ...: __ .'"

-.-.- ~------_._--_.-

1
n.ff

1
n.ff

d. ~:!:~.

i.

-----.--_++-+._--,.~+-----~.

2
nff

2
nff

1
nff

2
nff

2
nff

--------------c::::>
c::>
--.
------.--------c::>
O
o O

O
qOO
qOO
- - ---#. d. - - qOO
5ff5ff
4pff
5ff1
3~
nff
3nff
~c::::>
~
~

d. ~.
- ~~d.~.~.
--- - #.- d.- ~. :f.- #:9:-

# .

+t

oo~'O

c:::>
~
c~c::::>
~:::>
O
ea...
~
~OO
~OO
~'O
qOO
~OO

'.

- - - - --

dE

~
~
~

*
,t
,
,t
:t. ~. d. ~Jl~.
nff

,O
,
,t ,tc::>
O
~
O
O
t

n"
n-mp
1nff
nff
11c::.:>
nff
n-ff
n-p
c::::>
c:::::>

qOO
qOO
qOO
~OO

..

~"

c:::>
c::::>
c:::>

c:::>
()
t~c::::::>
)
O
()O
~
(
) -- c:::>
ea...
O
~ -.-()
O
()
()
O
.._~

~OO
~OO
qOO
~OO
~OO
qOO

_~~...-

.....

---

qOO
...

55

nff

nff

d.~.1. #.
nff

n-m!

n-m!

nff

n!

f
1
pp

c::::::>
c):::> c:::>
c:::>

(tO

O
o ()
tc:::>.
t()
t
~tO
qOO
~OO
qOO
q
qOO
1n-ff
1 n-ff
1n-ff
11n-!

~~~

c::::::>

()--()
(
()

0())
c:::>
c:::>
c:::>
c:::>
c:::>
~
ea...

O
O
OO

qOO
qOO
~OO
qOO
qOO

56

nff

iiJ-"~-"-"-.-. .-------.-...-"".

IIIJ
IIIJ

'
n.ff

n.f,

2
n.ff

2ff
n

3
n'

nff

d!~!

,
nff

1
nff

:t.
- #*- d.--

:: -: d!: ~!: :f:!:#!:


1!:d~~~ 1~ #~ d~ ~~
-------=================================
:

-;::{tt,)-'

.,

()

()

()

c=::>

.,
lit

...
O

()

c::::>

~~

c:::::>

~ 00

lit
~

lit

~.

qOO

qOO

qOO

qOO

c:::>

O
O

\K)O

~OO

~OO

nff

nff

nff

pff

nff

pff

ff

1.--- #__---

d.---

-O

c:::::>

q.-- ~.d.
~__:1:
__
d.
--- #-.-- ~- :r- ---

()
(
()
)
~'O
OO
~
CIIIJt
c:::>
c::::::>
c~~
:::>
~
O
O
~
~c::::>
O
O
O
~OO
~OO
~OO
~'O
qOO

c:::>

:~.,
o

....

.,
.,.,


()
()
()

57

#-

d. ~.

Microtonal

Segments

These short scales were built by leaving one hole open and fingering downwards as ir
regular chromatic scale were being played. Intervals as small as the thirty-second-tol1
are often produced.
There are two sets of microtonal segments. The first is for all flutes, the second fi
open-hole flutes. The smallest intervals are found in set 1.
Composers may find the microtonal segrnents the most interesting ot al! microtorio
possibilities. They can be used as presented or taken as a source set tor the constructi
ot unique pitch sequenees. The double stops based on these sc;~I_e~often produ
parallel microtonal sea les. These multiple soundsare presented in a special section
Chapter 3.

Finl/Crings:
At. hllnd

fingerings for llll pitches beneath this sign include !he leh hand
p~ition
of fingering before the sign. The right hand fingering is
indicated Ilbove each pitch.

ElUImples:

Fingerings

,/

(the left hand fingering

.,~I.,itl
rt.h,nd

applies to pitches

under the sign)

,.

~
~~~

n-"

dynamic

range

58

n-m'

rt. hand

....Ot/,~I,~I,~'

n'"

__

~u

el

'1' ,~-( c;:

rt. hand ---------

0. eOI/

00O OO~I OO.I oo~1

n-t{

rt. hand

0.OOI/
~

nff

~
___

~
n-mp

rt. ha rxl

000.t/
~
nff

.
rt. hand

59

n-mp

rt. hand

e 000 0011

001

eOIB'Ie O ~e Oiil.

nff

rt.

hand

nff

, OI ~/. 0~1 0.'

000 01!O.O 000

.. n.f

nff

rt. hand

0.000. OOIIO OOo0011 0 10 OOI/O 00 OOt/O O.,/.

e eo.!e

__

PP

ee.'

0oooOo,oo.leoooOo,oo.e.ooOo,oo.e.;oOo,G

nff

60

rl. hand

000,OO~ee

.'o,o0lar.eeOo,0Of

t ~t

o,oet1 e,00te,e0t'

qr
~

000000 opl.oooOo

0,of1-.oo00o'0fje.ooOo

o,o,g_ oOoo,ot

--==~

'~============_t============_T============_~f ~==========_
nff

e 10 0oCUje.e eOoo,otj

~';'I.o,ol 0oOo,o,oI/e 00 oOo,o,o1

========~====.===~======#-t======~::::::::===#-======~-~-.-----.,.n-ff-----------_._

~:=======

~pp

ee oOo,o,ollee~ 00,0,0Ij.ee oOo,o,otj e el o,o,ol/e e eOo,o,o.


#t====- -====t====~====~~=_====~====_-

it======~jtt

rt.hand

'-n-p

nf(

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00_,00t I
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61

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~============~1=============~f============='

l
f

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o

(b o.ea>:<l
R:S o 0. Oj)t>=<.
~

Fingered
$egrnent

segment
Fingered 1~me as

samells
:2

14

nt!

~nf

nt!

rt. hand
Fingered
segment

same es

17u

rr!!

nf

00

O.I/O tO e.(Io ~Io e.(iji/o.


ut

ut

L'

P- n'!

n!!

u.f

.....nt!

rt. hand

10o0l/o

o.t. o0t1. e0l et/e ( ~l


.

nff

ce

~======:=====:-----,ij

. 4

---_:~

Set11: foropen-hole
flute1

g.j. ~~OI
"(el g(ijfl "(E'

~~=======d~===dr #~
n-ff

)Iv

~J====~===============
n-mf

rt.hand------

0. goej. g.I. g.(l. g.e

lg.~

,. g.s'

: ~======;~====~===~====~====d~====:-~=======

nff

n-mp

rt_hand
3

.,

lI~
(I~
(el~
~I~-cE

o.e .O~oOII~otI~ oal~

: ~
.,

~-~===~=~~====~~

nff

.,

_______

63
,.""--'\W",,,

---~

----------~-

--

---

;~===]

.. pp

'"

rt. hand

oloootf

gC60<=t/o

Oete

0Df 0t

e' (

nff

~/ -oiile

.~1

QOOO0DJo.Q.lo_

0OC/ Q.OOO

~===-If~====-~====~~===--====~==========~
n-f(

~pp

rt. hand

ooe O~I

<),. e-. 08' ~ eOi/eCS


__

rt.hand

n-p

OtIOOI~IO~IO(R
dr======_ttr

11

i=====-I~
,-nof

nff

rt. hand

0. 00t'. o.,e o0o'. oocel. o002t,e 00_

n-ff

__

64

n-p

H'

rt.hand

tI\ OQOOt/

WLnff

Ci.HtO'/

~-

Qe.,/ QOI QO~I QO~I Q.-o~1

rt

t=====-~r- d--====_~

rt. hand

'

~-r-~t-

.,.eQlo oo,t- (i,)Oo OOI/O 00te OOl' Ol

,/

()

~.~ ~r
Dt=======f====_9t====
__
nff------------------- o~l.--0./0 _1
2j~_D~_Dj====
~d;~=-t;l=_~~_

------1

e.QoDo

n,ff-------------~

.,
.,

..,

.,
~

65

..,
______

,,0[ -~-~---

'--,--

'--'

o0f/ (i,).OoOO,

~===10
1-_~=========~'"
===~

lit

00tr.(i,).lo

__

Microtonal

Scale for all Flutes

The fingerings of the microtonal scale for all flutes produce the smallest steps possibl
on the closed-hole flute, varying from quarter-tones to thirty-second-tones.
The scal
includes two hundred and ten pitches and extendsfrom
O::" to G~6 (above which th
differences between individual flutes make it impossible to determine accurate fingerings)
The uneven distribution of the microtones found in the scale is due to the constructio
of the f1ute's mechanism. Because the G key is linked to the duplicate Gt hole cover an
the F key closes both the F:; hole and the G:: hole cover, one cannot c10se the duplicat
G: hole without also closing the A key and cannot c10se the F~ hole while leaving th
G hole open. Thus, short of redesigning the mechanism, many microtonal fingerings ar
precluded.
In this scale the pitches within every bar line, when read left to right, ascend on
quarter-step. (For ease of reading, the first pitch in each 'bar', which is always
chromatic or quarter-tone, is written as a crotchet. The microtonal pitches are show
by square note-heads without stems.) In most cases the microtones within a give_.
quarter-step divide it equally. For example, the three microtonal pitches that follow E~
When th
divide the quarter-step between Ecol and E~ol into even sixteenth-tones.
microtones are not of equal size they divide the quarter-step ntc smal!er-..8.nd !arge
intervals. The larger intervals are shown by a slash between the microtones.
The first two octaves of the scale can be played rapidly with moderate difficulty. Th
range from 06 to G 6, however, can be penormed rapidly only after considerable practic
As with the microtonal segments, the pitches in this scale may be useful as a source se
for microtonaJ pitch sequences.
I

1
n-!

OOO O

c:>
c:>
cc:>
:::> c:>
~~~

~~~~

n-!

n-!

n-!

n-!

n!

~M ~I\'
~tJ ~OO
~tQ Q))
~OO\XX)

66

DI~ "=
n=J~.

nmp
1n' nmp
1

nmp
1n-p
1O
n'
1n'
n'
O
1n-mp
O

fI

-~

. -. .....-
~ ~OO\K() \))'J\))'J cm \J)J

c:::>
c::> O
OO
O
(9 O

n'
n-'
n-p
1
1n-p
1n-p
n-pn-p
11
11
1n'
n-'
11
11
11
111n'pp
fl
_.n-.f

111#e
1I
~./
I1
11~.
01

............

n
nl~

...
~~CJX)\X)J\)]\)]\}]\K))QX)
~\})}J)O

c::>
c::::>
c::>
c::>
c:::>
c::>
c::>
c::> c::>
c::::>
c::::>
O
OO~O~O~O
O
O
O
O c::::>
O

~~

~~~~~

~~~

.....................
~
~

n-p
n'
pp
nm'
1n-p
1O
n-'
11
n-'
1
11n-p
n-m'
nm'
n-m.'
O
O
n-p
III
J
pp
Oni13i 11

O
O

f3.n fA

O
O
O
{)
O
OOO ()
O
O
OO


Oc::> c::> c::> c::>

c::> c:::>
c::> c::>

OCJOO

67

...

c::> c::>
~

c:::>
~
~

\]00 \100

~II

\100

........
CJOO \JOO

np

np

n-'

n'

pp

n'mp

n-mp

fImp

1
nf

n-mp

.0
Le
L8
o oo
vo evo
0.000
c::> c::> c::> c::> c::>

o o

o o

oc::> oc::>
o o

o o o o
()
0 () "'0
08000

0 0
0 ....
0
~

........ ~

~ OO~00 \lOO QOO\ro


1
n-ff

1
nff

1
nff

1
n-ff

~.

ooo o

nff
1-e 1
1nf!
1' c::>
1n.ff
1
nff
1n-!n
-e
b .-fr
(1
-e-

-~

.-
o
oooo o
o

n-ff

1
nf

\lOOCJOO

np

n-ff

n-ff

n.ff

c::>
c::>
c::>
c::>
c::>
~
~<::::::::...
..
~
C:::..
C:::.. c::>
.
~H ~tO
~ tO ~OO\]00
~OOQJJ \))J
000

c::>
c::>.. C::::... ..
e::>
e::>
<::::::::... ~ ... .....
0e::>QJJC]JQJJQJJ
0e::>
\JOJ
~
CJoo \la)
QJJ

c::::::..

\lm~M

68

nf

n-'

CJ

n-p

n-p

-11"

d....

n(
.n

.o.

-tiOc:::>
-nf(e~-nffeOc::> ~
.

<=>
nf
c::>
c::> .n
nN
n;
c::>
nff
<=>
nf(
n((
.D.
-Ben.(
.n
-a
n(
nf(
.
...

O
O
O
O
O
O
fl/
fi
d#.
nf(

11111

-
0

., \]00

2
np

.o. ~.

.n

....
~

..o.
-~n(1"O
- ~ c:::> ..
"'0
O
~

:::>

c::>
-01n(Oc:::>
1c:::>
n

.O
1c
c:::>
c:::>
c:::>
<=>
1c
:::>
n(
1c::>
c:::>
c::::> c:::>
n(
n'
n'
D.

O
0
O
O
0
~
...

0
O
O
O
O
.
0
O
--n..O
O
o0Oc::>
.o.
"O
nO
O
.~
~
..
O
n/
.n/~H CJOJ ~tJ
CJOO
CJOO
______

...o..

11 1

.n

1
n(

CJOO

n(

.o.

nm(

n(

n-p

..D..

~ ...

......
~

\JOJ \]00~OO
CJOJ CJoo CJOO CJoo

69

'n ____

....
. ~

.......... ~

lilI'ira.. ..
~OJ\K)J
CJOO\)] CJoo
CJOO
\)] \)00
~OOC]J QX) QX) ~II

-e

0 CIJO \100 \]00 ~"

n'

n'

n'

.D.

..D.

n'

n'

..........

c:::>
c:::>
e:::>
e:::>

n'
-e-

-e

nI n

~
a
O
O
o 0
oa0
O
o
O
o

a
0

n'

...

n'

.g.

\100 \1

n'

-e

2
n-ff

2
nff

-e

-G

b
0e:::>
'410
\)00
QJJ
CJOO
CJ)J

n'

-e

o
o~"
ob8
aa
o
0
~tO
(~~~
c:=>
c::>
c:=>
~~

n'

c:=>

70

-e

2
n-'

-e

~
~

..,

~~

n"
~ /

~j
.
!@

.,

n'
~

n'
::

()~b

~oo

..L.l--_====-=-===-=-===-=_c::::>
cO
c::>
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c::::>
C>
C>
c::>
c::::>
~
~
.....
~

O
OO
O
O
O

\JOO

_==-

$~

n-ff
~

n!
::

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It==,--- -====-======-=-===~===_

~~
~IO
\100

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\JOO
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n-p

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il

n-ff

-===- -===::===_ -===:;1";

c::>

~
~

CJOO

II!'
~

.,

'}.

