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Australian Long Life Pavements

Presented by
Geoff Jameson
ARRB Group

Institute of Road Engineering


6h November 2012

www.arrb.com.au

Advancing safety and efficiency in transport through knowledge

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design period 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method (staged construction,
fatigue endurance limit)
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Example designs
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Australian context
Large continent
Wide range of climates
each Australian state government has a pavement
design manual based on Austroads Guide
tailored to local materials, performance, climates,
loadings, specifications

Austroads Guide
(www.austroads.com.au)

State road agencies have supplements


the Guide

Road agency design rules,


specifications, contracts
Design inputs tailored to local climate
Specifications
Condition of Contract (warranties)
Test methods
Availability/ quality of materials
Maintenance practices
Past performance

Definition of long life pavements


Pavements where no significant deterioration will
develop in the foundation or the road base layers over
a 40 year period provided that correct surface
maintenance is carried out
Commonly called heavy-duty pavements in Australia
Design periods

In Australia these heavy duty pavements


would be designed with a project reliability of
95% to 97.5%

Factors affecting performance

Presentation discusses limited to pavement design issues

Foundation design
Project delivered by design and construct contracts
Contractors responsibility to design and construct the
foundation to carry the construction traffic
In terms of providing a foundation for long term
performance, road agencies design Manuals provide
minimum foundation structures

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Example : Roads and Maritime Services New


South Wales design manual

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design periods 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method (staged construction,
fatigue endurance limit)
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Example designs
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Asphalt surfacing types and thickness

Open graded asphalt (OGA)


Dense graded asphalt (DGA)
DGA Intersection mixes
SMA emerging
Use of polymer modified PMB for high
stresses/loadings

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Open graded asphalt

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Road users benefits of open graded asphalt

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Open
graded
asphalt
10mm
SAMI
Dense
graded
asphalt
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Dense graded asphalt, size 14 mm

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Nominal size and thickness of dense


graded asphalts

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Nominal size and thickness of dense


graded asphalts

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Guide to selection of binder types

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design periods 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Example designs

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Thickness design using mechanistic


approach in use of over 20 years

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Elements of mechanistic design


method

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80 kN
Standard Axle

Mechanistic Design
Response

Asphalt

Design Traffic
(SAR)

Model

critical strain
Base Course/
Subbase Course
Subgrade

Performance
Relationship:

Allowable load
repetitions to
distress

N = RF

( )

Damage =

n
N

Strains calculated under a 80 kN Standard Axle


Uniform stress
(equal to tyre
pressure)

Spacing of Dual Wheels Full Axle Configuration


330mm

1
2

Asphalt
Cemented Material
Crushed Rock

Subgrade

1 Tensile strain at bottom of asphalt - asphalt fatigue


2 Tensile strain at bottom of cemented material - cement mat fatigue
3 Compressive strain at top of subgrade - rutting & shape loss
Denotes likely locations of critical strains due to applied loading

Features of pavement response model


response to load is calculated using the linear
elastic theory and specifically the computer
program CIRCLY

Performance relationships relate


strains to allowable traffic loading

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Summary of design process


Step 1: select a trial pavement, desired project
reliability
Step 2: elastic characterisation of materials
Step 3: calculation of critical strains
Step 4: calculation of allowable loadings
Step 5: calculation of design traffic
Step 6: compare allowable loading with design traffic

Types of heavy duty flexible pavements

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design periods 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Example designs

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Asphalt mix design performance tests


Indirect tensile modulus
Beam fatigue tests
Rut resistance using small Wheel tracker

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Cemented treated crushed rock

3-4% cement commonly used


stiff working platform on which to construct asphalt layers
150 mm to 200 mm thick single layer
common practice to assume it will fatigue crack early in
pavement life
hence a post-cracked modulus of 500 MPa is used
Unconfined compressive strength commonly specified,
ARRB has recently developed fatigue test

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Lean concrete subbase


composition
Aggregate size (nominal
maximum)

Approximate proportion
(by mass) of mix(1)

20 mm aggregate

31%

14 mm aggregate

6%

10 mm aggregate

6%

7 mm aggregate

6%

5 mm screened fines

2%

High fines - sand

37%

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Lean concrete subbase


placed wet and screeded as per concrete
thicknesses min 150 mm to 230 mm

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Lean concrete subbase


90 day flexural strength >2 MPa
Design modulus 10 000 MPa
Design to inhibit fatigue cracking

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Need to inhibit cracking of lean mix


reflecting to pavement surface
Overlying asphalt thickness 175 mm to inhibit reflection
cracking

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Can use mechanistic approach to develop


design charts for routine use

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design periods 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Example designs

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Concrete pavement terminology


plain concrete
jointed reinforced
CRCP

debonding
layer

Concrete base
Lean concrete subbase
Capping/ select fill
Subgrade

Concrete pavement types commonly


used

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Plain concrete pavements (no dowels


at transverse joints)

concrete base
lean concrete subbase

Plain Concrete Pavements (PCP)


Placed using slip form paver

tiebars
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Longitudinal texture using hessian


dragged behind slip form paver

hessian

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Transverse texture by tyning

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Jointed reinforced concrete pavements

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Continuously reinforced concrete


pavement
Reinforcing bars
base
subbase

Continuously reinforced concrete


pavement

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Lean concrete (wet) subbase

Lean concrete subbase

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Curing and debonding of concrete base and


subbase

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Tied shoulders used

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design periods 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Structural design method

Example designs
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Two distress types considered in flexible


pavement thickness design
fatigue of cracking of concrete base
erosion of fines of the subbase/subgrade arising from
repeated deflections at joints and planned cracks

