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How to Calculate the Suitable Capacitor Size in Farads & kVAR for Power factor Im

provement (Easiest way ever)


Posted by: Electrical Technology 11/04/2013
in Basic/Important Electrical Fo
rmulas, Capacitors, Controlling, Generation Transmission and Distribution, How T
o, Over Head Lines, Power factor, Power System, Questions/Answers (Electrical),
Single Phase AC Circuits, Three Phase AC Circuits 9 Comments
How to Calculate the Suitable Capacitor Size in Farads & kVAR for Power factor
Improvement (Easiest way ever)
Hi there! With a very important tutorial.. I hope you will find it very useful b
ecause I have already spent two days to prepare this article. I think all of tho
se who have sent messages and mails about the topic will never ask again if they
follow these simple methods to calculate the proper Size of Capacitor bank in k
VAR and micro-farads for power factor correction and improvement in both single
phase and three phase circuits. I think its too much..
Now lets begin
Consider the following Examples.
Example: 1
A 3 Phase, 5 kW Induction Motor has a P.F (Power factor) of 0.75 lagging. What s
ize of Capacitor in kVAR is required to improve the P.F (Power Factor) to 0.90?
Solution #1 (By Simple Table Method)
Motor Input = 5kW
From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.75 to 0.90 is .398
Required Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.75 to 0.90
Required Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table 1 Multiplier of 0.75 and 0.90
= 5kW x .398
= 1.99 kVAR
And Rating of Capacitors connected in each Phase
1.99/3 = 0.663 kVAR
Solution # 2 (Classical Calculation Method)
Motor input = P = 5 kW
Original P.F = Cos1 = 0.75
Final P.F = Cos2 = 0.90
1 = Cos-1 = (0.75) = 41.41; Tan 1 = Tan (41.41) = 0.8819
2 = Cos-1 = (0.90) = 25.84; Tan 2 = Tan (25.50) = 0.4843
Re uired Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.75 to 0.90
Re uired Capacitor kVAR = P (Tan 1 - Tan 2)
= 5kW (0.8819 0.4843)
= 1.99 kVAR
And Rating of Capacitors connected in each Phase
1.99/3 = 0.663 kVAR
Tables
The following tables have been prepared to simplify kVAR calculation for power f
actor improvement. The size of capacitor in kVAR is the kW multiplied by factor
in table to improve from existing power factor to proposed power factor. Check t
he others Examples below.
Table from 0.01 to 0.09 (Clic
k image to enlarge)
Table from 0.10 to 0.30 (Cli
ck image to enlarge)
Table from 0.31 to 0.49 (Cli
ck image to enlarge)
Table from 0.50 to 0.74 (Cl
ick image to enlarge)
Table from 0.75 to 1.00 (Cli
ck image to enlarge)

The whole Table from 0.10 to 1.0 (Click image


to enlarge)
Example 2:
An Alternator is supplying a load of 650 kW at a P.F (Power factor) of 0.65. Wha
t size of Capacitor in kVAR is re uired to raise the P.F (Power Factor) to unity
(1)? And how many more kW can the alternator supply for the same kVA loading wh
en P.F improved.
Solution #1 (By Simple Table Method)
Supplying kW = 650 kW
From Table 1, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.65 to unity (1) is 1.169
Re uired Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.65 to unity (1)
Re uired Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table 1 Multiplier of 65 and 100
= 650kW x 1.169
= 759.85 kVAR
We know that P.F = Cos = kW/kVA . . .or
kVA = kW / Cos
= 650/0.65 = 1000 kVA
When Power Factor is raised to unity (1)
No of kW = kVA x Cos
= 1000 x 1 = 1000kW
Hence increased Power supplied by Alternator
1000kW 650kW = 350kW
Solution # 2 (Classical Calculation Method)
Supplying kW = 650 kW
Original P.F = Cos1 = 0.65
Final P.F = Cos2 = 1
1 = Cos-1 = (0.65) = 49.45; Tan 1 = Tan (41.24) = 1.169
2 = Cos-1 = (1) = 0; Tan 2 = Tan (0) = 0
Re uired Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.75 to 0.90
Re uired Capacitor kVAR = P (Tan 1 - Tan 2)
= 650kW (1.169 0)
= 759.85 kVAR
How to Calculate the Re uired Capacitor bank value in both kVAR and Farads?
(How to Convert Farads into kVAR and Vice Versa)
Example: 3
A Single phase 400V, 50Hz, motor takes a supply current of 50A at a P.F (Power f
actor) of 0.6. The motor power factor has to be improved to 0.9 by connecting a
capacitor in parallel with it. Calculate the re uired capacity of Capacitor in b
oth kVAR and Farads.
Solution.:
(1) To find the re uired capacity of Capacitance in kVAR to improve P.F from 0.6
to 0.9 (Two Methods)
Solution #1 (By Simple Table Method)
Motor Input = P = V x I x Cos
= 400V x 50A x 0.6
= 12kW
From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.60 to 0.90 is 0.849
Re uired Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.60 to 0.90
Re uired Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table Multiplier of 0.60 and 0.90
= 12kW x 0.849
= 10.188 kVAR
Solution # 2 (Classical Calculation Method)
Motor Input = P = V x I x Cos
= 400V x 50A x 0.6
= 12kW
Actual P.F = Cos1 = 0..6
Re uired P.F = Cos2 = 0.90
1 = Cos-1 = (0.60) = 53.13; Tan 1 = Tan (53.13) = 1.3333