:2

#,- ~

--..
~/~.
ri/;{

n'
n-m'
c::>
c:>
c::>
c:>
2O
c:::>
3c:>
c::>
n'
c::>
n.ff
.g.
.n
.n
.g. ~~.g.
~~
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O
O
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.0
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\JOOd\100 \]00
~ 00 \XX)
\JOO \]00 ClX)
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2no'

~~

~
~
~
~
~
~

71

C. Glissandi
Since the lifting of keys produces discontinuous steps, flutists have long been inhibited
from playng glissandi, which can be performed in two ways. The first technique, possible
only on open- hole flutes, consists primarily of carefully slding the fingers off the holes
of the open-hole keys, and then fitting the rims of the keys. This method produces a more
or less continuous glissando from low B3 to high A<;.6. Secondly, playing the headjoint
alone bygradually covering and opening its end produces seven glssandi of varying size.
The two charts in this section present the glissandi descrbed above. It is important
to note that within the range of every glissando, shorter glissandi can be abstracted.
Each glissando is produced by a series of operations, and starting and ending points for
shorter glissandi may be chosen from within that series. Further, the beginning and ending
pitches of each glissando can be raised or lowered by bending, and are therefore not
limited to chromatic tones. (For a complete discussion of bending, see Chapter 2,
Section A)
Glissandi
for Open-hola
Flutas
This chart includes a more or less continuous glissando from low B:! to high A'{,e and
several other, shorter glissandi. These glissandi are possible only on open-hole flutes, for
they are produced, by and Jarge, by carefully sliding the fingers off the hples of the openhole keys, and then lifting the rims of the keys.
The glissando from B3 to N;" is divided into eight fairly short steps of thirds and
fourths. The portions of the glissando are marked as to whether they are smooth or
sJightly broken. When changes in timbre occur between portions of the glissando, they
are marked and described.
Each porton can be played fairly rapidly, and the entire glissando can be performed in
eight to ten seconds. A good glissando can be performed both upwards and downwards,
but the downwards glissando is more difficult to perform and takes more time. The shorter
glissandi are presented following the glissando from B 3 to A';6.

~ ~ooth

8
o
//

gli~rx1o

~ ~Iighlly broken gli~rx1o

,od hol, 00"""" by

or,o-hol, key wi,h ,im d'r"",d

op,o"ole k,y wi'" ooly ,in>d'r"""

op,ohol, key wi<hbo<h,in>,od hol, op'o

7')

tio,,,

~
~
~
_

118

ioj
~
~

:.~.-

" closed-hole

-j~

lI!t

dtt

.,
.,
.,
.,
-t
.,
.,lit

>=

L~ thumb

key~ depres~ed

key depressed

IIIJ

1.

start:

ee.d;-

1. 5tart on low B3 then slide off the hole of me D key. (Be sure to keep the rim
depress.f{l...men slidiflg off the hole 01 an open-hole key.l

Od~

finish:

IIIJ
~

.,.,

,..

rt

11.

start:

~
iII)
I

.Od~~

1. Slide 011 the hole 01 the E key.


2. SI ide off the hole of the F key .
3. Slide the little finger from the cH. c. and B keys to the D~ key.

.,
!IJ!'

finish:

OOO~8

r'J'"

lit

'"

73

---,,-, . "'c'_C

..
._.

1I1.~

start:

~ooo
it5
1. Slide off the hole 01 the G key.
2. Slide oft the hole 01 the A key.
3. Care1ullv depress the G# key.

1.
2.
3.
4.

lift the rims 01 the F, E, and O keys.


lift !he rim 01 the G key.
lift the rim 01 !he A key.
Vr:ry carelully. slide the thumb from the Sb to the B~ key.

1inish:

74

star t:
IV~

Switch from the final 8~ fingering of gliss.ando 111to the 84 harmonic,


This will result in a sliif"t change of Quality. Then:
1. SI ide off the hole of the D key.

eGOd~

finish:

Repeat

(Iingcred

fingerings

for glissando

11, raised onc octave.

V.~

Repeat
Repeat

fingerings
fingerings

for gliss.ando l/la, raisea one octave.


1-3 01 gli~ndo
Illb, raised one octave.

Vl.~

@@l@@@.S

finish :

thumb

on B~

75

low 8).

-. ---- --'--- ------- .. -

... --

Switch to the Bh~ harmonic, (fingered low EhJ. This will result in a noticeable
in crease in
loudness, and a change in tone Quality.
1. Slide off the holes of the F. E. and O keys. The right hand now looks like !his:

000f8
2.
3.
4.
5.

Carefully lift!he rims of!he F and E keys.


Lift!he rim of the O key.
Gently depress the G# key.
Slide off the holes of the G and A keys.

finish:

76

Switch to thc E6 hannonic,


(1ingcring given above as start'). This will produce
decre<l,C in ICXJdness and 8 change in timbre.
1. Slide off the hole of the F key. The right hand now looks like this:

00048
2.
3.
4.
5.

urefully
lift the rims of !he F 11M E keys.
Carefully lift!he rim 01 the O key.
Depress the G_ key.
Slide off the holes 01 the G and A keys.
6. Carefully lift !he rim of the G key.
7. Carefully lift!he rim of the A hy.

fini~:

..,

77

II

Shorter Glissandi
1.

,. Start on low B) .
2. Slide off the holes 01 the O, E, F, G. and A keys in order.
around D~~.)

(There is a slight discontinuit

By starting on any chromatic pitch 1rom C~~ to G~~, glissandi


a procedure similar to the one abolle.

11~._d.:

1I

J.

to A~~ can be produced

,. Start on the B5 harmonic, fingered low B3


2. SI de off the holes of the D, E, F, and G keys in order.
A glissando from C~6 to Dd6 can be produced by star1ing on the C6 harmonic,
low c-a, and following the second step abOlle.

F.~.

b'i.

fingered

,. Starl on the C~6 harmonic, fingered low


2. Slide off the holes 01 the G and A keys in order, then carefully depress the G~key.
A glissando from D~6 to E~6 can be produced by starting on the DG6 harmonic. fingere(j
G~4, and following me second slep abolle.

78

Headjoint

Glissandi

When playing on lhe headjoinl afone, separated from lhe body and footjoint of lhe
flute, glissandi can be produced by holding lhe headjoint with lhe left hand and gradually
closing its end wilh lhe right hand in one of lhree ways. Additionally, the range of each
glissando can be increased by bending. With the headjoint stopped, lhe lowest pitch of a
Uiven glissando can be bent downwards,
and with lhe headjoint open, lhe highesl pitch
bent upwards.
The first lechnique
is 10 place lhe end of the headjoinl in lhe crook of the righl hand
(between lhe lhumb and forefinger).
By closing lhe right hand one finger at a time, lhe
length of lhe headjoint is increased, and lhe pitch is lowered. When the right hand is
tightly c1osed, the headjoinl is effectively stopped. The lhree photographs
below show the
performance
of this lechnique:
Headjoint

end of headjoint

This method

produces

Held in Crook of Righl Hand

open

headjoint

the largest headjoint

rt. hand
open:

rt. hand
clos.ed:

partly closed

glissandi,

rt. hand
open:

headjoint

closed

which are as follows:

rt. hand

closed:

1====================1
tt -n-ff
----1 --l-PP
Notes in parentheses

are produced

by bending.

The end of lhe headjoinl can also be gradually closed by placing lhe edge of lhe heel of
!he righl hand on lhe rim of i!s open end, and lhen moving lhe right hand towards the
embouchure.
As the righ! hand closes the end of the headjoint, lhe pitch is lowered
and volume decreases.
The tone fades out complelely just before the headjoinl
is
completely closed, and pitch sounds again when the right hand s!ops lhe headjoint's
end. The firs! photograph
below shows the end of the headjoint open, lhe second

79

shows the headjoint almost stopped.


glissandi produced by this technique:

Following

the photographs

are the ranges of the

Headjoint Closed with Heel of Right Hand

headjoint closed

headjoint open
head opt:n:

head

head
head
almost dose<!: head
open:
closed:

almost head
dose<!: dosed:

head
open:

&:!-

head
dose<!:

----,

(d)-#~-'~e_#.o qe--#-eff _~ff

_pp

~ff

fr

v-ff

Rapid tremolos are possible between G~~ and G:5, G~5 and D:6, D:6 and G:6, and G:6
and C:7 by closing and opening the erld of the headjoint as quickly as possible with the
heel of the right hand.
Lastly, the pitch of the headjoint can be lowered by inserting a finger or cigar-like
object into its end. (Care must be taken not to scratch the inside of the headjoint if an
object is used. A softwood dowel is therefore recommended.) The glissandi yielded by
this method follow:
open:

-)
f{.l-~().-~
ff

nff

dowel
in~ted:

head

dowel
inserted:

head
open:

----1

ff -

nff

----1

When playing the second glissando above, insert the finger only slightly into the headjoint. If further insertion is made, the pitch will rise and then fall, duplicating the glissando
In reverse.
Composers should note that it takes at least five seconds to remove the headjoint from
the flute's body (as it does to replace it), and that the instrument must be retuned after
1he headjoint is put back into 1he flute. It is suggested to flutists playing compositions
calling for headjoint glissandi tha1 these glissandi be pcrformed on a separate headjoin1;
this avoids removing and replacing the flute's headjoint during the course of the piece.

80

3. Multiple Sonorities
Perhaps the most singular outgrowth from traditonal flute playing in recent years has
been the development of multiple sonorities. The flute's capacity to produce from two to
six pitches simultaneously has been clearly established by such performers as Severino
Gazzelloni and Harvey Sollberger, and in the previously mentioned researches of Bruno
Bartoloui and John Heiss.
Presented in this chapter are well over one thousand multiple sonorities ranging from
microtonal intervals of Jess than a major second to the majar tenth. The timbres of
multiple sonorities vary from clear, normal sounding tones to extremes of bright and
muted qualities. These sonorities are available to every flutist who will give them practice
time equal to that of daily seale studies. A great number of double-stops can be easily
played, and the vast majority of multiple sonorities are of moderate diffieulty.
Every fingering, without exception, yields at least one multiple sonority, more usually
four to six. These sonorities are the simultaneous sounding of two or more of the pitches
produced by each fingering. They are produced via the embouchure and the technique
is similar to overblowing low fingerings into the higher octaves except that the air stream
is foeused at an angle and velocity between the normal angles and velocities of the two
or more pitches sounding. The following diagram, greatly out of proporton, illustrates
this technique:

llir-stream

producing

high pitch (arrowheads


air-stream
low pitch

indicate

relative velocity)

producing
airstream

multiple

producing

sonority

embouchure
plate

crosssections

jIIIJ

hole

The proper embouchure posilon for each multiple sonority ean be found by playing
the lowest piteh first and then gradually inereasing the tension of the lips until the higher
pitch or pitches sound. (Some flutists may prefer the equallY effective method of starting
on lhe highest pitch. then gradually relaxng the lips until lhe lower pitch or pitches
sound.) Because the flute naturally tends to resonate one tone at a time and flutists have
traditionally sought the exact embouchure positions that most strongly resonate each
piteh, the technique o sustaining multiple sonorities and of playing them legato may take

jiI!t

~
~

of flut at embouchure

81

~ ..~-~---------~--~ --- -.... _

...

3. Multiple Sonorities
Perhaps the most singular outgrowth from traditional flute playing in recent years has
been the development of rnultiple sonorities. The flute's capacity to produce from two to
six pitches simultaneously has been clearly established by such perforrners as Severino
Gazzelloni and Harvey Sollberger, and in the previously mentioned researches of Bruno
Bartoloui and John Heiss.
Presented in this chapter are well over one thousand multiple sonorities ranging from
microtonal intervals of less than a major second to the major tenth. The timbres of
multiple sonorities vary from clear, normal sounding tones to extremes of bright and
muted qualities. These sonorities are available to every flutist who will give them practice
time equal to that of daily scale studies. A great number of dOllble-stops can be easily
played. and the vast majority of multiple sonorities are of moderate dfficlllty.
Every fingering, without exception, yields at least one multiple sonority, more usually
four to six. These sonorities are the simultaneous sounding of two 01' more of the pitches
produced by each fingering. They are produced va the embouchure and the technique
is similar to overblowing low fingerings into the higher octaves except that the air stream
is focused at an angle and velocity between the normal angles and velocities of the two
01' more pitches sounding. The following
diagram, greatly out of proportion, illustrates
this technique:

llir-stream

producing

high pitch

(arrowheads

air~tream
low pitch

indic.ate

relative

velocity)

producing
air-stream

multiple

producing

sonority

embouchure
plate

cross-se-ctions

of flule

al embouchure

hole

The proper ernbouchure position for each multiple sonority can be found by playing
the lowest pitch first and then gradually increasing lhe tension of the lips until the higher
pilch 01' pitches sound_ (Some flutsts may prefer lhe equally effective melhod of starting
on lhe highest pilCh, lhen gradually relaxing lhe lips until the lower pitch 01' pitches
sound.) Because tl,e flute naturally tends to resonate one tone at a time and flutists have
tradilionally sought the exact embouchure positions that most strongly resonate each
pitch, the technique o sustaining multiple sonorities and of playing thern legato may take

81

-'


_IIIJ __ m

L'

~,_.

some time to acquire. The resonances, the 'feel' of multiple sonorities are quite different
from those of single pitches, and the intermediate embouchure positions that resonate
several tones at once require greater exactness and control. The embouchure developed
through working with multiple sonorities is a great benefit te' traditional playing since tone,
flexibility, and control can be much improved.
Among the multiple sonorities resonance and responsiveness vary from stable
sonorities that are easily produced and sustained at all dynamic levels to those that are
extremely difficult to produce and which can be sustained at only one dynamic level.
It should be noted that, in isolaton, all multiple sonorities can be sustained and can be
played legato to and from a single pitch. Ease of playing legato between multiple
sonorities, however, varies tremendously, although fluent legato playing is available
among several hundred multiple sonorities.
The following information is given for every sonority: exact pitch, ease of response,
starting time, stability, dynamic range, timbre, and, if present, noise level, residual tone,
and degree of modulation.'
Further, each multipfe sonority is classified I-IV. Except for
classes and 11,it is practically impossible to play legato between members of different
J

c1asses.the
In c1ass.
addition,
the progressive
of playing legato
within
The their
tour numberng
classes are indicates
tully defined
in Appendix difficulty
A.
The three sections 01 this chapter - 'Multiple
Sonorities
8ased on Natural
Harmonics', 'Multiple Sonorities 8ased on Fingerings of Pitches in the Chromatic Scaie',
and 'Multiple Sonorities 8ased on the Microtonal Segments' - co-ordinate with similar
sections in Chapter 2, and use the same tingerings.
The charts within each section are designed to make the multiple sonorities useful from
the standpoints of tingering, interval content, timbre, and ease of performance. Although
the sonorities presented in each of the sections are distinct in characteristics of interval,
timbre, and versatility, several overall generalizations, with some exceptions, can be made:

1. The largest intervals are the easiest to produce, and are usually found in the lower
two octaves.
2. Most multiple sonorities can be produced only at fairly low dynamic levels.
3. Tonguing reduces the time required for all pitches of a multiple sonority
sound, especially in rapid passages.

to

The multiple sonorities tor flute are astounding in their scope of interval and timbre,
and a computer was used to ensure accuracy in compiling the indices that appear in
this chapter. The vast compositional
area of multiple sonorities is indeed virtually
unexplored. This, more than anythiny else, will vary from flute to flute. Composers should
feel free in their use of these materials, noting the dynamic range, ease of response, and
starting time of each sonority, and remembering that compositions including multiple
sonorities will take more time to prepare for performance than those that call for
traditional playing.

