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HYSTERETIC MODEL

Waon-Ho Yi

Dr. Eng., Professor, Dept. of Arch. Engrg., Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul, Korea

whyi@daisy.kwangwoon.ac.kr

Hack-Soo Lee

Dr. Eng., Professor, Dept. of Civil & Env. Engrg., Hannam Univ., Taejeon, Korea

leehs@eve.hannam.ac.kr

Seung-Chang Lee

Dr. Eng., Manager, Hyundai Development Company, Seoul, Korea

sclee88@unitel.co.kr

Ho-Sung Kim

Graduate Student, Dept. of Arch. Engrg., Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul, Korea

hcastle1@hanmail.net

ABSTRACT

Artificial Neural Network(ANN) is a computational model inspired by the structure

and operations of human brains. It is a massively parallel system, consisting of a large

number of highly interconnected and simplified processing units. The purpose of this

paper is to verify the applicability of ANN to predict experimental results through the

use of measured experimental data. Although there have been accumulated data based

on hysteretic characteristics of structural element s under the cyclic loading, it is

difficult to directly apply them to the analysis of elastic and plastic response. Thus

simplified mathematical models, such as Bi-Linear Model, Ramberg-Osgood Model,

Degrading Tri Model, Takeda Model, Slip type Model, and etc, have been used. To

verify the practicality and capability of this study, ANN is adapted to several models

with mathematical formula using numerical data. To show the efficiency of ANN in

nonlinear analysis, it is important to determine the adequate input and output variables

of hysteretic models and to minimize error s in ANN process. For the verification,

beam-column joint test data were employed using the ANN in modeling of the linear

and nonlinear hysteretic behavior of structures.

KEYWORDS: neural networks, hysteretic behavior, beam-column joint test,

simulations, architecture, performance evaluation

INTRODUCTION

There are enormous experimental results or data involving the hysteretic

characteristics of structural element, which have been produced by cyclic load tests.

Since it is difficult to directly apply them in the analysis of the elastic and plastic

response, many researchers have proposed various hysteretic models with

mathematical formula, such as Bi-Linear model, Ramberg-Osgood model, Degrading

Tri model, Takeda model, Slip type model, and etc.

Soft computing with artificial neural networks as a parallel computational model is

similar to the human brains that can self -organize complex nonlinear relationships

without making assumptions. The concept that multi-layer feed-forward networks are

the class of universal approximators , can be introduced to the hysteretic modeling

because it deals with the problems involving incomplete or imprecise information.

This paper is composed of two parts. The first part of this paper presents the

architecture of neural networks in order to train the numerical data with hysteretic

characteristics. Various simulations are performed for determining the neural

networks architecture using the performance evaluation with training parameters.

Displacements as the input and loads as the output are considered in the architecture

of neural networks. The trained neural networks are recalled to predict the hysteretic

model with the different hysteretic rules, yield load, yield displacements, and etc.

The second part of this paper presents how to apply neural networks based model to

predict behaviors of the beam-column joint. In this part, neural networks predict loaddisplacement curve with the controlled displacements.

In this paper, we described the methodology to develop Neural Networks based

model for the prediction of hysteretic behaviors. The approach is verified by the

applied example, beam-column joint test, to predict its linear and nonlinear behaviors.

ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK (ANN)

Neural networks are massively parallel computational models for knowledge

representation and information processing. They are inspired by the neuronal

architectures and operations of human brains. Learning from examples is probably the

most important capability of neural networks. Neural networks are capable of learning

highly complicated nonlinear relationships and associations from a large body of data.

The information and knowledge obtained by the neural networks are encoded and

stored in the connection strengths of the networks. The retrieval of the stored

information is done routinely, providing the network with an input pattern, which acts

as a key. Neural networks are also very robust computational models; they are noise

and fault tolerant and they are truly adaptive system. The capabilities mentioned

above also make neural networks good candidates for the application to a wide range

of structural engineering problems, where the relationship within the data may be

complex and a sufficient amount of data is often not available or is difficult to obtain.

