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RPUBLIQUE FRANCAISE

------------OFFICE NATIONAL DE LA PROPRIT INDUSTRIELLE


-----------------

PATENT.

XII ---- Precision instruments, electricity.

N 577.087

5. ---.PRODUCTION OF ELECTRICITY, ELECTRICAL MOTORS.

----Electrical battery.
M. NICOLAS VASILESCU-KARPEN. .resident of Romania.
Required on February 12, 1924, 15h 4m, in Paris.
Delivered on may 2, 1924. - Published on august 30, 1924.
The object of this invention is an electric battery converting the heat of the environment into electrical
energy: This cell is formed, either of two liquid phases or a liquid and a gas phase, both phases being
in contact, but are not miscible, or finally a single liquid phase and two metal or coal electrodes in
contact with the phases. In all cases the electrodes are unaffected by the liquids or gases, with whom
they come into contact, their weight and their nature remain unchanged during rest and operation
periods of the cell, differing in this from all the known batteries.
It is the same about the different liquid or gaseous phases of the cell, which also remains
invariable, no chemical reaction occurring between the elements of the cell, phases and electrodes.
The attached figures of 1 to 3 show various forms of embodiment of the battery, object of the
invention.
Figure 1 shows a cell consisting of two liquid phases A and B, the electrodes being completely
immersed one in phase A, the other in phase B.
Example relating to Figure 1. Phases A el B resulting from a mixture of water, amyl alcohol
and sodium hydroxide, a mixture that separates, in equilibrium, in two phases, especially aqueous
phase B, more alcoholic phase A. The electrodes are carbon or platinum. The electromotive force
directed outside from A to B is at room temperature about 0.4 volts.
Figure 2 shows a cell in which one phase is liquid and the other phase is liquid or gaseous.
One electrode is partially immersed in one of the phases, partly in the other phase, the second
electrode is completely immersed in one phase.
Example relating to Figure 2. Phase B consists of an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide,
phase A consists of air and vapors of B or benzine. The electrodes are platinum, nickel or carbon, the
electromotive force directed outside from A to B is at room temperature between 0.4 and 0.8 volts.
Figure 3 shows a cell formed of a single liquid in which there are two different electrodes.
Example relating to Figure 3. - The liquid is formed from water made good conductor of
electricity by an alkali salt, eg sodium carbonate, and the electrodes are formed either of two different
metals such as platinum and nickel, or a metal electrode and another carbon electrode, or a carbon
electrode and another electrode still of coal, but with different quality, eg a graphite electrode and the
other in retort carbon or in charcoal and the other in retort carbon, etc.. The electrodes may be formed
of solid or powder contained in bags or porous vessels, etc.. The electromotive force is between 0.4
and 0.8 volts.

In all embodiments of the present cell, the phases are in chemical equilibrium, no reaction
takes place between the phases in contact, it does not produce any variation in the concentration of
the phases, as it is the case during the operation of known cells of concentration. There is no change
either in weight or in nature of the electrodes. During operation the cell is cooled under the
temperature of the environment, which may be a natural environment such as air, water, earth, etc..,
and it receives from the medium, heat equivalent to the produced electrical energy
Known cells of concentration also borrow from the external medium heat equivalent to the
electrical energy produced, but during the operation of these batteries, concentrations of the
electrolyte around the electrodes tend to equalize and the electromotive force of these batteries
eventually vanish, the quantity of supplied electricity is limited. Instead, in this cell, the concentrations
of phases in contact with the electrodes remain invariable, the amount of electricity that the battery can
deliver is not limited. This battery indefinitely transforms the ambient heat into electrical energy, it
contradicts the second law of thermodynamics.

SUMMARY:
1 Electrical battery of not limited duration, the power produced is not limited and comes
entirely from the processing of the heat of the environment; it is characterized by the use of a single
liquid of invariable composition or of two liquid or gaseous phases in contact but non miscible, by the
use of two unaffected electrodes in contact with the phases, and by the fact that no reaction occurs
during rest or operation periods of the cell, each element forming the cell remains unchanged.
2 In some cases, the two phases of the cell 1 are liquid, one of the electrodes is completely
immersed in one phase, the other electrode is completely immersed in another phase.
3 The two phases in the cell 1 are liquids, but one of the electrodes is completely immersed
in one phase, while the other electrode is partially immersed in one phase and partly in the other
phase.
4 In a variant of the cell 1, one phase is liquid and one phase is gaseous, one of the
electrodes being completely immersed in the liquid phase, the other electrode being partially
immersed in the liquid phase and partly in the gas phase
5 In other cases, the battery according to 1 includes a single liquid phase in which there are
two electrodes formed of different materials and unaffected by the liquid.

Translation: exnihiloest