, When c~rlrin multiple ~onoritr~~ are pla\'~d, lhe pitchf'~ modulillf' each olh~r. producing lhe ~ums flnd dtffe,ences 01
lhe 10nes The drfkrf'nCf' ton~s are more audible by lar lh,rn lhe summatlon lon,s. ano ,1 lhe two tones producing lhe
modulilllon
H(: V{'ry close to ('ilch olher or vvr',' c]()~e to (l pcrft.:ct Ina'rvi1I, 111(: cidfer('nc(:
tOTH: wdl caus(- fi 'beatrng"
(;ff(~ct. Hiel fllV(' tll(' Inlpr(~.~,IUfl of rlpld dt(rnalrons
of sCJlJnd and ~d(flC.t:
h~LJlllpll' SOrH)lllj(:~ th1l pIOdULt' n1odu!atron
art: drn()~.l (]V\'dY~ V(O'y Intt'n:>(" illHl pll'rCHlD (:\,(.() illlow ci,'nilnllC lc.ve-Js. fOI tlll' ~urnnlill10n ton{'~ ldd lO lile hl(Jh (nd 01
li,e soul1d 51)['( lrum. Often lhe toT1l'~' produud by nrodulatlOfl (ratl\ rll'U lhe llfl.l"C uf a mulllple ~Ollo"ly, C(eiJtrng
a V(:/\' nri11r1)'.
oftt'f) COiHSC, ('fl('el

-----~-~-_
.._.

'.'- ----_ ..--

A.

Multiple

Sonorities

Based on Natural Harmonics

The regular fingerings from low B3 to os yield multiple sonorities in chromatic sets of
oetaves, perleet fifths, perfeet fourths, major thirds, minor thirds, and major seeonds.
Intonation varies within the sets of intervals, and while many sonorities form perfeet
intervals, they are slightly out 01 tune with the tempered seale and must be brought into
tune by lipping up or down. Additionally, some 01 the filths are slightly larger than perfect
fifths, many of the fourths are slightly smaller than perfeet fourths, and the seconds are
clearly larger than major seeonds. The exaet intonation of each interval is given in the
charts in this section.
Wthn each set of intervals, the multiple sonorities are very similar in ease 01 response,
starting time, stabtlty, dynamic range, and timbre, and are 01 thc samc class. Tlle set of
octaves is exeeptional among all multiple sonorities in that its members all have the full
dynamic range of ppp-ff.
Almost all the multiple sonorities based on natural harmonies are double-stops heard
with residual tones 01 varying strengths. The residual tone always sounds at the piteh of
the fundamental. Some triple-stops are found, produced when the second and third
partais of B 3 to F; are played simultaneously, for the fundamental sounds as well.
There are two eharts in this seetion. The first neludes the sonorities produeed by each
fngering, and the second shows the general characteristics 01 the sets 01 intervals.
Practice of these multiple sonorities is highly reeommended to develop very fine
embouchure control. The sets 01 octaves, fifths, and fourths can be taken as exercises and
practised lirst with various articulations, then alllegato. Another very uselul exercise, and
striking sonority, is to oscillate very slowly and smoothly between the pitches of a doublestop, creating a 'fade-in, fade-out' ~ffect, as in the following example 01 filteen seconds
duration:

ppp

")

~vLJr

tf

ppp

<

ff

:..-----

ppp

The transitions between single pitches and double-stops


first perceptible only as changes in timbre.

ppp -

-= tf

should be absolutely smooth, at

---_
.

.....

;~;

_~-_.
~ -----

..

EXllmple:

When a traditional

fin~ring

When 8 ne w l'rngcrrng is used:

is used:

e.Q.O

fin9,,;n9
____

pitches
sounding

~ql:~
--

. <:> --

"'"

sounding
pitches
------

fingering
1,8
ease 01 response
and starting time
stability

3 b

'L

dynamic

pp

range

timbre
modulation'

Bright M2

MU1ed N1

nOlse

residual tone

c1ass

Multiple Sonorities

Based on Natural

Harmonics

4,C

1,a

nff

n-'

Bright

Dif. M2
c

IV

1,a
nff

1Whenever

Brt.nmp
b3,b
M3
n'
cIV
C'off
cIV
aBrt.
n-p
IV
C
111
Di!.
Dif.
M4
M2 I1
8rt.
Di!.
M2
M2
4,c
5,c
5,c
3,c
20b
pff
n-p

the modulation

betwecn

pitches

01 a multiple

sonority

84

causes

bcating'o

the indication

MB is usod.

----------

..--~.,

"

..
aI
..
u
aIDif.
e
n-mf
bb
11
II1
e
IV
Dif.
8rt.
n-f
111
M4
V
11
IV
8rt.
n-mf
M4M3
3,b
5,e
48
2,b
,e
n-p

1,8

, ~~
~l.
~#i~
#,'~ #eal! - I'~
..
,l~
lit

.,
8rt.
IM5
n-ff
t8rt.
n-mf
aM5
8nff
b
b8rt.
II
n-mf
n-mf
ab
a8rt.
a5,e
b
n-mf
b
b
b
be
a,4,e
b
a2,b
e
nm'
n-mf
b
e
e111
e
Brt.M2
8rt.
enff
111
e8rt.
IV
an-'
a81,11
Inff
n-mf
nmf
nf
n
n-ff
-ff
8,art.
Brt.
II
Brt.
M3
M5
8rt.
Brt.M3
e
n-f
111
nmfn-mf
11
1nmf
e
11
n-f
Brt.M4
8rt.
M5
Dif.
M2Brt.
IV
n-mfn-ff
n-U
n'
IV
M56rt.
8rt.
Di!.
Brt.
M2
11
Dif.
M3
Brt.
Dif.
Brt.
M2
M4
IV
1Brt.
.a
Dif.
Dif.
M2
M2
8rt.
3,b
M5
IV
8rt.M5
8rt.
n-mp
n-mf
4,e
II1
2,b
3,b
n-ff
nff
2,b3,e
3,b
2,b
2,b
2,b
n-mp
n-mp
4,e
f)mp
4,e
6,e
1,8
3,e
1,8
1n-f
,a
5,e
M5
8rt.
2,b
1,11
l,a
la
,a8rt.
,
3,b
n-mp
n-mp
1,8
an-mf
1,8

1,8I l,a

~\

1_

h_

Di

#~~

,~

8:':,

General

Perfeet

Octalles:

all are:

1,a
n-f(

all are:

8rt.

Charaetcristies

of the Sets of Interllals

F ifths:

Perfcet

all are:

2,b
n-p or nmp
Brt.

2,b

all are:

n-m!

8ft.

8rt. M5

11

11

3,b to 5,e
n-p to n'!
M25 to Dif. M

e
!!! - ~

Minor Thirds:

Major Thirds:

Fourths:

Major Seeonds:

--allare:

3,e to 5,e

all are:

n-p to n!
8rt. M2-5 to

Di!. M25
e
IV

B.

Multiple

4.e or 5,e

all are:

n!
Di!. M2 or
e

S,e

pff
Di!. 1'.14
e
IV

1'.14

IV

Sonorities
Based on Fingerings
in the Chromatic
Scale

both are:

5,e
f-ff

Dif. M4
e

IV

of Pi1ches

The many alternative


fingerings
of pitches in the chromatic
scale are not only valuable
for the timbres they yield, but are also the source of the most varied and extensive group
of multiple sonorities. Within the major tenth, double-stops
are produced
that form almost
every conceivable
interval, both diatonic
and microtonal.
Many intervals
are found at
several pitch levels, ando at each pitch level, sound with several different timbres. Stable
triple-stops
are also found, and each of these sonorities
usually contains
both diatonic
and microtonal
intervals.
The multiple sonorities in this section number over five hundred in all, and are presented
in several differently
constructed
charts designed to make them useful from the viewpoints of fingering,
interval, timbre, and ea se of performance.
The r.harts are:
1.

2.
3.
4.

Multple
sonorities
produced
by the fingerings
of pitches in the chromatic
scale. The order and numbering
of the fingerings
coincides
with that found in
Chapter 2, Section A. 'Fingerings
of Pitches in the Chromatic
Scale'.
Double-stops
arranged by low pitch.
Double-stops
arranged by high pitch.
Triple-stops
arranged by low pitch.

86

The first chart presents complete information for every multiple sonority - exact pitch,
ease of response, starting time, stability, dynamic range, timbre, c1ass and, if present,
noise level and degree of modulation. The fingerings for the multiple sonorities are not
drawn in the chart,for they are identical with those found in Chapter 2, Section A.
'Fingerings of Pitches in the Chrornatic; Scale', The fingering of a given multiple sonority
is indicated by its number, which also distinguishes it from other multiple sonorities
produced by the same fingering. For example, the double-stop F~4 and B~4 is numbered
F~4 VII-1, indicaiing that tingering VII tor H4 (found in Chapter 2, Section A) produces
this ou5Ie-stop, and that it is the lowest multiple sonority produced by the fingering.
Occasionally, by very caretuJ use ot the emboLJchure, a multiple sonority that forms a
large interval can be sp/it into two smaller interva/s. The smaller intervals, which do not
normally sound when a fingering is overblown, are injicated by the letter 'a' or 'b' after
the number of the larger. normally produced interval. The double-stop B~" and C~6, tor
instance, can be split into two smaller double-stops, B~" and F~?, and F~5 and C1=6,Thus
the large interval is numbered B~4 111-1 and the two smaller intervals are numbered
B~" 1/1-1a and B:;4 111-1b respectively.
Charts 2 and 3 in this section were constructed by compiling the data in the tir5t chart
with a computer. which then abstracted the multiple sonorities organized according
to interval. Chart 2 arranges the double-stops
by low pitch, chart 3 by high pitch, and
the tourth chart presents the triple-stops arranged by low pitch. When using these charts,
which each present only one type ot information, the reader can refer back to the tirst
chart tor complete descriptions of the multiple sonorities. The numbering system is uniform
throughout this chapter.

Example:

lingering (Iound in Chapter 2, Section A


'Fingerings 01 Pitches in the Chromatic &ale')

-;f.

multiple sonorities
produced

:t .----------l,a

2,a

2,a

4 e

pp
Muted

n-mf

n-mf

p'f

Dil.

M4
11

--------

ease 01 response,
starting time, and

Dif. M5
11

Di!. ~

IV",-~

stability
--------------dYnamiC

range

timbre and, when


pre~ent, noise level
and degree 01
modulation
clas~

87

-- -- .. -_.~--

_'r'(=-~-;'"'' .'~~~"

___ u

"-- ..

1. Multiple

Sonorities

produced

by tlle fingerings

01 Pitches

1,8

2,b

n-p

Oif. M 8 1

Oif.

"

2,b
nmp
Oif.

3,e

4,e

n-p

n'p

Oif.

111

IV

Dif.
IV

Scale

n. N: q{i~ lt:!
np

in tlle Cllromatic

3a

2a

d. d~l:!N. N-

Dl'lIl

l,a
pp

nm'

5,e
pp

Mut. MB2

Oif.

Mut.

pp
Oif.

IV

IV

IV

1,8

nm'

3,b

4,b

4,e

5,e

1,1

2,b

n-'

np

np

n-p

nm'

Di!. MBl

Oif.

Oif.

Oif.

Oif.

n-p
Oif.

111

111

IV

2,8

I1

II

4,c
pp

Oif.
IV

3b

n-p

1,8

2b

Oif. MB2 Oif. M3

"

3,b

5,e
mp.f
Oif. N5
IV

m'ff
Oif. M4

IV

nm'
np
pp
pp
n'
IV
2
Oif.
Mut.
IV
1MB2
Mut.
Oif.
Oif.
8rt.
4nm'
IV
22e3
3IVIV
11,8
Mut.
21
2bOf.
5,e
5,e
3Di!.
,e
2,b
2,8
5,e
pp
5,e
5pp
,e
n-p

1111111

~I:

1.a

~#.k~#f:
~#II:'f:1 ~'\'11
~

33

f:!
2.b
Oif.

Dif. M2

11

111

n'

l~- l:!5,e
pp

5,e
np

Mut.

Mut.

Oif. M3

IV

IV

IV

3,e
5,e
Di!.
IMB2
nmp
nmp
pp

, ,8
pp
Oif. MB2

3b

1,a

88

nff
n'
pp
IV
11
IV
11 Dif.
Mut.
Mut.
Dif.
4,e
3,b
pp
2,a
5,e

28

2b

n-ff
11
11
IV
11
Brt.Dif.
Dif.
n-'
n-ff
n-m'
n-'
n-'
n-'
II1
II1
23
4
IV
44,e
11
Dif.
Dif.
Ml
Mut.
Dif.
M4
MB2
n-ff
35,e
Dif.
2,b
2,b
2,b
4,e
5,e
1,11
1,8
n-p

~I.

~~r:

l~ ~
:.:

#1.

#1

F\'VJ~f;

::

F~'VII ~

123

5,e

5,e

n-'

mf-ff

n-ff

Dif. N2 Dif. N3
IV
IV

Dif. MB2
1

~.
..
;: #~:
il:l
~l:I

n-mf
pp
pp
n-ff
f}-f
IV
11
IV
I1
Mut.
Mut.
MB3 2
n-ft
2b
28
3a
3b
Mut.
I5,e
IV
Brt.
2
3V
2,b
5,e
4,e
5,e
1,111
pp
pp
2,b

1,8

Mut.
F#4V

~#tt.

~.
l: ~:~:

j:-

#~l.

n-mf
n-f
n-mf
n-p
n-p
Ipp
Dif.
1Dif. M5 la
2
4
11
11
IV
5IV
r.,'1ut.
Di!.
11
n-f
Mut.
11
3I1
Dif.
3lb
6Di!.
Dif.
IVn-'11.13
Mut.
n-mf
I1I
23,e5,e
Dit.
2,b
l,a
5,e
2,b
2,a
5,e
2,b
2,a
n'mp
F#~VII

d#..,tt

5,e

Dif. M3
11

#t-

#~.

2,b
pp

1,11

) 1#.~!~~==~===
:=::--F~~_VI'~_.~
!&

5,e

pp

n-p

Dif.

Dif.

IV

IV

d .

#tE:3

89

-~_.~#f~
1,11

n-ff

Dif. MB5
I

3,e

# t~
~
5,e

#1.
2,b

n-mp

n-'

n-ft

Brt.

Dif.

Dif. MB5

111

IV

11

.-

-,,-.,

la

l,a

2,b

4,e

1,a

n-ff

nmf

nf

n-f

Dif. MBl

Brt.