Whatever data may exist often contains some scatters.[1][2]

NEURAL NETWORKS-BASED HYSTERETIC MODEL (NNHM)

The basic scheme for developing a NNHM is to train a multi-layer feed-forward

neural networks using a back-propagation algorithm, which is the one of learning

algorithms on the result of mathematical hysteretic models.

Hysteretic Model

To examine the applicability of neural networks, the hysteretic models, such as BiLinear and Ramberg-Osgood models are employed in this paper. The properties and

types of each model are shown in Figure 1. The Bi-linear Model is described as lines

with Ky, stiffness in the elastic area and Km, stiffness in the inelastic area. If the

stiffness in the elastic area, Km is zero, it will be a perfect elastic-plastic model. This

model is used in this study. The Ramberg-Osgood model, proposed for the metal

material behaviors is composed of the yield strength, yield displacement and other

parameters. Since the Ramberg-Osgood model with a curve type can be used for the

hysteresis behaviors, such as steel and/or reinforced concrete structure behaviors, this

model with Bi-Linear model have the probability and applicability to construct neural

networks based hysteretic model.

P

d

p

p

= i = 1+

dy py

py

py

Km

Ky

py

d d i p pi

p pi

=

=1 +

2d y

2 py

2py

dy

Bi-linear model

Ramberg-Osgood model

The Consistency and Learning of NNHM

The NNHM is a multi-layer feed-forward neural networks consisting of three

layers; input, output, and hidden layers. The NNHM receives five (in Bi-Linear

model) or the six (in Ramberg-Osgood model) normalized displacements according to

the input patterns (Figure 2). Numbers of nodes in the hidden layers are determined

during the training process using dynamic node creation procedures. The processing

units or nodes use the standard sigma units of which output functions are sigmoid

functions with the range of 1 and 1. Each layer is fully connected to its sources and

target layers. The Generalized Delta Rule with momentum is used as learning rule.

The initial values for the connection weights are assigned by the uniform random

number generator. In each training cycle, the connection weights are updated after all

training patterns are represented in the networks. [3]

Hidden Layer

Input Layer

Output Layer

Displacement,

etc.

Loads

The input data used in NNHM are displacement , maximum experience

displacement max, displacement of previous point r , yield displacement y , yield load

P y and parameter (in Ramberg-Osgood model only) in 3 cycles of hysteresis loops.

The details of the each model are tabulated in Table 1. Normally the data is divided

into two sets, namely the training set and the testing set. As the names imply, the

neural networks are trained with the training data set and the performance of the

trained neural networks is evaluated using the test data. The training set contains 32

input-output pairs for the Bi-linear model and 52 input-output pairs for the RambergOsgood model. The trained neural networks are tested at each relative cycle,

respectively. During the training process, the number of hidden units evolves from 1

to 20 and the learning rate is gradually decreased from the starting value of 0.9. The

neural networks have 10~11 hidden nodes in a single hidden layer. In this study, we

divide two parts to find the prediction of neural networks through the different

hysteretic histories; these are Type A ( y =1.0, Py =1.5) and Type B ( y =1.0, Py =1.5).

The control error value was determined with 2.010-3 as an average error.

Table 1. Details of Network for Each Model

Bi-Linear Model

Network parameter

No. of INPUT units

No. of OUTPUT units

No. of HIDDEN units

Learning Rate

Activation Function

No. of Training Cycles

Type A

Type B

5

5

1

1

10

10

0.9

0.9

Sigmoid Function

1983

2273

Ramberg-Osgood Model

Type A

Type B

6

6

1

1

11

11

0.9

0.9

Sigmoid Function

2321

2547

SIMULATION RESULTS

Error(X10E-2)

Error(X10E-2)

Learning iterations were repeated until increasing errors became equal to the

average error. Errors in both groups of Type A and Type B became tolerant after the

2000 to 2500 learning iterations. To verify the suitable node numbers in hidden layers,

the number of used nodes were varied from 1 to 20 with the number of 1000 learning

iterations. Figure 3 and Figure 4 show the errors in B i-Linear model and RambergOsgood model according to the number of units in hidden layers, respectively. Since

the errors in both models can be minimized when the unit number of hidden layers is

10 as shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, the unit of 10 for the hidden layers was

employed in this study.