2 = Cos-1 = (0.90) = 25.84; Tan 2 = Tan (25.50) = 0.4843


Re uired Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.60 to 0.90
Re uired Capacitor kVAR = P (Tan 1 - Tan 2)
= 5kW (1.3333 0.4843)
= 10.188 kVAR
(2) To find the re uired capacity of Capacitance in Faradsto improve P.F from 0.
6 to 0.9 (Two Methods)
Solution #1 (Using a Simple Formula)
We have already calculated the re uired Capacity of Capacitor in kVAR, so we can
easily convert it into Farads by using this simple formula
Re uired Capacity of Capacitor in Farads/Microfarads
C = kVAR / (2 f V2) in microfarad
Putting the Values in the above formula
= (10.188kVAR) / (2 x x 50 x 4002)
= 2.0268 x 10-4
= 202.7 x 10-6
= 202.7F
Solution # 2 (Simle Calculation Method)
kVAR = 10.188 (i)
We know that;
IC = V/ XC
Whereas XC = 1 / 2 F C
IC = V / (1 / 2 F C)
IC = V 2 F C
= (400) x 2 x (50) x C
IC = 125663.7 x C
And,
kVAR = (V x IC) / 1000 [kVAR =( V x I)/ 1000 ]
= 400 x 125663.7 x C
IC = 50265.48 x C (ii)
Equating Equation (i) & (ii), we get,
50265.48 x C = 10.188C
C = 10.188 / 50265.48
C = 2.0268 x 10-4
C = 202.7 x 10-6
C = 202.7F
Examle 4
What value of Caacitance must be connected in arallel with a load drawing 1kW
at 70% lagging ower factor from a 208V, 60Hz Source in order to raise the overa
ll ower factor to 91%.
Solution:
You can use either Table method or Simle Calculation method to find the require
d value of Caacitance in Farads or kVAR to imrove Power factor from 0.71 to 0.
97. So I used table method in this case.
P = 1000W
Actual Power factor = Cos1 = 0.71
Desired Power factor = Cos2 = 0.97
From Table, Multiplier to improve PF from 0.71 to 0.97 is 0.783
Re uired Capacitor kVAR to improve P.F from 0.71 to 0.97
Re uired Capacitor kVAR = kW x Table Multiplier of 0.71 and 0.97
= 1kW x 0.783
=783 VAR (re uired Capacitance Value in kVAR)
Current in the Capacitor =
IC = QC / V
= 783 / 208
= 3.76A
And
XC = V / IC
= 208 / 3.76 = 55.25
C = 1/ (2 f XC)

C = 1 (2 x 60 x 55.25)
C = 48 F (required Caacitance Value in Farads)
Good to Know:
Imortant formulas which is used for Power factor imrovement calculation as wel
l as used in the above calculation
Power in Watts
kW = kVA x Cos
k = HP x 0.746 or (HP x 0.746) / Efficiency (HP = Motor Power)
k = ( kVA2- kVAR2)
k = P = VI Cos (Single Phase)
k = P =3x V x I Cos (Three Phase)
Aarent Power in VA
kVA= (k2+ kVAR2)
kVA = k/ Cos
Reactive Power in VA
kVAR= (kVA2- k2)
kVAR = C x (2 f V2)
Power factor (from 0.1 to 1)
Power Factor = Cos = P / V I (Single Phase)
Power Factor = Cos = P / (3x V x I) (Three Phase)
Power Factor = Cos = k / kVA (Both Single Phase & Three Phase)
Power Factor = Cos = R/Z (Resistance / Imedance)
XC = 1/ (2 f C) (XC = Caacitive reactance)
IC = V/ XC (I = V / R)
Re uired Caacity of Caacitor in Farads/Microfarads
C = kVAR / (2 f V2) in microfarad
Re uired Caacity of Caacitor in kVAR
kVAR = C x (2 f V2)