Dif. M2
IV

Dif.

2a

1/

2b

3,b
n-mf
Dif. M 1

III

2,b

4,e

2,8

2,8

n-mf

n-f

pp

Di!.

pp

Dif.
IV

Mut.

Mut.

11

11

1I

d .

d~I:<l~l:l~~tt:l
~t~
2,b
pp

Mut
1/

5,e

5,e

pp

pp

Dif.
IV

Mut.
IV

d.

5,e
n-I

2,a

1,a

2,e

4,e

1,a

pp

pp

pp

nf

Dif.

Mut.

Brt.

Dif.
1I

nf
Dif.
IV

5,e

S,e

1,a

l,a

pp

ff

pp

pp

Mut.

Mut.

IV

2,b
n-mf

Dif. MB3 Dif. M3


I

11

l,a
n-ff

Brt.
I

3,e
n-ff

Dif. M3
1I1

5,e

l,a

2,b

n-mf

n-ff

n-mf

Dif.
IV

Dif. MBl

Dif. M2

II

mf-f
nmf
n-p
n-f
IV
IV
n-p
mf-ff
IV
1/1
N4
IIDif.MB3
Dif.
N2
ff M2
1/
Di!.
N5 Brt. M2 Dif. M3,
n-ff
5,e
5,e
3,e Brt.M'Dif.N5Dif.
4,e
S,e
1,a
l,a
Brt.
n-mp
2,b
3,e
5,e
IV

90

Dif. N5 Dif. N5
IV
IV

#=

; 1. ~~l:

nm(
r(
2111
pp
3nm(
IV
IV
IV
43IV
Mut.
Mut. n(
IV
I1 1 Di!. N5
lalb
11
Di!.
Dif.
2
Mut.
Di!. Di!.
M2 N3
54N5
,e
5,e
5,e
pp
2,b
pp
5,e
pp

_ J,-,l~

3,e

5,e

1,8

t.
4,e

~:

. ij~"

1,8

3,e

5,e

2,b

2,8

3,e

4,e

rrp

r(

rrp

nmp

n~mf

n(

Mut.

Di!.

Bn.

8rt.

11

111

Di!. M3 Di!. N5
111

f. #I
~:
~I ~
I

m(ff
nf
n-p
pp
1IMB4
I1MB5
n-p
mUf
nf
IV
I1nmf
nf
IV
1II
n-mf
Di!.
4
2
I1
IV
2
3
11
4
3
fff
nm(
nf
IV
mUf
Di!.
Dif.
Di!.
N5
N5Di!.
Brt.
MB5
Di!. N5
M3
Di!.
3a
3b
11
111
N4
N5
Di!. 2Dif.
3
2
1
IV
n'
34
Di!.
Di!.
3,b
3,e
2,b
3,e
1,8
1,a
n-mp
Di!.
M3,
3,e
5,e
2,8
5,e
5,e
N4
1,a
pp

d.d.
1,8

il

IV

IV

5,e
n(
Di!.
IV

Di!. Ml
MB51,a
Di!.

~
A\'IV d#::
:I
:00:
A~'V ~1:
~

~b.

~i:: ~

~: N: ~~lf:l
ijA\'VII

91

- i~~~~
- ~~f:
~fL

rrp
Di!. MB3

d.

5,e

5,e

2,b

(ff

f-f(

pp

pp

Di!.

Di!. N5

Mut.

Mut.

IV

IV

I1

5,e

IV

,.

123

2
d..

d.
1,a
nmp

2.e
n'mf

Dif. MB2 Dif. N5

b.

1.a
nff

4.e

mf-ff
Dif. N5

IV

~J:~~:
2,b
mp-f

l,a
nff

4,e
mp.ff

Brt.

Dif. MB5 Dif. M4 Dif. M4

IV

I1

IV

3,e
pp
Dif. MB3
II1

i:
5.e
rf

5.e

1,8
n-f

mf-ff

Dif. N4

Dif. N5

IV

IV

Bn. MB4

2,b
nf

1,8
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Fingerings

of the Chromatie

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-------------------------------------------------------_

Triple-S10ps

based on Allernalive

111
11 11
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Fi~erings

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of the Chromalic

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IV

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117

by Low Pitch

-.

....

C. Multiple Sonorities

8ased on the Microtonal

Segmel~-<:;

The multiple sonorities produeed by the fingerings of the microtonal segments (Ch.=-2, Section B) can be distinguished by two characteristics:
they usually form b'l"l
parallel microtonaJ sca/es or microtonal 'wedge-like'
figures such that each inten
widerquite
thansimilar
the las1.
each seale
or 'wedge',
the individual
multipleMost
sono~
are
in And,
ease within
of response,
starting
time, stability,
and timbre.
o~~
paralle/ seales and 'wedges' are easily played.
The following ehart shows the muftiple sonorities produced by each of the micro
segments, and the chart is organized identically with jts eounterpan in Chapter 2.
A number of multiple sonorities with edgy timbres are presented in this seetion, ~n
these are uniqu.e among all multiple sonorities. It is suggested t~at the m.u/tipl.e sonortL
based on the mlcrotonal segments can Le used for the construetlon of unlque tnterval"timbre sequenees that can be performed with unusual facility.
Three staves are used in the chart. The topmost shows the pitches sounding in
muftiple sonority, and beneath them are the ratings for ease of response, starting ti
stability, dynamie range, timbre, and c1ass. The fingerings are not drawn in the d!'-'
for they are identieal with those of the microtonal segments. (Chapter 2, Seetion
whieh are shown in the second stave. The bottom stave inciudes the fingerings as ti
would be notated in a eomposition. It is suggested to composers that, when inclucir
multiple sonorities based on the microtonal segments in compositions, two stavest.~
used, the upper showing the pitehes sounding and the /ower notating the fingerings
in the first and third staves in the following chart.
~-

Example:

pitches

1
, .a
nff
8rt.

l,a
nff
Oif.

l,a
nff
Oif.

sounding

l,a_
n',ff

ease of response,
dynamic range

-----timbre,
-----class

including

Olf.
1

fingerings
Segments)

fingerings

~
0# key
dep. "
"dep, = depressed

118

(found

starting

time, stability

leve/s of noise and modula

in Chapter

as notated

2, Section

in composition

8 Mi(.

Set 1: For all flutcs

1,8
n-ff
Di!.

1,a
n-ff

8rt.

1,a
n-ff
Brt.
1

1,8
n-ff
Dif.
1

1,8

n-ff
Dif.

2,b
n-mf

n-m'

2,b
n-mf

n-m'

8rt.

Edgy

Edgy

Mut.

11

2,b

11

11

D# kcy

D#key

dep.

dep.

1,8

1,8

n-ff
8rt.

n-ff
Brt.

1,8
1,8
nff
n-ff
8rt_ Di!. MBl

3,b
n-m'

2,b

3,b

n-m'

n-mf

Edgy

Edgy

Edgy

11

111

111

I1

1I1

D# key

dcp.

2,b
n-mp
8rt.

3,b
n-mf
8rt. M4

3.b

11

2,b
n-mp

2,b
n-mp

Edgy

Edgy

11

11

3,b
n-p

2,b
n-mp

Mut. MB2

Di!.

1I1

3.b
3,b
n-mf
n'mf
8rt. M3 8rt. M3
II1

11

111

IIIJ

~-

.,

D kcy up

D key up

~
~

:!

119

D kcy

up

---------~-----------_.__ ._------ "-----.

n'
mp-f
n-mp
In-'
111
pp
IV
n-f
I8rl.
11
18rt.
I M4
M5
Dif.
n-mf
1n-ff
MBl
IV
1I
Dif.
8rt.
Brt.
Mut.
8rt.M81
5,e
n-f(
3,b
2,b
l,bl,b
1.8
1,8
5,e
l,b
n-mp
2,b
nf
4,e Dif.

Dif.
Brt.MBl

T
E key
up

D key
up

3,b
n-mf

8rt.M3
111

3,b
n-mf

4,e
n-p

8rt M3 Di!. M5
111

E key up

IV

E key

up

1,8

3,b
n-mf

l,a

1,8

, ,8

3,b

1,8

mp-f

n-ff

n-ff

n-'

n-f

n-f

Dif.

Di!. M5

8rt.

n-p

8rt.

Dif.

Dif.

IV

111

5,e

Dif. MB4 Dif. MB5


111

F keV up

120

2,1J

3,b

n-p

nf

nmf

Dif.

Sr\. M5

1,8

2,b
n-f
Brt.M5

1I

4,b
nmf

Srl. M4 Dif. M2

I1

II1

3,b
n-p

111

I11

1,8
nff

Srt.

Srt.

G ~ key dep.

F key up

1.8
1,8
1,8
1,8
l,a
n-ff
n-ff
n-ff
n-ff
n-ff
Srt. Dif. MBl Di!. MBl Dif. MBl Srt. MS2 Br\.

1.8
n-ff

2,b
n-mp
Srt. M5

Brt.

11

2,b
2,b
2,b
nmp
n-mp
n-mp
Srt. M5 Di!. M5 Dif. M5
11

1,8
nff

11I

l,a
n-ff

3,IJ

n-p

Dif. M5 Dif. M5 Di!. M5

Mut.
IV

1II

3,b
n-p

F key up

5,e
pp

key dep.

121

key dep.

1I

II

2,b
n-mp
Dif. M5
11

2,1J

n-mp

Dif. M5
11

';,.-,""

2,b
rrmp

4,c
pp

Dif. M5
11

Mut.
IV

2.b

l,a

np

rrff

Oif. M5

Brt.

1I

l,a

1,a

n-ff
Brt.

n-ff
Brt.

l,a
n-ff
Brt.MBl

l,a

1,a

1,a

1,a

n-"
Brt.

n-ff
Brt.

n-ff
Brt.

nff
Brt.

G # key

G key up

dep.

2,b

rrmp

2.b
rrmp

2.b
rrmp

2,b
rrmp

2.b
rrmp

2,b
rrmp

rrmp

1,a
n-f(

n-ff

Oif. M5

Brt.

Brt.

Oif.

Oif.

Brt.

Oif.

8rt.

Brt.

11

11

I1

I1

11

I1

2.b

11

1.a

G key up

A key up

1?')

l,a
n-ff
Brt.

1,a

l,a

n-ff
n-ff
nOif. MBl Oif. MBlOif.

2,b
n-m'
Dif. M5

1,a
1,a
1,a
l,a
1,8
n-ff
n-ff
n-'
n-'
nmp
Dif. MBl Dif. MBl Dif. MB' Di!. MB' Dif. MBl
I

2,b
2,b
nm'
nm'
Dif. M5 Dif. M5

11

11

11

2,b

2,b

2,b

2,b

n-m'
8rt.

nm'

n-m'

n-m'

nm'

Di!.

8rt.

8rt.

Brt.

1I

11

11

11

11

2,b

A key

A key
up

up

2,b

2,b

2,b

n-m'

n-m'

n-m'

1,8
n-ff

Brt.

Brt.

Dif.

Brt.

11

11

11

1,a
1,8
1,8
2,b
2,b
2,b
2,b
2,b
2,b
nff
n-ff
n-f'
pp
n-ff
n-ff
n-ff
n-'
n-'
Di!. MBl Di!. MB2 Dif. MBl Dif. M5 Di!. M5 Di!. M5 Di!. M5 Dif. M5 Di!. M5
I

A key
up

e key
up

123

11

11

1I

11

1I

1I

..".

/'

- '.

1,8
1,8
1,8
1.8 2,b
nff
nff
n-ff
n-p n-p
Brt. MBl Brt. MB3 Dif. MB4 Dif. MB4 Dif.
J

II1

1,8

1,8

1.8

1.11

1,8

n-p

n-p

n-p

np

np

Brt.

Brt.

Dif.

Dif.

Dif,

~-

..L.

;_

1.8

n-'

1.8

n-'

Brt. MB2 Brt. MB2

10

:0

D trill-key

dep.

D ~ trillk~y

n-'
n-p
n-p
n-p
I Brt.1.8
IDif.
I MB5Dif.
n-ff
nff
nf
Dif.
Dif.
III
Jnff
Brt. MB5
n-f
nf
Brt. MB5 Brt. MB5
Brt. Brt. MB4
1,8
1,8
1,8
1.8
1
,8
1.11 MB5
1.11
1.11
1,8
1.8
n-p

11

,,

D # trill
key dep.

D and D # trill
keys dep.

124

dep.

dL

12

l,a

1,8
n-f

2,b
n-p
6rt.

O~-----l

o and
trill-keys

1,8

1.8

1,8

1.8

nmf
n-mf
n-mf
n-mf
n-mf
n-mf
Brt_ MB2 Brt_ MB2 Brt. MB2 Brt. M5 Brt. M5 6rt.Ml

Oif.

1I

1,8

13

1,8
nff
8rt.

1,8

13

12

13

trillkey

--.J

O.

O trill-key dep .
and 8 key up

1,8

n-ff
n-ff
Brt. MB2 8rt. MB2

12

dep.

dep.

1,8
n-ff
Brt.

1-L

trillkey

dep.

Set 11: for open-hole flute~

n-p
pp
II112.b
11
Oif.
MB2
n-ff
11
12,b
Oif.
In-ff
1.8 Oi!.
2,b
1,8
1,8
1,8
1,8
n-p
n-mf

Mut. MBl I

n-mf

n-mf

Brt.

8rt. MB3 Oif.


8rt.
n-ff
1,8MB4
11

T
o

0# trill-key
dep. and B key up

key

'/,o~n

125

--

t~'K\"

\...~.:'

<

~-~S

"~'~~:"-;.~.;';':'';

2,b
2,b
Dif. J
n-mp nff n-mp

Brt.M5

Brt.M5

3,e

2,b

2,b

n-p

n-f

n-f

Mut.

Dif.

Dif.

111

11

11

11

11

1,8

pp
11
IDf.
Dif.
In-ff
IV
Dif.
Dif.
n-f
Dif.
n-ff
l,a
2,b
l,a
5,eM5
n-p
,l,a

o key

E key

Xopen

Xopen

2,b

3,b

2,b

2,b

n-mp

n-p

n-f

n-f

Dif.

Dif.

Dif. M5

Dif.

11

111

11

I1

3,b
pp

l,a

l,a

n-ff

n-mp

1,11

n-ff

Brt.

Mut.

111

Brt.
I

E ke'y

X open

F key
Y:,open

126

n-mp

n-mp

Dif. MBl Dif. MBl Dif. MBl


I

11

4 d-#-

2,b

2,b

u-mp
n-mp
Brt. MB3 Brt. MB3
11

11

2,b

2,b

n-p
Dif.

n-mf
Dif.

"

"

bt-#-

2,b
n-mf
Dif.

2,b
pp

l,a

n-'f

1,a

pp
Mut.

II

Dif.

Brt.

n-ff
8rt.

IV

4,c

"

2,a

2,b

3,b

3,b

nm!
n-p
n-p
n-p
Dif. MBl Dif. MBl Dif. MBl Dif.
"

"

111

1,8

n-p
Dif.