Model

Model

The simulated hysteretic loops using both models in cycle 1, 2, and 5 are compared

to those obtained by the mathematical models in Figure 5 and Figure 6, respectively.

The prediction of the trained neural networks in cycles 1 and 2 satisfies the required

desirable output results. However, it was not proper to predict the desired data in cycle

4 and cycle 5 for each hysteretic model.

1 cycle

2 cycle

5 cycle

1 cycle

2 cycle

5 cycle

CASE STUDIES

To verify hysteretic models using neural networks proposed in this study, the

experimental data from the beam-column joint test[4][5] were adopted to predict the

hysteretic history and were compared to the predicted one.

Test Scheme

During the test, the specimens are held horizontally in a steel frame with pin

supports at near the end of the beam and column (Figure 7). The actuator is attached

to a steel frame prestressed to the structural floor of the laboratory. The constant axial

force corresponding to 0.2f' c A g (192 ton) is applied at the column prior to the

hysteretic beam loading.

the testing frame

Loads are applied using a 50ton servo-hydraulic actuator under the displacement

control. The beam is first loaded upward (positive bending) slightly beyond the yield

strain of the longitudinal reinforcement. The yield displacement, y is set when the

flexural reinforcement reaches its yield strain. The direction of loading is then

reversed. The loading history scheduled is shown in Fig ure 8. The test is proceeded

until the maximum cycle load, P m is 75% of its yield load P y, which is defined as the

collapse load.

Loads(ton)

Loads(ton)

Results of Analysis

The analysis results are shown in Figure 9 and Figure 10. These figures show the

comparison of experimental data and the prediction of a trained neural networks using

experimental data.

Displacement(mm)

Experience data

Experience data

The Prediction of

Neural Network

The Prediction of

Neural Network

Displacement(mm)

and neural network data in cycle 1 to 4 and neural network data in cycle 1 to 8

CONCLUDING REMARKS

The methodology to develo p Artificial Neural Networks based hysteretic model for

the prediction of hysteretic behaviors is described. The training of the neural networks

can be accomplished with the input parameters suggested in this study. Also the

prediction of neural networks based hysteretic model is more efficient using the Bilinear model and Ramberg-Osgood model. Thus, it can be said that with suggested

input parameters, the neural networks based hysteretic model (NNHM) can be used as

a mathematical hysteretic model.

Based on the simulation results, it is shown that for the cycles 1 ~ 4 (elastic range)

NNHM can provide satisfactory results, but for cycles 4 ~ 8 (inelastic range) NNHM

represents unsatisfactory results. However, this can be improved by increasing the

numbers of training data.

REFERENCES

1.

Diagnostics, Proceedings, Earthmoving Conference, Soc. of Automotive Engrs.

2. A. Joghataie and J. Ghaboussi, (1996), A Comparative Study of Learning

Methods and Mathematical Algorithms in Structural Control, Proceedings, 11th

World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Acapulco, Mexico.

3. S.C. Lee, S.W. Han and B.H. Lee, (1999), Generation of Artificial Earthquake

Accelerograms and Response Spectra using Neural Networks , Singapore,

Fourth Asia-Pacific Conference on Computational Mechanics, pp.1335~1340.

4. Y.C. You, W.H. Yi and L.H. Lee, (1999) , Inelastic Analysis of RC BeamsColumn Subassemblages Under Various Loading Histories, Structural

Engineering and Mechanics, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp.69~ 80.

5. W.H. Yi and R. Peek, (1993). Posterior Timestep Adjustment In Pseudodynamic

Testing, Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE, Vol. 119, No. 7, pp.1376~

1386.

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