Fatigue
cracking

Erosion
at joints

Thickness design based on simple prediction


models developed from finite element modelling
critical stresses/displacement are determined under each
anticipated axle group type and axle group load
not calculated directly in Austroads Guide,
stresses/displacement embedded in performance
relationships
Erosion predicted from slab corner displacements

PLSF 10F3

log (F2 N e ) = 14.52 6.77 max(0,

9.0)
41.35

4.45
F
4

0.103

Thickness design
select a trial concrete base thickness
calculate percentage damage by dividing expected load
repetitions by allowable repetitions
SINGLE AXLES / DUAL WHEELS (SADT)
Equivalent Stress
Stress Ratio Factor

Axle Load
(kN)

Design
Expected
Load (kN) Repetitions

1.06
0.250

Erosion Factor

2.47

Fatigue Analysis
Erosion Analysis
Allowable
Fatigue Allowable Damage
Repetitions
(%)
Repetitions
(%)

150

195.0

57,500

0.00

69,271

0.00

140

182.0

159,117

0.00

104,306

0.00

130

169.0

1,528

601,365

0.25

163,912

0.93

120

156.0

9,168

5,962,495

0.15

272,483

3.36

110

143.0

31,324

UNLIMITED

0.00

489,873

6.39

100

130.0

106,196

UNLIMITED

0.00

991,416

10.71

90

117.0

226,908

UNLIMITED

0.00

2,462,593

9.21

80

104.0

352,968

UNLIMITED

0.00

9,721,111

3.63

70

91.0

496,600

UNLIMITED

0.00

1,373,296,172

0.04

60

78.0

734,204

UNLIMITED

0.00

UNLIMITED

0.00

Thickness design
sum damage over all axle group loads and axle group types
if damage less than 100% for both erosion and fatigue,
pavement acceptable otherwise select another trial
pavement configuration
SINGLE AXLES / DUAL WHEELS (SADT)
Equivalent Stress
Stress Ratio Factor

Axle Load
(kN)

Design
Expected
Load (kN) Repetitions

1.06
0.250

Erosion Factor

2.47

Fatigue Analysis
Erosion Analysis
Allowable
Fatigue Allowable Damage
Repetitions
(%)
Repetitions
(%)

150

195.0

57,500

0.00

69,271

0.00

140

182.0

159,117

0.00

104,306

0.00

130

169.0

1,528

601,365

0.25

163,912

0.93

120

156.0

9,168

5,962,495

0.15

272,483

3.36

110

143.0

31,324

UNLIMITED

0.00

489,873

6.39

100

130.0

106,196

UNLIMITED

0.00

991,416

10.71

90

117.0

226,908

UNLIMITED

0.00

2,462,593

9.21

80

104.0

352,968

UNLIMITED

0.00

9,721,111

3.63

70

91.0

496,600

UNLIMITED

0.00

1,373,296,172

0.04

60

78.0

734,204

UNLIMITED

0.00

UNLIMITED

0.00

Joint design
Thickness design is dominated by traffic-induced
stresses
Location and design of joints dominated by the need to
control stresses and strains due to changes in
temperature and moisture

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Roads and Maritime Services, New


South Wales (www.rms.nsw.gov.au)

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Need for experienced designers,


detailing critical to performance

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Presentation Outline
Introduction
Definition of heavily trafficked long life pavement
Design periods 40 years
Foundation design
Flexible pavements
Surfacing types
Structural design method (staged construction,
fatigue endurance limit)
Specifications
Concrete pavements
Example designs
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Design examples
Location: Brisbane
annual rainfall 1000 mm
Urban freeway/motorway
40 year design traffic 100 MESA
subgrade design CBR = 5%

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Thick asphalt on crushed rock subbase


seal

30mm Open graded asphalt


50mm DGA14
(SBS polymer modified binder)
290 mm DGA20
Pen 50/65 bitumen
(4.5% - 5% by mass)

150 mm crushed rock subbase


CBR 30%
150 mm Capping layer CBR 10%
subgrade material CBR = 5%

Thick asphalt on cement treated crushed rock


subbase
seal

30mm Open graded asphalt


50mm DGA14 (SBS polymer modified
binder
230 mm DGA20
Pen 50/65 bitumen
(4.5% - 5% by mass)

150 mm 3% cement treated crushed


rock subbase (E=500 MPa, cracked)
150mm Capping layer CBR 10%
subgrade material CBR = 5%

Thick asphalt on lean concrete subbase


30mm Open graded asphalt

seal

50mm DGA14 (SBS polymer modified


binder
125 mm DGA20
Pen 50/65 bitumen (4.5% - 5% by mass)
190 mm lean concrete subbase
(E= 10 000 MPa)
150 mm crushed rock subbase
CBR 30%
150mm Capping layer CBR 10%
subgrade material CBR = 5%

Plain concrete on lean concrete subbase

270 mm concrete base

Debonding
treatment

150 mm lean concrete subbase


(E= 10 000 MPa)
150 mm crushed rock subbase
CBR 30%
150mm Capping layer CBR 10%
subgrade material CBR = 5%

Continuously reinforced concrete on lean


concrete subbase

250 mm concrete base

Debonding
treatment

150 mm lean concrete subbase


(E= 10 000 MPa)
150 mm crushed rock subbase
CBR 30%
150mm Capping layer CBR 10%
subgrade material CBR = 5%

Summary
Summarised Australian pavement design
practice for heavily trafficked long life
pavements
Austroads guidelines need to be considered in
context of the entire Design System:

Specifications
Test method
Engineering policies
Construction quality
In service performance

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Thank you

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