"'

F key
X open

G key

Xopen

l,a

,I ,

n-p
n-p
IDif.
n-ff
8rt.
l,a
81,11
rt.
1,8 n-ff
l,llDif.

1,11

2,b

2,b

1,8

n-m!
n-m!
n-p n-mp
Btr. MBl 8rt. M82 Brt. MB2 Dif.
I

1I

1I

1,8
n-mp
Dif.

1,8
n-mp
Di!.

1,8

1,a

n-mp
Dif.

pp
Mut.

2,b
pp

Mut.
11

G key

X open

A key

y,open

127
j

4. Other Resources
A.

Flutter Tonguings

notated
as follows is: the rolling of the tongue, as in pronouncing
Flut1er tonguing
fl.

'rrrrrr', and is traditio

fl. __
or

RRR~

or

The many varieties of flutter tonguing range from slight pulsations in the tone to
loud, buuing noises. These tonguings can, in some measure, be applied 10 all f
sonorities produced by the flute, including single pitches, multiple sonorities, jet whis-l
discussed
within and
this section.
residual tones,
whisper 10nes. The various applications of flutter tonguing
'1

The 1wo parameters involved in f/ut1er tonguing are the speed and the intensity of f
pulsations. The speed can be varied slightly by changing brealh pressure; thus, wfll,~
loud notes are flutter tongued, the pulsations will be slightly faster than 1he pulsatia
of soft flut1er tongued notes. The intensity of the pu/sations, however, is independent
breath pressure, and can be greatly varied by changing the position of the tongue ...'
should be noted that as 1he intensity of the pulsations increases, the note sounding
heard less, tor the interruptions in the sound become more marked.
Although increased breath pressure tends to increase the intensity of the pulsatiolls
as well as their speed, it is the position of the tongue that most effectively controls f/ut11
tonguing. Each f/utist must tind for himself the tongue positions that best produce t
various t/utter tonguings. (The differences between individual mouth shapes and tongu
thickness preclude any absolute formulae.) The tollowing general statements, howeve,! _
may be made: first, that intensity of f/utter tonguing increases as the tongue is progressive ,
moved back in the throat, and secondly, that difficulty of flutter tonguing increases al
lower pitches are p/ayed. Since the traditional notation shows only the dynamic of the
tonguing
as well: a new notation is suggested, for it inc/udes the intensity of the f/ut1
pitch sounding,

11.

PP

1~

r<::::=. tt ~

interuity

01 11ulter

p;lch ,aund;",
PP --

dynamics

01 pitch

tonguing

.
soundlT)g

Flutter tonguing can be readily applied to multiple sonorities, as no special difficulty is


presented. It should be noted that only flutter tonguing of very low intensity can be used
with unstable
multiple
decreases
stabi/ity
slightly.sonorities

and, except for class I sonorities,

flut1er tonguing __

AII varieties of f/utter tonguing can be used with residual tones and jet whistles. When
playing Whisper tones, however, the flutter tonguing must be at the lowest possibfe-interrupted.
intensity. If the pulsations in the air stream are too great, the whisper tones will be

128

---

----~.

=,",,"

--

------

. --

The most intense flutter longuing may be called the 'roar-flutter', a rasp-like buzz
produced by the uvula ando t?ngue by placi~g l~e tongue f~r back in the throat and
fluttering as roughly and nOlsily as posslble. rhe roar-flutter can be played with loud
single pitches, loud multiple sonorities, and residual tones, and is particularly effective
in articulating jet whistles. (For a deta iled discussion of the 'roar- f1utter' and its application
to jet whistles, see Chapter 4, Seclion D.)

B. Percussive

Sounds

Percussive sounds are produced by slapping one or more keys of the flute andfor by
clicking lhe tongue, and are short, pitched resonances of lhe lube of lhe f1ute. The
most familiar percussive sounds, key-slaps articulating staccato notes, were introduced
to the f1ute by Edgard Varese in 1936.'
Key-slaps can be used to articulate all types of sonorities, including single pitches,
multiple sonorities, whisper tones, residual tones, and jet whistles, and can be performed
alone. Dynamics are determined by the force with which the key or keys are slapped, and
a dynamic range of ppp to f is lherefore possible with almost every fingering. It should be
noted that lhe noise of the key striking the rim of the hole is always present to some degree.
This can be reduced to an almost inaudible level by slapping the G key whenever possible,
which produces the greatest ratio of resonance to noise.
Regardless of the particular key or keys slapped, the pitches produced by key sJaps
.Hedetermined by the fingering used and whether the embouchure hole is open (as in
normal playing), or partially or completely stopped. When the embouchure hole is open,
the resonances produced by each fingering sound at the lowest two pitches yielded by
that fingering when overblown. The lower resonance is the stronger, and in the case
of resonances that sound an octave apart, as occurs when key-slaps are p=rformed with
the regular fingerings from 83 to C~s, they very much resemble a unison at the pitch of
the lower resonance. When a key-slap is performed with the fingering for low 83, for
example, a strong resonance is heard at 83 along with a weak resonance at 8.c, the overafl
effectbeing that of a single resonance at 83 In cases such as the above, only the lower
resonance is notated.
The pitches of the resonances produced by key-slaps can be lowered by stopping the
embouchure hole, either by closing it with the tongue or by pressing the embouchure
plate firmly against the chino When the embouchure hole is stopped, the resonances
produced by key-slaps fingered 83 to D.c drop an octave, while the resonances of keyslaps fingered Dt.c to C$:s fall a major seventh. As with key-sfaps with the embouchure
hole open, lhese fingerings yield resonances an octave apart, and only the fower
resonance is notated. Thus, when a key-slap with the embouchure hole stopped is
played with the fingering for low 83, resonances sound at 82 and at 83, although the
resonance at 83 is extremely weak. Wh~n key-slaps with the embouchure hole stopped
are performed with fingerings thal, when overblown, produce harmonics that do not form
lhe overtone series, the resonances sounding are lower than those produced by key-slaps
with the embouchure hole open. The changes in pitch, however, vary with each fingering
and must be found by experimentation. For example, two key-slaps with the fingering
A~4 11,the first with the embouchure hole open and lhe second with it stopped, will
produce resonances at Atj4 and Btj4, and at Bb3 and C~4 respectively. Two similarly
performed key-slaps with the fingering H4 VII produce resonances at F~4 and 8~4, and
at Cq3 and 8b4
11 is possible to mediate belween the key-slaps wilh the embouchure hole open and
those with it slopped. This is done by starting with the embouchure hole open and

Edgard Varesc. Denslly

2 .5 (Nf'w York. 1936. revised 1945) .

129

r---=~,",-,-=~_~===,!,~-__ =====-__ ~__ ~ ~

."'',.

~.--,

"-.~

~---.

iv

:. -~ .\~~":'"

"_o, :\;.;~,

~.:';?',:~~_~,~:'t:.~
-"O'

~.L .
', .~'';''-'

~',...'. l.~

gradually turning the flute inwards towards the lips until the embouchure hole is placei'
between the lips, which then are gradually closed, stopping the embouchure hole. As the
embouchure hole approaches the mouth, the mouth increasingly acts as a resonatin
chamber; its vowel shape becomes audibly discernible and a fairly high, weak pite'
(probably the resonance of the mouth itself) is added to the resonances produeed by thfl..
key~slaps. As the f1ute is progressively turned in, the mouth resonance descends to th
pitch of the higher resonance produced by the key-slaps, and then deseends in uniso
with the resonance of the key-slap.
It is important to note that key-slaps with the embouchure hole open or completel
stopped project fairly well, bu! that all key-slaps - espeeially those with the embouehur
hole partially closed - are more effective when performed on the electric flute. (For "
discussion on the sonorities of the electric flute, see Chapter 5, Section B.)
The notations for key-slaps and the ranges of the pitches produced are as follows:
Key-~Iap articulating

Key-slap alone:

Key~lap

pitch:

resonances

can be played at all pitche~

key-slap

pitch lounding

sound at the two lO<Nestpitches yielded when

key-slap

fingering

with embouchure--hole

11

given fingering

is overblown

stopped:

key-slap with embouchure-hole

stoPpe<:

1ingering

pitch sounding

(pitche~ 01 resonance~ produced wilh fjngering~ abovc D~6 arxf wilh micrOlonal
1ingcring~ must be 10und by experimentation)

130

and nr"

I I

---- --..--

__",

.....-....
~l....--#".....--------

Key-slaps mediating

between

open and closed embouchure

U ~normal

0~

slightly

angle of the"flutc:

playing angle

turned

inWilrds

:J ~

embouehurehole

between

the lips

keyslap

(+'0)\
dI ---fingering
[oJ

hole:

Bngle 01 lhe flute


\lowcl shape 01 lhe mouth

Percussive sounds can be produced by clicking the tongue as well as by key-staps,


and tongue-clicks can be performed either alone or in conjunction with key-slaps, and
can be played with the embouchure hole open or with it placed between the lips. When
the embouchure hole is open, tongJe-clicks
produce the noise of the clicks themselves
and short, extremely soft residual tones at the lowest two pitches yielded by each
fingering when overblown. When the embouchure hole is placed between the Jips,
however, tongue-clicks produce both the noise of the clicks and strong resonances that
sound within an approximate range of a major third to an octave below the pitch of the
fingering used. This drop in pitch cannot be notated, for it vares with the mouth shape of
each flutist. In addition, the vowel shape of the mouth and the position of the tongue
play an important part in determining the pitch and timbre of tongue-clicks with the
embouchure hole between the lips. The mouth's vowel shape is always audibly discernible, and pitch variation of about an octave can be made with every fingering by starting
with the mouth shaped to produce [i] and the tongue tar forward, and gradually changing
to the mouth position tor [u] and moving the tongue as far back as possible in the throat.
The notations for tongue-clicks follow:
Tengue.diek
with embouchure
with key-slaps

hole open:

can be played alone, uH'CilO articulate

--

simultilncous
embouchure longue"click
hole
tongue-{;Iick
tonguc-{;I ick into
K-a nd key slap
key-slap
fingering
fingering

K+
( K +)

---

pitches,

ilnd/or

simultancous
fingering

in conjunetion

tongue-{;Iick

oto ,mbooc""" "01,

"d

One further type of percussive sound can be produced by the flute, and these may be
called 'tongue-stops'. They are performed by placing the embouchure hole between the
lips <lnd quickly stopping it with the tongue. The resonances sounding are the same as
those produced by key-slaps with the embouchure hole stopped, but are heard without

131

l'

any mechanical noises. Oepending on the force with which the tongue strike
embouchure plate when it stops the embouchure hole, tongue;stops may sound \.
dynamic range of ppp to tt. Production of the loudest tongue-stops may be aided
strong exhalation of the breath, similar to the production of jet whistles, but if the to~~_
does not c10se the embouchure hole rapidly, a short jet whistle will sound before
cut off by the tongue-stop.
(Jet whistles are fully discussed in Chapter 4, Sectio
The notation for tongue-stops follows:
1.-

(T) -----

J --ff

C. Whisper

---

tongue~top

fingering

dynamic

Tones and Residual Tones

Whisper tones, sometimes called 'whistle tones', are the individual partials of notes,
are high, pure sine tones. They can be produced with every fingering, and, dependin
the fingering used, from five to fourteen whisper tones can be sounded by forming a v.narrow lip opening and blowing as gently as possible across the embouchure h
Whisper tones are heard only at extremely low dynamic levels and are difficult to sus~
individually, for they have a strong tendency to oscillate one to another. With considera'
practice, however, it is possible to play whisper tones forming almost any pitch sequenr:p.
Oue to their softness, whisper tones do no! project well, and are mos! effective wl
performed on the electric flute.'
The various whisper tones yielded by a given fingering can be produced by main!ainj~
the very narrow lip opening and minimum brea!h pressure and gradually raising the ang,:...
of the air stream. (The changes in embouchure position are identical with those m
when low fingerings are overblown to produce their harmonics.) As the angle of the .
stream is raised, progressively higher whisper tones will sound. Regular fingerings fr0
low B3 to C$:6yield whispertones that form part ofthe overtone series for each fundamentt.
When the fingering for E~~ is used, for example, whisper tones can be played from t
third to the ninth partial of E~, sounding at B~5, Et:6, G~6, B:;6, 0:;7, Et:7, and F"7
Similar/y, mos! alternative chromatic fingprings between B 3 and C:;6, and many qua
tone and other microtonal fingerings, yield whisper tones forming the overtone ser
bilscd on the lowest normal pitch produced by each fingering. When a fingering does ni
yield whisper tones forming an overtone series, tlle whisper tones usually sound al tne
pitch levels of the harmonics that are produced when the fingering is overblown. TII
exac! pitches of the whisper tones sounding in each case, however, must be determin'
byexperimentation.
In general, low fingerings yield more whisper tones than high fingerings, for it is easi'el
to produce very high partials when a longer air column is vibrating inside the flute. T
fingering for low B3, for example, yields fourteen whisper tones, while the fingering fl
C:;6, having a much shorter length of vibrating air, yields only fve or _six whisreuont;~
It should be noted that, regardless of the fingering used, the lowest two pitches produc
by that fingering can almost never be sounded as whisper tones.
The highest whisper tones, produced by very low fingerings, are the highest pitches th;:t
can be played on the flute, and extend the instrument's range to C:;8. Whisper tones d_

See Chapter

5. Section

B.

132

be produced from the third through .sixteenth pa~ials of ~3 and C~4, forming ranges of
F~5 to B~7, and of G~~te: C~B respectlv~I~. Even hlgher partlals can be reached with these
fingerings, although It:S extremely ~,fflc~lt to. do so. In. most .cases, the lowest and
hghest whisper tone Yletded by a glven fmgermg are qUIte dlfflcult to produce, while
facility with the whisper tones between these extremes can be gained with moderate
difficulty. The notation for whisper tones is as follows:

J ---

whisper tone sounding


fingering

ws.

Residual tones are noise-like resonances of the tube of the flute, usually consisting of a
very weak fundamental and a few higher partials, and are often heard with natural
harmonics. They are very easly produced, and can be played alone or, at low dynamic
levels, with whisper tones.
Residual tones can be played with all fingerings by forming a wide lip openng and
directing a relatively unfocused air stream across the embouchure hole. Unlike whisper
ton es, residual tones have the full dynamic range of ppp to tI. In most cases, residual tones
sound clearly at the two lowest pitches produced by each fingering, their effect being that
of a multiple sonority. When the resonances are an octave apart, as when regular
fngerings from B3 to D~5 are used, the residual tones resemble a unison at the pitch of
the lower resonance. Strongly played residual tones may additionally include one or mora
clear resonances at the third or higher harmonic produced by a given fingering. Whisper
tones can be sounded simultaneously with very soft residual tones by raising the angle of
the air stream as far as possible and slightly increasing the tension of the lips. It is quite
difficult, however, to control the pitch and stability of the whisper tones in these instances.
The notation for residual tones is as follows:
pitch or pitches

sounding

fingering
R

residual

ff

dynamic

tone

D. Jet Whistles
Jet whistles are produced by placing the embouchure hole between the lips - pressing
the lips against the embouchure plate so that no air escapes - and blowing directly into
the flute. Jet whistles are breathy, semi-pitched resonances of the flute's tube, and vary
from short, violent 'shrieks' (from which they draw their name) to very soft, sustained
sonorities not unlike residual tones. Jet whistles Cln be articulated by regular tonguing,
tongue-stops, and 'roar-flutter' tonguing.
The parameters that determine the volume, pitch, and timbre of jet whistles are the angle

133

-0--

of the embouchure hole between the lips, the vowel shape of the mouth, fingeri
breath pressure. Each influences jet whistles as follows:
1. Angle of the embouchure hole :
The angle of the embouchure

hole between the lips greatly influence

pitch and timbr~ of je.t whs!les. ~he~ the.flute is turned out as far as por
the pitch of a glven Jet whlstle IS at ItS hlghest and a cluster of strong,
partaIs is usually presento As the flute is turned inwards until the embo
hole faces the player, the pitch of jet whistles ialls approximately an octa'vj
lower partais become quite strong. Hgh partaIs, if at all present, are very \,,'
2. Vowel shape of the mouth:'
This strongly affects timbre and pitch of jet whistles, for the vowel sh
the mouth is always c1early audible. Further, by changing the mouth ~
from [i] to [u], the pitch of every jet whistle can be lowered about an o~
3. Fingering:
'.
_
.
The fingering of a given jet whistle determines the range-6f pitches in wr,
can be produced by varying the other three parameters. Chromatic fingen
from low B3 to E~7 produce increasingly higher jet whistles, and the .1
ranges of jet whistles fingered B3 and Eq7 are rcughly l major fifth
Fingering affects timbre as well as pitch, for the high partials of jet whl
played with fingerings in the flute's third and fourth octaves are far
intense than those fingered in the lower two octaves.
4. Breath pressure :
Breath pressure determines the volume of jet whistles, and influences
and timbre. Maximum breath pressure, produced by violent exhalation int
flute, yields extremely loud jet whistles. Increasing the breath pressure
tends to raise the pitch and to strengthen the high partials of jet whist
It should be noted that the maximum duration of a jet whistre depends o
breath pressure used; the loudest jet whistles can be sustained for on
two seconds, while the sohest can be held for as long as twenty seconds.
The four parameters are, of course, interdependent, and by combining them a to
pitch range of approximately three octaves can be played with every jet whistle. A pl,
range from 86 to 83, for example, can be produced when a jet whistle s periormed \
the fingering for low 83 by starting with the flute turned out as far as possble, the mo"
shaped to produce [i] and maximum breath pressure. Then, by turning the flute inwJ
until the embouchure hole faces the player, shapng the mouth to produce [u]
decreasing the breath pressure to a very low intensity, the pitch will descend to 83, higlo.
partials willlose intensity, and loudness will decrease from fffto pp.
AII portions of jet whistles can be articulated. They can be started either with or with
regular tanguing, or by stopping the embouchure hole with the tongue and then openj
the hole. (This technique is the reverse process of performing 'tongue-stops',
which l'
described in Chapter 4, Section 8.) Single, double, and triple tonguing can be used~
interrupt jet whistles, and jet whistles can be cut off by regular tonguing or by a tong
stop. In addition, jet whistles may be articulated by roar-flut1er tonguing, the most inter.variety of flut1er tonguing. When applied to jet whistles, roar-flutter tonguing adds a lo
noisy buzz to the pitch sounding. The pitch and timbre af the naise produced by the ra
flut1er can be changed in cancert with changes in the pitch and timbre of the jet whistle

The vowel signs used in lhis book !He lak,en Irom lhe International
Phon<:liquc Inlernationalc,
The signs are;
[1] ~ eco as in scck
[e] 0- a.asinmaid
[aJ~ ah.asinart
[oJ~ o.asincoal
[u] o oo. as in OOle
In add'lion
lhe may
above.
numerous
vowels.
and lo
lhese
also lhere
prove are
useful.

olhcr

vowcls

134

Phonetic

in lhe PhonClic

Alphabel.

Alphabet

published

intermedia

by lhe Associat'

le belween

lhe

p:':'~

---------=====~ .
means of shaping the mouth for the various vowels and by moving the tongue forward or
back in the mouth. The pitch produced by roar-flutter 10nguing can be lowered about a
major sixth by starting with the mouth shaped to produce [i). and gradually changing to
the positions for [e]. [aJ, [o]. ando [u]. At the same ti.me, the tongue is moved from far
forward in the mouth to as far back In the throat as posslble.
Presented below is the notation for jet whistles :

Jet

Angle of the embouchure

fingering

hole:

flute turned

out as far a~ possible

flute turned

inwards a~ far as po~sible

--~

[]

[ U ] -----

pp -

E. Singing

-=

if

-----

vowel shape of the mouth


dynamics,

(breath

pressure)

and Playing Simultaneously

Almost all flutists can, to some degree, hum while playing single pitches, creating
multiple sonorities that are often heard with very pronounced modulation. The intervals
formed and the timbre of these multiple sonorities depend, of course, on the piteh and
timbre both of the note played and of the flutist's voiee. Unless the f/utist has an
exceptionatly clear voiee, however, the multiple sonorities created by singing and playing
simultaneously are usually of a rather coarse, often noisy timbre.
Singing in unison or oetaves with the note played is fairly easy to perform and produces
little or no modulation. Singing in other intervals with the played note is more difficult, as
is either sustaining a played piteh and changing the sung note or viee versa. If the pitches
of the voiee and the flute are very clase to eaeh other or to a perfect interval, the difference
tone created by their modulation witl cause pronounced beating, and these combinations
are very difficult to sustain. Further, it is extremely diffieult to play most multiple
sonorities and sing simultaneously. This is almost always limited to singing one of the
pitehes sounding in the multiple sonority, and to the most stable multiple sonorities. It is
also important to note that singing and pfaying simultaneously restricts the dynamic of
the played pitch to an approximate range of mp-f.
With praetiee, however, any number of intervals can be formed and played with faeility
by means of this technique. It is suggested to composers that, when calling for singing
and playing simultaneously, at least two choiees for the sung piteh be given the flutist, one
for high voiee and the other for low voiee. The notation for singing and playing follows:

J.1 ---

135

playcdpitch
pitch
sung

~--

F. SUbstituting
With the headjoint removed,

Other Sound Sources

for the

the body of the flute can be played with a variety of alt

direetly
sound sourees,
into theincluding
reeds andprodueed
brass mouthpieees,
anduse
by of~r
b~
body of various
the flute.types
The ofsonorities
through the
sound sourees are unlike any heard when the headjoint is used, but are rel~

uneont,olled, lar Ilutisls have ,a,ely had experienee with,

0'

developed

an

emb0'j'

for, reed and/or brass mouthpieces. Additional/y, the playing of alternative sound SOOrcan be both fatiguing and desensitizing to the lips. Unless the individual fluti""
previously developed his embouchure for one or more of these sound Sources, .
cautioned to expect an unusual demand on his embouchure, and that normal playing r _
be impaired until the lips are fully rested. The onry exception to the above is the
the bassoon reed, which cal/s for an embouchure very similar to the flutist's and t
somewhat less fatiguing when used for brief periods. Presented below are descriptT8ach
case:
of how
each sound source is used with the flute, and of the sonorities produc
Reeds:

1. oboe - produces

very lin/e effect when Sounded inside the flute's body. FO'.L
most
part,
only
the
reed i15elf is h6ard, as ftrarely prav::;b::sl
air column inside thesound
flute of
intothevibration.

2. clarinet - when fitted inta the flute's body by means of a simple paper tube, t'clarinet mauthpiece yield single pitches which resembles the sonori
metal clarine15, and that form an approximate chromatic sea/e when a chrom _
scale is fingered
on the
the flute.
multiple butsonorities
lessbody
of theof reed
within Some
the mouth,
these arecan.
qu1"'produced
by placing
djfficult to sustain. To minimize strain on the lips, use of a very soft ree
suggested ..
3. bassoon - a great number of single pitches and multiple sonorities can
produced by either using a normal bassoon embouchure or by holding the re
near its base with the teeth and allowing it to vibrate freely within the mou .
(The base of the reed is slightly inserted into the top of the bOdy of the f1ut
The single pitches, produced with the more or less normal bassoon embouchurr
are somewhat saxophane-like in timbre, and form an approximate chromat
scale when a chromatic scale is fingered on the f/ute. Five and six note multip
sonorities are sounded by al/awing the reed to vibrate-ireely within the moutl-:intense
madulation.
and these
mu/tiple sonorities, produced by many fingerings, are heard wit

Brass mouthpieces: Experimentation with trumpet, French horn, trombone, and-tuo'


mOllthpieces produced very limited resu/ts when these were applied ta the flute by
inscrting them into the top of the flute's body and buzzing. Generally, only the soun
of the mouthpiece is heard. When a particular mouthpiece does excite the ai'l
columnandinside
the flute into
vibration, the resulting timbre resembles a mixture of
brass
alto saxophone
sonorities.
Buzzing directly into the top of the flute's body: This technique, while ex1remely
fatiguing to the lips, yields a variety of single pitches of a rather noisy, brass-like
timbre. Buzzing into the flute always excites the air column inta vibration, and
approximate chromatic tones can be produced with regular chromatic fingerings.
The higher pitches produced by buzzing are more difficult to produce and sustain
than the lower pitches, Bnd lhe piteh produced by a given fingering depends largely,
an the tension of lhe lips. When the fingering for low B 3 is used, for examp/e, pitches
bctween B 3 and E4 can be produced by gradually increasing the lip tension.

136

5. The Electr;c Flute


The electric flute, quite simply, is an amplified flute. The basic equipment necessary for
amplificaton consists of either a contact microphone or a standard air microphone, an
amplifier, and o~e or mor~ speak~rs. This sy~tem wil.1 increase t~e volu~e of. all f1ute
sonorities, and, If the equlpment IS of very hlgh quallty, do so wlthout dlstortlon. The
purposes of amplification are several; first, raising the volume level enables very soft
sonorities, such as whisper tones, residual tones, and percussive sounds, to be projected
well, and when the flute is sufficiently amplified, it can be brought nto balance with
ensemble combinations in which it normally would be drowned out. Second, by means
of electronic modification, the flute can produce an unlimited number of new sonorities,
often of intervallic and timbral composition radically different from any produced without
such modification.
This chapter s, indeed, merely an introduction to the techniqucs of amplification and
modification, and to the basic sonorities of the electric flute. The worlds of sound
encompassed by this instrument will, without question, call for their own volume at some
future date.

A. Techniques

of Amplifying

the Flute

The first, and ,most important, stage of amplification is the microphone used. Contact
microphones, mounted in the headjoint either by means of a special cork or external clip,
offer greater reproduction than do air microphones of whisper tones, residual tones,
percussive sounds, and jet whistles - sonorities in which resonances inside the tube
of the flute are important. With few exceptions, the contact microphones presenlly
available, however, tend to distort noticeably when Joud notes are played. Contact
microphones allow greater freedom of movement to the performer, for they elimina te the
need to play facing in a given direction or angle. Air microphones are available in
extremely high quality, and, with the exception of their limitation in reproducing the
sonorities mentioned above, perform well when used with the f1ute. Air microphones are
usually best positioi1ed from about tour to eight inches in tront and slightly to the right of
the embouchure hole. When the microphone is placed near the lower end of the flute, the
tone contains a disproportionate ratio of high partials, and tends to sound ra!her brittle. In
general, both contact and air microphones are adequate, and the choice be!ween them
is a maner of personal preference.
The amplifier receives the signal from the microphone and increases its strength to the
desired level. It is most important that the amplifier be af sufficient quality so that
the entire frequency range of the flute can be amplified without distortion. This range
extends from B~2, the lowest key-slap with the embouchure hole closed, to about CS;B,
approximately the highest partial heard in flule notes.'
In addition, the amplifier
should be powerful enough to drive the speakers easily, for this avoids distortion at
moments of peak volume.
Speakers should be chosen which can reproduce the f/ute's frequency range with
mnimum distortion, and which are capable of sufficient volume for the performance
situation. Since extensive bass response is not necessary, relatively small, high efficiency
speakers may be used, rather than the larger bass-reflex type. The placement of speakers,
again, depends on the performance situation, but they are generally placed so as to
distribute the sound evenly throughout the place of performance.
This basic system of microphone, amplifier, and speakers can be augmented by such

1 In cyeles per seeond (cps

or Hz), Ihis range exl(:nds

arprOXirni1Il'ly

137

"0m

124 10 8.900

refinements as preamplific.ation and balance controls between the speakers. A potentl~


meter, or volume control, IS often worn attached to the belt when a contact mjcroph~.
is used.
It should be noted that noise of the f1ute's mechanism is ohen heard when t
instrument is amplified, especially when a contact microphone is used. This noisJ~l
primarily caused by the 'fee1' that control the height of the keys, and sounds whene __a key is raised. (Mechanism noise is present in normal playing, Dutls almost alw-'
masked by the note.) Depending on the equpment used, mechanism noise can
minimized or eliminated by setting treble controls on the amplifier as low as possi
Key-slap resonances may also be pronounced in the amplified tone, and their intensi
as in normal playing, can be controlled by varying the force with which the keys a
closed. Key-slap resonances can be eliminated by playing 'Iightly', using mnimum fo.~_
in c10sing the keys.

B. Sonorities

of the Electric Flute

Without electronic modification, the sonorities produced by the electric flute, except f
ther hgher volume, are basically identical to those produced by the flute normalir
In order to use amplification to its best advantage, however, a wnrking knowledg.e of n
it affects the various flute sonorites is necessary. The followingchart
describes t
applcation
of amplification
to flute sonorities; its structure is self-explanato
As previously mentioned, mechansm noise is ohen present, but can be minimized
eJiminated by setting treble controls on the amplifier as low as possible. Use of hi
quality equipment is assumed.
In some musical situations, however, mechanism noise and distortion may not
undesirable. It is suggested to flutists and composers alike that they do not consider t
electric flute only as a louder flute - although it can be used as such - but as.a ne
instrument capable of a vast range of dynamic and timbral possibilities, most of which ar
not normally available to the fJute. The followng two sections discuss the sonorities ~
the efectric flute. The first includes those sonorities heard when the ffute is amplifi
without electronic modification, and the second is a description of the techniques of suc
modification and of the resulting sonorities.

138

Sonority

Single pitches

Multiple
sonorities

pereussive sounds

Whisper tones

Comments

EHeet (11Amplifieation
contaet mierophone

uscd

air mierophonc

used

Undistorted, exeept for


very loudly played notes,
whieh may audibly distort

Undistorted

Same as above

Undistorted

Meehanism noise is
usually heard with keyslaps, and treble settings
should be as low as
possible if this is not
desired. Tongue-clicks
and tongue-stops
are
heard without distortion

Meehanism noise along


with key-slaps is
relatively slight, and can
be controlled from the
amplifier. Tongue-c1ieks
and tongue-stops
Bre not
reprodueed as well 8S
when a contael
mierophone is used

Undistorted

Reproduetion is limited,
Bnd the flulist must play
within one or two inches
of the microphone. (Use
of a wind sereen on the
mierophone is reeommended to eliminate
breath noise)
Same as above
Same as when contael
mierophone is used,
excepl that fewer high
partials are reprodueed,
and a wind sereen is
neeessary

Residual tones
Jet whistles

Undistorted
Undistorted. exeept for
very loud jet whistles
whieh may distort audibly

Singing and playing


simult3neously

Undistorted

A poor mierophone or
amplifier rnay 1avour
one 01 the pilches
&ounding, increasing
its volume proportionately more than lhe
other piteh or pitches

The Dmplifier and


speakers must be
powerful enough to
handle the very intense
peak volume of the
loudest jet whistles
without distorting

Undistorted. Reproduetion
of pitehes produeed by
modulation is not as
complete as when a conlaet rnicrophone is used

139

'J

C.

Electronic

Modification

of Flute Sonorities

'

Flute sonorities can be electronically m.odified by taking t~e. microphone sign


input to one or more of a number of devlces, and then ampllfymg the result. Th~.
modulation discussed in this section include reverberation, filtration, frequency _.
ring and balance modulation, amplitude modulaton, and frequency modulatio~,
present time, various commercial devices are available that perform one or more"

functions, and are designed to be used with ampri~ied in.struments. Many


machines, though, appear to be pre-set to be compcrtlble wlth the soun spectr
brass and reed instruments, and have a somewhat lirnited response when used

flute. Various electronic music synthesizers can also be used, and these genera1l4
greater range of functions and controls. Preamplification is usually required ahea-1
input into a synthesizer. While the large size and weight of some synthesizers ,
exclusively for studio use may make transporting, them difficult,
smaller,

a.

synthesizers intended to be used in live. performance with amp.lifie~ instruments


developed. At least one such machme, of excellent quallty, IS presently ava'
Additionally, the following may prove useful when working with a synthesizer
multiples circuit to obtain several duplicates of the microphone signal for variou~

purposes
(explained
the as
body
of the
text), an~
s;cond,
l mi<er, in omer m~option
of hearing
the in
flute
played
in addition
to the
modified
sound and or to
"several types of modified sound.
Reverberation, as it naturally occurs, is the multiple reflection of sound in an en.
causing sound to persist Bher its source has ceased vibrating. Differentiation is between reverberation and echoes, which are repetitions of sound produced by re
from an obstructing surface. Reverberation devices use the natural principIe, but .
of B large enclosure, suspended springs or a metal plate are used to continue
vibratons. The metal plate units, while not portable, are generally of higher qual .
amount of reverberation, or reverberation time, can be controlled on both types of ~
and by adding reverberation to flute sonorities, 'depth' or resonance is inc' "
especially with whisper tones and percussive sounds. Reverberation increai
sustainng power of the flute in proportion to the reverberation time used, and'
reverberation time will result in a blurred effect when used with rapid playing. F,
reverberation tends to cover mechanism noise when tones are Rlayed.
_
There are several types of fi/ters, and their function s to aflow passage of a
portion or portions of the sound spectrum, and to screen Ol:l!-otA-er fequencies. Th
of filter are as follows:

1. Low pass - allows passage of all frequencies below a certain cut-off freqlIl
blocking frequencies above its levef.

2. High pass - allows passage of all frequencies above the cut-off frequenc
blocks frequencies below it.
3. Band pass - allows passage of a certain frequency or group of aUle
frequencies, or 'band', and blocks frequencies above and below their lE.
4. Notch - bfocks passage of a certan frequency or frequency band, and aflr
other frequences to pass.
Pre-set fi/ters, or fifter banks, are used in some devices to change the ratio of pa~notes so as to make them resemble the sound spectrum of various instruments, s
the oboe, bassoon, cello, etc. Perhaps beca use of the flute's relative rack of high r
when compared to string and reed instruments, this type of filtration so far has
realistically recreated other instrumental timbres. It does, though, produce r,
changes n the flute's tone, often adding a rather nasal qua lit y to the sound. On s'

140

sizer the flters must be set by the performer, and the type of filter or filters to be used and
their' centre frequencies and quality factors, or 'O', must be determined. The centre
frequency of band pass and notch filters is the central pitch of the frequency band to be
passed or eliminated, while on Jow and high pass filters it is the cut-off point below or
above which frequencies are passed. The 'O' factor determines the sharpness of the
cut-off point of a filter. Even at the highest 'O' settings the cut-off points of filters are not
absolute; some frequencies adjacent to the cut-off frequency do pass, although they are
not in the desired range. When a band pass filter's 'O' is set at its highest level, for
example, the frequency band passed will be quite narrow, and amplitudes of the
frequencies adjacent to this band taper off sharply to nothing. The samefilter, set at the
same centre frequency but at a low 'O' will pass a much wider band, and the frequencies
adjacent to the band taper off gradually in amplitude. Presented beJow are graphs of the
frequencies passed by band pass filters with both high and low 'Q' factors vnd /ow pass
filters with high and low 'O' settings. Amplitude is represented on the vertical axis, and
frequency on the horizontal axis.The curves represenl the frequencies passed by the
filter in each case.
8an<! PilS5 Filters

Low'O'

High 'O'
Amplitude

----------------------< .
~

Frequency

-----------------------< ...
Frequency

Low Pass Filters

High

nplitude

'o'

Low'O'

Amplilude

o
Frequency

---------------------Frequency

141

Frequency shifting and ring and balanced modulation have certain similar eharaetelTo.
les, and are similar in principie to the modulaton that oecurs when many mult .
sonorities are played. Frequeney shifters and ring and balanced modulators each req'"
lwo inputs, one of which can be the flute, the other either an oscillator, another instrumerr
or a tape. Frequency shifters produce either the sums of or the differences between
frequencies of the two inputs. When a frequency shifter is set to produce the sums of
inputs, and the two inputs are a f1ute sounding A~4, at 440 Hz (- cyeles per second), a
an oscillator producing a sine tone at 200 Hz, the resultant frequency, cr side band,
be heard at 640 Hz. The higher partaIs in the f1ute tone will also modulate with l'
oscil/ator signal, producing additional si de bands whose amplitudes are proportional ~
the strength of the partials as heard in the f1ute sound.
Balaneed modu/ators and ring modulators produce both the sums anrJ differences of t
frequencies of the inputs. The difference between the two devices is that ring modulatq
include an equalizng circuit ahead of the modulatory circuitry, thus maintaining equrl
amplitude between the lwo inputs. This results in the maximum number of side banl
and ensures that neither of the inputs is heard. When a balanced modulator ;s used, t
inputs are usually heard along with the side bands, unless they are equal in amplitudr
And, since the amplitude of the second input does not vary in concert with that of tH
flute, changes in the f/ute's amplitude as slight as those heard when vibrato s used w
cause the inputs to be heard even if their amplitudes are original/y set at the same lev
Further, an envelope follower is necessary to control the second input with the flute
This device prevents amplification of the second input when the f1ute is not playing, th~
eliminating leakage.
The follow;ng chart presents the sonorities produced by a balanced modulator wher..
used with the f1ute, preamplified, as one input. An oscillator producing sine tones is th
second input. The pitches played by the flute are given at the top of the chart, and th
frequencies of the oscillator are found at the left hand margino The same side bands ar
heard when the oscillator is set to produce triangular, pulse, and square waves, though anincreasing amount of noise is heard with each of these wave forms. Triangular waves ad
a relatively slight degree of noise, while the use of square waves yields very nois .
sonorities. Pulse waves produce an intermediate degree of noise that increases progressively as the width of the pulses approaches that of square waves.
Balanced
pitches

Modulated

played by flute:

Sonorities

~L

#.L

frequeney of
oscil/ator
(in Hz)

16

32
64

tremolo effect, similar to rough flutter tonguing. no clear side bands


very coarse sonorities, with side bands close to eaeh piteh played by the
flute
bassoon-like sonorities, with clear side bands fairly elose to eaeh piteh
played by the flute, except for very low difference tones sounding when
the flute plays above B 6

142

frequency of
oscillator

(in Hz)
125
250
500

1000

2000

4000

8000
16000

clear, resonant side bands that converge slightly with each successvely
higher pitch of the flute - sine tone is audible
rich side bands, including very low and high frequencies, are heard with
each pitch played by the flute - oscllator signal is clearly audible
rich, quite strong side bands over a wide frequency range are heard with
each flute pitch - low side bands are prominent - oscillator signal
c1earlyaudible
strong side bands withboth very high and very low frequencies prominent
- somewhat grainy sonorities sound when the flute plays above H6 oscillator signal clearly audible
grainy sonorities with very strong high side bands and, with some pitches
of the flute, strong /ow side bands - oscillator signal audible, but blending
with high side bands
very grainy sonorities comprised almost completely of extremely high
frequencies-no low frequencies are present - oscillator signal is audible,
but very weak
very weak, extremely high side bands sound with all flute pitches timbre is quite grainy - oscillator signal is barely audible
oscillator signal and almost all side bands are above the range of human
hearing - side bands sounding are extremely high and weak

When multiple sonorities are played by the flute, the number of side bands markedly
increases, for each pitch produced by the flute moduJates with the second input. Whisper
tones can also be used, and these yield rather thin, grainy sonorities since the side bands
are ver}' high and close to each other. Balanced modulation is much less effective \-vhen
percussive sounds and most jet whistles are used. The relative weakness of the individua I
frequencies within these sonorities, as opposed to their noise component, prevents the
creation of clear side bands.
A ring modulator will produce basically similar side bands to those described in the
chart when the same inputs are used. Ring modulated sonorities, as previously mentioned,
do not include the frequencies of the two inputs. Frequency shifters produce still tewer
side bands, tor only the sums or the differences of the inputs are heard. The inputs themselves are, again, eliminated. It is important to note tha! some balanced modulators are
called ring modulators. The sonorities produced by the two machines are quite different,
and many European compositions that call for ring modulation of instrumental sounds
can be successfully realized only with the ring modulator proper.
A property shared by both balanced and ring modulators is that whenever the two
inputs are frequencies within lhe same overtone series, the side bands produced wll form
that overtone series in its entirety, including the fundamental.
With synthesizers that allow voltage-control,'
three further types of modulation are

Devices that can be vollage-controlled


can be controlled by an oUlside voltage as well as by manipulating knobs or
other manual controls. In addilion, the degree 01 control exerted by lhe outside voltage, or control vollage, 0'1 a given
device can be determined by the level se1 0'1 its control input. An example 01 voltage control is the use of an oscil18tor
to control the amplitude 01 another oscillatol. To do lhis, lhe oscillalor being used as the control signal is taken 85 lhe
conlrol input to the ampllfier of the oscillalor being controlled The amplltude 01 the oscillalor being controlled willlhen
be raised and lowered a given number 01 times per second, the same rate as the Irequency 01 lhe control oscillator.
A device that is extremely useful in working
wilh vollage-conl,olled
equiprnent
is B I'equency-to-voltage
converte" This rnachine ,1enelales a conl,ol voltage proportional
to 1he I,equency 01 its inpul A pos~"ble use for
this device, for example, would be 10 control the Irequency of several oscillalors, driving th'rn in parallel rnollon wilh
the f1ute_ FUrlher,lhe rate lhat an oscillalor would control the amplltude o, Irequency of unolher o~cillalO' or oseill,lto's
could be determined by the pitch pluyed by the flute_ The control oscillutor could originall\, be set ul D f,['qu['ney eithe,
below or above the range of lhe flule The flute, when played throlJgh a lrequency-Io-voltilge
conVl'rter, could then
control the Irequel1cy 01 :11[' control oscllliltor, yielding 50norilll'5that
would otherwis[' be impoS,,'JIc 10 produce.

143

possible - amplitude, Irequency, and timbral. Two approaches


can be taken to am
and limbral modulation. Either lhe Ilute's tone can be modulated by an oscillator
signa/, or lhe Ilute's Irequencies
can be used as control voltages 10 modulate a .
signa/.
In amplitude modulation, which produces the most complex sonorities 01 all ty
modulation, either an oscil/ator signal is used to control the amplitude 01 the f1ute,
versa. In both cases, a single amplilier is used. When mOdulating the amplitude
11ute, lhe instrument's
microphone
signal is the input being amplfed, and an OSCil'l'2
signal is used as the control input that varies the amplitude of tne 11ute. To modula
amplitude 01 the oscil/ator, lhe flute is used as the control input and the oscil/ator sigamplified. When the 11ute is controlling the ampJitude of an oscillator, and it SOun
Aq4, the amplitude
01 the oscillator is increased and decreased 440 times per second ..
changes in amplitude create a tone at Aq4 in addition to the Irequency original/y prod
by lhe oscillator. The lwo Irequencies
modu/ate with each other and produce lhe s
side bands as would be produced by a balanced modulator
with the same inputr.
however, lhe Irequencies 01 the inputs are always heard, anc.
amplitude modulation,
side bands lhey produce modulate with each other, producing their sums and difIeren
The amplitudes 01 the side bands are, 01 Course, unequal. Those produced by moduJa1o
01 the fJute note with the oscil/ato fequ.ency are !fe S1TOTI
of the fundamental

fol/owed by lhose produced. by intermodulation 01lhe side bands. and by mOdulation


intermodulatlOn
of the flute s hlgher partlals wlth the oscdlator frequency and wlth f
side bands. The number and strength 01 the side bands is proportional to the amp!itul,.
01 the two inputs, and a change in lhe amplitude 01 either input will effect the structur
the side bands ..
_
The sonorities produced by lhe lwo methods 01 amplitude modulafionare
lhe same(j~
long as the oscillator frequency remains within the range 01 the f/ute. When the amplitu
01 the f/ute is controlled by an asciI/atar, lhough, a lar greater range 01 sonorities can l
produced, for the Irequency range 01 mosl oscil/ators extends from les s lhan one cyele p
second to more than 16,000 Hz. (The frequency range 01 the f/ute, from B 3 bent dow~
wards ~-tone, to Ca,the highest whisper tone, is approximatelv
240-8.400 Hz.) Very slo
oscillations
produce
pulsations
in
the
flute's
tone,
and
side
bands
wilJ begin to be hea"
oscillator frequency reaches about 40 Hz.
whenthe

In frequency modulation,
the f/ute is used to control the 1requency of al) oscillato'
When the flute sounds an A4, for example, the oscillator is caused to raise and lower i
Irequency 440 times per second, and lhe degree 01 the pitch changes is determined by the.
amplitude of the flute. The sonorities produced by Irequency modulaton are 01 a differed
nature from those heaid with previously mentioned types 01 modulation, for the Irequeno

01 lhe unmodu/aled

oscil/alor. does not appear in lhe modu/aled produc!. /n (requenc~

modu/at/on,
on'y the frequenCles 01 the flute and 01 the slde bands are preSento The side
bands are the 1requencies that arise due to the alterations, created by the flute, ;n the wav
form produced
by the oscillator. I/Iustrated below are the wave forms 01 an oscillato
producing a sine tone at 125 Hz. the flute producing Aq4with an edgy timbre, and the
wave form produced by frequency modulating
the oscillator signal with the flute.

144

Sine tone,

250 Hz

Flute producing

Aq"','440

Hz

,with

'edgy'timbre

Oscilloscope roading
of frequency modulating
sirte tone with flute note

The complicated wave form produced by frequency modulation is analysed by the ear,
and its component frequencies are heard indivdually. (Pitch discrimination in human
hearing is ex1remely fine. Al! sound - for example, that of a symphony orchestra - is
received by the ear drum as a single wave which is analysed by the basilar membrane,
enabling recognition of individual pitches and timbres.) As the f1ute's amplitude increases,
additional side bands will sound, for the wave forrn produced by frequency modulation
becornes more complex. Thus, even the slightest change in the amplitude of the f1ute or
of the oscillator affects the number of side bands. If the amplitude of the f1ute s sufficiently
high, a 'swirling' sonority created by constantly changing side bands will often sound
when vibrato is used.
Timbral modulation involves controlling the centre frequency and/or the 'Q' factor of a
filter with the flute. Any of the four types of filters can be used, and the input to the fi/ter
can be a duplicate of the f1ute's microphone signal, the output of one or more oscillators
or modulating devices, or a tape. When the flute is controlling the centre frequency and

145

sounds an A~4., the centre frequency is caused to rise and fall 440 times per second,
producing a combination of frequency and amplitude modulation. The number and
strength of the side bands is determined by the amplitudes of the f1ute and of the input to
the filter, and by the 'O' factor. When a high 'O' is used, the centre frequency resembles
the output of an oscillator, and the effect of its changes in frequency will be quite similar
to frequency modulation. As in frequency modulation, the degree of the pitch changes is
proportional to the amplitude of the flute. Further, as the centre frequency approaches,
reaches, and passes any frequency or frequencies of the input, the amplitude of that
frequency or frequencies is increased, peaked, and decreased. A type of amplitude
modulation is thus heard. When a low 'O' is used, the frequency band passed by the filter
at any time is wder than when the 'O' is set at a high level, and the frequencies within
that band are correspondingly lower in amplitude. The side bands produced by modulating
the centre frequency, then, are proportionally fewer and weaker than those produced
when a high 'O' is used.
When the 'O' factor is controlled by the flute, and the flute sounds an A4., the width of
the frequency band passed is narrowed and widened 440 times per second, producing a~tone at that frequency. Again, a combination of frequency and amplitude modulation is
produced, for as the 'O' is raised and lowered, the amplitudeo~ the centre frequency is
increased and decreased. In addition, as the 'O' is raised, progressively fewerfrequencies
are passed; as it is lowered, an increasing number of frequencies is heard. Whenever
the 'O' factor is modulated, relatively few, weak side bands are produced, and the number
and strength of the side bands decrcases in inverse proporton to the level of the 'O', Thus,
fewer and weaker side bands are heard when the 'O' is originally set at a high level than
when a low 'O' is used. Further, when a high 'O' is used and the frequency of the flute is
equal to or greater than that of the centre frequency, there is no output.
It is suggested to composers that, before writing for electronically modified sonorities,
they work with a flutist, exploring these sonorities and the capabilities of the equipment
to be used. Furthermore, it may be useful either to have an assistant to manipulate
the electronic equipment during performance or to have the various control signals and
second inputs prerecorded on tape. This will free the flutist from having to perform these
operations, and remove any necessity for him to be near the equipment during the
performance. Other possibilities for control of the equipment include the use of foot
switches and potentiometers attached to the belt. If, for example, the amplitude of the
flute is being modulated by an oscillator, a gate switch controlled by a foot pedal can be
used to turn the oscillator on and off. When the oscillator is on, it will modulate the flute's
amplitude, and when it is off, the flute will be amplified without modulation.
Presented below are diagrams showing a few possible uses of the techniques already
described. These are but a glimpse of the innumerable approaches to the use of electronically modified sonorities. It is stressed that this section is simply an introduction to certain
types of modification, and that further developments in this ficld will be forthcoming.
balanced
input

modulator

low pass filler

flute

input 2

146

When the flute plays an ascending gesture, 1he side bands produced both ascend and
descend. The low pass filter will block most of 1he high si de bands and high flute tones,
and the basic gesture willthus be descending.
flute
low pass filter
mixer

t"'-I

ampo

input
multiples

control

input

01 'O' factor

(high 'O')
~peakers

reverb

\Nhen the frequency of the flute is Jower than 1he centre frequency of the filter, a mixture
01 modulated sound and reverberated flute sonorities is heard. When the flute's frequency
is equal to or higher than the centre frequency, there is no output from the filter, and only
the reverberated flute sound is present.

flute

stere<l

envelope

ring
modulator

preamp.

speakers

generator

other
instrument

When the lwo instruments play simultaneously, lhe ring modulator produces the sums
and differences of their frequencies, but does not pass the original instrumentaltones.
The envelope generator is used to impress attack and decay patterns on the output of the
ring modulator. The speed and durations of the attacks and decays can be vllried
tremendously, and need not resemble instrumental sounds at all.

flute

-J

balanced

modulator

multiples

ampo
input

input

tape

))

Le

e
,.

recorder

speakus

record

he'ld

1t17

The diagram above shows a system in which the flute can be used to modulate itser,,,; .
recording the flute on the first tape recorder and playing it back on the second, a de
created while the tape travels between the two machines, Depending on the tape St
used and the distance between the tape recorders, the length of the delay can be do,.
mined. When the flute first plays, there is no outputfrom
the balanced modulator. As ~
as the first recorded signal reaches the playback head of the second tape reco
however, there will be two inputs to the modulator, and the sums and differences of
recorded frequencies and the played frequencies
will be produced. Thereafter, when'.,
the flute is sounding simultaneously
with a recorded signal from the second tape mac
there will be modulaton.
Another type of tape de/ay
of times, is shown below :

system,

in which the recorded

sound

is repeated

a nurr'IT.;

tape recorder
flute

,~~,

head

head

mixer

output

input

amp.

output

When this system is used, the flute, as played, is a/ways heard, along with seve,C.
repetitions that gradually fade out. The number of repetitions can be determined by t
settings of the gans for the record and playback heads. If the playback head is set o
slight/y
lower than the record head, there will be many reiterations, each slightly softlthan the las1. If the playback head is set much lower than the record head, on/y two
~hree repetitions will :ound, and each will be much softer than the one before it. (/1 _
Important that the galn on the playback head be lower than that of the record head".
Otherwise, each repetition will b louder than the last, and the tape recorder will socf/lover/oad
and distort.)
The advantage
having
several
reiterations,
to only are
one,used,
is thatthe ensembll
tape recorders
distanc"
sonorities
can be of
built
up over
a period
of time. Itastwoopposed
bctween the record head of the first machine and the playback head on the second machi~
determines the delay between repetitions. When a long delay is used, it may take sever
minutes tor a given note or gesture to be repeated over and over until it is no /onger heard.

148

------

Appendix A:

Special Signs and Oistributions of Parameters


- - - --- - - - - - - - - - --- - ~-1
Sj'::r - - - --

Names of notes:

____ .L

?'

JC::.

11.

Intonlltion:

::1.: = %tone

sharp

= %tone flat

= slightly

=slightlyflat

= almost

~ = almost

Natural

sharp

%tone sharp

%tone flat

= mierotonal

pi1eh sligh11y lowcr 1han no'e to

Idt

harmonics:
piteh 01 harmonic

lingering

Glissando:

//

/'

smooth

glissando

slightly broken

glis~ndo

,/

149

and sligh11y higher than n01e to right.

..

Flngerlngl:

O"

e
~

the flute

diagraml

Ihow

only keYI IIctually

opereted.

keyup

"key

depressed

e open'hole

key with its rim depressed

BM ilS centre

hole left open

G# key
D# key

)GO~8==
B l<ey

Al<ey

I '--/

D Icey

~C#ke\i

E l<ey

F key

B~ lever, and D Bnd D# Irill keys are shown on/y when


The Bb thumbhy,
depressed, and are represented
by the following symbols.

Ease of response

and starting

time:

1-5

1 = produced very easily with all pitches starting simultaneously


2 = produced easily with a maximum de/ay of one second before all pitches sound
3 = sound
produced with moderate difficulty with a delay of 1-2 seconds~_before all ..pitch'
4 = produced with difficulty with a delay of 2-3 seconds before all pitches sound
producedsound
with great difficulty with a de/ay of 3 seconds or longer before
5 = pitches
Dynamic

range: each pitch can be played in tune within its given dynamics
n = niente
- can be played ppp

A pitch with a dynamic range of maximum width is labelled n _ III


---

"pitches above arrow have gradually increa~ing or decreasing dynam'ranges. The beginning dynamic is placed belore, and the ending
dynamic alter. lhe arrow.
" lo
all lhe
rilches
bov!'
lhe fine
fine. can be r10yed wilhin
felt 01

150

lhe dynamic

range directl,

:~

...

~~----"--

..... --.

Residual
a = pitch
b = pitch
e = piteh

_.-

tones
(see Chapter
2, Section
A, 'Natural
is heard without residual tone
is heard with slight residual tone
is heard with pronounced residual tone

harmonics')

l\loise:
When eertain fingerings are played, noise is heard along with the desired piteh. The
noise is without definite pitch, or it is heard at one or more pitehes. Some fingerings
yield both unpitehed and pitched noise,
Unptehed noise is rated 1-5:
1 = slightly breathy
5 = extremely breathy
Pitehed noise is rated 1-5:
1 = slightly audible pitched noise
5 = pronouneed ptehed noise
Notation of pitched noise:

piten of noise

nois.eat2~ ~

strengtn

of nois.e

Whisper
tones:
Stability:
a-e
a = sustained very easily
b = sustained with moderate difficutty with a slight tendency to oscillate between the
individual ptches
e = sustained with great difiiculty with a strong tendency
to oscillate between the
individual pitches
Timbre:
Normal _ pitches have very strong fundamentals,
strong second
partials. and
progressively weaker third, fourth, fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth partials.
Diffuse _ pitches have strong fundamentals,
strong second partais, fairly weak third
and fourth partais, and extremely weak fifth and sixth partais if they are at all
present.
Muted _ pitches have farly strong fundamentals
and weak second and third partais.
If any higher partais are present, they are extremely weak.
BsLgbt _ pitches have strong fundamentals,
very 5trong 5econd partais. strong thrd
partials, and progressively
weaker fourth, fifth, and sixth partials. Higher partials
may be present, but are very weak.
Edgy _ pitches have fairly 5trong fundamentals
and extremely strong higher partials.
Modulation:
modulaton is rated 1-5. When modulation causes beating. it is marked 'B',
M1 = slightly audible modulation
M5 = pronounced modulation

151

Class: The multiple sonorities are classified 1- IV according to the lip opening and tC
required to produce them. Thus within each c1ass the ease of response, starting
and stability of the multiple sonorities are very similar, although other charactettl'
such as dynamic range and timbre vary enormously. The similarities in lip openin_

l'

i' _

tension make it possib/e to play legato between mul1iple sonorities in a given


Lega10 playing between members of c1asses I and 1/ is difficult, and legato pla
between all other c/asses is practically impossible.
~ -Class 1: forming
generallyanthe
lowest
interval
of atwo
sixth pitches
to tenth produced
ease of response, starting time, and stability: 1, a

by a given fingering,

us

can be free/y played to and from any single pitch and all class 1 mul."
sonorities. Legato playing between sonorities of classes 1and 1/ is diffi
Class 11: generally the second and third lowest pitches produced by a given finge
usually forming an interval of a fourth to sixth'
legato:

ease of response, starting time, and stability: 2-3, b


legato:

can be pfayed to and from any single pitch with modera te difficulty. Leg~'
playing between class 11sonorities is moderately difficult, and ohen tI
will be a slight discontinuity between the multiple sonorities.

generally the third and fourth lowest pitches produced by a given


usually forming an interval of a third to fifth.
ease of response, starting time, and stabi/ity: 3-4, e

C/ass

111:

legato:

fingeri=-

playing legato between a given class 111multiple sonority and a single pi' is very diffjcult, and is generally restricted to single pitches of the same-"~
very similar fingering as the multiple sonority. legato playing betwJ
class 1/1sonorities is also very difficult, and there is almost always a d'
continuity between the multiple sonorities.

Class IV:

generally the fourth and fihh or fihh and sixth lowest pitches produced b
given fjnger;ng, usually forming an interval of a third to sixth
ease of response, starting time, and stability: 4-5, e

legato:

playing legato between a given class IV multiple sonority and a single pite
is extremely diHicult, and is restricted to single pitches of the same fingeri,~-L..
as the mu/tiple sonority. As a rule, there is a discontinuity of as much
three seconds between the multiple sonorities.

152

~_.----~--_.~---'"""---------"~---

Appendix

B: Afterlight, for Fruta Arone

This piece, written by the author, demonstrates in a musical context many of the sonorites explained in the preceding chapters. It can be heard on side 2 of the accompanying
record.
Because of the glissandi and other special fingerings used, After/ight maY be performed
only on an open-hole (French model) flute with a /ow B footjoint.
When performing with the score, the flutist should place his pages on a series of stands
so that he need not make any turns during the pieee.

Notation:

The temporal notation is roughly spatial:


inch equals approximately one second; a fuI!
lineisapprox. 20 secondsin duration. Traditional stems and flags, notated except where
marked, at = 60, make durations of notes more clear .

/very

as fast as possible

.} quarter sharp

t slightly

d quarter flat

Intonation:

:lther notations:

short

+ slap key (producing

rF

sharp

slightly flat

a click with note)

the
natural
diamond-shaped
harmonics: thenote
standard
indicates
note the
head
fingering.
is the piteh desired;

ways; when a regular fmgenng IS used, the fingermg is


indieated by a diamond-shaped
note next to one of the
~ multiple
sonorities: When
multiple
s?nor}ties are fingering
produ.ced isi.nused,
two
pitches sounding.
a non-traditional
the fingering is given directly below the sonority; (when
specifie multiple sonorities are repeated closely together, the
fingering diagram is not repeated).

,.

r--g I

glissando: by making the fingering changes indieated under


the
and ending pitches in each case, smooth glissandib.eginning
can be produced.

bending: by rolling the flute inwards and lipping the pitch


downwards, the pitch range indieated can be produced.

153

e
//'

Fingeringl:
are Ihown.

pjtch 01 jet whistle)

(approx.

jet whistle: produced by covering the ernbouchure


the lips and blowing directly into the flute.

hole completel~

(fingering)
only the key directly
followa:

al

operllted

-key up

by

f2f

finger

Jl

-key

trilled

- key depressed

Q
.

It. - the
indicaled
mullipJe
keys

and alternalely
open
close
Iremoli
wilh
the llnd
fingcring
given
by: slart
the brackel.

G-key
E-key
, ,,

A-key

C-k'Y."u

D-key

/0

8-key

dl1~C_kOY

B-k,y

C;-k,y

F-key
G# -key

0#

154

-kllY